Você está na página 1de 154
Solution Manual for B.P. Lathi LINEAR SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS Chapter 1 ee 1.4-1 From Newton's law web [some 43.2.2 If /(t) and y(t) ave the inpat and output, rxpectively, of an ideal integrator, then i= 00) and seers [ rove= yo) + [noe 112-1 Only (b) and (f) ase lincas. All the remaining are aonlinens, This can be verifed by asing the procedue discussed in Example 2. 1.2:1 The loop equation for the citcut in an) + Dutt) =F) oF (D+3)n(9 = 10) o Alo Dult) = nl) =n) = ZnO) @ Substitution of (2) in (0) yields Prd yess) ce (D42nl)= DMO) o 13-2 The currents in the resistor, eapacitor and inductor are 2y:(t), Dyo(t) and (2/D)ra(t, respectively. Therefore (o424 Bint) = 10) (0420+ 2)n(t) = DIC) w Alea nl = Dw) or w(t) = 5ml) @ Sswbatitatng of (2) in (1) yields DP+2D+2, Patra ve) (P+2D+2)n(6) = D4) i 113-8 The fecbody dingram for the mass M is shown in Fig. S1.-3. From this diagram it follows that Mj = BU - 9) + K(e—9) (MD? + BD + K)y(t) = (BD + K)=(8) 1 Bue Kor”? Fig. S133 (a(t) -ao(g}ar= aan ‘ ig) = Flas) ~ wl) But eo(0) = RAW) Difleeatiation of (2) yields (= RO = ad R (03) (D+aett= ant ad alt= subetitating this in (2) yields ae) 15 The loop equation forthe ld cil it me me (hy + Rid = 0) ICT) isthe torque generated, then Ti) = K,i,(t) = (0? + BD) svbtiatng (1) i (2) vind pita M0 = 0? + BOM) (00? + BD\ DL, + RM) = KK) 14-1 ‘The loop equation forthe network in Fig. Piet are (5+ §) nto-snt = 10 SHB -2 [nto] _ 70) veavoimaee 7 Ee oeelloal“[* ‘Application ofthe Cramer's rule yields w nid) = Ps) and wl) = epee (S0" 48D 46)n(1)=DD+3)F() and (SD? 8D + O)ne¢) = D400) 2 aw @ e w a a a 142 asa Ler “The loop equations for this network are @ They are expressed in mats form as sg Lee -¥ Gri+pllaol” | o ‘Apnlcation ofthe Cramer's ral yields 3420436 w= sora) 4 n= pe (D+ 40+ 40)n(0) = YD? +2D436 71 and (DEAD + 40)n(0) = FO) (D43)n(2)= (D410 = 1) “(D+ 1)nl) + (D424 Fyn =0 D+s D4 | [ney]. [10 -biey wre) [me] [0 Cramer's ue yells (D 4204) = HOAs NM) aad (WP 420-4 1IM(H) = FLO? + DO. ‘The capacitor curtent Cis = fis is #1 ~ #2. Therefore 1 = 22 ‘The two loop equations are dite tea feted e west bites ete betes tte e ‘Equations (1), (2) and (8) are the state equations For the 29 resistor: carcent in #1, voltage it 21 For the 1H inductor: curren in 21, voltage ia £1 = f(t) ~ 221 —#3- For the capacitor: current is #3 ~ P2, voltage ists For the PH inductor, cerzent is 2, voltage is bin = —2a +, For the 19 resistor: curreat is z2 and voltage is #3 A treiastant {21 25,321, 29 =2and f = 10, Subetituting these values in the above results yields ‘2 resiator: carrent SA, voltage JOA. 43H capacitor: current SA, voltage 10 ~ 10 —2 = -2V. ‘The capacitor. current 5—1= 4A, woltage 2V. ‘The 4H inductor: current 1A, voltage -1 +2 = 1V. ‘The 10 resistor: carrent 1A, voltage 1V. Chapter 2 ear 22-1 The characteristic polynomial i 47 +54++6. The characteristic equation is 1? +5A+6 = 0, Also X* +54+6 (15 2)0°43), Theres the characte oot are My = ~2 and 2a = ~3, Th chraceritie mods ae € tnd e™, Therefore w(t) =e Heae™ and inl) = tae = Sexe" Setting ¢ = 0, and substituting intial conditions yo(0) = 2, o(0) = 1 ia this equation yields atee?y_, ass wta = 3692-1 ° Therefore s(t) = 807% =e 2.2-2 The characteristic polynomial is 1? 4444 4. The characteristic equation is 4? 444-44 = 0, Also A? +414 ao that the characteristic roote are ~2 and ~7 (repeated twice). The characteristic modes ars e“™" and ‘Therefore salt) = ere" ente oll) = Bese — Bate tere Setsing t= 0 and aubstitating initial conditions yields aaa ae 42 tate, oat Therefore welt) = (042) 22:8. The characteristic polynomial is (+1) = 2°-+2. The characteristic equation is A(A+1) = 0, The chasscteristic roots ate O and =I. The characteristic modes are 1 and e'. Therefore wit) sa tee and inl) = ae Setting 1 = 0, and subestatng initial conditions yields leate ae? iT}. oth ‘Therefore w(t) =2- 2.24 ‘The characterntc polynomial is +9, The characteristic equation is? 49 = 0 oF (2 +33)(A~ 33) =0. The characteristic roots are 33. The characteristic modes are e" and e~?