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ColumbiaRecordsWikipedia

ColumbiaRecords
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ColumbiaRecords(alsoknownsimplyasColumbiaand
stylizedasCOLUMBIA)isanAmericanrecordlabelownedby
SonyMusicEntertainment(SME),asubsidiaryofSony
CorporationofAmerica,Inc.,theUnitedStatesdivisionofSony
Corporation.Itwasfoundedin1887,evolvingfromanearlier
enterprisenamedtheAmericanGraphophoneCompany,the
successortotheVoltaGraphophoneCompany.[1]Columbiais
theoldestsurvivingbrandnameintherecordedsound
business,[2][3][4]beingthesecondmajorrecordcompanyto
producerecordedrecords.[5]ColumbiaRecordswentonto
releaserecordsbyanarrayofnotablesingers,instrumentalists,
andbands.From1961to1990,itsrecordingswerereleased
outsidetheU.S.andCanadabytheCBSRecordslabel(which
wasnamedaftertheColumbiaBroadcastingSystem)before
adoptingtheColumbianameinternationallyin1990.Itisoneof
SonyMusic'sthreeflagshiprecordlabelsalongsideRCA
RecordsandEpicRecords.

ColumbiaRecords

Parent
company

SonyMusicEntertainment (SME)

Founded

1887 (subsidiaryoftheNorthAmerican
PhonographCompanyuntil1894)

Distributor(s) SonyMusicEntertainmentLegacy
Recordings (reissues)
Genre

Various

Until1989,ColumbiaRecordshadnoconnectiontoColumbia
Countryof
UnitedStates
Pictures,whichusedvariousothernamesforrecordlabelsthey
origin
owned,includingColpixRecords,ColgemsRecords,Bell
RecordsandlaterAristaRecords.Rather,asabove,itwas
Location
NewYorkCity,NewYork,United
connectedtoCBS(whichstoodforColumbiaBroadcasting
States
System),abroadcastingmediacompanywhichhadpurchased
Official
columbiarecords.com(http://columb
thecompanyin1938,andhadbeencofoundedin1927by
website
iarecords.com/)
ColumbiaRecordsitself.ThoughAristaRecordswassoldto
BertelsmannMusicGroup(BMG),itwouldlaterbecomea
sisterlabelofColumbiaRecordsthroughitsmutualconnectiontoSonyMusic.BothColumbiaRecordsand
ColumbiaPicturesareconnectedthroughtheirparentcompanySonyCorporationofAmerica,whichistheparent
ofboththemusicandmotionpicturearmsofSonyintheUnitedStates.
ArtistscurrentlysignedtoColumbiaRecordsincludebutarenotlimitedtoAdele,ARRahman,BarbraStreisand,
Beyonc,BringMetheHorizon,BobDylan,BruceSpringsteen,CalvinHarris,CelineDion,DaftPunk,David
Gilmour,EarlSweatshirt,ElectricLightOrchestra,EllaHenderson,HarryStyles,JamesArthur,J.Cole,JuicyJ,
Lavengro,LittleMix,Madeon,MKTO,NineInchNails,OneDirection,PassionPit,PattiSmith,Pharrell
Williams,KennyChesney,RachelPlatten,Russ,theNeighbourhood,TheScript,T.I.,Train,ZHU,Grace
VanderwaalandthecastsofFox'shittelevisionshowsGleeandEmpire.In2012,ColumbiaRecordsgainedthe
highestlabelshareonadultcontemporaryradiointheUS,andwasnamedthenumberoneadultcontemporary
labelthatyear.[6]

Contents
1 History
1.1 Beginnings(18871929)
1.2 Columbiaownershipseparation(19311936)
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1.3 CBStakesover(19381947)
1.4 TheLPrecord(19481959)
1.5 The1950s
1.5.1 Stereo
1.6 The1960s
1.7 The1970s
1.8 The1980sandsaletoSony
1.9 The1990sandtoday
2 Logosandbranding
3 ListofColumbiaRecordsartists
4 Subsidiaries
5 Affiliatedlabels
5.1 AmericanRecordingCompany(ARC)
5.2 ColumbiaLabelGroup(UK)
5.3 AwareRecords
5.4 ColumbiaNashville
6 Recordingstudios
7 Executives
8 Seealso
9 References
10 Furtherreading
11 Externallinks

History
Beginnings(18871929)
TheColumbiaPhonographCompanywasfoundedin1887bystenographer,lawyer
andNewJerseynativeEdwardEaston(18561915)andagroupofinvestors.It
deriveditsnamefromtheDistrictofColumbia,whereitwasheadquartered.[7][8]At
firstithadalocalmonopolyonsalesandserviceofEdisonphonographsand
phonographcylindersinWashington,D.C.,MarylandandDelaware.Aswasthe
customofsomeoftheregionalphonographcompanies,Columbiaproducedmany
commercialcylinderrecordingsofitsown,anditscatalogueofmusicalrecordsin
1891was10pages.
Columbia'stiestoEdisonandtheNorthAmericanPhonographCompanywere
severedin1894withtheNorthAmericanPhonographCompany'sbreakup.
Thereafteritsoldonlyrecordsandphonographsofitsownmanufacture.In1902,
Columbiaintroducedthe"XP"record,amoldedbrownwaxrecord,touseupold
stock.Columbiaintroduced"blackwax"recordsin1903,and,accordingtoTim
Gracyk,continuedtomoldbrownwaxesuntil1904thehighestnumberknownto
Gracykis32601,"Heinie",whichisaduetbyArthurCollinsandByronG.Harlan.
AccordingtoGracyk,themoldedbrownwaxesmayhavebeensoldtoSearsfor
distribution(possiblyunderSears'"Oxford"trademarkforColumbiaproducts).[9]
OriginalhomeofColumbia
inWashington,D.C.,in
1889

Columbiabegansellingdiscrecordsandphonographsinadditiontothecylinder
systemin1901,precededonlybytheir"ToyGraphophone"of1899,whichused
small,verticallycutrecords.Foradecade,Columbiacompetedwithboththe

