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Chapter-1

Section-A
Introduction to project This project is about preference of the consumer towards
FMCG(fast moving consumer goods) products i.e. Milk products in domestic market
(in special market (in specialcontext of nestle,verka&amul milk products)The story
of milk products began in the new world with the Mayans ,and also the wordmilk
products comes from the Mayan word xocoatl ,and the word coca from the
azieccacahuati,who drank a dark brew called cacahuaquchtl.later ,the Aztec
consumedchacahoua and used the cocoa bean for currency. In I 523,they offered
cocoa beans toCortez, who introduced milk products to the world ,where it swiftly
because a favoritefood among the rich and noble of Europe.From the beginning,
turning raw, bitter cocoa beans into what one century writer calledthe only true
food of the god has been a fine art ,a delicate mixture of alchemy andscience
.centuries ago it was discovered that fermenting and roasting the beans couldcreate
an almost otherworldly flavor .in I 875,after years of trying ,a 31 -year-old candy
maker in vevey Daniel peter figured out how to combine milk and cocoa power.
1.l Meaning of milk products:
1. A preparation of the seed of cocoa ,roasted.husked,and ground (without
removingany of the fat),often sweetened and flavored, as with vanilla.
2. A beverage or confection made from this.
3. Dark brown.
4. A divine substance inspiring passion in those who consume it.
The discovery of cocoa was only a first step in the direction of milk step in
thedirection of milk products. The Mayas were the first to cultivate the cocoa bean
for thefruits it yielded. They used the beans as an ingredient in their favorite milk
products drinkxocotlatl.
10. Legend suggests that the first beans came out of paradise and lent wisdom
andpower to the person that ate them. For obvious reasons, the use of cocoa was
kept to aminimum by the emperors.Before the Spanish explorers discovered the
New world ,milk products andother exotic food were totally unknown in Europe.
Columbus was the first European tobecome acquainted with cocoa,but he wasnt
exactly impressed.During one of his conquest in the new orid he met the Aztecs. For
manygenerations,they drankan infusion of grilled seeds and spices.This mixture
tasteddisgusting and it also contained cocoa beans.The Aztecs adopted the ideas of
cocoaconsumption from the Mayas.However the conquistadors pizzaro and,in

particuler,Cortes did showinterest in the bean.Fernando cortes reached the east


coast of Mexico in 1519.as anhonored guest of Montezuma(Aztec emperor and
inveterate milk products fanatic) he wasoffered xocotatl a small portion of aromatic
milk products drink mixed vanilla,pepper andother herbs.For the mayas, cocoa
beans were very important, not only were they apopular means of exchange, they
also had a religious value. The Mayas sacrificed cocoabeans at the funerals of the
upper class.1.2 Introduction of study:The research study was undertaken to know
the buying behaviour ofconsumers. In this research the need of study is to know the
taste, preferences ofconsumers while purchasing the particular brand of the milk
products. What are the factorthat influences the customers to switch over the other
brands.As the milk products market is full of competition, so this study about
thebuying behaviours of consumer regarding milk products was studied to figure out
thereasons for the same. l tried to find out basic problem that is the consumer
reaction andbehaviour for the same. Also this study helped me to find out the ratio
of the loyalcustomers and awareness level of the consumers for milk products.
11.
As management students this can be taken as the strong base for future asall what
I studied in the project is now the need of the hour, as it is very well known
factthat80% of the total profits of any company is contributed by only 20%
customers so thestudy about the brand equity gives good tracking of those
customers.The word milk products comes from the mayan word xocoatl, and the
wordcocoa from the Aztec cacahuatle.In Mexico,the beverage was called
chocolath,fromlath(water)and choco.suppose,the spanish found the Mexican word
her to pronounce andcalled it cocoa.1.2.1. From cocoa to Milk Products:Sorting,
clearing ,frying, crushing, grinding is the only small part of stagesof production
cycle transforming cocoa beans in milk products,which we eat.Milk products is really
the unique product, tasty, highly nutritive(about 550kkal in 100gm of a
product),capable to be stored by years without change of properties. Itcontains 5O55%of carbohydrates,32-35% of fat,5-6& of fibers. And also tanninsubstances(4-5
%0,stim u lators-the bromine and caffeine(1-1.5%),microelementsNa,K,Mg,P,Fe and
vitamins B1,&B2.1.3 Introduction of consumer BehaviourConsumer BehaviorHow
many times throughout the day do people make product decisions? Ifyou stop to
think about it, many product decisions are made every day, some withoutmuch
thought. What should I wear? What should I eat? What am I going to do today?Many
product decisions are answered routinely every day and they help move
theeconomy of cities, countries and ultimately the world.Product decisions also
shape life for the consumer. How can simpledecisions be so important? Why do
marketers spend millions of dollars to uncover thereasons behind these decisions?
12. To define consumer behavior: it is the study of consumers and th eprocesses
they use to choose, use (consume), and dispose of products and services. Amore in
depth definition will also include how that process impacts the world.
Consumerbehavior incorporates ideas from several sciences including psychology,

biology,chemistry and economics.All marketing decisions are based on


assumptions and knowledge ofconsumer behavior, (Hawkins and Mothersbaugh,
2007). Researching consumerbehavior is a complex process, but understanding
consumer behavior is critical tomarketers-they can use it to:1. Provide value and
customer satisfaction.2 Effectively target customers.3 Enhance the value of the
company.4 Improve products and services.5 Create a competitive advantage6
Understand how customers view their products versus their competitors products.7
Expand the knowledge base in the field of marketing,8 Apply marketing strategies
toward a positive affect on society (encourage peopleto support charities, promote
healthy habits, reduce drug use etc.)1.3.1 Service:Intangible products such as
accounting, banking, cleaning, consultancy,education, insurance, expertise, medical
treatment, or transportation.Sometimes services are difficult to identify because
they are closelyassociated with a good; such as the combination of a diagnosis with
the administration ofa medicine. No transfer of possession or ownership takes place
when services are sold,and they (I) cannot be stored or transported, (2) are
instantly perishable, and (3) comeinto existence at the time they are bought and
consumed.
13. 1.3.2 Brand:A brand is a Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature
thatidentifies one sellers good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.
Brandingbegan as a way to tell one persons cattle from another by means of a hot
iron stamp. Amodern example of a brand is Coca Cola which belongs to the CocaCola Company.1.3.3 Concepts:Proper branding can result in higher sales of not only
one product, but onother products associated with that brand. For example, if a
customer loves Pillsburybiscuits and trust the brand. he or she is more likely to try
other products offered by thecompany such as chocolate chip cookies.Brand is the
personality that identifies a product, service or company(name, term, sign, symbol,
or design, or combination of them) and how it relates to keyconstituencies:
customers, staff, partners, investors etc.Some people distinguish the psychological
aspect, brand associations likethoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences,
beliefs, attitudes, and so on thatbecome linked to the brand, of a brand from the
experiential aspect.The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of
contact with thebrand and is known as the brand experience. The brand experience
is a brands actionperceived by a person. The psychological aspect, sometimes
referred to as the brandimage, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of
people, consisting of all theinformation and expectations associated with a product,
service or the company(ies)providing them.People engaged in branding seek to
develop or align the expectationsbehind the brand experience, creating the
impression that a brand associated with aproduct or service has certain qualities or
characteristics that make it special or unique. Abrand is therefore one of the most
valuable elements in an advertising theme, as itdemonstrates what the brand
owner is able to offer in the marketplace. The art of creatingand maintaining a
brand is called brand management. Orientation of the whole

14. organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. The brand orientation
is developed in responsiveness to market intelligence.Careful brand management
seeks to make the product or services relevantto the target audience. Brands
should be seen as more than the difference between theactual cost of a product and
its selling price - they represent the sum of all valuablequalities of a product to the
consumer.A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires
brandrecognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys
a criticalmass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved
brand franchise.Brand recognition is most successful when people can state a brand
without beingexplicitly exposed to the companys name, but rather through visual
signifiers like logos,slogans, and colors. For example, Disney has been successful at
branding with theirparticular script font (originally created for Walt Disneys
signature logo), which itused in the logo for go.com.Consumers may look on
branding as an aspect of products or services, as itoften serves to denote a certain
attractive quality or characteristic (see also brandpromise). From the perspective of
brand owners, branded products or services alsocommand higher prices. Where two
products resemble each other, but one of the productshas no associated branding
(such as a generic, store- branded product), people may oftenselect the more
expensive branded product on the basis of the quality of the brand or thereputation
of the brand owner.1.3.4 Local brand:A brand that is sold and marketed (distributed
and promoted) in a relativelysmall and restricted geographical area. A local brand is
a brand that can be found in onlyone country or region. it may be called a regional
brand if the area encompasses morethan one metropolitan market. It may also be a
brand that is developed for a specificnational market, however an interesting thing
about local brand is that the local brandingis more often done by consumers than
by the producers. Examples of local brands inSweden are Stomatol, Skneme etc.
15. 1.3.5 Brand name:The brand name is quite often used interchangeably with
brand, althoughit is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken
linguistic elements ofany product. In this context a brand name constitutes a type
of trademark, if the brandname exclusively identifies the brand owner as the
commercial source of products orservices. A brand owner may seek to protect
proprietary rights in relation to a brand namethrough trademark registration and
such trademarks are called Registered Trademarks.Advertising spokespersons
have also become part of some brands, for example: Mr.Whipple of Charmin toilet
tissue and Tony the Tiger of Kelloggs Frosted Flakes. Localbranding is usually done
by the consumers rather than the producers.1.3.6 Types of brand names:Brand
names come in many styles. A few include:Initialism: A name made of initials such
as UPS or IBM
16. Descriptive: Names that describe a product benefit or function like Whole Foods
orAirbusAlliteration and rhyme: Names that are fun to say and stick in the mind like
ReesesPieces or Dunkin DonutsEvocative: Names that evoke a relevant vivid
image like Amazon or CrestNeologisms: Completely made-up words like Wii or

KodakForeign word: Adoption of a word from another language like Volvo or


SamsungFounders names: Using the names of real people, and founders name
like Hewlett-Packard, Dell or DisneyGeography: Many brands are named for regions
and landmarks like Cisco and Fuji FilmPersonification: Many brands take their names
from myth like Nike or from the minds ofad execs like Betty CrockerThe act of
associating a product or service with a brand has become part ofpop culture. Most
products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt todesigner
jeans. A brandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a genericterm
for a product or service. such as Band-Aid or Kleenex, which are often used
todescribe any brand of adhesive bandage or any brand of facial tissue
respectively.1.3.7 Brand identity:The outward expression of a brand including its
name, trademark,communications, and visual appearance - is brand identity.
Because the identity isassembled by the brand owner, it reflects how the owner
wants the consumer to perceivethe brand and by extension the branded
company, organization, product or service.This is in contrast to the brand image,
which is a customers mental picture of a brand.The brand owner will seek to bridge
the gap between the brand image and the brandidentity.Effective brand names
build a connection between the brand personality asit is perceived by the target
audience and the actual product/service. The brand nameshould be conceptually on
target with the product/service (what the company stands for).Furthermore, the
brand name should be on target with the brand demographic. Typically,
17. sustainable brand names are easy to remember, transcend trends and have
positiveconnotations. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and
symbolizes thebrands differentiation from competitors.Brand identity is what the
owner wants to communicate to its potentialconsumers. However, over time, a
products brand identity may acquire (evolve), gainingnew attributes from
consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketingcommunications an
owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore, brandassociations become
handy to check the consumers perception of the brand.Brand identity needs to
focus on authentic qualities real characteristicsof the value and brand promise
being provided and sustained by organizational and/orproduction characteristics.1.4
Theoretical foundation;1 Brand Awareness2 Positioning3 consumer Awareness4
sales promotionBrand awareness:Brand awareness refers to customers ability to
recall and recognize thebrand under different conditions and link to the brand
name, logo, jingles and so on tocertain associations in memory. It consists of both
brand recognition and brand recall. Ithelps the customers to understand to which
product or service category the particularbrand belongs and what products and
services are sold under the brand name. It alsoensures that customers know which
of their needs are satisfied by the brand through itsproducts (Keller). Brand
awareness is of critical importance since customers will notconsider your brand if
they are not aware of it.There are various levels of brand awareness that require
different levels andcombinations of brand recognition and recall. Top-of-Mind is the
goal of most

