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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

COURSE

KA20602 ANALYSIS BERANGKA

TITLE

EXPLANATION ON MAXIMUM DEFLECTION ONLY ACTING ON THE FIXED END

OF A CANTILEVER BEAM

PREPARED FOR

DR.HARIMI DJAMILLA

PREPARED BY

ELDREN JAMEE

FARAHAYNI YAHYA

LLOYD EDMUND

MOHAMED FARIHAN MAIL

MOHD ASYRAF ISMAIL

BK13110098

BK13110111

BK13160574

BK13160569

BK13160580

THE FIXED END OF A CANTILEVER BEAM

Background

happens on the fixed end of the beam? A cantilever is a rigid structural

element, where a beam is anchored at only one end to a support from which

it is protruding. When subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries

the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear

stress. Cantilevers are widely found in a construction, notability in cantilever

bridges and balconies. In cantilever bridges the cantilevers are usually built

as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section.

The deflection of a uniform distributed load cantilever beam with its elastic

curve equation computed as

2

y=

x w0 2

(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )

24 EI

elastic curve of the beam since it will be involved in many construction such

as bridges and more.

Methodology

The advantages of a cantilever beam are; a) does not require a support

on the opposite side. b) creates a negative bending moment, which can help

to counter a positive bending moment create elsewhere. While the

disadvantages of a cantilever beam are; a) large deflections, b) generally

results in larger moments and c) have a backspan causing an uplift of the far

support.

For the superposition method, a cantilever beam with it being

subjected to a uniformly distributed loading which its elastic curve is

computed as

x2 w 0 2

y=

(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )

24 EI

While for the Golden Section method, a search algorithm for finding a

minimum on an interval of XL and XU .Also uses the golden ratio = 1.618,to

determine the interior points of X 1 and X2 by using the golden ratio, one of

the interior points can be re-used in the next iteration.

d=( -1 ) ( Xu - Xl )

X1 = Xl + d

X2 = Xu - d

Methods

Various methods were used to calculate the result of the elastic curve

of the cantilever beam. These various method were necessary to determine

the point of the maximum deflection on the overhang beam. Three methods

were used which were superposition method, Golden Section( calculating

manually) and Golden Section ( using MATLAB). All these results were then

used to prove the theory of whether the maximum deflection will occur on

the fixed end or not.

b)

Abstract

The main objective is prove whether the elastic curve of a cantilever

beam is at the end of the fixed end of the overhang beam or not. By using

the method of Golden Section method through manually calculation and

MATLAB program and the superposition method, which all methods in the

end gave a slightly different answer. The results by three methods shows

that the elastic curve of the cantilever beam were the same. Thus, as a

conclusion of these methods proven that in the case of a cantilever beam,

the maximum deflection will only happen at the fixed end of the overhang

beam.

Objectives

To determine the elastic curve of a deflected cantilever beam. To

determine which method was better, the superposition method or Golden

Section method. Both method were used to evaluated for both correctness

and creativity of the deflected cantilever beam.

Introduction

What is an elastic curve? It is the deflection of a beam or shaft must be

often be limited in order to provide integrity and stability of a stability of a

structure or machine, and prevent the cracking of any attached brittle

materials such as concrete or glass. Furthermore, code restrictions often

require these members not vibrate or deflect severely in order to safety

support their intended loading. Most important is the deflection at specific

points on a beam or shaft must be determined if one is to analyse those that

are statically indeterminate.

shaft. Its shape can be determined using the moment diagram. Positive

moments cause the elastic curve to be concave upwards and negative

moments cause it to be concave downwards. The radius of a curvature at

any point is determined from

1

p

M

EI

slope at a point on a member subjected to a combination of loadings.

