Lecture 1: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Dr. Roman V Belavkin

1 Problems in AI and Related Areas


2 Questions about Intelligence


3 Applications of AI





Problems in AI and Related Areas

What is AI?
• ‘...science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs.’ John McCarthy.
• A branch of cybernetics concerned with automation of deductive constructions (reasoning).
• The study and design of intelligent agents.
Remark 1. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial intelligence
Major Problems in AI
• How does human think? (cognitive science)
• Reasoning and problem solving (choosing goals, subgoals).
• Pattern recognition (primarily visual and aural).
• Learning (e.g. machine learning).
• Natural human languages (recognition of the meaning of sentences and
expressions, maintaining a dialogue).

robots). 2 Questions about Intelligence What is Intelligence? • The ability to reason. optimal control. Does intelligence require emotion or consciousness? 2 . Question 1. where knowledge is modified to improve problem-solving capability. . • Some also add comprehend and use language to communicate. Includes theories of control. approximation.• Instruction and self-instruction. Neuroscience: the study of nervous system. Machine learning: concerned with adaptive systems and algorithms. • Synthesis of an artificial voice. information processing. boolean. decisions. Computational theory of mind. operations research. Probability: uncertainty. information theory. speech. computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world ’ John McCarthy. games). communication and processing of information. fuzzy) used for automated reasoning. plan. • Increase of productivity (expert systems. • Conversational and dialogue (human-machine) systems. • Algorithms for the control of movements (artificial limbs. communication. . Branches and Related Areas Cybernetics: science of the control. statistics. Mostly related to AI are cognitive and computational neuroscience. Optimisation: extremal problems. Logic: (propositional. make decisions. Cognitive science: the study of (human) intelligence by algorithms simulating human behaviour. solve problems and learn. first-order. • ‘.

(1950. • Data-mining and knowledge discovery in databases. 433–460 • Three participants in isolated rooms: computer. geophysics. • Game industry. 3 Applications of AI Applications of AI • Decision support systems. human and human judge. Computing machinery and intelligence.The Turing Test • Imitation game proposed in: Turing. References Turing. • Space industry. 433–460. A. • Robotics. (1950. A. • Automatic scheduling. criminology). management and finance. • The judge can communicate via text both with the computer and human. planning and optimisation. Mind. • Security and military applications. October). Mind. • The computer wins (passes the test) if the judge cannot tell which of the two is the computer. LIX (236). Computing Machinery and Intelligence. 3 . October). LIX (236). • Image processing (medicine.