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ASSAB 8407 2M

uddeholm
ORVAR 2M

ASSAB 8407 2M

REFERENCE STANDARD

DF-2

ARNE

DF-3

AISI

DIN

JIS

O1

1.2510

SKS 3

O1

1.2510

SKS 3

D6 (D3)

(1.2436)

(SKD 2)

XW-5

SVERKER 3

XW-10

RIGOR

A2

1.2363

SKD 12

XW-41

SVERKER 21

D2

1.2379

SKD 11

D2

1.2379

SKD 11

XW-42
CARMO

CARMO

CALMAX

CALMAX

CALDIE

CALDIE

ASSAB 88

SLEIPNER

ASP 23

VANADIS 23

(M3:2)

1.3344

SKH 53

ASP 30

VANADIS 30

M3:2 + Co

1.3244

SKH 40

ASP 60

VANADIS 60

VANADIS 4 EXTRA

VANADIS 4 EXTRA

VANADIS 6

VANADIS 6

VANADIS 10

VANADIS 10

VACRON 40

VANCRON 40

1.3241

618

P20 Mod.

1.2738

618 HH

P20 Mod.

1.2738

P20 Mod.

1.2738 Mod.

718 SUPREME

618 T
IMPAX SUPREME

P20 Mod.

1.2738

718 HH

IMPAX HH

P20 Mod.

1.2738

NIMAX

NIMAX

UNIMAX

UNIMAX

CORRAX

CORRAX
1.2083 ESR

STAVAX ESR

STAVAX ESR

420 Mod.

MIRRAX ESR

MIRRAX ESR

420 Mod.

POLMAX

POLMAX

ELMAX

ELMAX

RAMAX LH

RAMAX LH

420 F Mod.

RAMAX HH

RAMAX HH

420 F Mod.

SUS 420J2

ROYALLOY
PRODAX
PT18

MOLDMAX SC

MMXL

MOLDMAX XL

MM40

MOLDMAX HH
1.2714

SKT 4

H13

1.2344

SKD 61

H13 Premium

1.2344 ESR

SKD 61

4340

1.6582

SNCM8

709

4140

1.7225

SCM4

760

1050

1.1730

S50C

ALVAR 14

ALVAR 14

8407 2M

ORVAR 2M

8407 SUPREME

ORVAR SUPREME

DIEVAR

DIEVAR

HOTVAR

HOTVAR

QRO 90 SUPREME

QRO 90 SUPREME

705

This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general notes on our products and their uses.
It should not therefore be construed as a warranty of specific properties of the products described or a warranty for fitness for a particular
purpose.
Edition 080722

ASSAB 8407 2M

General

Applications

8407 2M is a chromium-molybdenum-vanadium-alloyed
steel which is characterised by:

PLASTIC moulding

Good resistance to abrasion at both low and


high temperatures
High level of toughness and ductility
Uniform and high level of machinability and
polishability
Good high-temperature strength and resistance
to thermal fatigue
Excellent through-hardening properties
Very limited distortion during hardening

Part

Aust. and tempering temp.

HRC

Injection moulds
Compression/
transfer moulds

Austenitising 1020-1030C
Tempering 250C

50-52

extrusion

Typical analysis %

C
0.39

Si
1.0

Mn
0.4

Cr
5.3

Mo
1.3

Standard
specification

AISI H13, WNr. 1.2344, SKD 61,


EN X40CrMoV5-1

Delivery
condition

Soft annealed to approx. 185 HB

Colour code

Orange / Violet

Stem

Dummy Block

V
0.9

Liner

Part

Aluminium,
magnesium
alloys, HRC

Copper
alloys
HRC

Stainless
steels
HRC

Dies

44-50

43-47

45-50

Backers,
die holders,
liners, dummy
blocks, stems

41-50

40-48

40-48

Austenitising
temperature

1020
1030C

Intermediate
Liner

Mantle

10401050C

Die

Extrusion tooling components.

ASSAB 8407 2M

Properties
physical data
Unless otherwise indicated, all specimens were hardened
30 minutes at 1025C, quenched in air and tempered
2 + 2 h at 610C. The hardness were 45 1 HRC.

Temperature

20C

400C

600C

Density
kg/m3

7800

7700

7600

Modulus of elasticity
MPa

210 000

180 000

140 000

Coefficient of
thermal expansion
per C from 20C

12.6 x 10 -6

13.2 x 10 -6

25

29

30

Thermal
conductivity
W/m C

Mechanical properties
Approximate tensile strength at room temperature.

Aluminium extrusion profiles.