18. companies. Top-of-Mind Awareness occurs when your brand is what pops into
aconsumers mind when asked to name brands in a product category. For example,
whensomeone is asked to name a type of facial tissue, the common answer is
Kleenex,which is a top-of-mind brand. Aided Awareness occurs when a consumer
is shown orreads a list of brands, and expresses familiarity with your brand only
after they hear orsee it as a type of memory aide. Strategic Awareness occurs when
your brand is not onlytop-of-mind to consumers, but also has distinctive qualities
that stick out to consumers asmaking it better than the other brands in your
market. The distinctions that set yourproduct apart from the competition is also
known as the Unique Selling Point or USP.Positioning:Brand positioning refers to
target consumers reason to buy your brand inpreference to others. It is ensures
that all brand activity has a common aim; is guided,directed and delivered by the
brands benefits/reasons to buy; and it focusses at all pointsof contact with the
consumer.Brand positioning must make sure that:Is it unique/distinctive vs.
competitors?Is it significant and encouraging to the niche market?Is it appropriate
to all major geographic markets and businesses?Is the proposition validated with
unique, appropriate and original .products?Is it sustainable - can it be delivered
constantly across all points of contact with theconsumer?Is it helpful for
organization to achieve its financial goals?Is it able to support and boost up the
organization?In order to create a distinctive place in the market, a niche market has
to becarefully chosen and a differential advantage must be created in their mind.
Brandpositioning is a medium through which an organization can portray its
customers what it
19. wants to achieve for them and what it wants to mean to them. Brand positioning
formscustomers views and opinions.Brand Positioning can be defined as an activity
of creating a brand offer insuch a manner that it occupies a distinctive place and
value in the target customers mind.For instance-Kotak Mahindra positions itself in
the customers mind as one entity-Kotak - which can provide customized and onestop solution for all their financialservices needs. It has an unaided top of mind
recall. It intends to stay with the propositionof Think Investments, Think Kotak.
The positioning you choose for your brand will beinfluenced by the competitive
stance you want to adopt.Brand Positioning involves identifying and determining
points of similarityand difference to ascertain the right brand identity and to create
a proper brand image.Brand Positioning is the key of marketing strategy. A strong
brand positioning directsmarketing strategy by explaining the brand details, the
uniqueness of brand and itssimilarity with the competitive brands, as well as the
reasons for buying and using thatspecific brand. Positioning is the base for
developing and increasing the requiredknowledge and perceptions of the
customers. It is the single feature that sets your serviceapart from your competitors.
For instance- Kingfisher stands for youth and excitement. Itrepresents brand in full
flight.There are various positioning errors, such as -Under positioning- This is a
scenario in which the customers have a blurred and unclearidea of the brand.Over
positioning- This is a scenario in which the customers have too limited a

awarenessof the brand.Confused positioning- This is a scenario in which the


customers have a confused opinionof the brand.Double Positioning- This is a
scenario in which customers do not accept the claims of abrand.
20. Consumer awareness:The need for empowerment of consumers as a class
cannot be over emphasized and isalready well recognized all over the world. The
advancement of technology and advent ofsophisticated gadgets in the market and
aggressive marketing strategies in the era ofglobalization have not only thrown
open a wide choice, for the consumer but all the samealso rendered the consumer
vulnerable to a plethora of problems concomitant to suchrapid changes. There is an
urgent and increasing necessity to educate and motivate theconsumer to be wary of
the quality of the products, and also the possible deficiencies inthe services of the
growing sector of public utilities. In short, the consumer should beempowered with
respect to his rights as a consumer. He should be equipped to be vigilantwith a
discerning eye so as to be able to protect himself from any wrongful act on the
partof the trader. In order to be able to position the consumer in such a state, there
is everyneed not only to evolve legal remedies but also provide reliable and
exhaustiveinformation, which he can access without much effort and expense.
Recognizing theimportance of the problem, the Government of India and State
Government have initiatedsteps to introduce dispute redressal mechanism by way
of Consumer Protection Ac, but alot more has to be done in the area of creating
awareness on the part of the consumer tofacilitate his seeking suitable remedy
wherever there is a need. This becomes moreimportant in the rural areas, where
there is wide spread illiteracy.He should undertake steps to create a facilitative
mechanism with the followingobjectives:1. Promote General Awareness of the rights
of the consumer by encouragingconsumer education and supplying information.2.
Publish periodical and product specific booklets, pamphlets, cassettes, CDs,
slides,documentary films and other devices of mass communication for
promotingconsumer awareness in English and regional languages, highlighting the
problemin specified areas like real estate, public utilities, non-banking financial
agenciesetc.
21. 3. Enlighten the business community on its ethical and legal obligations to
maintainquality of the products or services and to be transparent in dealing with
consumers.4. Encourage consumer activities to strengthen the existing institutional
set up ofconsumer dispute redressal by acting as a facilitator between consumer
and theinstitution.5. Study the available legal remedies, analyze and suggest new
measures for theeffective and better consumer protection.6. Bring together the
consumer, traders and policy makers to exchange informationof mutual interest for
better coordination. Bring together the NGOs/Consumeractivities operating in
different areas and equip them with suitable and requiredinformation and
knowledge to enable them to act as nodal agents of change inrural areas.7.
Organize and conduct seminars, workshops and group discussions and thusprovide
a platform for threadbare discussion of the issues and evolve suitableremedial

action. Conduct motivational campaigns for groups of potentialcustomers both in


urban and rural areas.8. Coordinate programmes organized by Central and State
Governments, State LegalAid Authorities, Academic Institutes, National and
International ConsumerOrganizations.9. Periodic interaction with electronic & print
media on success stories of consumers.10. Establish links with educational
institutions like universities, colleges, highschools to emphasize the need for
improving consumer education in thecurriculum. Consumer clubs which were
started recently by the A.P. Consumeraffairs, Food & Civil Supplies Dept. would go a
long way in achieving this.11. Interact with national level organizations like NISIET,
NIRD, ASCI etc. to explorepossible collaboration and organize awareness
programmes for their clientele andundertake research projects.12. Organize a
database enabling the consumer retrieve the required information in aless
expensive and quick way. Set up a website http://scdrc.ap.nic to publish
22. information, news including judgments, articles, on product analysis and
relatedmatters for the guidance of consumers to have informed choice of
productservices, redressal agencies and mechanisms.(i) Perception: The process by
which people translate sensory impressions into acoherent and unified view of the
world around them. Though necessarily based onincomplete and unverified (or
unreliable) information, perception is equated withreality for most practical
purposes and guides human behavior in general.Sales Promotion:Sales promotion is
any initiative undertaken by an organisation to promote an increase insales, usage
or trial of a product or service (i.e. initiatives that are not covered by theother
elements of the marketing communications or promotions mix). Sales
promotionsare varied. Often they are original and creative, and hence a
comprehensive list of allavailable techniques is virtually impossible (since original
sales promotions are launcheddaily!). Here are some examples of popular sales
promotions activities:(a) Buy-One-Get-One-Free (BOGOF) - which is an example of a
self-liquidatingpromotion. For example if a loaf of bread is priced at $1, and cost 10
cents tomanufacture, if you sell two for $1, you are still in profit - especially if there
is acorresponding increase in sales. This is known as a PREMIUM sales
promotiontactic.(b) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) incentives such as
bonus points ormoney off coupons. There are many examples of CRM, from banks
tosupermarkets.(c) New media - Websites and mobile phones that support a sales
promotion. Forexample, in the United Kingdom, Nestle printed individual codes on
KIT-KATpackaging, whereby a consumer would enter the code into a dynamic
website tosee if they had won a prize. Consumers could also text codes via their
mobilephones to the same effect.
23. 1.5 Consumer:An individual who buys products or services for personal use and
not for manufacture orresale. A consumer is someone who can make the decision
whether or not to purchase anitem at the store, and someone who can be
influenced by marketing and advertisements.Any time someone goes to a store and
purchases a toy, shirt, beverage, or anything else,they are making that decision as

