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Englez Psihologie 18. Oct.

2016

*Grammar: Be, Have; The Indefinite Article *Vocabulary: General Personal Matters *
Vocabulary: Specific

I. GRAMMAR1:
A. Be and Have

*Be (am/are/is/was/were)
*We can use adjectives, nouns or expressions of place after be.
She is early.

Im tired.

Is anybody at home?

Are you a student?

*We can use be to talk about age, size, height, weight and colour.
My sisters 22.

What size are your shoes?

Im 1 metre 85 and 80 kilos.

What colour are the babys eyes?

*We use there + be to introduce things: to tell people that they exist.
Theres a good film on TV tonight.

There are some people at the door.

*Be can be an auxiliary verb in progressive tenses and passives.


It is raining.

This was made in 1850.

*Have (have/has/had)
*We can use have to talk about possession, relationships and some other ideas.
Do you have a pair of walking boots?

I dont have any children.

*Have is often used with got.


Ive got a headache.
*And we can use have to talk about some kinds of actions.
Im going to have breakfast.

Lets have a party.

*Have can also be an auxiliary verb in perfect tenses.


I havent heard from Allan.

I thought that I had seen her before.

1 Michael Swan & Catherine Walter. Oxford English Grammar Course.


Intermediate. OUP, 2011. Print.

1. Put in am, are, is, was, were or will be:

E.g.:

I am ready.

1. We .. in Dublin yesterday.
2. My brother a dentist. He works in London.
3. You late. Sorry. The train . late.
4. It cold tomorrow.
5. I . ill last week.
6. We .. surprised to see you yesterday. And I surprised to see you.
2. Make questions [?] or negatives [-]:

E.g.: Liam in the office yesterday [?]


book this interesting is [-]

Was Liam in the office yesterday?


This book is not interesting.

1. will here be tomorrow you [?]

..

2. Anns teacher father a was [?]

..

3. are ready we [-]

..

4. when birthday was your [?]

...

5. chocolates those good very were [-]

6. Mary at home will next be week [-]

3. Make questions [?] or negatives [-] with have. Use do/does :

E.g.: you/ a dog [?]


Wendy/ much money [-]

Do you have a dog?


Wendy doesnt have much money?

1. we/ a car/ We dont [-]

2. they/ any children [?]

3. James/ a cold [?]

4. my mother / a cat [-]

5. Cindy/ any brothers or sisters [?]

6. I/ enough work [-]

*Have with got and do: We havent got / dont have time:

-have can be used to talk about possession, relationships, characteristics and similar ideas.
The short forms I have, have I?, I have not etc are unusual in an informal style. Instead, we
generally use forms with have got or do . have. Have got is not present perfect in this
use. It means exactly the same as have.
INSTEAD OF
I/you etc have
Have I/you? etc
I/you etc havent
Had I/you? etc
I/ you etc hadnt

WE USE
Ive got, youve got etc
Have I got? Etc OR do I have? etc
I havent got OR I dont have etc
did I have? Etc
I didnt have etc

Ive got a headache. (More natural than I have a headache).


Have you got a credit card with you? (More natural than Have you a credit card.?)
We havent got much time. (More natural than We havent much time).
Do you have todays paper? (More natural than Have you todays paper?)
Did Lily have your keys? (More natural than Had Lily your keys?)
- got-forms are most common in the present. The past forms I/you etc are more common
without got.
I had a bad cold last week.
Do and got are not used together. (NOT: Do you have got any children?)
4. Complete the conversations, using have got, has got etc

1. ..an aspirin? a terrible headache. Ill just look. I think


some in my bag. Oh, no, sorry, .. any.
2. How many brothers and sisters .? Just one brother.
3. We .. a new car. Really? Yes. four-wheel drive, power
steering and anti-lock braking. Fascinating.
4. Im afraid .. some bad news for you. Oh, no. What is it this time?
5. Why .. dark glasses on? something wrong with my eyes.
6. dirt on my nose? No, but . something funny in your hair.
*Habitual and repeated actions: Do you often have colds?

