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INTRODUCTION

Paracetamol is an analgesic and weak organic acid. Paracetamol usually taken orally. Paracetamol
is well absorbed in gastrointestinal tract is by passive transport (Bagnall, Kelleher, Walker & Losowsky as
cited by Presscott, 1980). Orally taken paracetamol need to undergo hepatic first pass effect and its oral
bioavailability is highly dependent on dose (Paracetamol Pharmacokinetics, n.d.). Distribution of
paracetamol is relatively uniform in body tissues (Brodie & Axelrod as cited by Prescott, 1980).
Metabolism of paracetamol mainly occur in the liver. It is extensively metabolized and produce
metabolites which conjugates with glucoronic acid and sulfuric acid. Cytochrome P450 produces small
amount of hepatotoxic metabolites (Paracetamol Pharmacokinetics, n.d.). The metabolites are then
excreted through kidneys in the urine. Only 2-5% of the dose excreted is an unchanged form in the urine.
The half life of paracetamol varies from 1 to 3 hours. 98% of the administered dose of paracetamol is
excreted after 24 hours of administration.
According to Beer lambert law, the concentration of a substance is proportional to the amount of
light absorbed or inversely proportional to the log of transmitted light if the radiation is monochromatic,
solvent absorbance is insignificance and no chemical reaction between solute or solvent (Chemistry
Procedures, n.d.). beer lambert law is written as
A= Ecl
Where
A=absorbance
E= Molar Extinction coefficient of solute
C= solute concentration
L= length of light path
Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer measure attenuation of beam of light after it passes through
a sample or after reflection from a sample surface (Definition of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UVVis), n.d.). It is very useful quantitative measurement. At certain wavelength, the absorbance can help to
determine the concentration of analyte in solution by applying Beer Lamber law.

OBJECTIVES
1. TO U

2. DEWFE
3. EWE
4. FWF
MATERIALS
1-15
METHODOLOGY
PART 1
PART2
RESULT
DISCUSSION
Based on the graph plotted, the optical dens
Question
1. Extraction is a way to separate a desired substance when it is in mixture with others. The mixture
is brought into contact with a solvent in which the substance of interest is soluble, but the other
substances present are insoluble. Extractions use two immiscible phases (organic phase and
aqueous phase) to separate the substance from one phase into the other (Definition of Extraction,
n.d.). urine sample that contain paracetamol need to be hydrolyzed first to increase and extend its
detectability for extraction process.
2. Biological half life is the time taken for a substance to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic
activity. Physical half life time is the time interval required for an amount of certain radioactive
nuclei to decay to its half of original value. To calculate half life;
T1/2 = total amount of drug at T0 / 2
3. Calibration curve also known as standard curve. It is used to determine the instrumental response
to an analyte and predict the concentration in an unknown sample (ournal of Visualized
Experiments, n.d.).
4. Factors that influence elimination of drugs include renal disease, glomerular filtration, drug
secretion rate (Extent of drug-plasma protein binding, Carrier saturation, Drug transfer rates
across tubular membranes, Rate of drug delivery to secretory sites), changes is plasma protein
concentration, blood flow.
5. Consent form is a form that is signed by subject prior to experiment. It is to confirm that the
subject agree to contribute to the experiment and aware of the procedure of the experiment and
risks that may occur.

REFERENCES
Chemistry

Procedures

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Extraction

(n.d.).

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http://www.chemicool.com/definition/extraction.html
Definition of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) (n.d.). retrieved October 23, 2016, from,
http://www.chemicool.com/definition/uv_vis_absorption_spectroscopy_uv_vis
journal of Visualized Experiments (n.d.) rterievd ocotber 25 2016 from http://www.jove.com/scienceeducation/10188/calibration-curves
Patel,

P.

(2011).

Excretion.

Retriebed

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5,

2016,

from

http://www.slideshare.net/PinkeshPatel1/excretion-10212619
Prescott, L. F. (1980). KINETICS AND METABOLISM OF PARACETAMOL AND PHENACETIN.
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2016,

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1430174/pdf/brjclinpharm00214-0078.pdf
Troubleshooting in UV/Vis Spectrophotometry (2013). Retrieved November 5, 2016, from
http://www.biocompare.com/Bench-Tips/130997-Troubleshooting-in-UV-Vis-Spectrophotometry/