a consumer.Rights and responsibilities if consumer:Consumer protection


movements have evolved and grown worldwide in the past fewdecades. This global
drive to protect and uphold consumer interests is amply reflected inthe guidelines
adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1985 (Resolution 3 9/248) for theprotection
of consumer rights, and in the efforts of international organization such asConsumer
International. Consumer protection movements reflect the social and
culturalpatterns and attitudes of a given society in which they operate, as well as
promote goodmarket practices and a sustainable consumption patterns. Consumer
movements not onlyprotect consumer rights, but also aim to educate the
consumers about theirresponsibilities and build a more equitable and fair
society.CRCP shares the vision of Consumer International and endorses consumer
guidelines andresponsibilities prescribed by it and by the UN General Assembly.
CRCP perceives itsrole not only as defending the rights of the consumer but more
importantly towardsachieving a clear social understanding about what it means to
be consumer. It strives forthe emergence of an organized consumer movement
through building a broad base ofinformed and responsible consumers. CRCP
endeavors to support the consumers to comeout of the prevailing inertia and play a
more active role in deciding their consumptionpatterns to effect long-term socio
economic change and achieve sustainable development.A summary of Consumer
Internationals (CI) philosophy of Consumer Rights andResponsibilities
24. Consumer Rights:Basic NeedsThe right to basic goods and services, which
guarantee survival. It includes adequatefood, clothing, shelter, health care,
education and sanitation.SafetyThe right to be protected against products,
production processes and services which arehazardous to health and life. It includes
concern for consumers long-term as well as theirimmediate
requirements.InformationThe right to be given the facts needed to make an
informed choice or decision. Consumermust be provided with adequate information
enabling them to act wisely and responsibly.They must also be protected from
misleading or inaccurate publicity material, whetherincluded in advertising,
labeling, packaging or by other means.ChoiceThe right to choose products and
services at competitive prices and, in the case ofmonopolies, to have an assurance
of satisfactory quality and service at a fair price.RepresentationThe right to
advocate consumers interests with a view to their receiving full andsympathetic
consideration in the formulation and execution of economic and otherpolicies. It
includes the right of representation in governmental and other policy-makingbodies
as well as in the development of products and services before they are produced
orset up.RedressThe right to a fair settlement ofjust claims. It includes the right to
receive compensationfor misrepresentation of shoddy goods or unsatisfactory
services and the availability ofacceptable forms of legal aid or redress for small
claims where necessary.Consumer EducationThe right to acquire the knowledge and
skills to be an informed consumer throughoutlife. The right to consumer education
incorporates the right to the knowledge and skills

25. needed for taking action to influence factors, which affect consumer
decisions.Healthy EnvironmentThe right to a physical environment that will enhance
the quality of life includesprotection against environmental dangers over which the
individual has no control Itacknowledge the need to protect and improve the
environment for present and futuregenerations.Consumer Responsibilities:Critical
AwarenessThe responsibility to be more alert and questioning about the price and
quality of goodsand services we consume.ActionThe responsibility to assert
ourselves by acting to ensure that we get a fair deal As longas we remain passive
consumers we will continue to be exploited and manipulated.Social ConcernThe
responsibility to consider the impacts of our consumption patterns and lifestyles
onother citizens especially the poor disadvantaged or powerless consumers whether
they bein the local national or international community.Environmental
AwarenessThe responsibility to realize the environmental costs and consequences
of ourconsumption patterns and lifestyles. We should recognize our individual and
collectivesocial responsibility to conserve natural resources and to preserve earth
for present andfuture generations.SolidarityThe responsibility to come together and
organize consumers in order to enhance thestrength and influence required to
promote and protect our interests.
SECTION-B
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Milk products Truffles are so goodPosted :aug 04,2010Milk products are one of the
best inventions ever created in the course ofhuman existance. Milk products is such
tasty and delicious treat and it can be purchasedfor your self or given as a gift. Milk
products gifts are always an appreciated andappropriate gift. One of the best gifts
anyone could receive is a hybrid of milk productsand the flower. instead of abouquet
of flower that will die or a simple box of milkproducts you can always give someone
a milk products rose as a gift. milk products rosesas a gift. milk products can be
shaped into the form of a rose and covered in red milkproducts foil with a stem and
a leaf attached. This flower is made to resemble a beautifulred rose on the put side
that can be unwrapped and devoured, if the recipient in mindreally likes milk
products with an intense passion and would prefer to have an entire boxof milk
products rather than the few bites that are blooming inside of a red foil wrappedmilk
products rose there is always the ever populer gift of rich and delicious milkproducts
truffles to satisfy.Milk products truffles are made by chocolatiers in a lost every rich
anddelectable flavor imaginable, milk products truffles are among one of the most
popularand best gifts to be recieved because rich cocoa is so delicious and the
chocolatiers thatmade truffles are knowledgeable about how to make them. Well
crafted milk productstruffles are a wonderful treat to receive as a gift or to win in a
basket at a raffle.When you need a Treat, Milk products gifts hit the spot posted
:Aug 04,2010Just about everybody loves Milk products .From the iconic hershey kiss
tothe top of the line godiva brand, milk products comes in various forms and
shapes. Milkproducts truffles are a special treat that satisfies a refined taste.