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EdisonPhonographCompanycylindersandtheVictorTalkingMachineCompanydiscrecordsasoneofthetop
threenamesinAmericanrecordedsound.
Inordertoaddprestigetoitsearlycatalogofartists,ColumbiacontractedanumberofNewYorkMetropolitan
Operastarstomakerecordings(from1903onward).ThesestarsincludedMarcellaSembrich,LillianNordica,
AntonioScottiandEdouarddeReszke,butthetechnicalstandardoftheirrecordingswerenotconsideredtobeas
highastheresultsachievedwithclassicalsingersduringthepreWorldWarIperiodbyVictor,Edison,England's
HisMaster'sVoice(byVictorTalkingMachineCompany)orItaly'sFonotipiaRecords.Afteranabortiveattempt
in1904tomanufacturediscswiththerecordinggroovesstampedintobothsidesofeachdiscnotjustonein
1908Columbiacommencedsuccessfulmassproductionofwhattheycalledtheir"DoubleFaced"discs,the10
inchvarietyinitiallysellingfor65centsapiece.Thefirmalsointroducedtheinternalhorn"Grafonola"to
competewiththeextremelypopular"Victrola"soldbytherivalVictorTalkingMachineCompany.
Duringthisera,Columbiausedthefamous"Magic
Notes"logoapairofsixteenthnotes
(semiquavers)inacirclebothintheUnited
Statesandoverseas(wherethisparticularlogo
wouldneversubstantiallychange).
Columbiastoppedrecordingandmanufacturing
waxcylinderrecordsin1908,afterarrangingto
issuecelluloidcylinderrecordsmadebythe
IndestructibleRecordCompanyofAlbany,NewYork,as"Columbia
IndestructibleRecords".InJuly1912,Columbiadecidedtoconcentrate
exclusivelyondiscrecordsandstoppedmanufacturingcylinder
phonographsalthoughtheycontinuedsellingIndestructible'scylinders
undertheColumbianameforayearortwomore.Columbiawassplitinto
twocompanies,onetomakerecordsandonetomakeplayers.Columbia
PhonographwasmovedtoConnecticut,andEdEastonwentwithit.
EventuallyitwasrenamedtheDictaphoneCorporation.[7]

AColumbiatypeATcylinder
graphophone,firstreleasedin
1898[10]

Inlate1923,Columbiawentintoreceivership.ThecompanywasboughtbyitsEnglish
subsidiary,theColumbiaGraphophoneCompanyin1925andthelabel,recordnumbering
system,andrecordingprocesschanged.(The"NewProcess"[stillacoustic]wasusedon
budgetlabelsuntil1930).SeemoreatAmericanColumbiasinglerecordcataloging
systems.OnFebruary25,1925,Columbiabeganrecordingwiththenewelectricrecording
processlicensedfromWesternElectric.Thenew"Vivatonal"recordssetabenchmarkin
toneandclarityunequaledoncommercialdiscsduringthe"78rpm"era.Thefirst
electricalrecordingsweremadebyArtGillham,thepopular"WhisperingPianist".Ina
secretagreementwithVictor,neithercompanymadethenewrecordingtechnologypublicknowledgeforsome
months,inordernottohurtsalesoftheirexistingacousticallyrecordedcatalogwhileanewelectricallyrecorded
catalogwasbeingcompiled.
In1926,ColumbiaacquiredOkehRecordsanditsgrowingstableofjazzandbluesartists,includingLouis
ArmstrongandClarenceWilliams.Columbiahadalreadybuiltanimpressivecatalogofbluesandjazzartists,
includingBessieSmithintheirhighlysuccessful14000DRaceseries.Columbiaalsohadaverysuccessful
"Hillbilly"series(15000D).In1928,PaulWhiteman,thenation'smostpopularorchestraleader,leftVictorto
recordforColumbia.Thatsameyear,ColumbiaexecutiveFrankBuckleyWalkerpioneeredsomeofthefirst
countrymusicor"hillbilly"genrerecordingswiththeJohnsonCitysessionsinTennessee,includingartistssuchas
ClarenceHortonGreeneandthelegendaryfiddlerandentertainer,"Fiddlin'"CharlieBowman.Hefollowedthat
withareturntoTennesseethenextyear,aswellasrecordingsessionsinothercitiesoftheSouth.1929saw
industrylegendBenSelvinsigningonashousebandleaderandA.&R.director.OtherfavoritesintheVivatonal
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ColumbiadiscbyArtGillhamfrom
themidtwenties

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eraincludedRuthEtting,Paul
Whiteman,FletcherHenderson,
IpanaTroubadours(aSamLanin
group),BenSelvin,andTedLewis.
Columbiakeptusingacoustic
recordingfor"budgetlabel"pop
productwellinto1929onthelabels
Harmony,VelvetTone(bothgeneral
purposelabels)andDiva(sold
exclusivelyatW.T.Grantstores).
1929wastheyearthatColumbia's
olderrivalandformeraffiliate
EdisonRecordsfolded,leaving
Columbiaastheoldestsurviving
recordlabel.

Thelabelofanelectricallyrecorded
ColumbiadiscbyPaulWhiteman

Columbiaownershipseparation(19311936)
In1931,theBritishColumbiaGraphophoneCompany(itselforiginallyasubsidiaryofAmericanColumbia
Records,thentobecomeindependent,actuallywentontopurchaseitsformerparent,AmericanColumbia,inlate
1929)mergedwiththeGramophoneCompanytoformElectric&MusicalIndustriesLtd.(EMI).EMIwasforced
tosellitsAmericanColumbiaoperations(becauseofantitrustconcerns)totheGrigsbyGrunowCompany,
makersoftheMajesticRadio.ButMajesticsoonfellonhardtimes.Anabortiveattemptin1932(aroundthesame
timethatVictorwasexperimentingwithits3313"programtranscriptions")wasthe"LongerPlayingRecord",a
finergrooved10"78with4:30to5:00playingtimeperside.Columbiaissuedabouteightofthese(inthe18000D
series),aswellasashortlivedseriesofdoublegrooved"LongerPlayingRecord"sonitsClarionRecords,
HarmonyandVelvetTonelabels.Alloftheseexperiments(andindeedtheClarion,HarmonyandVelvetTone
labels)werediscontinuedbymid1932.
AlongerlivedmarketingploywastheColumbia"RoyalBlueRecord,"abrilliantbluelaminatedproductwith
matchinglabel.RoyalBlueissues,madefromlate1932through1935,areparticularlypopularwithcollectorsfor
theirrarityandmusicalinterest.TheC.P.MacGregorCompany,anindependentrecordingstudioinOakland,
California,didColumbia'spressingsforsalewestoftheRockiesandcontinuedusingtheRoyalBluematerialfor
theseuntilaboutmid1936.Itwasalsousedfortheirownradioonlymusiclibrary.
WiththeGreatDepression'stightenedeconomicstrangleholdonthecountry,inadaywhenthephonographitself
hadbecomeapassluxury,nothingslowedColumbia'sdecline.Itwasstillproducingsomeofthemostremarkable
recordsoftheday,especiallyonsessionsproducedbyJohnHammondandfinancedbyEMIforoverseasrelease.
GrigsbyGrunowwentunderin1934andwasforcedtosellColumbiaforamere$70,000totheAmericanRecord
Corporation(ARC).[11]ThiscombinealreadyincludedBrunswickasitspremiumlabelsoColumbiawasrelegated
toslowersellerssuchastheHawaiianmusicofAndyIona,theIrvingMillsstableofartistsandsongsandthestill
unknownBennyGoodman.Bylate1936,popreleaseswerediscontinued,leavingthelabelessentiallydefunct.
In1935,HerbertM.Greenspon,an18yearoldshippingclerk,ledacommitteetoorganizethefirsttradeunion
shopatthemainmanufacturingfactoryinBridgeport,Connecticut.ElectedaspresidentoftheCongressof
IndustrialUnions(CIO)local,GreensponnegotiatedthefirstcontractbetweenfactoryworkersandColumbia
management.InacareerwithColumbiathatlasted30years,Greensponretiredafterachievingthepositionof
executivevicepresidentofthecompany.TheformerColumbiaRecordsfactoryinBridgeport(whichclosedin
1964)[12]hasbeenconvertedintoanapartmentbuildingcalledColumbiaTowers.[13]