-got-forms are not generally used to talk about habits and repeated actions.
We have meetings on Monday. (NOT: Weve got meetings on Mondays)
Do you often have colds? (NOT: Have you often got colds?)
5. Use have with words from the box to complete the sentences.

a medical check-up

a service

bad dreams

difficulty

long holidays

meetings

terrible headaches

exams

fish

E.g.: We always have fish on Fridays.


1. Students here . at the end of every term.
2. My car . every 10,000 miles.
3. Im not usually ill, but I . sometimes.
4. Do you ever .. those . when you cant wake up?
5. We . with the manager every Monday morning.
6. I .. at the hospital twice a year.
7. Children in Britain .. in the summer.
8. I often remembering names and faces.
*Have for actions: Im going to have a swim
-we use have in a lot of fixed expressions to talk about actions, especially in an informal
style: have breakfast, lunch, coffee; have a wash, bath; have a rest, sleep, lie-down, dream;
have a good time, bad day, nice evening, day off, holiday; have a good flight, trip, journey;
have a talk, word, conversation, disagreement, quarrel, fight; have a swim, walk, dance,
ride, game; have a try, a go, a look; have difficulty in, trouble in ing; have a baby; have
an accident, an operation, a nervous breakdown
In this structure, have is an ordinary verb with progressive forms, and with do in questions
and negatives.
Wheres Jane? Shes having a bath.

What time do you have lunch?

6. What are they going to do? Use have with the words in the brackets.

1. She (a baby)

2. They (a fight)
3. He (an accident)
4. She (a nervous breakdown)
5. He .(an operation)
B. The indefinite article: a/an

-We are taking about one person or thing


*in descriptions:
Shes a kind woman.

Hes got an interesting face.

*when we say what something is, or what somebodys job is


This is an earring.

Shes a farmer.

*we use a before a consonant and an before a vowel. But it depends on the pronunciation of
the following word, not the spelling:
a dog

a hat

a one-pond coin (/ wn./)

a union (/ ju:nin/)

an orange

an uncle

an hour (/n au/)

an MP (/n empi:/)

7. A or an?

1. .elephant
2. .university
3. umbrella
4...ticket
5VIP
6honest man
7half-hour lesson
8....one-hour lesson
9useful book
10.SOS
*we use one, not a/an:
-in contrast with another or other(s)
One girl wanted to go out, but the others wanted to stay at home.
-in the expression one day
One day Ill take you to meet my family.

-with hundred and thousand when we want to sound precise


How many are there? About a hundred? Exactly one hundred and three
-in expressions like only one and just one
Weve got plenty of sausages, but only one egg.
8. A/an or one?

(1) .day last year it was (2) very hot afternoon in June I was hurrying to get
home. I was about (3).hour late well, to be precise, exactly (4).hour and ten
minutes: I had missed my train. Anyway, there was (5)woman standing under the
trees, and there were several children with her. I saw (6)..child clearly she was (7)
lovely dark-haired girl but I only heard the others. Suddenly (8) strange
thing happened. The girl took some stones out of her pocket, and threw (9) ... stone after
another into the air.
*A/an: Shes a farmer. Hes got a long nose.
-We use a/an to say what job a person does, what kind of thing somebody or something is,
or what something is used as. A/An has no plural.
Shes a farmer.

Theyre farmers

He worked as a taxi-driver.

They worked as taxi-drivers.

Dont use the plate as an ashtray.

Dont use the plates as ashtrays.

9. Translate:

1. El este dirijor.

..

2. El este constructor.

..

3. El este doctor.

..

4. El este grdinar.

..

5. El este frizer.

..

6. El este ofer de camion.

..

7. El este mechanic.

8. El este musician.

9. El este fotograf.

..