27. M&Mappear in candy dishes all over the world, one of the best thingsabout milk
products is that it makes a great gift.Milk products gifts are available for all
occasions. on valentines day, it isalmost mandatory that you buy your sweatheart
a heart-shaped box of the sweet treat.The one or maybe two pound boxes con tam
an assortment of milk products with nuts,caramel, coconut, nougat, cremes and
other filings. You can choose boxes with light,dark or a combination of the two types
of milk products.Holidays are another time for boxed milk products. when you go
over toyour aunt bettys house for thanks giving dinner, a nice box of milk products
isappropriate .while milk products gifts are not expensive (unless you are buying
someexotic, imported brand),they are always appreciated. when the box is
opened ,you beteterbe quick, before all the good ones get snatched up.During
easter, chocolates take several different forms. Large, hollow milkproducts bunnies
with candy eyes line the shelves of drug stores. Walmart has a specialcandy display.
There are milk products easter eggs with marshmallow filling. Milkproducts Peanut
butter eggs and crunchy milk product eggs. Any respectable easterbasket should be
filled withsome delicious milk products.Birthdays, cheering up an ill patient, or
rewarding your childs excellentschool performance are all very appropriate for milk
products gifts.The world of milkproductsposted:jun 01,2010Milk products are loved
the world over. why do so many people love milk products?Probably because of the
almost unlimited variety of flavours had textures that milkproducts has. Ever since
milk products was first discovered over 3,000 year ago by theAztecs, people have
enjoyed milk products. Of course, although people all time haveenjoyed milk
products, it didnt start out as we know it today. it wasnt the sweet littlemilk
products or bars that we like to think of. Instead ,it started in south America only asa
bitter drink.
28. Soon through, coco made its deduct into the rest of the world and into thehands
of many eager bakers. milk products went from just a bitter drink, into all kinds
offlavours. coco was made into sweet drinks, cakes, desserts and bars. The flavors
rangedin everything form bitter dark to ultra sweet and decadent. one of thest
indulgent is milkproducts truffles. Theses little milk products are filled with
ganache ,a mixture of bothsemisweet milk products and cream.In 1765 Milk product
was first introduced to the united state by n irishmannamed john hanan. both john
and American candy maker James baker built the firstAmerican milk products mill in
1780.Then they started production milk products for thepublic. It wasnt long before
their little milk products bussiness began to takeoff.Americans were in love!Now,
well over 200 years later, the American public is still in love andobsessed with milk
products .7 billion dollers a year alone is spent on milkproducts/much of that is
spent on milk products. gifts, whether of course that gift is forsomeone other than
yourself is entirely up to you!Let s hear it for the wedding milk products
favoursposted:Mar3O,2009 .Belgian milk products is one of the best milk products in
the world. butthen again it doesnt have to be Belgium milk products to create a
mouth watering effectto those people who crave for sweets. wedding milk products
are simply a quality choiceas a wedding favor.But then, milk products are not just a

token given to someone special on aspecial event. Milk products wedding favors
have become one of the greatest items acouple could use in their wedding as a
favour if it is going to be your own wedding,perhaps you might as well consider this
option.Its just to show that a wedding favour is not anymore particular to a
homedecor but it cannow also be a usable or an edible thing. Intimacy and passion
comes tomind when talking milk products.
29. Perhaps it is the reason why they have been used as one of the options inthe
line up of wedding favour. And to make wedding milk products favour more
suitablefor a wedding, different modles have been created to shape the milk
products into designsthat would suit any type of wedding of course there are other
taste available as well inmint, dark, or whiteMilk products, and these can be
appropriately matched with a particularshape of wedding milk products
favours.Wedding milk products favors can fit a royal wedding theme, an
outdoorwedding, or Disney-type topic wedding. A Milk products favors lollipop can
take aboutany shape or designs that could fit a wedding celebration. Those heartshaped milkproducts favours that have a design in the middle are the simplest
design that you canhave.You can also use an oval, round, or rectangular forms since
they are wideenough to make more patterns in the middle of the milk products.
Some of the moreunique shaps in the wedding milk products design world would be
wedding gown,tuxedo, bride and groom image, flowers such as rose and calla lily,
birds such as swanand dove, castle, wedding bell, wedding cake, and even elegant
fans.Furthermore, these chocolaty design can also be modified a bit and usethem as
a wedding milk products cake topper or centerpiece.you can add some
moreaccessories to your milk products favors.A colorful mimi sticks and a ribbon
can turn your favor iooly into a moreamazing wedding favor. But then, you can also
give those milk products wedding favorsa personal touch if you want to
individualized Milk products favors are also more invitingbecause your guest will see
that you have put some extra effort into creating them.Looking for the best wedding
favor can be a lot of fun that you and yourpartner can be together. When you pick
out to have milk products as your wedding favor,rest assured that you and your
spouse will share that sweet moment; designing yourwedding motif together.
30. To formulate the problem precisely and top in point the importance
ofundertaking it, it is essential to carry out a brief review of the studies related
directly orindirectly to the present investigation. Some of the studies conducted
earlier are given inchronological order.Johnston(1981)proposed that time may be
the most important variable inconsumer behaviour. On one side, the time dimension
of consumer behaviour is viewedas just beginning to emerge as a major variable of
study ,on the other side, however, timehas been implicitly and explicity
incorporated into consumer behaviour theory andmarketing strategies for quite
some time. Adoption of products by consumers was notcharacterized by analystic
consumption behaviour but by risk aversion and preference forincremental
changing in the consumption set.Gofton and Nees (1991) studied that the twin