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Assoutherngospeldeveloped,Columbiahadastutelysoughttorecordtheartistsassociatedwiththataspiring
genreforexample,ColumbiawastheonlycompanytorecordCharlesDavisTillman.Mostfortuitouslyfor
ColumbiainitsDepressionErafinancialwoes,in1936thecompanyenteredintoanexclusiverecordingcontract
withtheChuckWagonGang,asymbioticrelationshipwhichcontinuedintothe1970s.Asignaturegroupof
southerngospel,theChuckWagonGangbecameColumbia'sbestsellerswithatleast37millionrecords,[14]many
ofthemthroughtheaegisoftheMullSingingConventionoftheAirsponsoredonradio(andlatertelevision)by
southerngospelbroadcasterJ.BazzelMull(19142006).

CBStakesover(19381947)
In1938ARC,includingtheColumbialabelintheUSA,wasboughtbyWilliamS.Paley
oftheColumbiaBroadcastingSystemforUS$750,000.[15](ColumbiaRecordshad
originallycofoundedCBSin1927alongwithNewYorktalentagentArthurJudson,but
sooncashedoutofthepartnershipleavingonlythenamePaleyacquiredthefledgling
radionetworkin1928.)CBSrevivedtheColumbialabelinplaceofBrunswickandthe
Columbia"notesand
OkehlabelinplaceofVocalion.CBSrenamedthecompanyColumbiaRecording
mic"logo
Corporation[16]andretainedcontrolofallofARC'spastmasters,butinacomplicated
move,thepre1931BrunswickandVocalionmasters,aswellastrademarksofBrunswick
andVocalion,revertedtoWarnerBros.(whohadleasedtheirwholerecordingoperationtoARCinearly1932)and
WarnerssoldthelottoDeccaRecordsin1941.[17]
TheColumbiatrademarkfromthispointuntilthelate1950swastwooverlappingcircleswiththeMagicNotesin
theleftcircleandaCBSmicrophoneintherightcircle.TheRoyalBluelabelsnowdisappearedinfavorofadeep
red,whichcausedRCAVictortoclaiminfringementonitsRedSealtrademark(RCAlostthecase).Theblue
ColumbialabelwaskeptforitsclassicalmusicColumbiaMasterworksRecordslineuntilitwaslaterchangedtoa
greenlabelbeforeswitchingtoagraylabelinthelate1950s,andthentothebronzethatisfamiliartoownersofits
classicalandBroadwayalbums.ColumbiaPhonographCompanyofCanadadidnotsurvivetheGreatDepression,
soCBSmadeadistributiondealwithSpartonRecordsin1939toreleaseColumbiarecordsinCanadaunderthe
Columbianame.
Duringthe1940sColumbiahadacontractwithFrankSinatra.SinatrahelpedboostColumbiainrevenue.Sinatra
recordedover200songswithColumbiawhichincludehismostpopularsongsfromhisearlyyears.Otherpopular
artistsonColumbiaincludedBennyGoodman(signedfromRCAVictor),CountBasie,JimmieLunceford(both
signedfromDecca),EddyDuchin,RayNoble(bothmovedtoColumbiafromBrunswick),KateSmith,Mildred
Bailey,andWillBradley.
In1947,CBSfoundeditsMexicanrecordcompany,DiscosColumbiadeMexico.[12]1948alsosawthefirst
classicalLPNathanMilstein'srecordingoftheMendelssohnViolinConcerto.Columbia's33rpmformatquickly
spelledthedeathoftheclassical78rpmrecordandforthefirsttimegaveColumbiaacommandingleadoverRCA
VictorRedSeal.[18][19]

TheLPrecord(19481959)
Columbia'spresidentEdwardWallerstein,instrumentalinsteeringPaleytotheARCpurchase,atthistimesethis
talentstothegoal(ashesawit)ofhearinganentiremovementofasymphonyononesideofanalbum.Ward
BotsfordwritingfortheTwentyFifthAnniversaryIssueofHighFidelityMagazinerelates,"Hewasnoinventor
hewassimplyamanwhoseizedanideawhosetimewasripeandbegged,ordered,andcajoledathousandmen
intobringingintobeingthenowacceptedmediumoftherecordbusiness."DespiteWallerstein'sstormytenure,in
1948ColumbiaintroducedtheLongPlaying"microgroove"LPrecordformat(sometimeswritten"Lp"inearly
advertisements),whichrotatedat33revolutionsperminute,tobethestandardforthegramophonerecordfor
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halfacentury.CBSresearchdirectorDr.PeterGoldmarkplayedamanagerialroleinthecollaborativeeffort,but
WallersteincreditsengineerWilliamSavorywiththetechnicalprowessthatbroughtthelongplayingdisctothe
public.Bytheearly1940s,Columbiahadbeenexperimentingwithhigherfidelityrecordings,aswellaslonger
masters,whichpavedthewayforthesuccessfulreleaseoftheLPsin1948.Onesuchrecordthathelpedsetanew
standardformusiclistenerswasthe10"LPreissueofTheVoiceofFrankSinatra,originallyreleasedonMarch4,
1946asanalbumoffour78rpmrecords,whichwasthefirstpopalbumissuedinthenewLPformat.Sinatrawas
arguablyColumbia'shottestcommodityandhisartisticvisioncombinedwiththedirectionColumbiaweretaking
themediumofmusic,bothpopularandclassic,werewellsuited.TheVoiceofFrankSinatrawasalsoconsidered
tobethefirstgenuineconceptalbum.Sincetheterm"LP"hascometorefertothe12inch3313rpmvinyldisk,
thefirstLPistheMendelssohnViolinConcertoinEminorplayedbyNathanMilsteinwithBrunoWalter
conductingtheNewYorkPhilharmonic(thencalledthePhilharmonicSymphonyOrchestraofNewYork),
ColumbiaML4001,foundintheColumbiaRecordCatalogfor1949,publishedinJuly1948.Theother"LP's"
listedinthecatalogwereinthe10inchformatstartingwithML2001forthelightclassics,CL6001forpopular
songsandJL8001forchildren'srecords.[20]TheLibraryofCongress(WashingtonDC)nowholdstheColumbia
RecordsPaperworkArchivewhichshowstheLabelorderforML4001beingwrittenonMarch1,1948.Onecan
inferthatColumbiawaspressingthefirstLPsfordistributiontotheirdealersforatleast3monthspriortothe
introductionoftheLPinJune1948.[21]Thecatalognumberingsystemhashadminorchangeseversince.
Columbia'sLPswereparticularlywellsuitedtoclassicalmusic'slongerpieces,sosomeoftheearlyalbums
featuredsuchartistsasEugeneOrmandyandthePhiladelphiaOrchestra,BrunoWalterandtheNewYork
PhilharmonicOrchestra,andSirThomasBeechamandtheRoyalPhilharmonicOrchestra.Thesuccessofthese
recordingseventuallypersuadedCapitolRecordstobeginreleasingLPsin1949.RCAVictorbeganreleasingLPs
in1950,quicklyfollowedbyothermajorAmericanlabels.DeccaRecordsintheU.K.wasthefirsttoreleaseLPs
inEurope,beginningin1949.
An"originalcastrecording"ofRodgers&Hammerstein'sSouthPacificwithEzioPinzaandMaryMartinwas
recordedin1949.BothconventionalmetalmastersandtapewereusedinthesessionsinNewYorkCity.Forsome
reason,thetapedversionwasnotuseduntilSonyreleaseditaspartofasetofCDsdevotedtoColumbia's
Broadwayalbums.[22]Overtheyears,ColumbiajoinedDeccaandRCAVictorinspecializinginalbumsdevotedto
Broadwaymusicalswithmembersoftheoriginalcasts.Inthe1950s,ColumbiaalsobeganreleasingLPsdrawn
fromthesoundtracksofpopularfilms.
ManyalbumcoversputtogetherbyColumbiaandtheothermajorlabelswereputtogetherusingonepieceof
cardboard(foldedinhalf)andtwopaper"slicks,"oneforthefrontandonefortheback.Thefrontslickbended
aroundthetop,bottom,andleftsides(therightsideisopenfortherecordtobeinsertedintothecover)andglued
thetwohalvesofcardboardtogetheratthetopandbottom.Thebackslickispastedovertheedgesofthepastedon
frontslicktomakeitappearthatthealbumcoverisonecontinuouspiece.
Columbiadiscoveredthatprintingtwofrontcoverslicks,oneformonoandoneforstereo,wasinefficientand
thereforeneedlesslycostly.Startinginthesummerof1959withsomeofthealbumsreleasedinAugust,theywent
tothe"pasteover"frontslick,whichhadthestereoinformationprintedonthetopandthemonoinformation
printedonthebottom.Forstereoissues,theymovedthefrontslickdownsothestereoinformationwasshowingat
thetop,andthemonoinformationwasbentaroundthebottomtothebackand"pastedover"bythebackslick.
Conversely,foramonoalbum,theymovedtheslickupsothemonoinformationshowedatthebottom,andthe
stereoinformationwaspastedover.

