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1.1 Introduction
School institutions remain a preparatory ground t o empower and c e r t i f y the
requirement for human development. The teacher is faced with the challenges of
educating, socializing, empowering and certifying students, but with the help of good
teaching atmosphere (Fafunwa, 2004; Farrant,

2004; Wasagu,2009). By implication,

t h e task of a teacher, w h i c h includes sustaining education system, do not rest on his

or her professional competency alone, but on the entire features of the school climate
(Loukas, 2007).
The school is a t ype o f service organization vested with primary function of
educating the child and the control is a problem faced by all organizations especially
learning institution, which work with people. For the efficient functioning of the school,
school managements reserve power to control the conduct of students t h r o u g h
reasonable r u l e s

and regulations. Once these rules and regulations are made, they

must be enforced on the problems, which beset secondary schools, indiscipline comes
first. Disciplinary problems dominate the issues of the day in both large and small schools
both in towns and villages. Students disobey school rules and regulations with impunity.
They have little or no respect for their teachers and even the school administration.

Students misbehavior i s a prevailing problem affecting schools not only in Nigeria but
also across the many nations around the world. Students misconduct in the classroom
interferes with teaching and learning and is thought to be precursor to later school dropout
and similar negative social outcomes. Students behavioral problems are also thought to
be a leading contributor to teachers stress and attrition.
In secondary school, the situation is worse because




adolescents, now become aware of their rights namely; to privacy, to freedom of

religion, belief, opinion, and expression, among others. According to Pager (1994),
educators at one school in the Southwest Nigeria

reported high levels


absenteeism, truancy, laziness, substance abuse, and subversion of assessments

of achievements by learners. Another author (Ferguson & Johnson, 2010) also
found that the lack of a supportive and friendly school environment influences
educators disciplinary attempt and may cause them to remain cold.
Petersen & Rosser (2008) contend that serious breaches of school discipline
policy include assault by students on teachers and other students, verbal abuse,
offensive language against teachers and other students, sexual abuse and other forms
of harassment, threat and intimidation of teachers and other students, possession of
offensive weapons, supplying or using illegal drugs, and intrusions into the school or
classrooms by adults with the intention of confronting teachers. The problem now
is rather alarming and jeopardizing the administration of secondary schools.

It is against this background that the management of disciplinary problems

in schools needs urgent attention. There is much work to be done since in some
schools the situation has reached alarming proportions. This study therefore
concentrates on unraveling the various dominant factors attributing to the discipline
problems among secondary school students in Kaduna State with a view to providing the
means of managing disciplinary problems.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a known fact that education is the vehicle upon which the wheel of national
development revolves, Fafunwa (2003). Proper education hinges on effective classroom
management through the activities of teachers, parents and students at large. To this end
parents, teachers and the government need to show commitment to improving education by
promoting good discipline among secondary school students. It is for this reason that the
federal government has introduced the teaching of religious and civic education in schools in
order to help eliminate the high rate of indiscipline.
The national policy on education (2004) states that religious instructions should be made
compulsory at the secondary school level with the hope that it will help to inculcate
appropriate values and attitude in the students.
The study of Prevailing Disciplinary Problems in Secondary Schools in Kaduna
metropolis aims at unraveling types of disciplinary problems, their causes and far
reaching means of managing disciplinary problems among the secondary school

students in Nigeria and Kaduna state in particular. Indiscipline in school is certainly a

matter of immediate concern to the teaching profession.
In lieu of the a b o v e , the s t u d y will f ind out whether the problems stated below are
the main contributing factors that hinder effective management of disciplinary problems in
the study area.
1. What is the nature of disciplinary problems prevalent among student in Kaduna State
Secondary Schools.
2. Truancy i s the d i s c i p l i n a r y problem in secondary schools.
3. Absenteeism is the disciplinary problem in the study area.
4. Fighting and stealing cause disciplinary problem i n the study area.
5. Nature of teacher-student relationship and level of indiscipline.
6. Family, Home influence is the cause of disciplinary problem in the study area.
7. The role of principals and staffs in the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study titled Prevailing Disciplinary Problems among Secondary Schools students and
their effects on their academic performance in Kaduna Metropolis in Focus aims to
conduct an empirical study into disciplinary problems with regard to;
i. The types o f disciplinary problems that are b e i n g experienced in Kaduna secondary
ii. The causes of disciplinary problems that are being experienced in these schools.

iii. The means of managing disciplinary problems in the said study area.

Finally, to recommend to stakeholders in education to





in Kaduna secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions.
1. What are the causal factors of indiscipline in Kaduna State Secondary Schools?
2. What are the measures adopted by the principals, teachers, P.T.A, M.O.E officials to
control and manage indiscipline, and how does teacher, principals leadership style
influence indiscipline and behavior problems management in secondary schools.
3. What is the nature of the relationship between staff and students in Secondary Schools?
4. Impact of indiscipline among secondary school students and their performance in
developing countries?
5. How can the school maintain good behavior among students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In order to answer the research questions, the following hypotheses were postulated

1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers, parents and

students with respect to the factors responsible for indiscipline among students in
secondary schools in Kaduna State.
2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers, parents and
students with regards to the attitude of students to discipline in secondary schools in
Kaduna state.
3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers, parents and
students with respect to the nature of relationship between teachers and students and level
of indiscipline among students in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers, parents and
students with respect to the measures the school authorities take to ensure good behavior
among students in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
1.5 Significance of the study
The morality of all people involved in educating the students to curb disciplinary problems
in secondary school has resulted in undesirable events. Those negative events have far reaching
effects in learning and the administration of secondary school e.g they occasionally disrupt
studies due to frequent closure of schools and dismissal of students (Nigerian Standar 2nd April,
1984 p5). Therefore the study is expected to enhance the maintenance of discipline among
secondary school students and the effects on their academic performance in the area of study in
the following ways.