trends of heath andconvenience have resulted in changing food consumption


patterens. their research amongconsumers confirmed that their is a wareness and
concern about the relationship betweenhealth and diet the better educated are
more food -conscious. changing lifestyles and thechanging role of women are shown
to affect food habits.Bruhn (1992) reported concern about the impact of diet on
health that hasled consumers to reduce the consumption of foods percieved as
being high in fat. Taste,safety, and nutrition were most important in food selection.
Nutritive factors consideredmost important were total fat content, cholesterol, fats
both saturated and unsaturatedones by the consumers.Arthley (I 993) reported that
the food manufacturers must ensure that thefood they produce should satisfy
customersdemands namely,i.e.the food should be safeto eat ,healthy and
nutritious and it should be of high quality and value or money andincreasingly,it
must havebuilt- in convenience.Zink(1997)studied that consumer demand for new
food nad changes ineating habits and food safety risks are affecting the food
processing industry. The
31. population is becoming older on average; moreever, consumers ,want fresh
andminimally processed food without synthetic chemical
preservatives.Candel(2001) proposed that consumer research s consider
convenienceorientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for
understandingconsumer behaviour towards foods. As examined in two different
samples of mealpreparers. convenience orientation was found to be negatively
related to cookingenjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking
and to be positivelyrelated to role overload. his analysis also suggest that the lack
of relation between themeal preparers working status and convenience food
consumption as found in manystudies, is due to convenience food not restaurants
appear to satisfy the consumers needfor convenience more adequately.Costa et al
(2001) introduced a new definition and classification system forhome meal
replacements (HMR),based on convenience attributes as viewed byconsumers. The
classifying criteria chosen were based on shelf-life and requiredpreparation. Results
showed that the use of a narrow range of HMR is characteristic ofDutch food
consumption. The classification system is expected to provide valuablesupport for
consumer-oriented products and process development.Creed (2001 )studied that
consumer demand for convenience has led to theprepared frozen meals according
to age group, social class, gender and frequency ofeating out, and the potential for
extending the use of prepared meals to those who couldbenefits.lt concluded that
the system can provide opportunities to satisfy many groups ofconsumers with
regard to nutritional, sensory, convenience and safety aspects.Tauscher(2002)
studied that consumer demands for high-quality foods withFresh like
characteristics that require only a minimum amount of effort and time
forpreparation has led to the introduction of convenience foods preserved by
mildtreatments. Non-thermal methods allow the processing of foods below
temperatures usedduring thermal pasteurisation, so flavours, essential nutrients,
and vitamins undergominimal or no changes. This process is used to create food

and food ingredients with newsensory and functional properties including also
physiological functionality.
32. Friedeck et al(2003)revealed that the flavor and texture effects of soyprotein
fortification of low-fat dairy-based ice cream were most important for theacceptance
of frozen ice-cream. Low fat ice cream mixes were formulated with 0, 2 and
4percent soy protein isolates(SPI). Sensory attributes, volatile flavor
comments,instrumental color properties compared with the 0 percent SPI control.
This informationaided in optimization of an acceptable soy-fortified dairy ice
cream.Tillotson(2003) studied the effects of high pressure processing(HPP)
onconsumer acceptance for chilled ready meals manufactured using a low-value
beef cut.Data were collected on consumers food consumption patterns, their
attitudes towardsfood by means of the reduced food-related lifestyle and sociodemograhics.Ahlgen and hall(2004) studied that food choice is dependent upon
beliefsabout both the products and those who consume these products. He studied
the beliefsabout the protypical attributes of ready meal consumers to establish
which beliefs existand whether they have any actual basis when compared with selfreported behaviors ofready meal consumers. In a survey, respondents described
what they considered to becommon attributes of ready meal consumers. Most
interesting was the fact that twofrequently mentioned attributes, being alone and
no interest in cooking or food, wereconfirmed by the frozen ready meal consuming
respondents in the actual eating situationbut not by their life-style and beliefs in
general. In the different eating situations therewere dissimilar reasons for
consumption. Two ready meal eating situations wereinvestigated in greater detail in
order to establish what triggered the ready mealconsumption in these situations.
One of these meal situations proved to be conveniencedriven and the other time
driven.Cardello and schutz(2004) conducted the analytic studies with civiles
withcivillian and military consumers in order to assess the factors that contribute to
theconcept of food freshness and the relative importance of freshness to order
productvariables. Result showed the concept of freshness to be determined
primarily by timefrom harvest/production and food type. Foods that were described
as minimamallyprocessed e.g.frozen and thawed were rated as less fresh than
other foods.
33. Hlgren et al (2004) reported that food choice is dependent upon beliefsabout
the products and consumers. Beliefs about the prototypical attributes of ready
mealconsumers have been investigated to establish the beliefs that exist and
whether they haveany actual basis when compared with self-reported behaviour of
ready meal consumers.Khanona and Aung(2004) proposed that the diverse
consumer attitudestowards the safety of food. The diversity among consumers is
based on a variety offactors, including demograhics and socio-economies status.
The relationship betweenconsumer attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding
food safety is also examined inthis paper. It indicates that different attitudes do not
necessarily lead to behaviour thatsafety of the food consumed.Ling et al 92004)

studied the attitude about new food purchases betweeninnovators/early adopters


and non-innovators and to determine the food purchasecharacteristics of
innovators/early adopters and non-innovators, food prices wererelatively important
to both consumer groups. Marketing implications for food businesswere
discussed.McCarthy et al (2004) focused on the Irish convenience food consumer
andinvestigates four convenience food categories; frozen ready meals, take -away
meals, andpub meals. Comparison of the regression result across the four
convenience foodcategories highlighted the importance of convenience food-related
lifestyle issues in thepurchase of ready meals. General food- related lifestyle issues
were more important in thepurchase of take-away meals. The consumption of
restaurants and pub meals was leasteffected by convenience related dimensions
and more by the importance o f social events.Ragaert et al (2004) studied the
consumer perception nad choice of foodproducts. The likelihood of buying minimally
processed vegetables tends to be higheramong better-educated consumers and
among consumers with young children. The mostimportant motivation for
purchasing minimally processed vegetables relates toconvenience and speed,
especially for consumers who buy this product during weekends.Although health
and nutritional value scored relatively low in terms of importance duringthe
purchasing and consumption stages of minimally processed vegetables, consumers
34. with a high awareness of the relationship between food and health attach
significantlymore importance to theses credence attributes.Urala(2004) studied
attitude behind consumers willingness to use foodproducts and described food
related seven factors describing consumers attitude towardsfoods. These factors
were as follow :perceived reward from using foods, foods as part ofa healthy diet
and the health effects of foods vs. their taste. These attitude subscalesdifferentiated
between consumers in their reported willingness to use foods.Burns(2005) studied
that consumers are being assailed by new products andservices, many of which can
alter time-honored consumption customs. Adoption of time -saving processed food
items by contemporary Chinese consumers was influenced byincreased income and
demands on time.Verbeke (2006) studied that the forecast of a bright future for
frozenfoods,which constitute the fastest growing segment in the food market. One
of the keysucess factors pertains to consumer acceptance of the concept of these
foods. Thelikelihood of these food acceptance also increases with the presence of a
high level ofclaimed knowledge or awareness. This adverse impact of high
awareness decreases withincreasing consumer age. Belief, knowledge and presence
of an ill family memberoutweight socio-demographics as potential
determinants.Carrigan et al (2007) studied the role of convenience food within the
foodstrategies of contemporary UK families, and aims to elicit consumption
meanings in thebroader social context of family relationships with food & their
rituals, routines andconventions. The findings revealed that convenience was having
multiple meanings forUK women, and that convenience food was incorporated into
reiterpreted versions ofhomemade and proper meals. A hierarchy of acceptable
convenience food waspresented by the mothers, who tackle complex and conflicting