The1950s

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In1951,ColumbiaUSAbegan
issuingrecordsinthe45rpmformat
RCAhadintroducedtwoyears
earlier.[23]Alsoin1951,Ted
WallersteinretiredasColumbia
Recordschairman[24]also,
ColumbiaUSAsevereditsdecades
longdistributionarrangementwith
EMIandsignedadistributiondeal
withPhilipsRecordstomarket
ColumbiarecordingsoutsideNorth
America.[25]EMIcontinuedto
distributeOkehandlaterEpiclabel
Columbiausedthislabelforits45
recordingsuntil1968.EMIalso
r.p.m.recordsfrom1951until1958.
continuedtodistributeColumbia
recordingsinAustraliaandNew
Zealand.AmericanColumbiawasnothappywithEMI'sreluctanceto
introducelongplayingrecords.[26]

Transitional1955promo45r.p.m.
labelshowingboththeold"notesand
mike"andnew"walkingeye"logos

Columbiabecamethemostsuccessfulnonrockrecordcompanyinthe1950swhenitluredimpresarioMitch
MillerawayfromtheMercurylabel(Columbiaremainedlargelyuninterestedintheteenagerockmarketuntilthe
early1960s,despiteahandfulofcrossoverhits).MillerquicklysignedonMercury'sbiggestartistatthetime,
FrankieLaine,anddiscoveredseveralofthedecade'sbiggestrecordingstarsincludingTonyBennett,Jimmy
Boyd,GuyMitchell,JohnnieRay,TheFourLads,RosemaryClooney,RayConniffandJohnnyMathis.Healso
oversawmanyoftheearlysinglesofthelabel'stopfemalerecordingstarofthedecade,DorisDay.In1953,
ColumbiaformedanewsubsidiarylabelEpicRecords.[27]1954sawColumbiaenditsdistributionarrangement
withSpartonRecordsandformColumbiaRecordsofCanada.[28]Despitefavoringacountrymusicgenre,
Columbiabid$15,000forElvisPresley'scontractfromSunRecordsin1955.[29]Millermadenosecretofthefact
thathewasnotafanofrockmusicandwassavedfromhavingtodealwithitwhenPresley'smanager,Colonel
TomParker,turneddowntheiroffer(PresleyendedupsigningwithColumbia'snowsisterlabelRCAVictor).[29]
However,ColumbiadidsigntwoSunartistsin1958:JohnnyCashandCarlPerkins.[29]
With1954,ColumbiaUSAdecisivelybrokewithitspastwhenitintroduceditsnew,moderniststyle"Walking
Eye"logo,[17]designedbyColumbia'sartdirectorS.NeilFujita.Thislogoactuallydepictsastylus(thelegs)ona
record(theeye)however,the"eye"alsosubtlyreferstoCBS'smainbusinessintelevision,andthatdivision's
iconicEyelogo.Columbiacontinuedtousethe"notesandmike"logoonrecordlabelsandevenusedapromo
labelshowingbothlogosuntilthe"notesandmike"wasphasedout(alongwiththe78intheUS)in1958.In
Canada,Columbia78swerepressedwiththe"WalkingEye"logoin1958.TheoriginalWalkingEyewastalland
soliditwasmodifiedin1961[30]tothefamiliaronestillusedtoday(picturedonthispage),despitethefactthatthe
WalkingEyewasnotusedduringmostofthe1990s.
ColumbiachangeddistributorsinAustraliaandNewZealandin1956whentheAustralianRecordCompany
pickedupdistributionofU.S.ColumbiaproducttoreplacetheCapitolRecordsproductwhichARClostwhen
EMIboughtCapitol.AsEMIownedtheColumbiatrademarkatthattime,theU.S.Columbiamaterialwasissued
inAustraliaandNewZealandontheCBSCoronetlabel.
In1956,ColumbiajazzproducerGeorgeAvakiansignedMilesDavistothelabel.In1958,Davis'ssextetreleased
Milestones,aninfluentialalbumwhichexploredthetechniquesofmodaljazz.In1959,Davis'ssextetreleased
KindofBlue,analbumwhichhasremainedextremelypopularandinfluential.In2003,itappearedasnumber12
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inRollingStone'slistofthe"500GreatestAlbumsOfAllTime".[31]
Stereo
AlthoughColumbiabeganrecordinginstereoin1956,stereoLPsdidnotbegintobemanufactureduntil1958.
OneofColumbia'sfirststereoreleaseswasanabridgedandrestructuredperformanceofHandel'sMessiahbythe
NewYorkPhilharmonicandtheWestminsterChoirconductedbyLeonardBernstein(recordedonDecember31,
1956,on1/2inchtape,usinganAmpex3003machine).BernsteincombinedtheNativityandResurrection
sections,andendedtheperformancewiththedeathofChrist.AswithRCAVictor,mostoftheearlystereo
recordingswereofclassicalartists,includingtheNewYorkPhilharmonicOrchestraconductedbyBrunoWalter,
DimitriMitropoulos,andLeonardBernstein,andthePhiladelphiaOrchestraconductedbyEugeneOrmandy,who
alsorecordedanabridgedMessiahforColumbia.SomesessionsweremadewiththeColumbiaSymphony
Orchestra,anensembledrawnfromleadingNewYorkmusicians,whichhadfirstmaderecordingswithSir
ThomasBeechamin1949inColumbia'sfamousNewYorkCitystudios.GeorgeSzellandtheClevelandOrchestra
recordedmostlyforEpic.WhenEpicdroppedclassicalmusic,therosterandcataloguewasmovedtoColumbia
MasterworksRecords.
Columbiareleaseditsfirstpopstereoalbumsinthesummerof1958.Allofthefirstdozenorsowerestereo
versionsofalbumsalreadyavailableinmono.Itwasn'tuntilSeptember,1958,thatColumbiastartedsimultaneous
mono/stereoreleases.
Asfarasthecatalognumberingsystemwent,therewasnocorrelationbetweenmonoandstereoversionsforthe
firstfewyears.ColumbiastartedanewCS8000seriesforthestereoreleases,andfiguringthestereoreleasesas
somesortofspecialtynicherecords,didn'tbothertolinkthemonoandstereonumbersfortwoyears.Finally,in
1960,thestereoseriesjumpedfrom8300to8310tomatchtheLambert,Hendricks&RossalbumissuedasCL
1510.Fromthatpoint,thestereonumberswereexactly6800higherthanthemono,ortoputitsimply,thelasttwo
digitsintherespectivecatalogseries'matched