It would provide more information to the policy makers in the Ministry of Education
regarding the factors responsible for the disciplinary problems in secondary schools and
would help to enable them formulate better policies in their effort in restoring discipline
in secondary schools.
It will add to the existing knowledge about factors responsible for bad behavior among
students in Kaduna State secondary schools.
The findings of the study will be useful to educational planners and administrators,
teachers, parents and students in other states who have similar disciplinary problems in
their schools.
The study will also be useful to the school authorities in their efforts at restoring discipline
in secondary schools.
Students, parents, teachers and principals will be able to know the causal factors, effects
and measures of controlling students indiscipline.
The study will enable parents to know to what extent they have carried out their
responsibility in the discipline of their children.
It will open chances for further studies on indiscipline and its effects on students academic
performance in the country generally.
1.6 Scope and delimitation of the Study
The scope of the study is Kaduna State secondary schools. It is delimited to investigate the
factors responsible for disciplinary problems prevalent among students in the area of study. The

study also covers only non-coeducational secondary schools with both junior and senior
secondary school levels.
Basically, the limitations faced by the study are that the findings and generalizations are
only applicable to Kaduna State government secondary schools. This is because private schools
were excluded from the study as such the findings apply to non-coeducational secondary schools
with both junior and senior secondary school classes. This study is also delimited to the opinions
expressed by principals, parents, teachers and students as they relate to indiscipline among
secondary school students.

2.1 Introduction
This chapter is concerned with the review of related literature on prevailing
disciplinary problems among secondary school students and their effects on their
academic performance in Kaduna State in respect of the following:
1. Conceptual framework
2. Prevailing disciplinary problems in Kaduna Secondary State Secondary
3. Drug abuse
4. Deviancy and Truancy
5. Stealing and Fighting
6. Destruction of School Properties
7. Examination Malpractice
8. Management and organization of secondary schools in Kaduna State
9. Impact of indiscipline among secondary school students and their
performance in developing countries e.g. Ghana and Kenya.
10. Motivation of students for effective results in developing secondary schools
11. Effectiveness of secondary schools management

12.Effects of home supervision on students academic performance in

secondary schools
2.2 Conceptual Framework
Discipline defines the limitations of an individual or a group of people. It
is the practice of restraint, which may be self-imposed. The study of
psychology reveals that






impulses, which are constantly seeking expression. These include need

for security, sexual activities, exploration and success. On the other hand, the
society stipulates




these inner




does not

permit free

following the appropriate

procedure acceptable by balance between his inner tendencies and the

external restrictions.

Self-discipline is a willingness to accept rules and

regulations laid down for guidance and the ability to act in accordance with
what is expected of the individual by the society (Joseph, 2010).
School discipline is an essential element in school administration. This
is because discipline is a mode of life in accordance with laid down rules
of the society to which all members must conform, and the violation of
which are questionable and also disciplined. It is seen as a process of training
and l e a r n i n g that fosters growth and development (Imaguezor, 1997). The


aim of discipline is therefore, to help the individual to be well adjusted, happy and
useful to his society. The doctrine of school discipline according to Nolte
(1980) and Barrell (1978) is based on the concept of loco parentis which
allows school authorities full responsibility for childrens upbringing, the right
of discipline and control.
Consequently, in the field of child development, discipline refers to
methods of modeling character and of teaching self-control and acceptable
behavior. To be disciplined is then, subject to content, either a virtue, which
may be referred to as discipline procedure or a euphemism for punishment,
which may also be referred to as disciplinary procedure (Reyes, 2006).
School discipline refers to regulation of children and the maintenance of
order (rules) in schools. These rules may, for example, define the expected
standards of clothing, timekeeping, social behavior and work ethics. The
term ma y be a p p l i e d to the punishment which is the consequence of
transgression of the code of behavior. In o t h er words, the usage of school
discipline sometimes means the management of disciplinary setback in
conformity with the school rules.
On the other hand, indiscipline is a household word in Nigeria today. In
fact, it is a word that is found in government offices, private sectors, in politics and


in all levels of educational institutions. The trend in secondary schools in the present
time is indiscipline of all sorts. The trouble with the term is that every individual
may know what they mean when they talk about it, but individual meanings can still
differ in a sense, therefore, we will at this juncture present some of the meaning
giving to the term by scholar in the literature.
Indiscipline according to (Timothy, 2008: 110) is the direct opposite of
discipline i.e. lack of discipline. He further quoted Dittinuiya (1995) who defined it
as any act that does not conform to the societal value and norms. He went further to
cite Otu (1995) who also define indiscipline as unruly acts and behaviors, acts of
lawlessness and disobedience to school rules and regulation.
It can be summarized that indiscipline is any form of misbehaviors which the
student(s) can display in the following ways: general disobedient to constituted
authority, destruction of school property, poor attitude to learning, abuse of
seniority, immoral behavior, drug abuse, stealing, lateness, truancy, dirtiness
quarrelsome, use of abusive or foul languages, rudeness, cultism etc. as the forms of
indiscipline in schools are inexhaustible.
Timothy (2008) further stated that indiscipline can be said to be the
unwillingness of students to respect the constituted authority, observe and obey
school rules and regulations and to maintain high standard of behaviors conducive


to teaching learning process and essential to the smooth running of the school to
achieve the educational objective with ease.
2.2.1 Prevailing disciplinary problems in Kaduna State Secondary Schools
The critical tool used in the transformation of individual in particular and the
society in general. Secondary education in Kaduna State is meant at preparing the
learners for valuable living conditions within the society and training for further
education. In order to live a valuable life within any given community and contribute
towards the social, economic, and political development of the nation, the
appropriate skills, values, attitudes, knowledge, and competencies must be impacted
into the individual. In developing nations, disciplinary problems has been a major
and continuous administrative problem among secondary schools in developing
countries. Denga (1999) in his study identified disciplinary problems such as
stealing, truancy, exam malpractice, drug abuse and destruction of school properties
as detrimental practices.
The percentage of students who drop out of school in most urban and rural
areas of Kaduna State is on an increase. These students cultivate and demonstrate
deviant behaviors and may never fulfill their potentials. They become burdens to the
society. There is an outcry of Kaduna State teachers, administrators and parents
about the increasing rate of indiscipline in Kaduna State secondary schools. This
observation unsettles the mind of patriotic citizens since children are considered the