Cantilever beam is a beam supported on only one end. The beam

transfers the load to support where it has manage the moment of force and

shear stress. A moment of force is a force to twist or rotate an object while

the shear stress is a stress which is applied parallel to the face of a material.

nothing more, the cantilever beam bears a specific weight on its open end as

a result of to support on its enclosed end, also in addition to not breakdown

due to shear stress applied on the cantilever beam. It is often used in Civil

Engineering buildings and its constructions allows for overhanging structures

without external bracing or support pillars. Cantilevers can be also used with

trusses or slabs. These cantilever design is famous in many kinds of

architectural design and other kinds of engineering, where it is used in terms

like end load, intermediate load and end moment to find out how mush a

cantilever will hold.

How does the executing a mathematical program for the numerical

method is useful for Civil Engineering problems? The MATLAB is a very

intuitive and easy to implement in any programming language which is the

bisection method. The bisection method can be easily adapted for optimizing

1- dimensional functions with a slight but intuitive modification. Now, this

bisection method with the golden ratio that results in a faster computation

for dealing with many Civil Engineering problems.

Theory

By using the method of superposition where it enables us to

determined the deflection or slope at a point on a member subjected to a

combination of loadings where in this report, we used a cantilever beam with

it being subjected to a uniformly distributed loading which is computed as

x2 w 0 2

y=

(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )

24 EI

but for this case, since it is a cantilever beam, therefore the elastic curve of

the maximum deflection acting is on the fixed end of the beam where the x

is equal to zero.

As for the Golden Section method, a search algorithm for finding a

minimum on an interval of XL and XU .Also uses the golden ratio = 1.618,to

determine the interior points of X 1 and X2 by using the golden ratio, one of

the interior points can be re-used in the next iteration.

d=( -1 ) ( Xu - Xl )

X1 = Xl + d

X2 = Xu - d

Section which is if the value of f(X 1) is smaller than f(X2), then X2 becomes

the new lower limit and X1 becomes the new X2. While vice versa, if the value

of f(X1) is larger than f(X2), then X1 becomes the new upper limit and X 2

becomes the new X1. In either case, only one new interior point is needed

and the function is only evaluated one more time.

Although are absolute errors in the Golden Section since the interior

points

( X1 , X2 ) are symmetrical, thus using the normalisation computed as

Error Criterion

a = (( 2- ) x ( | Xu - Xl |) / Xopt ) x 100%

Results

research.

The deflection of a uniform distributed load cantilever beam with its elastic

curve equation computed as

x2 w 0 2

y=

(x 4 Lx+ 6 L2 )

24 EI

Given that L=8 m, E=200 GPa, I=300 x 10-6 m4, and w0=10 kN/m, determine

the point of maximum deflection using the golden-section search until the

approximate error falls below Es=1% with initial guesses of xl=0 and xu=L.

i

1.000

0

2.000

0

3.000

0

4.000

0

5.000

0

6.000

0

7.000

0

8.000

0

9.000

0

Xl

0.000

0

3.055

7

4.944

3

6.111

4

6.832

8

7.278

7

7.554

3

7.724

4

7.830

0

f(Xl)

0.002

7

0.002

1

0.001

7

0.001

6

0.001

5

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

X2

3.055

7

4.944

3

6.111

4

6.832

8

7.278

7

7.554

3

7.724

4

7.830

0

7.894

4

f(X2)

0.002

1

0.001

7

0.001

6

0.001

5

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

X1

4.944

3

6.111

4

6.832

8

7.278

7

7.554

3

7.724

4

7.830

0

7.894

4

7.935

6

f(X1)

0.001

7

0.001

6

0.001

5

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

4

0.001

3

Xu

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

8.000

0

f(Xu)

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

0.001

3

D

4.944

0

3.055

7

1.888

5

1.167

3

0.721

5

0.445

7

0.275

6

0.170

0

0.105

6

Xopt

4.944

3

6.111

4

6.832

8

7.278

7

7.554

3

7.724

4

7.830

0

7.894

4

7.935

6

Note that the current maximum is highlighted for every iteration. After nine

iteration, the point maximum deflection occurs at x=7.9356 m with a

Ea

61.80

85

30.90

49

17.08

34

9.911

7

5.902

2

3.567

1

2.174

4

1.333

6

0.818

3

deflection should occur at x=0, which in this case, was only off by 0.0644m

to achieving 0 m at the fixed end.