Hardness

52 HRC

45 HRC

Tensile
strength, Rm

1820 MPa

1420 MPa

Yield
strength, RP0.2

1520 MPa

1280 MPa

Approximate strength at elevated temperatures

other applications

Longitudinal direction.
Application

Aust. and tempering temp.

HRC

Severe cold
punching,
scrap shears

Austenitising 1020-1030C
Tempering 250C

50-52

Hot Shearing

Austenitising 1020-1030C
Tempering 250C
Tempering 575-600C

Shrink rings
(e.g., for cemented
carbide dies)

Austenitising 1020-1030C
Tempering 575-600C

Wear resisting
parts

Austenitising 1020-1030C
Tempering 575C
Nitriding

50-52
45-50
45-50

A5,
Z%

2000

100

1800

90

1600

80

1400

70

1200

60
Rm

1000
Core
50-52
Surface
~1000HV1

For applications requiring extreme levels of toughness


and ductility, e.g., die casting dies, forging dies, the premium
grade H13 steel, 8407 Supreme, is recommended.

Rm, Rp0.2
MPa

50

800

40
Rp0.2

600

30

400

20

200

10

100

200

300

400

500

Testing temperature

600

700C

ASSAB 8407 2M

Heat treatment
Soft annealing

Quenching Media

Protect the steel and heat through to 850C. Then cool


in the furnace at 10C per hour to 650C, then freely in air.

High speed gas/circulating atmosphere


Vacuum (high speed gas with sufficient positive
pressure). Interrupted quench is recommended for
distortion control, or when quench cracking is a
concern.
Martempering bath or fluidised bed at 450550C,
then cool in air
Martempering bath or fluidised bed at approx.
180220C then cool in air
Warm oil

Stress relieving
After rough machining, the tool should be heated
through to 650C, holding time 2 hours. Cool slowly
to 500C, then freely in air.

Note 1: Temper the tool as soon as its temperature


reaches 5070C.
Note 2: In order to obtain the optimum properties for
the tool, the cooling rate should be fast, but not at a
level that gives excessive distortion or cracks.

Hardening
Preheating temperature: 600850C, normally in two
preheating steps.
Austenitising temperature: 10201050C, normally
10201030C.
Temperature
C

Soaking time
minutes

Hardness before
tempering

1025

30

532 HRC

1050

15

542 HRC

Tempering
Choose the tempering temperature according to the
hardness required by reference to the tempering graph.
Temper at least twice with intermediate cooling to
room temperature.
The lowest tempering temperature which should be
used is 180C. The minimum holding time at tempering
temperature is 2 hours. To avoid temper brittleness,
do not temper in the range 425550C, see graph.

Soaking time = time at hardening temperature after the


tool is fully heated through.

Tempering graph

Protect the tool against decarburisation and oxidation during


hardening.

50

Grain
Hardness
Size
ASTM HRC
60
58

Retained austenite %

Austenitising temp.
1050C

1020C

54
6
4

1025C
Temper brittleness zone

45

Grain Size
6

40
Retained austenite

56
8

Retained austenite %

60
55

Hardness, grain size and retained austenite as


functions of austenitising temperature

10

Hardness, HRC

Hardness

35

30

52
50
48
46

25
6

Retained austenite

42

2
1020

200

300

400

500

600

700C

Tempering temperture (2h + 2h)

44

40
1000

100

1040

1060C

Tempering within the range 425550C is normally not


recommended due to the reduction in toughness
properties.

Austenitising temperture

ASSAB 8407 2M
Dimensional changes During hardening

Effect of time at tempering temperature

Specimen size: 100 x 100 x 25 mm.

Hardness, HRC
58
54
500C

50

Width
%

Length
%

Thickness
%

Oil hardened
from 1020C

Min.
Max.

-0.08
-0.15

-0.06
-0.16

0
+0.03

Air hardened
from 1020C

Min.
Max.

-0.02
+0.03

-0.05
+0.02

0
+0.05

Vacuum hardened
from 1020C

Min.
Max.