The1960s
SeealsoCBSRecordsInternational
In1961,CBSendeditsarrangementwithPhilipsRecordsandformeditsown
internationalorganization,CBSRecords,in1962,whichreleasedColumbiarecordings
outsidetheUSAandCanadaontheCBSlabel(until1964marketedbyPhilipsin
Britain).[12]Therecordingscouldnotbereleasedunderthe"ColumbiaRecords"name
becauseEMIoperatedaseparaterecordlabelbythatnameoutsideNorthAmerica.(This
wastheresultofthelegalmaneuverswhichhadledtothecreationofEMIintheearly
1930s.)
Columbia'sMexicanunit,DiscosColumbia,wasrenamedDiscosCBS.[12]

CBSRecordslogo
outsideoftheUnited
States

WiththeformationofCBSRecordsInternational,itstartedestablishingitsown
distributionintheearly1960sbeginninginAustralia.In1960CBStookoverits
distributorinAustraliaandNewZealand,theAustralianRecordCompany(foundedin1936)includingCoronet
Records,oneoftheleadingAustralianindependentrecordinganddistributioncompaniesoftheday.TheCBS
CoronetlabelwasreplacedbytheCBSlabelwiththe'walkingeye'logoin1963.[32]ARCcontinuedtradingunder
thatnameuntilthelate1970swhenitformallychangeditsbusinessnametoCBSAustralia.

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In1962,ColumbiajoinedinthefolkmusicgenrewhenitreleasedthedebutalbumofTheNewChristyMinstrels,
andCBSproducerJohnHammondsignedBobDylanandreleasedhiseponymousdebutalbum.DionDiMucci
wasthefirstmajorrockstartosignwithColumbiain1963,producingseveralhitrecords.
InSeptember1964,CBSestablisheditsownBritishdistributionbypurchasingtheindependentOriolelabel,
pressingplantandrecordingstudio(aswellasitssoldonlyinWoolworth'sEmbassycoverversionlabel).[33]The
acquisitiongaveColumbiaanditssisterlabelsaBritishmanufacturingarm,recordingstudio,andovertimeits
ownrosterofBritishrecordingartistsduringtheBritishInvasionsuchasChad&JeremyandTheTremeloes.
MitchMillerleftColumbiain1965,[34]andthecompanyventuredfurtherintotheemergingrockculturefieldby
signingPaulRevereandtheRaidersandTheByrds.
FollowingtheappointmentofCliveDavisaspresidentin1967theColumbialabelbecamemoreofarockmusic
label,thanksmainlytoDavis'sfortuitousdecisiontoattendtheMontereyInternationalPopFestival,wherehe
spottedandsignedseveralleadingactsincludingJanisJoplin.Joplinledthewayforseveralgenerationsoffemale
rockandrollers.However,Columbia/CBSstillhadahandintraditionalpopandjazzandoneofitskey
acquisitionsduringthisperiodwasBarbraStreisand.ShereleasedherfirstsoloalbumonColumbiain1963and
remainswiththelabeltothisday.
PerhapsthemostcommerciallysuccessfulColumbiapopactofthisperiodwasSimon&Garfunkel.Thegroup
brokethroughin1965whenCBSproducerTomWilsonaddeddrumsandbasstotheduo'srecordingof"The
SoundofSilence"withouttheirknowledgeorapproval.Thedramaticsuccessofthesongusheredinthefolkrock
boomofthemid1960s.SimonandGarfunkel'sfinalstudioalbum,BridgeOverTroubledWaterreachednumber
oneintheUSalbumchartsinJanuary1970andbecameoneofthemostsuccessfulalbumsofalltime.[35]
Overthecourseofthe1960s,BobDylanachievedaprominentpositioninColumbia.Hisearlyfolksongswere
recordedbymanyactsandbecamehitsforPeter,Paul&MaryandTheTurtles.Someofthesecoverversions
becamethefoundationofthesocalledfolkrockgenre.TheByrdsachievedtheirpopbreakthroughwithaversion
ofDylan's"Mr.TambourineMan".
In1965,Dylan'scontroversialdecisionto'goelectric'andworkwithrockmusiciansdividedhisaudiencebut
catapultedhimtogreatercommercialsuccesswithhis1965hitsingle"LikeaRollingStone".Followinghis
withdrawalfromtouringin1966,DylanrecordedalargegroupofsongswithhisbackinggroupTheBandwhich
reachedotherartistsas'demorecordings'.TheseresultedinhitsbyManfredMann("TheMightyQuinn")and
BrianAuger,JulieDriscoll&Trinity("ThisWheel'sOnFire").Dylan'slate1960salbumsJohnWesleyHarding
andNashvilleSkylinebecamecornerstonerecordingsoftheemergentcountryrockgenreandinfluencedThe
ByrdsandTheFlyingBurritoBrothers.
MilesDavis'slate1960srecordings,InASilentWayandBitchesBrew,pioneeredanewfusionofjazzandrock
music.[36]