family routines byintroducing convenience solutions.Cowan(2008) examined the


consumption of frozen ready meals by Britishconsumers. Attitudes were the best
predictor of behavioural intention and an additionalvariable, habit was included in
the study. This increased predictive power but reduced the
35. influence of attitudes. For food products, behavioral intentions were the best
predictor ofbehaviour for a model including behavioral intentions, perceived
behavioral control andhabit, value for money was the most important of three
beliefs investigated for eachproducts for those who intended to consume ready
meals.Botonak(20 10) proposed that the increasing importance of convenience
inconsumer food choices has attracted researchers interest. In the effort to
understand howconvenience affects consumers food preferences, values are
believed to play animportant role. The result reveal that convenience food
consumption and convenienceorientation in the food domain are mainly
connected.Sorenson et al (2011) studied the effects of high pressure processing
(HPP)on consumer acceptance for chilled ready meals manufactured using a lowvalue beefcut. Data were also collected on consumers food consumption patterns,
their attitudestowards food by means of the reduced food-related lifestyle (FRL)
instrument, and socio-demographics. The result indicated that a pressure treatment
of 200MP was acceptable tomost consumers. K-means cluster analysis identified 4
consumer groups with similarpreferences, and the optimal pressure treatments
acceptable to specific consumer groupswere identified for those firms that would
wish to target attitudinally differentiatedconsumer segments.Although a lot of study
has been done in the area of consumer behaviourand adoption of innovative and
healthy food products but much research has not beencarried out to study the
consumer attitude and adoption process of frozen food. Thisresearch is an attempt
to fill the gap.
36. Chapter-2COMPANY PROFILE2.1 Introductions:Verka, a leading dairy brand of
Punjab, which provioddce fresh milk,paneer, curd ghee to million of homes across
the region, is facing stiff competition from anamesake brand registered in the US
which has patented the brand name and the productrange. A part from making the
Punjab state corporative milk product federations(milkfed) task difficult in
exporting the product to the north American market ,thegovernment feels that the
US brand is misguiding unsuspecting patrons .Milkfied isconsidering going the legal
action.The US-based company in question is quality product Inc in
calefornia,incorporated in 2002,is owned by an lndian, Kulwinder dhillion. The
company websiteprovide detail of the company selling dahi, paneer, and ghee
under the verka brand acrossthe north American continent. The smartly packages
products bear the real Californiaseal and the status of approval accorded by the
US health department and the FDA.Currently, Milkfied exports over 1,100 tones of
desi ghee worth Rs 14crores, largly to the gulf, philippiness, Australia and new
Zealand. Milkfied had aturnover of Rs.800 crores in 2006- 07 and is targeting a 15%
growth with fiscal. With thestate government marking on the major revamp of

milkfied exiting capacity, it has to beseen what the government do to protect the
hugely popular verka brand. One of theleading dairy brands of north India. Verka is
yet another contribution from the state ofPunjab. The flagship brand of Punjab
state corporative milk producers Fedration LTD(milkfied), Verka is today enjoying
the patronage of customers both within and outsidethe country. Milkfed future
programmes can never be complete without verka.Verka is a brand leader in milk
powders particularly in northern and easternsectors. The milkfied brand commands
a premium price over milk powders manufacturedby competitors. This includes
multinational as well as private trade and other corporativefederations.
37. Mi!kfied is serving nationwide consumers through its network of regional offices
andstrong distribution channels. Milkfied markets a wide Varity of products, which
includeliquid milk, skimmed milk powder, whole milk powder, infant food, ghee,
butter, cheese,lassi, SFM, ice cream, malted food and verka vigour etc.The annual
turnover of milkfiedhas touched to Rs.45Ocrore.Milkfied state that it has
successfully leveraged on the brandequity of verka to launch new trends, needs,
taste and hopes.Health drinks like verka vigour, verka lassi,sweetened flavored milk
and amango drink called raseela have also hit the markets.Milkfied has now come
out withverka curd and a whole lot of different flavors of ice creams.Milkfied also
made a forayinto the international markets. They say that it was the domestic
competition that drovethem to alien destinations. However, Milkfied has already
established its ghee market inthe middle east. verka ghee reaches all the emirates
and is available in almost all supermarkets. In addition to ghee, SMP is also
exported to Asian countries like Philippines,Bangladesh and sri lanka. verka malt
plus (malted milkfood) is being exported toBangladesh also. with technology
mission programmes,ever widening markets andincreasing exports,Milkfied is
preparing it self to take verka to greater heights. Thefederation has planned to
introduce more value-added products like tetra-pack plain milkand low calorie
lassi.Milkfied not only provides assured market to milk producers but alsocarries
input to enhance milk to their doorsteps.the District cooperative milk
producersunions and milk plant have attained self-sufficiency or are on the
threshold of attaining it.Milkfied has played a very vital role in providing a strong
was for remunerative price to
38. the producers they get more money for their milk and payments are timely. In
additiontachnical input services in feeding ,breeding and management are easily
accessible.Value addition is one of Milkfiedls trust areas and the plants produce
notonly pasteurized, homogenized milk but also butter milk, cream, butter and
classifiedbutter-oil (ghee) and several other products. The milk union have
marketed milk and milkproducts. The puniab state Milk Federation yesterday
launched verka sweet lassi andmango rasela in chandigarh.verka lassi is popiler in
india as well as abroad (milkfiedexported lassi tojapan and bagladesh).The
managing diractor of Milkfied ,vikas partap,said there had been apersistent demand
from the consumers to launch the tetra pack and it was the ideal timeto hit the

market.Milkfied has 11 plants in punjab producing 35 products, includingtraditional


