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Chapter 1

Electromagnetic Theory: Basics


The physical laws that govern time varying electric and magnetic
fields are described by a set of equations known as Maxwells
equations, they are:

r
r
B
E =
t

r
D =

r
r D r
H =
+J
t

r
B = 0

where
E =Electric field intensity (V/m),
D =Electric flux density(C/m2),
J =Electric current density (A/m2)

H = magnetic field intensity (A/m),

B = magnetic flux density (W/m2)


= Electric charge density (C/m3)

The characteristics of the medium in which the field exists are also
needed to specify the flux in terms of the fields. These characteristics
are expressed as the constitutive relations:

r
r
B = H

r
r
D = E

r
r
J c = E

= r o

= r o

Where = magnetic permeability ( H/m),


r, = relative permeability, 0= for vacuum,
= dielectric permittivity (F/m),
r= relative permittivity, 0= for vacuum,
= conductivity (mho/m)

Physical concept of wave propagation,


based on Maxwells equations
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General Wave Equation

r
r
E = jH

r
r
H = ( + j ) E

We can show that:

r
r
2 E = j ( + j ) E
r
r
or 2 E 2 E = 0
Where

j ( + j ) = j 1 j

is called the intrinsic propagation constant (1/m), and is a


complex number, thus
=+j
= the attenuation constant (nepers/m), and = the phase
constant (radians/m).

The possible solutions are:

E1 = E + e z

Forward traveling wave

E2 = E e + z

Backward traveling wave

or the combination of the two:

ET = E1 + E2 = E + e z + E e + z
For a lossless medium (when = 0 , since there is no
attenuation =0 )

2 E + 2 E = 0

The solution then becomes:

E1 = E + e jz and

E2 = E e + z

and

ET = E1 + E2 = E + e jz + E e + jz
=

j (0 + j ) = j 1 j

= j = j

=
Next, we will discuss these equation in more details

Uniform Plane Wave in a lossless


dielectric medium
A mode is a particular field configuration.
A Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) mode is one where E and
H vector at every point in space are contained in the same plane,
and both H and E are perpendicular to the direction of
propagation).
Solutions for uniform plane serve as a building block for studying
such phenomena as guiding of EM waves along transmission lines,
wave guides, etc.

Plane Electromagnetic Waves

Since:
1. It is a lossless medium(=0).
2. Its a plane wave, i.e. the component of E and H lie in a plane
perpendicular to the direction of motion, and
3. A uniform plane wave, where E and H fields have no
variations of intensity normal to the direction of propagation (zaxis), then

E E
H H
=
= 0 and
=
=0
x y
x
y

r
r
2E 2E = 0

Then:

2Ex
+ 2Ex = 0
2
z

Becomes:

The solution then is:


+

Ex(z)= E 0 e

jz

+ E 0 e jz

where Eos are amplitude constants.

Using
Hy(z)=
Hy(z)=

E = j H
j z
1
{E0+ e E0 e jz }
/
1
{E 0+ E 0 } = {H 0+ + H 0 }
/

Where:

1
E0+ = H 0+
/
And the ratio

and

1
E0 = H 0
/

E0 x

= =
H0y

Is called the wave


impedance

If we include the time dependency e jt as well then


in the time domain the wave equation becomes:

E x ( z , t ) = E0+ cos(t z ) + E0 cos(t + z )


Backward
traveling wave

Forward
traveling wave

Consider the forward traveling wave part:

cos(t z )
The wave is moving in the positive Z direction as time
progresses. The phase velocity of the wave is given by:

vp =

dz
= =
dt

And the wavelength is:

vp
f

0 = 377 , and
0
8
= 3x10 m/s, i.e. the speed of light

For free space =0 =


vp =

0 0

Uniform plane wave in lossy medium


By lossy medium we mean 0. The wave equation in the
positive z direction reduces to
2Ex
+ j ( + j ) E x = 0
z 2

2H y
z 2

+ j ( + j ) E y = 0

With the complex frequency solution


+

Ex(z,t)= E 0 e

cos(t z ) + E 0 e z cos(t + z )

E 0+ e z cos(t z )

Hy (z,t)=

Where

E 0 e z cos(t + z )

j
+ j

The attenuation and the phase constant are given as:


=

1 + 1
2

1 + + 1
2

The loss term introduces wave dispersion by conductivity.


The phase velocity and the wavelength is the same but the
traveling wave has an exponential damping factor, which is the
rate of decay with distance.
There are three types of lossy media: good conductors, poor
conductors and lossy dielectrics as discussed in the following
sections.