future leaders of the country. As a result, any attempt to curb students indiscipline
in school would be highly welcomed by the government, educators, parents,
teachers, and school administrators.
2.3 Drug abuse
This is one of the most dangerous and most common school disciplinary
problems. It means taking drug without prescription by the appropriate person.
Abused drugs include cigarettes, alcohol, tobacco, heroine and smoking of herbs.
There is a general moral decadence in this regard because many parents are also
guilty of the same misbehavior and are unable to instruct correct, advice or guide
children along the proper paths concerning the use of drugs.
A survey was carried out by Lynskey and Hall (2000) on the effect of
adolescents use of cannabis on education attainment. The cross-sectional study
revealed a significant association between cannabis use and a range of measures of
education performance including lower grade point average (GPA) and poorer
school performance. The use of cannabis was associated with the adoption of an anticonventional lifestyle resulting in a lot of disciplinary problems in schools (Ingenta,
2.3.1 Truancy Absenteeism
Truancy: This is irregular attendance in school or classes with many factors within
or outside the school building, peer group influence, teacher methods of teaching or

discipline are some school factors that can lead to truancy. Factors outside the school
may include poverty where the child might need to fend for him/herself, engage in
labor to raise money, parenting/guarding methods of discipline, security among
Absenteeism: This may result from the type of leadership obtaining in a school. The
school exercise greater control over students and may lead students to frustration, if
there is insufficient supply of school materials and facilities such as food, water,
toilet facilities which may lead to absenteeism or rebellion against authority. If a
student has formed destructive habit, he is also likely to consistently be absent or
revolt against authority unaware of the consequences of his actions. Teachers may
have poor attitude to class teaching by using inappropriate materials and contents in
such a manner that may constitute them into a certain source of absent on the part of
students as resulting from dissatisfaction and frustration from
2.3.2 Stealing and Fighting

Stealing: This is the r e mo v a l of another

persons property w i t h o u t his

permission. The socio- economic environment including status of parents,

home background and a natural tendency to steal is responsible for this among
students. This conduct is mostly influenced b y peer-group p r e s s u r e . The
value structure of the society, such as the get rich quick syndrome in Nigeria

has led many young people to the false convention that there is no need to
pursue life course with appropriate hard work and consequent success. Some
parents spoil their children by exhibiting highly permissive behavior. They
allow children to have everything on demand and task themselves to overdo
what they believe is their responsibility. This attitude e n c o u r a g e s children
to interpret any form of lack as hardship and frustration to the extent of
justifying their removal of other peoples property.
Fighting: Children fighting at the secondary school level are very low in selfesteem. The chief impetus for fighting during the normal course of classroom
and playground life tends to lie in the childs basic

sense of inadequacy

feelings of not being valued or worthy. In other words, the four

psychological needs of the child have not been met: the need for love,
security, new experience and need for responsibility. Home background may
contribute to frequent fighting nature of a child.
2.3.3 Vandalism
Is sometimes referred to as a malicious mischief. It involves deliberate destruction
of public property by some form of defacement or mutilation, typical acts of
vandalism include breaking windows in schools, destroying school records,
mutilating school property such as desks and writing on the walls either in the


classroom or the hostels. Medinus (2009) observed that the youths used vandalism
as an expression of power over others by damaging their properties. They show selfassertion by bringing down the school or defacing the school building.
2.3.4 Examination Malpractice
Examination malpractice is defined as a deliberate wrong doing contrary to
official examination rules designed to place a candidate at unfair advantage or
disadvantage. Nwana (2000), Examination malpractice is described as the massive
and unprecedented abuse of rules and regulations pertaining to internal and external
examinations, beginning from the setting of such examinations through the taking
of the examinations, their marking and grading, to the release of the results and the
issuance of certificates.
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary malpractice is a wrong
or illegal behaviour exhibited by a person while discharging professional
responsibilities. In the light of this definition, examination malpractice is simply
illegally obtaining an answer to an examination question from any other source other
than the brain of the examinee.
Salami (1994) defines examination malpractices as an improper and dishonest
act associated with examination with a view to obtaining unmerited advantage.


Shonekan (1996) defines it as any act of omission or commission that contravenes

the rules and regulations of the examination body to the extent of undermining the
validity and reliability of the tests and ultimately, the integrity of the certificates
Oyekan (1996) also views examination malpractice as a deliberate act of
indiscipline adopted by students or their privileged accomplices to secure facile
success and advantage before, during and after the administration of a test or
examination. Oluyeba and Daramola (1993) defined examination malpractice as any
irregular behaviour exhibited by candidate or anybody charged with the examination
inside or outside the examination hall before, during or after such examination.
Ojerinde (2002) he claimed that examination malpractice is no longer a desperate
candidates affair, rather school teachers and even principals are now involved in the
perpetration of this vice. Even with the promulgation of Decree No 33 of 1999(Now
Act of Parliament) designed to check examination malpractice, the crime appears to
be on the increase.
The very date and place examination malpractice started in the world is not
known but it could be said to be one of the fall-outs of the fall of man in the Garden
of Eden when Satan deceived Adam and Eve to sin. Satan sowed this ugly seed

which germinated into various forms of sin and vices including examination
malpractice. Examination malpractice has been in existence a long time ago.
According to various sources examination malpractice was first reported in Nigeria
in 1914 when there was a leakage of senior Cambridge Local Examination. After
independence, there was hardly any year when no examination malpractice was not
In Nigeria, however, examination malpractice became prominent in the
1970s, when youths who were in the colleges and universities before the advent of
the Nigerian civil war in 1967, who were conscripted into the army during the war,
came back at the end of the war in 1970 and went back to schools to continue with
their education. These youths who understood the language of the trigger of the gun
more than what the teacher was saying, were not psycho-emotionally stable and
prepared for examinations and so resorted to alternative means of passing the
examinations such as direct cheating in examinations, bribing examiner to allow
them to indulge in mass cheating, hiring of machineries to write for them. This was
clearly manifested in the West African School Certificate Examination of 1970/1971
when all manner of irregularities ranging from examination malpractice to leakage
of examination question papers characterized with the conduct of the examination.