The1970s
InSeptember1970,undertheguidanceofCliveDavis,ColumbiaRecordsenteredtheWestCoastrockmarket
withavengeance,bothopeningastateoftheartrecordingstudio(CBSrecordingstudio,827FolsomSt,San
Francisco,latertheAutomatt)andestablishinganA&RheadandofficeinSanFranciscoatFisherman'sWharf,
headedbyexNilsLofgrenandRoyBuchananbandmate,MonumentrecordsartistandproducerGeorgeDaly.The
recordingstudiooperatedunderCBSuntil1978.[37]

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Duringtheearly1970s,Columbiabeganrecordinginafourchannelprocesscalledquadraphonic,usingthe"SQ"
(StereoQuadraphonic)standardwhichusedanelectronicencodingprocessthatcouldbedecodedbyspecial
amplifiersandthenplayedthroughfourspeakers,witheachspeakerplacedinthecornerofaroom.Remarkably,
RCAcounteredwithanotherquadraphonicprocesswhichrequiredaspecialcartridgetoplaythe"discrete"
recordingsforfourchannelplayback.BothColumbiaandRCA'squadraphonicrecordscouldbeplayedon
conventionalstereoequipment.AlthoughtheColumbiaprocessrequiredlessequipmentandwasquiteeffective,
manywereconfusedbythecompetingsystemsandsalesofbothColumbia'smatrixrecordingsandRCA'sdiscrete
recordingsweredisappointing.Afewothercompaniesalsoissuedsomematrixrecordingsforafewyears.
Quadraphonicrecordingwasusedbybothclassicalartists,includingLeonardBernsteinandPierreBoulez,and
popularartistssuchasElectricLightOrchestra,BillyJoel,PinkFloyd,JohnnyCash,BarbraStreisand,Carlos
Santana,HerbieHancock,TheClashandBlueysterCult.Columbiaevenreleasedasoundtrackalbumofthe
movieversionofFunnyGirlinquadraphonic.Manyoftheserecordingswerelaterremasteredandreleasedin
DolbysurroundsoundonCD.
In1976,ColumbiaRecordsofCanadawasrenamedCBSRecordsCanadaLtd.[38]TheColumbialabelcontinued
tobeusedbyCBSCanada,buttheCBSlabelwasintroducedforFrenchlanguagerecordings.OnMay5,1979,
ColumbiaMasterworksbegandigitalrecordinginarecordingsessionofStravinsky'sPetrouchkabytheNewYork
PhilharmonicOrchestra,conductedbyZubinMehta,inNewYork(using3M's32channelmultitrackdigital
recorder).

The1980sandsaletoSony
ThestructureofUSColumbiaremainedthesameuntil1980,whenitspunofftheclassical/Broadwayunit,
ColumbiaMasterworksRecords,intoaseparateimprint,CBSMasterworksRecords(nowSonyClassical).
In1988,theCBSRecordsGroup,includingtheColumbiaRecordsunit,wasacquiredbySony,whichre
christenedtheparentdivisionSonyMusicEntertainmentin1991.AsSonyonlyhadatemporarylicenseonthe
CBSRecordsname,itthenacquiredtherightstotheColumbiatrademarks(ColumbiaGraphophone)outsidethe
U.S.,Canada,Spain(trademarkownedbyBMG)andJapan(NipponColumbia)fromEMI,whichgenerallyhad
notbeenusedbythemsincetheearly1970s.TheCBSRecordslabelwasofficiallyrenamedColumbiaRecordson
January1,1991worldwideexceptSpain(whereSonyacquiredtherightsby2004[39])andJapan.[40]CBS
MasterworksRecordswasrenamedSonyClassicalRecords.InDecember2006,CBSCorporationrevivedthe
CBSRecordsnameforanewminorlabelcloselylinkedwithitstelevisionproperties(coincidentally,thenewCBS
RecordsiscurrentlydistributedbyanotherSonyMusicdivision,REDDistribution).

The1990sandtoday
ColumbiaRecordsremainsapremiersubsidiarylabelofSonyMusicEntertainment.Thelabelisheadedby
chairmanRobStringer,alongwithexecutivevicepresidentandgeneralmanagerJoelKlaiman,whojoinedthe
labelinDecember2012.[41]In2009,duringthereconsolidationofSonyMusic,Columbiawaspartneredwithits
EpicRecordssistertoformtheColumbia/EpicLabelGroup[42][43]underwhichitoperatedasanimprint.InJuly
2011,aspartoffurthercorporaterestructuring,EpicwassplitfromtheColumbia/EpicGroupasEpictookin
multipleartistsfromJiveRecords.[44]
AsofMarch2013,ColumbiaRecordsishometo90artists.[45]

Logosandbranding

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TheacquisitionofrightstotheColumbiatrademarksbyEMI(includingthe"MagicNotes"logo)presentedthe
companywithadilemmaofwhichlogotouse.Formuchofthe1990s,Columbiareleaseditsalbumswithouta
logo,justthe"COLUMBIA"wordmarkintheBodoniClassicBoldtypeface.[46]Columbiaexperimentedwith
bringingbackthe"notesandmike"logobutwithouttheCBSmarkonthemicrophone.Thatlogoiscurrentlyused
inthe"ColumbiaJazz"seriesofjazzreleasesandreissues.[47]Amodified"MagicNotes"logoisfoundonthelogo
forSonyClassical.Inmidtolate1999,itwaseventuallydecidedthatthe"WalkingEye"(previouslytheCBS
RecordslogooutsideNorthAmerica)wouldbeColumbia'slogo,withtheretainedColumbiawordmarkdesign,
throughouttheworldexceptinJapanwhereColumbiaMusicEntertainmenthastherightstotheColumbia
trademarktothisdayandcontinuestousethe"MagicNotes"logo.InJapan,CBS/SonyRecordswasrenamed
SonyRecordsandcontinuestousethe"WalkingEye"logo.

ListofColumbiaRecordsartists
AsofOctober2012,therewere85recordingartistssignedtoColumbiaRecords,[48]makingitthelargestofthe
threeflagshiplabelsownedbySonyMusic(followedbyRCARecordswith78artistsandEpicRecordswith43
artists).

Subsidiaries
KemosabeRecords
SmallGiantRecords

Affiliatedlabels
AmericanRecordingCompany(ARC)
InFebruary1979MauriceWhite,foundingmemberoftheR&BgroupEarth,Wind&Fire,relaunchedthe
AmericanRecordingCompany(ARC).InadditiontoWhite'sEarth,Wind&Fire,theColumbiaRecords
distributedlabelartistrosterincludedsuccessfulR&BandpopsingerDenieceWilliams,jazzfusiongroup
WeatherReport,andR&BtriotheEmotions.Thelabel'sfinalreleasewasin1982.