+0.01
+0.02

-0.02
-0.04

+0.08
+0.12

46
550C

42
Austenitizing
temperture
1020C

38
34

600C

30
1

1.5 2.5 4

6.5 10 15 25 40 65 100

400

Total holding time at tempering temperture, hours

Dimensional changes During Tempering


Dimensional change %
+0.12
+0.08
+0.04
0
-0.04
-0.08
-0.12
100

200

300

400

600

500

700C

Tempering temperture (1h + 1h)

Note: The dimensional changes in hardening and tempering


should be added.
CCT graph
Austenitising temperature 1025C. Holding time 30 minutes.
C
1100

Austenitising temperature 1025C


Holding time 30 minutes

1000

AC = 940C
3

900

AC = 840C

800

Pearlite

Carbides

700
600

Cooling Hardness
Curve No. HV 10

500
400
300

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Bainite

MS

200
Martensite

100
Mf
1

10

100
1

1000

10 000

10

1.5

10

10

100 000

100

1000

1
0.2

Minutes
100 Hours

10
90

Seconds

600

Air cooling of
bars, mm

707
673
613
613
599
592
560
519
483
222

T800-500
(sec)

1
6
105
316
527
1054
2772
5271
7944
20768

ASSAB 8407 2M

Machining recommendations
The cutting data below are to be considered as guiding
values and as starting points for developing your own
best practice.

Milling
Face and square shoulder milling

Condition: Soft annealed condition ~185 HB


Turning

Cutting data
parameters

Fine
turning

Fine
turning

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

200 - 250

250 - 300

25 - 30

Feed (f)
mm/r

0.2 - 0.4

Carbide
designation
ISO

Turning
with HSS

Turning with carbide


Rough
turning

Depth of cut (ap)


mm

Milling with carbide

Cutting data
parameters

Rough milling

Fine milling

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

180 - 260

260 - 300

Feed (f z)
mm/tooth

0.2 - 0.4

0.1 - 0.2

2-5

P20 - P40
Coated carbide

P10 - P20
Coated carbide
or cermet

Depth of cut (ap)


mm
0.05 - 0.2

0.05 - 0.3

2-4

0.5 - 2

0.5 - 3

Carbide
designation
ISO

P20 - P30
Coated
carbide

P10
Coated
carbide or
cermet

End milling
Type of milling

High speed steel

Cutting data
parameters

DRILLING

Solid
carbide

Carbide
indexable
insert

High speed
steel

160 - 200

170 - 230

35 - 401

Feed (f)
mm/tooth

0.03 - 0.202

0.08 - 0.202

0.05 - 0.352

Carbide
designation
ISO

P20 - P30

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min

High speed steel twist drill


Drill diameter
mm

Cutting speed (vc)


m/min

Feed (f)
mm/r

16 - 18 *

0.05 - 0.15

5 - 10

16 - 18 *

0.15 - 0.20

10 - 15

16 - 18

0.20 - 0.25

15 - 20

16 - 18 *

0.25 - 0.35

* For coated HSS drill, vc~ 2830 m/min

1
2

For coated HSS end mill, vc~ 5560 m/min


Depending on radial depth of cut and cutter diameter

GRINDING
Wheel recommendation

Carbide drill
Type of grinding

Soft
annealed
condition

Hardened
condition

Face grinding straight wheel

A 46 HV

A 46 HV

Face grinding segments

A 24 GV

A 36 GV

Cylindrical grinding

A 46 LV

A 60 KV

Internal grinding

A 46 JV

A 60 IV

Profile grinding

A 100 LV

A 120 KV

Type of drill
Cutting data
parameters

Cutting speed
(vc)
m/min
Feed (f)
mm/r
1
2

Indexable
insert

Solid
carbide

Brazed
carbide1

220 - 240

130 - 160

80 - 110

0.03 - 0.102

0.10 - 0.252

0.15 - 0.252

Drill with interntal cooling channels and brazed carbide tip


Depending on drill diameter

ASSAB 8407 2M

Surface treatment

Electrical discharge machining

Nitriding and nitrocarburising

If spark-erosion is performed in the hardened and


tempered condition, the white re-cast layer should be
removed mechanically by grinding or stoning. The tool
should then be given an additional temper at approx. 25C
below the previous tempering temperature.

Nitriding and nitrocarburising result in a hard surface


layer which is very resistant to wear and erosion. The
nitrided layer is, however, brittle and may crack or spall
when exposed to mechanical or thermal shock, the risk
increasing with layer thickness. Before nitriding, the tool
should be hardened and tempered at a temperature at
least 2550C above the nitriding temperature.
Nitriding in ammonia gas at 510C, or plasma nitriding
in a 75% hydrogen/25% nitrogen mixture at 480C, both
result in a surface hardness of about 1100 HV0.2 . In general, plasma nitriding is the preferred method because
of better control over nitrogen potential. Particularly,
plasma nitriding can readily avoid the formation of socalled white layer, which is not recommended for hot
work service. However, careful gas nitriding can give
perfectly acceptable results.
8407 2M can also be nitrocarburised in either gas or
salt bath. The surface hardness after nitrocarburising is
9001000 HV0.2 .