There are dimension of examination malpractices year-in-year-out, students
come up with new dimensions of examination malpractices. The instances of
examination malpractices vary. Some of the forms of examination malpractice are
discussed below:
1. Bringing of Foreign Materials into Examination Hall: This is a situation
where students bring into the examination hall notes, textbooks and other
prepared materials. The method is nicknamed as hide and seek, microchips,
tattoo and magic desk. Sometimes, students bring into the hall unauthorized
materials like sophisticated and scientific calculators Abba (1998) identified
some methods like giraffing, contraband, bullet, super print, escort, pregnant




2. Assistance from Educational Stakeholders: Examination stakeholders

include parents, teachers, lecturers, security agents, printers, and staff of
examination bodies. Some parents go to any length in buying question papers
for their children while some others even buy certificates for their children.
Supervisors colluding with teachers, school principals or students by allowing
teachers to come around to teach the students during examination period,
lecturers or teachers releasing question papers or giving underserved marks or

allowing students to illegally re-take examination papers. Security agents,

printers and staff of examination bodies also sell question papers.
2.4 Management and organization of secondary schools in Kaduna State
Managing is an act of management, which could be described as the rational
process by which organizational resources are integrated, coordinated, and or
utilized to effectively and efficiently achieve the objectives for the organization. The
role of management is to plan, organize, integrate, and inter-relate organizational
activities and resources for the purpose of achieving predetermined or identified
objectives (Carlisle, 1975). Thus, if schools are the factories for producing a nation's
manpower, it is proper management that makes them effective.
The SMoE (State Ministry of Education) is supplemented by a number of
parastatals. These are corporate bodies charged either with a state-wide education
sub-sector or sub function or with the management of a particular institution. They
enjoy a certain level of autonomy in discharging their mission and the Commissioner
may give directions of only a general character. There are five parastatals charged
with state-wide functions: the SUBEB (State Universal Basic Education Board), the
Agency for Mass Literacy, the State Library Board, the State Scholarship Board and
the State Teachers Service Board. Twelve other parastatals are charged with the


management of a single establishment (for example a school or a higher education

Kaduna SUBEB is responsible for the functioning of basic education in the
state, i.e. early childhood care and development and nine years of basic education
per se. While SUBEBs management of primary schools has been in operation since
2005, a process of disarticulation is under way whereby junior secondary schools
will be gradually placed under SUBEB management as part of the nine-year basic
The 13 science, technical and business schools under the supervision of the
SMoST (State Ministry of Science and Technology) are run through the State
Science and Technical Schools Management Board. It is a parastatal that receives its
budget directly from the Government, independently form the ministry and that
manages it autonomously. As far as the SMoH (State Ministry of Health) is
concerned, the two monotechnics under its supervision have each their own
management board through which administration and finance is run.
c) Issues in teacher management
Teacher recruitment
At secondary schools, the recruitment process is conducted by the State
Teachers Service Board on request by the Commissioner and after authorization by

the Executive Governor. They then advertise the positions, short-list the candidates
and interview them. They then recommend appointments according to strict
evaluation methods, although the recommendations are not systematically followed.
The general picture is that there are very few vacancies and no shortages of
qualified candidates. The exception is for Mathematics and Science teachers who
are very scarce. In view of the depressed job market in Kaduna, every vacancy
attracts hundreds of degree holding candidates, often qualified.
In-service training and development
Basic education teachers are theoretically entitled to staff development
activities through the UBEC (Universal Basic Education Commission) Intervention
Fund managed by the SUBEB. A set percentage of that money (N 700 million in
2006) must be devoted to teacher development (15%). But there are no clear
indications from the UBEC reports that the budget is being used accordingly. For
senior secondary school teachers there are virtually no opportunities for staff
Teachers motivation
The issue of teachers salary is important as the current pay scales are very
low. Many primary teachers are on scales 05 and 06 and a grade 06 teacher, for
example, has a starting increment salary of about 8,000 per month, plus allowances

amounting to approximately 2,000 (this computes to a total of about US$ 71 per

month). This corresponds to less than a 1.5 times the per capita GDP (Gross
Domestic Product) and is much lower than the FTI (Fast Track Initiative) indicative
benchmark of 3.5 multiple. The low level of salaries, combined with insufficient
preparedness at pre-service teacher education, contributes to low teacher motivation
for the profession. As a former senior official of NCCE (National Council for
Colleges of Education) states, most students of teacher education go into teaching as
a last resort!
What is more, the current salary scales have not increased since late 2000.
The last increase was made across the country. However, in late 2001 the Federal
Government devolved control over state and local government service salaries, and
since then different states have adopted their own pay policies. Kaduna has not
increased them at all (except for a recent increase in an allowance), which means
amongst other things that it now pays less than most neighboring states.
Teacher supervision
In Kaduna there are at least four separate inspectorate services: the SMoE
Inspectorate Service, the Federal Inspectorate Service, the Inspectorate Department
of the SUBEB and the LGEA (Local Government Education Authority) supervisors.
All these services monitor and supervise primary or secondary schools
concomitantly with obvious potential conflict of interests.

The SMoE Inspectorate Service currently comprises 7 inspectors at

headquarters plus 12 inspectorates corresponding to 12 State Divisions. There are
approximately 25 inspectors per division who are then responsible for some 30
secondary schools and 300 primary schools. In theory each school is supervised
three or four times a term. Some of the constraints include inadequate funding such
that inspectors claims and expenses often remain unpaid for a long time and
inadequate vehicles required for monitoring.
The QSDS (Quantitative Service Delivery Survey) study reports that from the
teachers perspective, inspectors were missing in action, with only about 2 percent
reporting that an inspector had visited their classroom at least once in the past
semester. Those teachers whose classrooms were visited by an inspector reported
thorough reviews, professional treatment by the inspector, and helpful feedback. The
average number of inspectors visits in the past 12 months to a school is much higher
than to individual classrooms: between about 5 and 7 times per year, depending on
school location.
The new World Bank supported State Education Sector Project (SESP)
includes a specific subcomponent for a Reform of the Inspectorate precisely aiming
at restructuring and streamlining the inspection services.