10. El este om de tiin.

- we use a/an in singular descriptions


Shes got a small nose. (NOT the small nose)
Hes got an interesting face. (NOT: the interesting face)
10. Translate:

1. Ea are un nas mic.


2. El are o musta mare.
3. El are gtul lung.
4. El are barb lung.
5. Ea are un zmbet mare.
6. El are nasul lung.
7. El are o musta mica.
8. Ea are o gur mare.
9. El are voce ridicat.
10. El are o gur mica.
*A/An: A spider has eight legs. A man called
-a/an can mean any example of something:
A spider has eight legs.

Have you got an Italian dictionary?

11. Complete the sentences with words from the box:

barometer

compass

screen

speedometer

lens

magnifying glass
telescope

microscope

thermometer

E.g.: A magnifying glass makes things look bigger.


1. ........................................................makes things look nearer.
2. bends light.
3. ... tells you the air pressure.
4..tells you where north is.
5..makes things look much bigger.
6..reflects light.
7. ....shows how fast you are going.

mirror
torch

8. shows the temperature.


9..displays the picture on a computer or TV.
10. ..shines light on things.
*a/an can mean a particular one (if you dont say exactly who or which)
A man called while you were out.

James married a doctor.

Ive bought a new bike.


II. VOCABULARY: GENERAL - PERSONAL MATTERS2
1. Choose the correct word in each sentence:

d)

a)

When her bicycle was stolen, Jill became extremely angry/nervous.

b)

Peter felt ashamed/embarrassed when he had to make a speech.

c)

I always write thank-you letters, just to be gentle/polite.

You never do anything to help me! Youre so lazy/tired.


e)

Penny never does anything silly. Shes very sensible/sensitive.

f)

The children had to stay in the house all day and felt bored/tired.

g)

Jackie doesnt worry about anything and is always cheerful/sympathetic.

h)

Mr Jackson is very annoyed/bad-tempered and often shouts at people.

i)

When he heard about the accident, Alan was very damaged/upset.

j)

Ive got an important exam tomorrow and Im a bit jealous/nervous.


2. Complete each sentence with one of the verbs from the box. Use each
verbs once only:

cheer

complain

cry

nod

shake his head

shout

smile

whistle

a)

Please look at the camera and smile. Say cheese!

b)

If you agree with what I say, just.

c)

The food in the restaurant was terrible so we decided to

d)

I had to.Anns name three times before she heard me.

e)

The little boy fell over and then started to .


2Michael Vince & Paul Emmerson. Intermediate Language Practice with Key.
English Grammar and Vocabulary. Macmillan, 2003.

f)

At the end of the Presidents speech, the crowd began to..

g)

Paul hardly ever says no. He tends to...instead.

h)

When I try to..I put my lips together but I cant do it!


3. Complete each sentence with a word formed from the word in italics:

a)

You cant rely on Joe. Hes very unreliable.

b)

Carla has very little patience. Shes very

c)

Jack shows no interest in this subject. Hes ...


d)

Pat is lacking in honesty. Shes ...

e)

Bill doesnt act like a friend. Hes ..

f)

Lisa doesnt have much experience of this work. Shes .

g)

Peter never acts politely. Hes

h)

The official did not help us very much. She was.

i)

Graham doesnt consider other people. Hes .

j)

Ann refused to co-operate with the police. She was...


4. Complete each sentence with one of the adjectives from the box. Use
each adjective once only:

ashamed

annoyed

disappointed

exhausted

fascinating

glad jealous

terrified
a)

When her team lost the cup final, Sue felt very disappointed.

b)

I was .when Jack accepted my invitation to dinner but didnt come.


c)

Mark was ...when he saw smoke coming from the planes engine.

d)

Thanks for your letter. Im .to hear that youre feeling better.

e)

David was .to tell his parents that he had been sent to prison.

f)

After running for fifteen kilometers, Zara felt completely..

g)

Helen felt ...when she saw her boyfriend talking to another girl.

h)

Mrs. Hobson told us about her life. Shes a .person.

