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Name: Nisarg Shah

Registration No: 16MES0057


Worksheet-1

Linux Commands:
COMMAND
cal

cat

SYNTAX

DESCRIPTION

cal

It will display calendar of current month.

cal [year]

It will display calendar of specified year.

cal [month] [year]

It will display calendar of specified

cat [filename]

month in specified year.


It will create a file with specified name if
it is not already exists.

cat [file1name] [file2name]

It will create files with specified names if


they do not already exist.

Cd

cd [directory name]

It is used to go into the specified

cd ..

directory.
It is used to come out from the specified

cd ~

directory.
It is used to come out directly from the
specified

directory

to

the

parent

chgrp

chgrp [group name]

directory.
It is used to change the owning group of

chmod

[filename]
chmod xxx [filename]

file.
It is used to change excess permission of

chown [owner] [filename]

particular file for different user groups.


It is used to change ownership of

clear

clear

specified file.
It will clear the terminal.

cp
date

cp [file1name] [file2name]
date

It will copy the content of file1 into file2.


It will show system date, time and year.

chown

COMMAND

SYNTAX

DESCRIPTION

date +%m

It will show current month number of

date +%h

system.
It will show current month name of

date +%m%h

system.
It will show current month number and

date +%r

name of system both.


It will show current time of system.

diff [file1name] [file2name]

It is used to specify that which lines

echo

echo string

differs in specified two files.


It will print the specified string into the

gedit

gedit [filename]

terminal.
It will open the specified file and if there

diff

is no file with specified name than it will


kill

kill [PID]

create it and then it will open it.


It will kill(stop) the process which

man

man [page no] [..]

specified by PID(process id).


It will help to show detail of manual

mkdir [directory name]

pages.
It will create directory with specified

mv

mv [old filename] [new

name if it is not already exsits.


It is used to rename the specified file

ls

filename]
ls

with new name.


It will list the files present in current

mkdir

directory.
ls x

It will list the files present in current


directory column wise.

ls a

It will list all files present in current


directory including hidden files.

COMMAND

SYNTAX
ls l

DESCRIPTION
It will list the files present in current
directory column with all information
when it is created, its size, file type and
excess permission etc.

ps

ps

It will list current running process with 4

pwd

digit process id(PID).


It will show the path of present working

rm

rm [filename or directory

directory.
It will remove the specified file or

uname

name]
uname a

directory.
It will show all the information like OS

uname n

type, network name and kernel name.


It will show name of network.

uname o

It will show type of OS.

uname s

It will show name of kernel.

uptime

It will show the current time and from

wc [filename]

how long system is turn on.


It will count number of words in

whoami

specified file.
It will show information about current

grep

user.
It searches file for specified words or

head

patterns.
It writes the first ten lines of a file to the

less

less

screen.
This command writes the content ofa file

tail

tail

onto the screen a page at a time.


It writes the last ten lines of a file to the

pwd

uptime
wc
whoami
grep
head

screen.

COMMAND
who

who | grep raju

SYNTAX

DESCRIPTION

who
who | wc-l

To see who is on the system.


To find out how many users are logged

who | grep raju

on.
The output of who command is given as
input to the grep command, so that it will
print if particular user name if he is

sleep 10

logon or nothing is printed.


The command sleep waits a given

bc

number of seconds before continuing.


This command is used for basic

bg
jobs

bg
jobs

calculator.
It runs the process in background.
It will helpful to list the jobs that are

chattr
cmp

chattr
cmp

running in the background.


It is used to change the file attributes.
This command compares two files and

sleep
bc

tells you which line numbers are


cut
host

cut

different.
It is used to cut out selected fields of

host

each line of a file.


This command is used to find the ip
address of the given domain name and
also prints the domain name of the given

free

free

ip.
This command displays the information
about the free and used memory on the
system.