2.4.1 Impact of indiscipline among secondary school students and their

performance in developing countries e.g. Ghana and Kenya
Giancola (2000) asserts that misbehavior from students is a significant
problem affecting schools across the world. He links indiscipline among students to
the lack of trust and an increase in insecurity, thus creating unsafe learning
environment. Students' indiscipline causes much stress in teachers in thereby making
some resign from their profession (Gyamera, 2005). In Ghana, even though there is
no available literature revealing student indiscipline as a cause of teacher attrition,
student indiscipline discourages and compels teachers to shirk responsibilities and
engage in tardiness (Salifu, 2008).
Boakye (2006), writing on Ghanaian school discipline issues concur that
indiscipline leads many student to drugs, which significantly increase restlessness,
excitability and hyperactivity. Chronic undisciplined students tend to alcohol, crack
cocaine and antidepressants leading to lethargic, apathetic behavior or urge to incite
erratic and dangerous behavior thus causing sporadic outburst of violence. He
observes further that, indiscipline may cause a sudden decrease in classroom
achievement. According to him, student indiscipline poses a great challenge to
principals because they are saddled with how to motivate students. Gyamera (2005)
also contends that motivation is the energy that fuels a person's drive to achieve. She
reveals that, drugs slow down a person's ability to think and act normally thereby

weakening his or her power of reasoning. Adentwi (1998) notes that drug abuse and
other indiscipline related behavior promote poor co-ordination, attention deficit
disorder, unpredictable mood swings, and sexual immorality as leading factors for
school dropout. Adentwi (1998) has the belief that the use of drugs carries a very
high price tag, which manifests in drug dependence as well as personal and social
disorganization. This tends to have the tendency of bringing about involvement in
serious crimes by the victim. He thinks that, drugs slow down a person's ability to
think and act normally thereby weakening his or her power of reasoning.
The impact of school indiscipline is not possible to easily quantify. There is
widespread acceptance of the fact that indiscipline in the school setting usually
affects teaching and learning. Misbehavior from students has the tendency to make
teaching an unpleasant experience especially if it occurs frequently such that the
teacher has to spend most of his or her instructional time correcting them . If students
decline to stay on task, they invariably do not learn, as they would have done if they
were not disobedient. In this sense, the best plans, activities and materials do not as
well mean anything. Learning requires close and uninterrupted concentration
especially in the type of environment where learning activities are planned according
to time. Learning in schools require distraction-free atmosphere, purposeful
directions from a teacher, and an ample time for pondering over what one is taught
or has read on his own .

These conditions cannot be said to prevail in schools where discipline is rife and
disruption is frequent coupled with movement of students without permission. In
effect, neither teachers nor learners can be encouraged to give of their best because
of the atmosphere of constant confusion and friction (Wright & Kate, 2003). As
indiscipline damages students' self-confidence and turns others into criminals their
formative years in school is important to instill discipline in them. Exploring
discipline issues in this study is therefore significant and contributes to our
understanding of the Ghanaian situation and efforts to improve on the situation in
schools for maximum learning to occur.
Acts of indiscipline among high school students are common across the world.
These acts occur in the classroom, within the school compound and within the school
community. Lewis (1991) as cited by Morongwa (2010) identified categories of
misconduct by students in the school as those that inhibit the students own learning;
those that are destructive to others students learning; and those that are offensive to
the teacher. He further argues that, the misconduct can either be deliberate or
Some behaviors can have negative impact on the self-esteem of the students
especially when a student disrupts class by consistently going to class late or when
a student talks while the teacher is teaching or writes graffiti on school property.
Furthermore, another student may be shouting in class or asking questions already

answered or defy the teachers instructions and walk around in the class or just
become destructive.
Analysis of Strategies Used by School Authorities to Manage Student
Indiscipline in Public High Schools in Kenya
It is agreed among education managers that the purpose of school discipline
is to establish and maintain a conducive learning environment. It should also help to
develop self-discipline among students while in school and after school. Schools
therefore should focus on strategies or disciplinary actions aimed at stopping
misbehavior and bring about compliance to the rules and regulations. It is anticipated
that once this is achieved, it will facilitate the development of self-discipline among
Schools are expected to institute disciplinary measures to inculcate selfdiscipline and maintain discipline in schools. Disciplinary measures can be punitive,
preventive or those that modify behavior. Punitive measures are those disciplinary
strategies which inflict pain on students with the intent to deter the student from
committing the offence or a similar offence. Punitive measures are also referred to
as punishments. According to Colton, (2003) punishments are effective if they are
commensurate with the offence as perceived by the student. Discipline should never
appear to be arbitrary for if it does, it may be a cause of much resentment and
hostility. Some of the punishment used by teachers in Kenya includes; reprimand,

detention, forced labor, manual work, fines to replace damaged property, loss of
privileges and suspension. Griffin (1994) says that a good school will apply a variety
of punishments that are useful to the community such as cutting grass and clearing
bushes. He further says that the physical exercise can be administered as punishment
for healthy students.
Effective educators recognize that punishment has limitations. These limitations
(a) It aims at stopping undesired behavior without providing an alternative
(b) Short-term effects
(c) Teaches violence
(d) It does not address the numerous factors behind a students behavior
(e) It causes side effects (e.g., revenge, aggression, hatred towards school, emotional
(f) It may distract learning in the classroom or school
(g) It can reinforce negatively such as suspensions help students to run away from
class or school.
School authorities should initiate preventive strategies aimed at preventing
indiscipline from occurring. They include the development of an inclusive
curriculum that is diversified to sufficiently cater for the academic and emotional
needs of the students. Most educationist across the world advocate for a disciplinary

policy that focuses on positive reinforcement with praise, merit mark and house
points. This plays a central role in maintaining discipline. Duke and Canady (1991)
argue that in schools where the Principals emphasize punishment more than rewards,
student progress is subdued. In contrast, where rewards exceed punishments the
progress is greater.
However, some other studies support authoritative style of discipline for
prevention and rectification of behavior problems. Bear (2008) in support
authoritative style of discipline argues that authoritative Principals should offer
guidance to students as a way of preventing misbehavior. They should also see
disciplinary interactions as opportunities to instill desired behavior and not just to
offer punishment.
Authoritative Principals ought to be supportive and caring in preventing
lasting harm to the teacher-student relationships, but at the same time be firm and
maintain clear communications on the expectations of appropriate behavior. In
addition, authoritative teachers should use prevention strategies such as; inculcating
problem-solving and decision-making competences among students; creating and
sustaining a two- way communication with parents or guardians; providing
motivating academic activities; creating a conducive learning environment;
instituting predictable school routines; and regularly monitor student behavior as
well as promptly respond to signs of misconduct ( Bear, 2010).