™*, Therefore w(t) = coonlat +8) and in(t) = ~Senin(at +8) Selting ¢ = 0, and substitting initial condition yields once? \_. ‘ x/2 ‘Thesefore 228 226 227 21 232 w(t) = 2eoe(at ~ Z) = Daina ‘The characteristic polynomial is X74 4A-+13. The characteritic equation is 1? +4413 2-453) = 0. The characteristic roots are ~2 33. The characteristic modes are ¢1¢ “Therefore oF (A +2-23)0+ 2 aad cael elt) = ce" eon 3+ 8) and Slt) = Dee cant +6) ~ See nin(at +0) Setting t= 0, and substituting intial conditions yields contes | _, onio J ictab o ‘Theretore n(t) = 1067 coe( se 9) i “The characteristic polynomial i 27+ 1) of A842. The characteratic equation e X14 1) = 0, The horacteratie rots are 6, and ~1 (Oi repeated twice). Therefore Ea w(t) Sa batt ae” inl!) =e int) = ee" Setting ¢ = 0, and substituting initial conditions yields “Therefore s(t) = 54 2t— ‘The characteristic polynomial is (A-+1)(2? +54+ 6). The characteriatic equation i (A+ 1)(3? +52 +8) (0b 1) 2)0.4 3) 50. The characteraic roots ate —1, ~2 and 3. The characteristic modes are ¢ and e~*. Therefore oor w(t) sae tae t+ ee and = tone — dese" tee +800 elt) = 0 felt) =e Setting t = 0, and substitting inital conditions yields leatate | 8 alena—2a-ta p= a Sacto +90 aes ‘Therefore pelt) = Gert = Te + 30 Using the fact that (2)6(2) = f(0)(=), we have (a) 0 (b) $64) Ce) $8(H) (4) —H6CE~2) (0) sAp hl +9) He) (wee Lt Hopital ole) In thete problema remembcr that impulse 6() ie leated at «= 0, Thus, as impulse 6(¢~r) is ocated at r= and #0 08 (G) The impulse is located at r= t and f(r) abr = tis f(t) Therefore [Cree nara so (0) The impute) eat 7 O and f(t) a r= Oia f(D. Therefore 5 aad 238 236 231 [aore-ne=s0 Using silar arguments, we obtain 1 @o (ee (CS I) M-F Changing the variable to —2, we obtain L [Ceosna= [7 xon-ne= oo dtcantayde =f” H-aisle)ee = 40) [Ceon-ne= ‘Thin shows that ‘Therefore 50) = 6-8) Letsing at we obtain (for a > 0) J owenern [7 a8 Similarly for «<0, we ahow that thin integral in ~4(0)- Therefore (ote 240) £ ‘H(8)8(a8) dt = eo * i o(t)(t) at Therefore Han) = ee) @ [boa oe [sone [aonas 4) ‘The characteristic equation it A? 44X43 = (24 1)(A+3) = 0. The characterinic modes are e~' and e-* ‘Therefore wo(t) =e in(t) = ene = tae Setting ¢ = 0, and substituting ¥(0) = 0, i(0) = 1, we obtain 1 orate asa ale 2 2 ‘Taerefore wl) = Het) A(e) = [P(DywotI}o(t) = [(D + S)v( 8) (6) = fot) + Seo }a() = (26 — YH) ‘The characteristic equation a 0? + 5A46= (A +42)(A43)=0. and welt) =e te elt) = 2e1e-* = Bee Setting t= 0, and subtitating 9(0) = 0, (0) =1, we obtain 228 230 2310 I= 2a -34, ‘Therefore w(t) and [PCD) ve )}e(0 = bil) + Tho t) + Lav tI}a(t) = (M+ CO Hence (A) = bad) + [P(D)as( u(t) = 6(0) + (6 + elt) ‘The characteratic equation is +1 =0 and w(t) = ee" In this case the inital condition is x2~(0) = yo(0) = 1. Setting # = 0, and using yo(0) = 1, we obssin c= 1 and wi P(D)ye( 8) = (~do(®) + vl t)]a(t) = 2e*a(t) Heace ‘(t) = buble) + [PCD}vn(t}a(e) = ~6(t) + 260) (a) The characteristic equation is 3? 45246 = (0+2)(A+43) = 0. Therefore Therefore in(O) = 207" 430% aad a) = [P(D)po (elo) = Lilt) + 290(D() = a(t) (b) The characteristic equation is A+3= 0. Therefore w(t) = Setting t= 0, and substiteting jo(0) = 1 [see Ba. (242), we obtain © = 1, and (a) = [PD)vo( at) = welale) = (8) ‘The characteristic equation is 2? 4 6A 4.9 = (A+ 3)? =0. Therefore w(t) = (6 Feat" alt) = Sl tat) +a) Setting t= 0, and substituting yo(0) = 1, io(0) = 1, we obtain ay cheyatene ss a w(t) = te 1 Hence Ae) = [P(D)wti}o(t) = (aint) + 9p0(0D] ule) = (2-4 3800) ‘sit The characteristic equation ip 37410434 = (A+ 5— j2)(A +543) = 0. Therefore a(t) = ce" con(3t +8) felt) = —Soe“" con(at +4) —See™*xin(3¢+ 8) ‘Setting ¢ = 0, and substitating (0) = 0, o(0) = 1, we obtain iDeeecicael cs ‘Therefore w(t)= and a= oy) = + Ae = cnt + fainage ae) = Serene e838) 2-12 The characteratc equation i (A-+1)(A-+2)(A 4) = 0. Therefore eet at Sexe 480 ‘Setting €= 0, and substituting yo(0) = fo(0) = 0, fo(0) = 2, we obtain veatata Onn 2ada pee ant lee ttes $800 ‘Therefore 242 (i) yesna [seme-nirs [[arai[ ne wuze we ree Peta u(t) o a(t) = tu)