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Test

SP3 Conservation of energy

Monday

Time: 40 minutes

24/10/16

Instructions
Use black ink or ball-point pen.
Fill in the boxes at the top of this page with your name.
Answer all questions.
Answer the questions in the spaces provided
there may be more space than you need.
Calculators may be used.
Any diagrams may NOT be accurately drawn, unless otherwise indicated.
You must show all your working out with your answer clearly identified at the end of
your solution.
Information
The total mark for this paper is 40.
The marks for each question are shown in brackets use this as a guide as to how much
time to spend on each question.
In questions marked with an asterisk (*), marks will be awarded for your ability to structure
your answer logically showing how the points that you make are related or follow on from
each other where appropriate.
Advice
Read each question carefully before you start to answer it.
Try to answer every question.
Check your answers if you have time at the end.

1. A flying squirrel is an animal that can glide through the air.


It spreads out its limbs to stretch a membrane that helps it to glide.

(a)

The mass of a flying squirrel is 0.19 kg.


It climbs 17 m up a tree.
(i) State the equation linking gravitational potential energy (GPE), mass, g and height.

(1)

''''''..'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''..
(ii) Calculate the GPE gained by the squirrel during this climb.

(2)

''''''..'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''..
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''..
GPE = ...........................................................J
(iii) State the amount of work done against the force of gravity by the squirrel during this climb.
(1)
work done = ............................................ J

(b)

The flying squirrel glides from P to Q with a constant velocity of 13 m/s.

(i)

State the equation linking kinetic energy (KE), mass and velocity.

(1)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(ii)

Calculate the KE of the squirrel as it glides.

(2)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
KE = .............................................. J
(iii)

The velocity of the squirrel decreases to zero when it reaches the second tree because
(1)
A

energy is transferred to the surroundings

no force acts on the squirrel

the GPE of the squirrel increases

the KE of the squirrel increases


(Total for question = 8 marks)

2. An energy company plans to build a new power station.


The company must decide between two renewable energy projects, a geothermal power station or a
solar power station.

Explain how the location and the climate might affect the type of power station that the company
chooses.
(4)
Location
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Climate
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(Total for question = 4 marks)

3. The photograph shows a small aeroplane, of mass 600 kg.

This aeroplane has an electric motor powered by fuel cells.


Fuel cells use hydrogen gas and provide an electric current.
(a)

(b)

When the aeroplane is working, the energy changes are


A

chemical electrical kinetic

electrical chemical kinetic

electrical kinetic chemical

kinetic chemical electrical

(1)

The velocity of the aeroplane is 28 m/s.


(i) State the equation linking kinetic energy, mass and velocity.

(1)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(ii) Calculate the kinetic energy of the aeroplane.

(2)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Kinetic energy = ........................................................... J

(c)

The aeroplane takes off and climbs to a height of 1000 m.


Calculate the gravitational potential energy gained by the aeroplane.

(2)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
GPE of the aeroplane = ........................................................... J
(Total for Question = 6 marks)

4. This question is about three different methods used to cook potatoes.


On a traditional cooker, a potato is placed in water in a pan on top of a hot plate.

Describe how energy is transferred from the hot plate to heat up all of the potato.

(4)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(Total for question = 4 marks)

5. The photograph shows equipment used for generating electricity from renewable sources.

(a)

Complete the sentences using words from the box.

(i)

The panel of solar cells transforms


............................................................................................. energy into electrical energy.
(1)

(ii)

The wind turbine transforms .............................................................................................


energy into electrical energy.
(1)

(b)

The Sankey diagram shows the energy transferred by the panel of solar cells.

Show that the efficiency of the panel of solar cells is 12%.

(2)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(Total for question = 4 marks)

6. (a)

Which of these is a unit for energy?


A
B
C
D

(b)

(1)

joule
kilogram
newton
watt

The diagram shows a cell connected to a lamp.

Use words from the box to complete the sentences.


Each word may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

The cell converts ........................................................... energy into


........................................................... energy.
The lamp converts this energy into ........................................................... energy and
........................................................... energy.

10

(3)

(c) This is the Sankey energy diagram for a low energy lamp.

(i) State the equation linking efficiency, useful energy output and total energy input.

(1)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(ii) Calculate the efficiency of the lamp.

(2)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
efficiency = ...........................................................
(Total for question = 7 marks)

11

7.

A golfer practises hitting balls on a golf course.


Ball X rolls along level ground, as shown in the diagram.

(a) Explain why ball X slows down and stops.

(2)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(b)

The mass of ball Y is 45 g.


The golfer gives the ball 36 J of kinetic energy when he hits it.
(i) State the equation linking kinetic energy, mass and speed.

(1)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
(ii) Calculate the initial speed of ball Y.

(4)

''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
initial speed = ...........................................................m/s
(Total for question = 7 marks)
(Total = 40 marks)
THE END
12

Mark scheme
Q1.

14

(ii)

(iii)

A energy is transferred to the surroundings

15

Q2.

16

Q3.

600 x 10 x 1000;

= 6 000 000 (J);

(i)

17

Q4.

18

Q5.

19

Q6.

(i)

20

Q7.

(i)

Any two of

21

(b)

22