The schools function of maintaining safety and correction of behavior is

critical in developing self-discipline among students. Self-discipline is defined as
control of ones behavior without anticipation of external rewards such as fear of
punishments. Strategies for developing self-discipline are useful for character
formation and as well as social and emotional learning. Some of the strategies
suggested by research include: implementation of curriculum activities that teach
moral, emotional and behavioral skills with an aim of including lessons and activities
for instilling self-discipline among the students; providing for responsible behavior
through social and moral problem-solving activities and opportunities for students
to apply skills and competences learned
2.4.2 Motivation of teachers for effective results in developing secondary
Motivation according to Nwakpa (2013) is a process of satisfying both the
physical, economic and psychological needs of workers in the work environment. It
is an incentive or an encouragement given to somebody to enable him behaves in a
desired manner (Nwakpa, 2013). In education, motivation is the boosting of the
workers morale to enable them put in the efforts needed to achieve the educational
goals. Koontz (1993) refers motivation to the entire class of drivers desires, needs,
wishes and similar forces. A motivator is something that influences an individuals
behavior. It makes a worker to perform better motivators include; higher salary,

recognition, promotion, punishment etc. School principals are encouraged to

concern themselves with how to motivate their teachers. Thus, they need to
understand and apply the theories of motivating in the practice of education if they
want better performance from their teachers and students. Nigerian teachers really
need to be motivated by all the concerned authorities for them to perform.
The understanding of some theories on motivation by the school principals
will enable the school principals to know when and how to apply some of these
theories to their own advantage.
(1) Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of needs (1954). Maslow identified some of the
basic and social needs of man and classified these needs in an ascending order of
importance as follows physiological needs to include: food, water, clothing, shelter,
sleep and sexual satisfaction. For a worker to perform as expected, the above needs
must be provided.
(2) Security or safety needs. These include free from physical danger, fear of loss of
job, property, food, clothing and shelter. Fear of failure will make one to work very
hard, insecurity can make a worker not to be serious in an organization or place of
work. Thus, principal must ensure that teachers safely needs are provided for an
increased output.


(3) Love and social needs include accepting the teachers, showing them love and
likeness and tolerating them at all times by the school principal so that they can put
in their best in their job.
(4) Ego and esteem needs. Teachers need to achieve high prestige, status and
recognition in their working place and even beyond. Thus, the school principals must
at all costs help teachers to achieve these needs so as to enable them perform their
duties very well.
(5) Need for self-actualization. Maslow regards this as the highest need in the
hierarchy of needs. It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming in
life. So, the principal should provide all the highest position in their profession as
this will make teacher to be more effective in their job. Another good motivation
theory that the school principals need to know and understand is Hertzbergs two
factor theory. Hertzberg identified a - two factor explanation of human motivation.
The first groups of factors listed by Hertzberg were: company policies,
administration, supervision, working condition, personal life, salary, status job,
security. These factors are referred to as hygiene or maintenance. These factors
do not motivate but are necessary as they can bring about dissatisfaction.
In the secondary group, Hertzberg mentioned the needs for achievement,
recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth on the job. These factors


he called motivate or satisfiers. He was of the view that unless the maintenance
needs were met, the motivators or satisfiers would not motivate. Thus, for teachers
to perform effectively, their employer should see that the two factor theory of
Hertzberg is put in practice.
2.4.3 Effectiveness of secondary schools management
Effectiveness is the ability to plan, organize and coordinate many and oftenconflicting social energies in a single organization so adroitly (Adams 1963), cited
in Besong (2001). It implies that, it is the right and duties attached to an individual
irrespective of the gender of the incumbent. Effectiveness is equivalent to
achievement muted by incumbent administrator or principal of secondary school. It
implies that, it is an antecedent of function or roles achievement of the principal. It
could be identified as a plan proposed in advance and accomplished later but within
a stipulated time or duration of school.
Ipaya (1996) cited by Besong (2001) noted in his study of effectiveness, that
effectiveness is a part of function assumed by someone, a set of specific
responsibilities, assumed by a professional in a setting. The implication is that when
a principal maintains high morale discipline and decorum among his staff and also
students, he exhibits a personality of effectiveness worthy of emulation.
Uche (2002) identified effectiveness in a series of his studies related to
effectiveness, that it is a symbol of good administrative style of the incumbent, team

work, morale or motivation of staff, good teaching conducive social climate and
counseling as well as rules and regulations. The principals ability to control and
maintain school facilities, initiates projects e and completes both the new ones and
also those abandoned by his predecessor(s) is exemplary of effectiveness.
Equally, monitoring performance of regular staff meeting, interaction,
encouraging staff participation in decision-making is an evident of effectiveness but
when the principal is all-wise, seems more knowledgeable, there is bound to be a
disparity in the school at such, the staff may not be productive.
A considerable body of research findings is available to support the contention
that in the balance, better qualifications of teachers, would lead to better performance
of students. Goodman (1959), established that there are links between pupils
performance and teacher effectiveness and between performance and classroom
atmosphere. Teachers experience was measured in terms of the number of teachers
in a district with five or more years of employment as a classroom instructor.
Classroom atmosphere was a measure resulting from an observers rating of the
degree to which the teacher attempted to relate the subject matter being considered
to the interest and ability levels of students.