Superposition method

Displacement

w (x) =

p x2 (6 L2 4 xL+x 2)

24 EI

wmax = w (L) =

Slope

p L4

8 EI

= - 0.0000853 m

(x) =

px (3 L 3 xL+ x )

6 EI

max = (L) =

pL

6 EI

= - 0.0000142 rad

M(x) =

1

p ( Lx)

2

L p

2

MMax = M (0) =

Max = |MMax |

C

I

=|

= 320 N.m

L2 p

2 Z |= 8.53 MPa

Shear

V (x) = -p (L - x)

VMax = -pL = -80 N

Thus, can be concluded that the elastic curve of the cantilever beam as

shown as above. Also proven that the maximum deflection occurs at x=0m

which is at the end of the fixed cantilever beam. Maximum deflection of the

beam is 320 N.m and maximum shear stress is 80 N.

The deflection of a uniform distributed load cantilever beam with its elastic

curve equation computed as

x2 w 0 2

2

y=

(x 4 Lx+ 6 L )

24 EI

Given that L=8 m, E=200 GPa, I=300 x 10-6 m4, and w0=10 kN/m, determine

the point of maximum deflection using the golden-section search until the

approximate error falls below Es=1% with initial guesses of xl=0 and xu=L.

A file saved as fivedottwenty.m which the file contents is written as below;

%FIVEDOTTWENTY max deflection clear;

l= 8;

e= 200000000000;

i= 0.0003;

w= 10000;

syms x;

dydx= @ (x) (((x^3)*w)/(6*e*i))- (((x^2)*l*w)/(2*e*i)) + (((l^2)*x)/(2*e*i));

bisec (dydx,0,80,320,0.0000853);

maxDeflection = y( bisec(dydx,0,80,320,0.0000853));

We then introduced the function of bisec to allow the program to run the

mathematical problem. The two files needs to be in a different tab to allow

the program to recognize the function of bisec( which is also known as the

bisection method). The file which is saved as bisec.m and the contents of the

file is written as;

function ANS = bisec (f, x_l, x_u, iter, error)

for i=1 : iter

x_r(i) = (x_1 + x_u)/2;

if((f(x_1)*f(x_r(i))) < 0)

x_u = x_r(i);

elseif ( (f(x_l)*f(x_r(i))) > 0)

x_l = x_r(1);

elseif ((f(x_l)*f(x_r(i))) ==0)

break;

end

break;

end

end

ANS = x_r (end);

end

Thus, the final answer we got from the program is the elastic curve of 8m of

where the point of the maximum deflection is acting on which is also in the

fixed end of the beam. This has proven that in a cantilever case, the

maximum deflection will act only in the fixed end of the beam.

Conclusion

By using the program which is MATLAB to execute the Golden Section

method, it enables us to get the answer way must faster than doing the

Golden Section method manually. Doing the Golden Section method

manually also takes up much time since we needed to do nine iteration and

the chances that we can get an error during calculation of this cantilever

beam is higher than doing it using MATLAB. Even so that using MATLAB

makes it easier to calculate the Golden Search method, the program needs

the person to be expert at using the programs language since it is almost the

same as using a C++ program. If the person is not familiar with the program

language, the person will have a hard time executing any Civil Engineering

problems in the future. But in the end, using MATLAB decrease the time

require to finish any engineering problems even if the problems seems

impossible. Thus, it is concluded that using MATLAB to solve any engineering

problems is much better since it uses less time and there will not be any

error occurrence. Also, the maximum deflection on a cantilever beam will

occur at the fixed end of the beam.

References

1) Hibbeler, R.C. (2011). Structural Analysis: Eight Edition in S.I Unit. Jurong,

Singapore; Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

2) Hibbeler, R.C. (2013). Mechanics of Materials: Ninth Edition Jurong,

Singapore; Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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