ColumbiaLabelGroup(UK)
InJanuary2006,SonyBMGUKsplititsfrontlineoperationsintotwoseparatelabels.RCALabelGroup,mainly
dealingwithPopandR&BandColumbiaLabelGroup,mainlydealingwithRock,DanceandAlternativemusic.
MikeSmithistheManagingDirectorofColumbiaLabelGroup,IanDuttisMarketingDirectorandAlisonDonald
isDirectorofA&R.

AwareRecords
In1997,ColumbiamadeanaffiliationwithunsignedartistpromotionlabelAwareRecordstodistributeAware's
artists'music.Throughthisventure,Columbiahashadsuccessfindinghighlysuccessfulartists.In2002,Columbia
andAwareacceptedtheoptiontocontinuethisrelationship.

ColumbiaNashville

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In2007,ColumbiaformedColumbiaNashvilleandispartofSonyMusicNashville.ThisgaveColumbia
NashvillecompleteautonomyandmanagerialseparationfromColumbiainNewYorkCity.Columbiahadgiven
itscountrymusicdepartmentsemiautonomyformanyyearsandthroughthe1950s,hada20000seriescatalogfor
countrymusicsingleswhiletherestofColumbia'soutputofsingleshada30000then40000seriescatalognumber.

Recordingstudios
WoolworthBuildingStudio
In1913,ColumbiamovedintotheWoolworthBuildinginNewYorkCity[49]andhouseditsfirstrecordingstudio
there.In1917,Columbiausedthisstudiotomakeoneoftheearliestjazzrecords,bytheOriginalDixielandJass
Band.[50][51]
Columbia30thStreetStudio
InNewYorkCity,ColumbiaRecordshadsomeofthemosthighlyrespectedsoundrecordingstudios,including
theColumbia30thStreetStudioat207East30thStreet("StudioC"and"StudioD"),theCBSStudioBuildingat
49East52ndStreet("StudioB"onthesecondfloorand"StudioE"onthesixthfloor),andoneoftheirearliest
recordingstudios,"StudioA"at799SeventhAvenuenear52ndStreet.[52]
TheColumbia30thStreetStudiowasconsideredbysomeinthemusicindustrytobethebestsoundingroominits
timeandothersconsiderittohavebeenthegreatestrecordingstudioinhistory.[52]
LiederkranzHallStudio
ColumbiaalsohadthehighlyrespectedLiederkranzHall,at111East58thStreetbetweenParkandLexington
Avenues,inNewYorkCity,abuildingbuiltbyandformerlybelongingtoaGermanculturalandmusicalsociety,
TheLiederkranzSociety,andusedasarecordingstudio(Victoralsousedthishallasarecordingstudiointhelate
1920s).[52][53][54][55]TheproducerMortyPalitzhadbeeninstrumentalinconvincingColumbiaRecordstobeginto
usetheLiederkranzHallstudioforrecordingmusic,additionallyconvincingtheconductorAndreKostelanetzto
makesomeofthefirstrecordingsinLiederkranzHallwhichuntilthenhadonlybeenusedforCBSSymphony
radioshows.[56]Inthelate1940s,thelargeLiederkranzHallspacewasphysicallyrearrangedtomakeroomfor
televisionstudios.[52][57]

Executives
RobStringerChairman
JoelKlaimanExecutivevicepresidentandgeneralmanager