2.4.4 Effects of home supervision on students academic performance in

secondary schools
Literature reviewed revealed that parental involvement in the activities of the
school has a positive impact on students academic achievement and the success of
the school (Halsey, 2004; Christie, 2005). Parental involvement boosts the morale
teachers because of the partnership that will have been established between the
school and the community. The most crucial practice would be school leadership
creating a climate that will attract parents to participate in their childrens learning.
Parents should not only be consulted when there is a fund raising activity, but also
for activities which might not be taken as important. There are a number of things
that parents can assist in their childrens learning.
Recently, Botswana has established Parents, Teachers and Students
Associations (P.T.S.A) as a sign of the stakeholders commitment towards students
achieving the school purpose. The objectives of the association include promote
positive behavior amongst students, monitors students work and encourages costsharing of students tuition. Parents are capable of helping students do homework,
tutoring, supervision of afternoon study periods, coaching sports and motivational
talks. As long as they know that their contribution is recognized and is vital for the
achievement of their children, parents will be more than willing to value their
childrens education. Parents raised children with the hope of making them better

citizens. One of the parents aspirations is to see the children having succeeded in
their schooling. In developing countries where unemployment is rife parents care
about their children academic performance because the status quo is, good results
means better opportunities for more career choices and white collar jobs.
In a collaborative climate where there is a mutual relationship between parents
and teachers, parents are accountable for their childrens homework, provision of
additional funds for students educational trips and school attendance. In Botswana
government has endorsed parental involvement in the education and mandated
schools to form Parent Teachers Associations (P.T.As). In this relationship parents
have agreed to assist government in paying a small amount of money as P.T.A. levy
and share the cost of students tuition. The funds are used for school development
and enhance students learning. Of recent, a new system of association has emerged
in schools called Parent, Children and Teachers Association (P. C. T.A).The main
objectives of the association are to promote positive behavior amongst students and
monitors students work. When parents see that their contribution is recognized their
sense of belonging is enhanced. Once they own the school they share the blame for
a decline in students academic performance. In order to avoid such disappointment
parent show interest in students achievement by conducting daily spot checks on
their work. This ultimately motivates students to be serious with their school work,


hence improve their academic performance. Parents therefore have a major role in
their childrens education.
2.5 Summary and Uniqueness
In this chapter, the researcher reviewed the literature related to the study. In
doing this, the conceptual framework for discipline and indiscipline, prevailing
disciplinary problems in secondary schools were highlighted respectively. The types
of disciplinary problems were listed and discussed. The review focused on drug
abuse, absenteeism, truancy, stealing, fighting, vandalism and exam malpractice. It
also looked at the management and organization of secondary schools in Kaduna
State. The impact of indiscipline among secondary school students in developing
countries like Ghana and Kenya were also reviewed.
Similarly, the chapter looked at a review of motivation of teachers for
effective results in developing secondary school students. It was discovered that
teachers played a major role in determining and shaping the future of prospective
students and they need to be motivated financially, psychologically and socially in
their duties. Likewise, effectiveness of secondary school management was discussed
which calls for effects of home supervision on the academic performance of
secondary school students.


Therefore, having scrolled from the respective scholars above, the researcher
is of the opinion that indiscipline is a common phenomenon prevalent among the
students in secondary schools and the effects are very devastating to students and
the society in general. Thus, the need for this study in Kaduna State is a way of
helping to check indiscipline in our schools and society.
This paper has gone to a large extent to show that Nigerian education is going
through its worse crisis. All that we have discussed in this paper points to the fact
that there is a problem of quality in Nigerian education. The pitiable and deprivable
state of indiscipline in the society all dovetailed into school activities and has
affected the quality of education obtained in Nigerian institutions. The failure rate
and quality doubt hinges on the factors that proliferate disciplinary problems.
In the face of all these, students, parents, teachers, school principals and the
government should devise a means to beat failure. No matter the efforts being made
by Nigerian principals to cub disciplinary problems it remains a mirage unless
principals alike decide to tackle the issue of indiscipline deliberately and sincerely
in pursuit of qualitative education and greater development of the country, the issue
will remain and may worsen with time.



3.1 Introduction
This study is about the prevailing disciplinary problems and their effects on
the academic performance of secondary school students in Kaduna State. This
chapter describes the procedures and methods used in the study. These include the
description of the Research design, Population of the study, Sample size, Sampling
technique, Data collection instruments, Validation of the instruments, Data
collection procedure and Data analysis procedure.
3.2 Research Design
In this study, descriptive survey research design will be used, it is a design in
which information is collected without changing the environment (nothing is
manipulated). It is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the
phenomena to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a
situation (Nageswara, 2014). It is recommended appropriate for the study because it
is based on the opinions, views and perceptions of test subjects or respondents.
Therefore, descriptive research design is chosen to enable the researcher inquire,
discover and ascertain the views, perceptions of the test subjects and details about
the research topic.


3.3 Population of the Study

Ofo (1994) says that the first step in selecting the sample for study is defining
the population. He goes further to say that population in a study is the group of
people or objects the researcher is studying. The term population could be people,
schools or institution, animals, specimens or countries.
Therefore, the population of this study comprise of the entire secondary
school students, principals, teachers/staffs and Ministry of Education officials in
Kaduna State capital, which comprises of a total of 21 public secondary schools in
Kaduna North and South with an estimated population of approximately thirty two
thousand two hundred and fifty six (32,256) students, one hundred and fifty seven
(157) principals and teachers/staffs and sixty seven (67) Ministry of Education
(M.O.E) officials. The group were chosen because of their level of maturity and the
fact that this is the class where discipline is most exhibited.
3.3.1 Sample Size
Ministry of Education officials, the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) design will
be adopted. They (Krejcie and Morgan) observed that as the population increases
the sample size increases at a diminishing rate. To them a population between one
thousand (1000) and one million (1,000, 000), three hundred and eighty six (386)
suffice as sample. Also, following Afolabi (1993) specification that thirty percent