Depth of nitriding
Time
h

Depth
mm

Gas nitriding at
510C

10
30

0.12
0.20

Plasma nitriding
at 480C

10
30

0.12
0.18

Process

Nitrocarburising
in gas at
580C
in salt bath at
580C

2.5

0.11

0.06

Nitriding to case depths >0.3 mm is not recommended


for hot work applications. 8407 2M can be nitrided in the
soft annealed condition. The hardness and depth of case
will, however, be reduced somewhat in this case.

Hard chrome plating


After plating, parts should be tempered at 180C for
4 hours, within 4 hours of plating, to avoid the risk of
hydrogen embrittlement.

Welding
Welding of tool steel can be performed with good
results if proper precautions are taken regarding
elevated temperature, joint preparation, choice of
consumables and welding procedure. The following
guidelines summarise the most important welding process
parameters.
For more detailed information, refer to ASSAB brochure
Welding of Tool Steel.
Welding
method

TIG

MMA

Working
temp.

325 - 375C

325 - 375C

Filler
material

QRO 90 TIG-WELD
DIEVAR TIG-WELD

QRO 90 WELD

Cooling
rate

20 - 40C/h for the first 2 to 3 hours and


then freely in air

Hardness
after
welding

50 - 55 HRC

50 - 55 HRC

Heat treatment after welding


Hardened
condition

Temper at 25C below the original tempering temperature.

Soft
annealed
condition

Soft anneal the material at 850C


in protected atmosphere.
Then cool in the furnace at 10C per hour
to 650C, then freely in air.

ASSAB 8407 2M

Polishing

Photo-etching

8407 2M exhibits good polishability in the hardened and


tempered condition. Polishing after grinding can be effected using aluminium oxide or diamond paste.

8407 2M is particularly suitable for texturing by the


photo-etching method. Its high level of homogeneity and
low sulphur content ensures accurate and consistent
pattern reproduction.

Typical procedure
1. Rough grinding to 180320 grain size using a wheel
or stone.
2. Fine grinding with abrasive paper or powder, down to
400800 grain size.
3. Polish with diamond paste grade 15 (15m grain size)
using a polishing tool of soft wood or fibre.
4. Polish with diamond paste 863 (863m grain
size) using a polishing tool of soft wood or fibre.
5. When demands on surface finish are high, grade 1
(1m grain size) diamond paste can be used for final
polishing with a fibre polishing pad.

Further information
For further information, i.e., steel selection, heat
treatment, application and availability, please contact our
ASSAB office* nearest to you.
*See back cover page

ASSAB 8407 2M

Relative comparison of ASSAB hot work die steels


qualitative comparison of critical die steel properties

ASSAB grade

Temper
resistance

Hot yield
strength

Creep
strength

Coefficient
of thermal
expansion

Heat
conductivity

Ductility

ALVAR 14
8407 2M
8407 SUPREME
DIEVAR
HOTVAR
QRO 90 SUPREME

qualitative comparison of RESISTANCE TO DIFFERENT DIE FAILURES


ASSAB grade
ALVAR 14
8407 2M
8407 SUPREME
DIEVAR
HOTVAR
QRO 90 SUPREME

10

Heat
checking

Gross
cracking

Hot wear /
Erosion

Plastic
deformation

Corrosion (Al)

ASSAB 8407 2M
ASSAB TOOL STEELS have been in Asia
since 1945. Our customers associate ASSAB
brand with tooling materials that are high in
quality and consistency.

The ASSAB sales companies and distributors


offer you well assorted stocks in a number
of places covering the Asia Pacific region. To
further shorten the lead time, ASSAB will
mill, grind, drill and even wire-cut the tool
steel to meet your requirements. ASSAB
also provides state-of-the-art vacuum heat
treatment services to enhance the steel
properties.

Our engineers and metallurgists are always


ready to assist you in your choice of the
optimum steel grade and the best treament
for each application. We always carry out
material examinations at our local mini
laboratories and at the central laboratory in
Sweden.
Our steel mill in Sweden, Uddeholm Tooling,
is one of the few steelworks in the world
that is dedicated to the manufacture of tool
steels only. Uddeholm Tooling is certified to
ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.

Qingdao
ASSAB Tooling (Qingdao) Co., Ltd.

Our forging press is one of the most modern of


its kind in the world.

Besides tool steels, the ASSAB services for


tool makers include:

Welding electrodes for repair welding


of tools
High strength aluminium for tooling
purposes

Copper alloys (e.g., beryllium copper)


for inserts in moulds
Alloy machinery steels
Cold rolled strip steels for saws,
compressor valves, coater blades, etc.
High Performance Steels (HPS)
Sales office only

Granshot