Seealso
RCARecords
EpicRecords
SonyMusicEntertainment
SonyBMG
AlexSteinweiss,thelabel'sArtDirectorfrom1938to1943,inventoroftheillustratedalbumcoverandthe
LPsleeve
JimFlora,successortoAlexSteinweissandlegendaryillustratorforthelabelduringthe1940s
Listofrecordlabels
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GraphophoneAndGrafonola.html).Intertique.comwebsite,2007.Retrieved19December2009.
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20130228.
4."125YearsofColumbiaRecordsAnInteractiveTimeline".Retrieved8November2016.
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6."MediabaseYearendEdition2012"(PDF).Mediabase.ClearCommunications,Inc.2012.Retrieved8February2014.
7."EdwardEaston".IEEE.Retrieved22January2014.
8.Bilton,Lynn(1998)."Hail,Columbia:AfreshbookatlastgivesEdwardEastonandhisGraphophonecompanytheir
due".Retrieved22January2014.
9.Gracyk,Tim(19041011)."TimGracyk'sPhonographs,Singers,andOldRecordsHowLateDidColumbiaUse
BrownWax?".Gracyk.com.Retrieved20091231.
10.Hazelcorn,Howard(1976).ACollector'sGuidetotheColumbiaSpringWoundCylinderGraphophone(1ed.).Antique
PhonographMonthly.pp.10,13.
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2.RetrievedJuly21,2013.
12.NielsenBusinessMedia,Inc.(7September1963).Billboard(ColumbiaPreparestoClosePlant).NielsenBusiness
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14."SolidGospelseriesbringsChuckWagonGangtoRenaissanceCenter.".Retrieved8November2016.
15.[1](http://www.masterworksheritage.com/history.html)Archived(https://web.archive.org/web/20080506201821/http://w
ww.masterworksheritage.com/history.html)May6,2008,attheWaybackMachine.
16.RaymondE.White(July1,2006).KingoftheCowboys,QueenoftheWest:RoyRogersAndDaleEvans.Popular
Press.p.51.ISBN9780299210045.RetrievedJuly21,2013.
17.NielsenBusinessMedia,Inc.(August28,1954).Billboard.NielsenBusinessMedia,Inc.p.14.ISSN00062510.
RetrievedJuly21,2013.Citeerror:Invalid<ref>tagname"Inc.1954"definedmultipletimeswithdifferent
content(seethehelppage).
18.D.KernHolomanTheOrchestra:AVeryShortIntroduction2012Page107"ThefirstclassicalLPwastheMendelssohn
ViolinConcertowithNathanMilstein,BrunoWalter,andtheNewYorkPhilharmonicSymphony,ColumbiaML4001.
RCAcapitulatedin1950,leaving45sasthemediumofchoiceforpopsingles."
19.JohnF.MortonBackstoryinBlue:EllingtonatNewport'562008Page49"1947..ThefollowingyearColumbiamade
whatitregardedasrecordhistory,introducingthefirsttwelveinchLP,Mendelssohn'sViolinConcertoinEminor,with
violinistNathanMilsteinandtheNewYorkPhilharmonicOrchestra,BrunoWalter...Withinayearandahalfofthe
introductionoftheLP,ColumbiahadsoldtwiceasmanyMasterworksasRCAwassellingofRedSeal.RCAhadbegun
toloseitsartists.Some,likeoperatenorEzioPinza,wouldgotoColumbia..."
20.ColumbiaRecordCatalog1949.ColumbiaRecordsInc.pp.120.
21.Template:LibraryofCongressColumbiaRecordsPaperworkBox121
22.Sonylinernotes
23."RecordCollector'sResource:AHistoryofRecords".Cubby.net.19170226.Retrieved20130228.
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29.Worth,Fred(1992).Elvis:HisLifefromAtoZ.Outlet.p.38.ISBN9780517066348.
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35.Eder,Bruce."BridgeOverTroubledWater".Allmusic.com.RetrievedApril11,2012.
36.Jurek,Thom."BitchesBrew".Allmusic.com.RetrievedApril11,2012.
37.Johnson,Heather(2006).IfTheseHallsCouldTalk:AHistoricalTourThroughSanFranciscoRecordingStudios.
ThomsonCourseTechnology.pp.9094.ISBN1598631411.
38.EdwardB.Moogk."SonyMusicEntertainmentInc".Thecanadianencyclopedia.com.Retrieved20091231.
39.[2](http://www.oepm.es/Localizador/LocNacExp)Archived(https://web.archive.org/web/20040204010729/http://www.oe
pm.es/Localizador/LocNacExp)February4,2004,attheWaybackMachine.
40.Reuters(19901016)."CBSRecordsChangesName".NYTimes.com.Retrieved20091231.
41."It'sOfficial:JoelKlaimanNamedColumbiaRecordsEVP/GM".Retrieved8November2016.
42."SonyMusicEntertainmenttobeExclusiveMusicProviderforESPN'sWinterXGames13".Retrieved8November
2016.
43."Columbia/EpicLabelGroup|SongContestBlog".Wearelistening.org.20090204.Retrieved20130228.
44."L.A.Reid'sFirstWeekatEpicHasSomeStaffersFeeling'Energized' ".Retrieved8November2016.
45.ColumbiaRecordsMusicMovingForward(http://www.columbiarecords.com/).Columbiarecords.com.Retrievedon
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47."ColumbiaJazzMainNav".Columbiarecords.com.Retrieved20091231.
48."ColumbiaRecordsartists".ColumbiaRecords.SonyMusicEntertainment.Retrieved20121025.
49.Hoffmann,Frank,EncyclopediaofRecordedSound(https://books.google.com/books?id=xV6tghvO0oMC&printsec=front
cover),NewYork&London:Routledge,1993&2005,Volume1.Cf.p.212(https://books.google.com/books?id=xV6tg
hvO0oMC&pg=PA212),articleon"Columbia(Label)".
50.Cogan,JimClark,William,Templesofsound:insidethegreatrecordingstudios(https://books.google.com/books?id=h
OKQ4o_B2MC&printsec=frontcover),SanFrancisco:ChronicleBooks,2003.ISBN0811833941.Cf.chapteron
ColumbiaStudios.
51."TheWoolworthBuilding"(http://www.nycarchitecture.com/SCC/SCC019.htm),NYCArchitecture
52.Simons,David(2004).StudioStoriesHowtheGreatNewYorkRecordsWereMade.SanFrancisco:BackbeatBooks.
ISBN9780879308179.
53."HistoryofTheLiederkranzoftheCityofNewYork"(http://www.liederkranznycity.org/history.asp)TheLiederkranz
oftheCityofNewYorkwebsite.TheLiederkranzClubputupabuildingin1881at111119East58thStreet,eastof
ParkAvenue.
54.North,JamesH.,NewYorkPhilharmonic:theauthorizedrecordings,19172005:adiscography(https://books.google.c
om/books?id=BN6ZNNS3u8cC&printsec=frontcover),Rowman&Littlefield,2006.Cf.especiallyp.xx(https://books.go
ogle.com/books?id=BN6ZNNS3u8cC&pg=PR20&lpg=PR20&dq=111+e+58th+st+new+york+city+liederkranz+hall)
55.Behncke,Bernhard,"LeiderkranzHallTheWorld'sBestRecordingStudio?"(http://www.vjm.biz/new_page_3.htm),
VJM'sJazz&BluesMartmagazine.
56."MortyPalitzDiesat53Spanned3RecordDecades"(https://books.google.com/books?id=OhgEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA6
&lpg=PA6&dq=rca+records+liederkranz),Billboard,December1,1962.
57.Kahn,Ashley,KindofBlue:TheMakingoftheMilesDavisMasterpiece(https://books.google.com/books?id=6QArFwi9
buUC&printsec=frontcover),DaCapoPress,2001.Cf.p.75(https://books.google.com/books?id=6QArFwi9buUC&pg=P
A75&lpg=PA75&dq=liederkranz+hall+columbia+records)

Furtherreading
Cogan,JimClark,William,Templesofsound:insidethegreatrecordingstudios(https://books.google.com/
books?id=hOKQ4o_B2MC&printsec=frontcover),SanFrancisco:ChronicleBooks,2003.ISBN08118
33941.Cf.chapteronColumbiaStudios,pp.181192.
Hoffmann,Frank,EncyclopediaofRecordedSound(https://books.google.com/books?id=xV6tghvO0oMC&
printsec=frontcover),NewYork&London:Routledge,1993&2005,Volume1.Cf.pp.209213,articleon
"Columbia(Label)"
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Koenigsberg,Allen,ThePatentHistoryofthePhonograph,18771912,APMPress,1990/1991,ISBN0
937612103.
RevolutioninSound:ABiographyoftheRecordingIndustry.Little,BrownandCompany,1974.ISBN0
316773336.
HighFidelityMagazine,ABC,Inc.April,1976,"CreatingtheLPRecord."
Rust,Brian,(compiler),TheColumbiaMasterBookDiscography,GreenwoodPress,1999.
Marmorstein,Gary.TheLabel:TheStoryofColumbiaRecords.NewYork:Thunder'sMouthPress2007.
ISBN1560257075
Ramone,PhilGranata,CharlesL.,Makingrecords:thescenesbehindthemusic(https://books.google.com/
books?id=yzTUVHf_ThgC&printsec=frontcover),NewYork:Hyperion,2007.ISBN9780786868599.
ManyreferencestotheColumbiaStudios,especiallywhenRamoneboughtStudioA,799SeventhAvenue
fromColumbia.Cf.especiallypp.136137.
DaveMarsh360Sound:TheColumbiaRecordsStoryLegendsandLegacy(https://itunes.apple.com/us/boo
k/360soundcolumbiarecords/id566377915?mt=11),FreeeBookreleasedbyColumbiaRecordsthatputsa
spotlightonthelabel's263greatestrecordingsfrom1890to2011.

Externallinks
Officialsite(http://www.columbiarecords.com/)
WikimediaCommonshas
ColumbiaRecords(UK)(http://www.columbia.co.uk/)
mediarelatedtoColumbia
ColumbiaA&Rteamcontactlist(http://www.hitquarters.com/index.
Records.
php3?page=search.php3&artistsearch=&relation=+&genre=+&count
ry=+&freesearch=Columbia+Records&search.x=41&search.y=16)
ColumbiaNashvilleOfficialWebsite(http://www.columbianashville.com)
ColumbiaRecordsalbumoverviewanddiscography,1948to1970(http://bsnpubs.com/columbia/columbiast
ory.html)
SeetheProfileofDesignerAlexSteinweiss(http://www.soundfountain.org/rem/remcovart.html)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Columbia_Records&oldid=748417948"
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