5. Replace the words in italics in each sentence with one of the phrases
from the box:

are fond of

fancy

let me down

fed up with

get on my nerves

longing for

put me off

give up

a) Im really looking forward to a few weeks holiday!

longing for

b) Sarah has decided to do without eating chocolate.

c) I wanted to study biology, but my teacher discouraged me.

d) Sports programs on television really annoy me.

e) Do you feel like going to the cinema this evening?

f) Why cant you tell the truth? Im tired of your excuses!

g) Terry and I like going for walks in the country.

h) George agreed to help me, but then disappointed me.

6. Complete each sentence with a word from the box:

conscience

death

hand

heart

temper

thanks

trouble

voice

mood

tears

a) The children were happy because their teacher was in a good mood.
b)

.to Mr. Dawson, our car was repaired in time for our holiday.

c)

Ruth was helpful, and went to a lot of .to make us comfortable.


d)

Harry was leaning out of the window and shouting at the top of his .

e)

When Alice heard the bad news, she burst into...

f)

Neil is a very kind person. His ....is in the right place.

g)

If you do something bad, it will be on your ...for a long time.

h)

I was really angry, and lost my.., and shouted at people.

i)

We need some help. Could you give us a .?

j)

The first time I saw a horror film, I was scared to .


III. VOCABULARY: SPECIFIC - Read and translate

Personality types
Dr Laurie Santos, a psychologist at Yale University, has investigated these biases, and
concludes that they are deeply rooted in our evolutionary past, leaving our decision-making
processes better suited to short-term, fight-or-flight survival problems, than those that relate to
the modern world.

If weve had this strategy for the past 35 million years, we need other ways to avoid the
pitfalls, she says. We may not be able to change but, by being aware of our cognitive
limitations, we may be able to design the environment around us to allow for our mistakes.
Take the business environment. In the last series of The Apprentice, Lord Sugar blasted one
candidate for being slow to make up his mind. He saw this as a sign of weakness and a failure
to display leadership. But was he right?
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality inventory, designed to make Jungs theory
of psychological types understandable and useful in everyday lives. It identifies 16 distinctive
personality types, that result from the interactions among four sets of preferences: thinking or
feeling; sensing and intuition; extraversion and introversion; and judging (J) or perceiving (P).
Penny Moyle is a Myers-Briggs consultant and the CEO of OPP, a business-training
consultancy. She says that the dimension between judging and perceiving is the one that is
most closely linked to decisiveness. For instance, do you prefer to pin down a decision (J),
or leave your options open to allow for new information (P)?
People with a preference for judging enjoy creating structure and making decisions, and tend
to come across as organised, she explains. People with a preference for perceiving prefer
keeping their options open. They like to continue seeking information, rather than closing
things down by making decisions too soon.
She could be talking about my husband and me. Hes a judger, while Im a perceiver. Both
types, according to Moyle, have their relative strengths and weaknesses.
The jury effect

Neither kind of person necessarily makes good decisions, Moyle says. Although judging
types like making lots of decisions, these will not be good ones, unless they have considered
enough information. Perceiving types are likely to fall into the opposite trap leaving things
so open-ended that decisions dont get made.
One of my favourite plays is 12 Angry Men, by Reginald Rose. A man is on trial for murder
and, initially, 11 members of the jury are convinced of his guilt. These, according to Moyle,
are judgers. During the play, it takes one perceiver to persuade the rest of the jurors to think
about all the evidence. In the end, the initial snap decision of the 11 jurors is reversed and an
innocent man is acquitted.
Its this jury effect that Moyle tries to bring into play in business situations. We recommend
that people make sure they systematically and consciously consider all ways of taking in
information, she says. By deliberately having a more rounded perspective, there is a greater
likelihood you will make better decisions and also persuade others to come along with you.
Ive still not sorted next years family holiday. Cornwall or Croatia? My husbands immediate
preference was for Cornwall, but hes agreed to look at whats on offer in Croatia before
making up his mind.

Ive come to realise well probably have a good time wherever we go and, at some point, Im
simply going to have to plump for one, or the other.