Uniform plane wave in good conductor


For good conductors, conductivity is very high ( >> ) and
conduction current is much larger than the displacement current.
The energy transmitted by the waves traveling through the
medium will decrease continuously as the wave propagates
because of the ohmic losses. Thus when >> 1 , the following

equations
=

1 + 1
2

reduces to: ==

1 + + 1
2

Since the rate of decay with distance is e-z we may define skin
depth() as the distance where the exponential factor, e- z
becomes 1/e i.e. when z=1/

=1/= =
f
At microwave frequencies skin depth is very short. For example
a 5.4m silver coating on glass is an excellent conductor at
these frequencies.
The intrinsic impedance for a good conductor

1
= (1 + j )
= (1 + j ) R S

2
Where: RS =
2
= (1 + j )

is known as skin effect and defines the magnitude of the


conductor surface resistance.

Uniform plane wave in a poor conductor

j ( + j )

j
+ j

Uniform plane wave in a lossy dielectric


In dielectric materials (<<) when the conductivity cannot be
neglected, the E and H fields are no longer in time phase, the
intrinsic impedance is given as:
j
=
=
+ j


1 j

1
2

Where is called the loss tangent and is defined as:

When the loss tangent is very small ( <<1) than one the intrinsic

tan =

impedance can be approximated by binomial expansion:

1 + j

2
Also from: = j 1 j

+ ( )2
= j 1 j
2 8

Which gives:

and

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Plane waves reflection from media interface

Reflection Coefficient,

2 1
2 + 1

Where 1 =

1
1

intrinsic wave impedance of medium 1

2 =

2
2

is the intrinsic wave impedance of medium 2

and

Transmission coefficient:

T=

2 2
2 + 1

If medium 1 is lossless dielectric ( =0) then the standing wave


ratio is defined as:

SWR = =

(1)
Emax

(1)
min

1+
1

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Oblique Incidence Perpendicular case

2 cos i 1 cos t
2 cos i + 1 cos t

T =

22 cos i

2 cos i + 2 cos t

Oblique Incidence Parallel Case

|| =

1 cos i + 2 cos t
1 cos i + 2 cos t

T|| =

22 cos i

1 cos i + 2 cos t

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Polarization
x

Ex

Ex

Ex

Ey

(a)

Ey

(b)

(c)

(a) linear, (b) circular, (c ) elliptical

The polarization of a wave transmitted (or received) by an


antenna, is described by the locus of the tip of the E
vector as time progresses.

If the locus is a straight line

linear polarization

If the locus is a circle

circular polarization

If the locus is an ellipse

elliptical polarization

Mathematical Formulation
For a wave traveling in the negative z direction, the
electric field components in the x and y directions are :

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E x = E x 0 cos( t + kz + x )

E y = E y 0 cos ( t + k z + y )

where Ex0 and Ey0 are the amplitudes in x and y


direction, respectively, and x, y are the phase
angles.
The total instantaneous vector field E is:

r
E = a x E x 0 cos( t + kz + x ) + a y E y 0 cos( t + kz + y )

(22)

Linear Polarization
y

Let x=0, y=0,


Exo=3 and Eyo =5

at z=0 and t=0 we get:


E x = 3 cos(0 + 0 + 0 ) = 3

at z=0 and t=/2 we get:


E x = 3 cos( / 2 + 0 + 0) = 0

at z=0 and t= we get:


E x = 3 cos( + 0 + 0 ) = 3

E y = 5 cos(0 + 0 + 0 ) = 5
E y = 5 cos( / 2 + 0 + 0 ) = 0
E y = 5 cos( + 0 + 0 ) = 5

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Special cases
If Ex=0 then we only have the y-component (y-polarized
r
wave)

E = a y E yo cos(t + kz + y )

If Ey=0 then we only have the x-component (x-polarized


wave)
r

E = a x E xo cos(t + kz + x )

In general, we get linearly polarized waves if :

= x y = n ,

n=0,1,2,3,

Circular Polarization
It occurs when Ex0=Ey0, and

= x y =

Odd multiples of /2

Example:
Let x=0, y=/2, Exo=1 and Eyo =1

E = a x E x 0 cos( t + kz ) + a y E y 0 cos( t + kz + )
2
Ey

Ex

3
1

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1) At z=0 and t=0 we have:

E x = cos(t + kz ) = cos 0 = 1

and

E y = cos(t + kz + ) = cos = 0
2
2
So at time t=0 we can located the locus of the E-field
vector at point 1 on the circle.
2) At z=0 and t=/2 we have:

E x = cos( ) = 0;
2

E y = cos( + ) = cos = 1
2 2

That corresponds to point 2 on the circle.

3) At z=0 and t= we have:

E x = cos( ) = 1;

E y = cos( + ) = cos = 0
2
2

That corresponds to point 3 on the circle.


If a wave propagates in the (+ve) z direction and
the circle has a clockwise direction we also call the
polarization Left-handed polarization
If a wave propagates in the (-ve) z direction and
the circle has a clockwise direction we also call the
polarization Right-handed polarization
The opposite case of clockwise (CW) is counterclockwise (CCW) polarization

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