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# Tutorial 1

## Solid State Physics

1. What are the polycrystalline solids? Please give one example of this type of solid.
materials are solids that are composed of many crystallites of varying size and
orientation. The variation in direction can be random (called random texture) or directed,
possibly due to growth and processing conditions. Fiber texture is an example of the
latter.
2. Please give the explanation and example of diamond structure and hexagonal closepacked structure.
. an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the facecentered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. necklace
n hexagonal close packing, layers of spheres are packed so that spheres in alternating
layers overlie one another. As in cubic close packing, each sphere is surrounded by 12
other spheres. Zinc, titanium
3. Please determine the miller index of this plane.

Figure 1
4. Give the meaning of ideal crystalline and amorphous solid.
A solid is imagined to be an ideal crystal if the atoms are arranged in such a way that
their positions are exactly periodic in the infinite space.
Or
Built from identical/similar structure units in same orientation.
In an amorphous (non-solid or non-crystalline) material such as common glass, there is
no such long range order.

## In glass, atoms try to make bonds with their nearest

neighbours but there is no well defined direction. As a result, the average distance
between atoms is more or less constant but the directionality is lost. No translation
operation is possible.

5. Sketch and describe the following 3D crystalline structure with one example for each
structure:
(a) Sodium chloride crystal

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt, or halite, is an ionic
compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the
salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. As the
major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.
(b) Zinc blende structure
Zincblende/sphalerite is based on a fcc lattice of anions whereas wurtzite is derived from
an hcp array of anions. In both structures, the cations occupy one of the two types of
tetrahedral holes present. In either structure, the nearest neighbor connections are
similar, but the distances and angles to further neighbors differs. Zincblende has 4
asymmetric units in its unit cell whereas wurtzite has 2.
6. What is Bravais lattice? Discuss it and give three examples of these structures.
All the crystalline 3-dimentional solids belong to 1 of the 7 basic crystal systems, which
comprise 14 different types of unit cells. For 3-D Bravais lattice.
the set of points is given by the lattice vector :
R = n1a + n2b + n3c
7. Describe briefly the concepts of crystal optics and crystal direction.
crystalline planes.
Variation of the other properties of materials (elastic modulus, electrical and thermal
conductivity) with orientation.
Any lattice vector can be written as:
R = n1a + n2b + n3c
The crystal direction is then specified by the three integers [n1n2n3].
Crystal optics is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in crystals, in
which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating.
8. State the similarity and difference between hydrogen bonds and van der Waals bonds
with one example for each bonding.
Van der Waals (VdW) Bonding:

## Exist easily, when no other bonding, but weak (~ 0.2 eV/atom).

One neutral atom/molecule has variation of dipole.
Interaction, two dipoles attraction force
Examples:
Hydrogen Bonding:
H bonds to other atom by covalent bonding.
However, H can bond to other atom if this atom is very electronegative.
Examples:
9. Derive the equation for Bragg's law (2dsin = n ) by considering an incident x-ray
beam interact with the atoms arranged in two parallel planes as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2

and