(30%) of a given population is enough for research findings and generalization. The
researcher sampled his population as follows. Out of 32,256 students 9,600 will be
sampled, out of 157 principals, teachers and staffs 47 will be sampled, out of 67
Ministry of Education officials 20 will be sampled.
3.3.2 Sampling Technique
Stratified random sampling is necessarily appropriate for selecting the sample
size of the study. Because the study comprises secondary school students,
principals/teachers and staffs which include both sexes in public secondary schools
in Kaduna State capital.
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
The major instrument to be used for this research is structured questionnaire.
This is in accordance with the recommendation of Dalen (1973) and Sclizetal (1974)
for the use of questionnaire as an instrument for measuring attitudes. They agreed
that questionnaire has administrative and psychological advantages of assessing a
large number of individuals at minimum cost and that it has the possibility of
confidentiality which encourages objective responses.
Therefore, the questionnaire will be structured for response in line with the
objectives, research questions, hypotheses and review of related literature of the
study. It will be classified into sections. Section A will be designed to obtain personal

data of the respondents while other sections will contain researchable items that
would be used to collect information or data on the views or opinions from the
respondents on the prevailing disciplinary problems among secondary school
students and the effects on their academic performance in Kaduna State.
3.5 Validation of the Instrument
The instrument for data collection would be designed by a supervisor and
specialist in the faculty of education Bayero University Kano (B.U.K) for face,
content and construct validation. The scrutiny of the experts includes to ensure
appropriateness of language used in constructs, clarity of statements, suitability of
words applied and adequacy of items. The validators will be asked to check whether
the instruments are capable of answering the research questions for the study. The
comments, observations and criticisms made by the validators would be promptly
adjusted by the researcher.
3.5.1 Reliability of the Instruments
In this study, the reliability of instruments would be determined through pilot
testing study on the prevailing disciplinary problems among secondary school
students and the effects on their academic performance in Kaduna State. This will
be done by administering the questionnaire to principals, teachers and staffs which


would be randomly selected from secondary schools who are not part of the schools
to be sampled.
According to Tuckman (1975) an instrument can be said to be reliable when
the reliability coefficient can be said to be approximated to 1. The reliability
coefficient of the instrument from 0.7 to 1.0 would be considered reliable.
3.6 Data Collection Procedure
The questionnaire will be administered by the researcher through the
assistance of principals and teachers who will help to reach the Ministry of Education
officials at various levels selected for the study. The researcher will visit all the
schools to be sampled with an introductory letter at different dates to administer the
questionnaire to principals, teachers and staffs and to assign the duty of getting the
Ministry of Education officials have the questionnaire administered to them and
retrieved after obtaining response and feedback.
3.7 Data Analysis Procedure
The data will be analyzed using mean (x) scores and stand and deviation in
answering the five research questions for the study. The frequency scores for all the
options from the respondents for a particular item will be determined and its mean
is to be computed.


However, the chi-square sample would be employed to test the hypotheses of the



I, Sadiq Abubakar Said is a postgraduate student in the department of Education,
Bayero University, Kano. I am conducting a research work on Prevailing
Disciplinary Problems Among Secondary Schools and the Effect on their Academic
Performance in Kaduna State. I will appreciate your kind support in answering the
questionnaire on the research topic. It is for academic research purpose only. All
information supplied shall be treated confidentially and for academic purposes.
Thank you for your assistance.


Questionnaire on Prevailing Disciplinary Problems Among Secondary School

Students and the Effect on their Academic Performance in Kaduna State
Personal data for Principals, Teachers, Parent and Students in Kaduna State.
Section 1
Instruction:- Please respond to each item and tick () in the appropriate box.
1. Type of school
a. Boys
( )
b. Girl
( )
2. Designation
a. Principal
( )
b. Teacher
( )
c. Student
( )
d. M. O. E Official
( )
3. Educational qualification
a. N. C. E
( )
b. First Degree
( )
c. Second degree
( )
d. Others
( )
e. Specify....................................
f. Class (for students only) ..................................
4. Years of Teaching experience:
a. 0 5 years
( )
b. 6 10 years
( )
c. 11 15 years
( )
d. 16 20 years
( )
e. 21 years and above
( )
5. Age
a. 26 30 years
( )
b. 31 35 years
( )
c. 35 40 years
( )
d. 41 45 years
( )
e. 46 and above
( )

6. Sex
a. Male
b. Female



Section 2: Indicate your agreement with each of the statement on a 5 point scale by
ticking ( ) in the appropriate column opposite each statement.
Key: SA = Strongly Agree
A = Agree
U = Undecided
D = Disagree
SD = Strongly Disagree
(A). Prevailing Disciplinary problems include:




(1). Poverty is sometimes responsible for truant behavior and

(2). Status of home parents and family background can be a cause for
(3). Fighting occurs as a result of low esteem and feeling of not being
valued or worthy
(4). Destruction of school properties is an act of vandalism resulting
from rebellion.
(5). Exam malpractice involves dishonest act associated with
examination with a view to obtaining unmerited advantage.
(B) Impact of Indiscipline Among Secondary School Students
(1). Indiscipline leads many students to drug intake like cannabis,
cigarette, alcohol,
(2). Indiscipline causes great setback in classroom achievement
(3). Drugs slow down a students ability to think and act normally
which leads to weak power of reasoning.
(4). Student misbehavior makes teaching an unpleasant experience
(5). Indiscipline damages students self-confidence and turn others
into criminals in their formative years



(6). Noise making while the teacher is teaching disrupts learning and
understanding of other students.

(C) Effectiveness Of Secondary School Management

(1). Better qualification of teachers would lead to better performance
of student
(2). Teacher experience has an effect on students performance



(3). Punctuality, roll call and class register activity improves

attendance and academic performance of students.
(4). Student misbehavior makes teaching an unpleasant experience
(5). Indiscipline damages students self-confidence and turn others
into criminals in their formative years
(6). Noise making while the teacher is teaching disturbs learning and
understanding of other students.
(D) Effect Of Home Supervision On Student Academic Performance
(1). Parental involvement boosts teachers morale
(2). Parental involvement in school activities has a positive impact
on students academic achievement and the success of the school.
(3). Constant daily checks on students work by parents ultimately
motivates and improves their academic performance.
(4). Student misbehavior makes teaching an unpleasant experience