sweets.he said there was vast scope for expension in the milk sweets segmentand
the firm would launch two more in the category (son papri and dhoda) by the end
ofthis month.Milkfied supplies 50 lakh liter per annum of ultra heat treated milk to
easterncommand (50 lakh liter per annum) and northern command (36 lakh liter per
annum).Heinformed that the federation procures about 7 lakh litres of milk every
day and 7 lakhfarmers of punjab were earning their livelihood through Milkfied.pure
ghee nad toned milk of verka is in great demand in West Asia and we earnedabout
Rs 13.5 crore from export business last year added. The Punjab milkfied
alsosupplies 40,000hter of milk every day to mother dairy .The custom packaging of
milk isdone at Patiala and the milk is then dispached to Delhi foe sale.We have a
turnover ofRs 700 crore last year and expect to do better this year with the opening
up of trade tieswith Pakistan, he said. He said a trade delegation was in the city to
discuss the feasibilityof business with Milkfied. he pointed out that the government
-run milk federation, a lossmaking unit for two years, has clocked in profit due to a
up grade of marketing strategies.Milkfed was all set to pose a challenge to the
private players, through anaggressive marketing drive in the near future, he added.
The Mohali plant of milkfied hadreceived the national productivity award,2005,on
Wednesday. The award was given by
39. the union minister of agriculture in new Delhi. Milk plant mohali bagged the
award forthe third time.PUNJAB DRINK LASSI OUTSCORES EXOTIC DRINKS IN
COMPETITIONPatiala(PTI):Punjabs household drink lassihas outscored other
exotic drinks in a uniqueentrepreneurship competition held in Europe. lassi was
named the best beverage drinkat the Know Europe-2008entrepreneurship
programme in which a 20-year-old studentfrom Chandigarh, Taman raj singh,
represented india. The month-long programme,organised under the aegis of
normandy business school of finance, aimed at assessing theentrepreneurship
acumen of business school students around the world.The invites were asked to
given marketing presentation of beveragesfamous in their countries and taman
chose the traditional pUnjabi drink.His presentation was a mix of tradition and
modernity-the age-oldlassi inverkas tetra bpacks. it impressed the judges
immensely and got a high grading of 90 percent and the reason why none other
beverages matched lassi was its unique qualities-amix of simplicity, flavor and
health. it was not very difficult to convince people thatlassi, a simple mixture of
yogurt and water, was a healthy drink that could be consumedby people of all ages,
infants and patients, without hitch. And whats more, it can be hadsweet, salt, spicy
or even plain, Taman said. outscored exotic wines, fancy coffees-lattesand
cappuccino in the competition that was held last month at four places in brussels,
theNetherlands, France and spin.Believe it or not, Punjabs household beverages
has outscored exotic wines,fancy coffees lattes and cappuccino-and brewed beer at
a unique entrepreneurshipcompetition in Brussels, the Netherland, France and spin.
And the youth, who achievedthis rare feat for Lassi, is a 20-year- old B.com
student of S D college-32.Taman Rajsingh represented india at the Know Europe -

2008entrepreneurship programme,organized under the aegis o f normaandy


Business school of france.For the month-long programmes, aimed at assessing the
entrepreneurship of businessschool students, youth all over the world were invited
to give marketing presentation of
40. beverages famous in their countries, Taman chose the traditional punjabi drink.
Hispresentation was a mix of tradition and modernity -the age-old lassiin verkas
tetrapacks. The presentation impressed the judges immensely and it bagged an
unprecedentedgrading of 90 per cent.And the reason why none other beverage
matched lassi was its uniquequalities -a mix of simplicity, flavor and health. it
was not very difficult to convincepeople that lassi, a simple mixture of yogurt and
water, was a healthy drink, a drinkthat could be consumed by people of alleges,
infants, without hitch. And whats more, itcan be had sweet, salt, spicy or even
plain, said Taman.This entrepreneurship programme was conducted at four places
at brusselsby hogeschool universities, at the Netherlands by inholttland university,
at France byNormandy business school and at spin by the universitat politecnica
catalunya. it washeld under the auspices of the student exchange programme
orgnised between thenormandy Franch university and SD collage 32.Since the
target market was paris, taman,along with his five-member team of foreign
students, went to all restaurants and bighotlels of the city to promote their
respectives drinks. An ecstatic taman said:The feelingis just out of world.2.2
Inception:Milk production is very important part of the agriculture economy in
thestate of punjab. punjab is one of the smallest state in indian union with a total
area of
41. 50.362sq.kms,which is 1.5% of the indian landmass dairy farming is an age
oldsubsidiary proffesion in the rural areas of punjab.Punjab is the second largest
milkproducing state in india, producing around 10% of the countries milk production
i.e .8million tones annually.1. First milk plant,of the state was setup at VERKA near
amritsar.2. The brand name of milk and milk products adopted as VERKA.3. The
foundation stone of milk plant,ludhiana was laid by Hon.S.Parkash singhBadal,the
minister of punjab in june 22,1970.2.2.1 Objectives:a) To bring prosperity to Milk
Producers in the State through assured market andremunerative prices all round the
year.b) To provide fresh hygienic milk to urban consumers at reasonable rates.c) To
ensure viability and growth of Milk Unions by converting surplus milk intoproducts
and ensure their marketing.d) To modernize existing Plants and upgrade technology
from time to time.2.2.2 Mission Statement:To support the Milk Producers in uplifting
their rural economy, make allthe Milk Unions viable and ensure quality milk & milk
products to consumers.2.2.3 Vision Statement:The vision for the next five years is to
triple the turnover the federation from levelof INR 7.25 billion in 2006-07 to INR 26
billion in 2012-13.Ensure grass root level presentation of the Cooperative
movement.Increase Economics of scale in Milk Unions (Procurement/
Marketing)Capacity expansion and modernization of the dairy plants.Serous thrust
on increasing marketing orientation.

42. 2.3 The Punjab state cooperative milk producers federation limited:The Punjab
State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Limitedpopularly known as MILKFED
Punjab, came into existence in 1973 with a twin objectiveof providing remunerative
milk market to the Milk Producers in the State by valueaddition and marketing of
produce on one hand and to provide technical inputs to themilk producers for
enhancement of milk production on the other hand.Although the federation was
registered much earlier, but it came to real selfin the year 1983 when all the milk
plants of the erstwhile Punjab Dairy DevelopmentCorporation Limited were handed
over to Cooperative sector and the entire State wascovered under Operation Flood
to give the farmers a better deal and our valued customersbetter products.Today,
when we look back, we think we have fulfilled the promise to someextent. The setup
of the organisation is a three tier system, Milk Producers CooperativeSocieties at the
village level, Milk Unions at District level and Federation as an ApexBody at State
level. MILKFED Punjab has continuously advanced towards its covetedobjectives
well defined in its byelaws.2.3.1 Milk production network:-Working on Anand
Pattern the process of organizing societies at villagelevel started in Punjab as early
as 1978. Presently, there is strong Network of about 6474(as on 3 1.3.2010) Milk
Producers Cooperative Societies organized at village level.About 3.65 Lakh milk
producer members are attached to these societies. Fresh milk isprocured from the
milk producers twice a day through village level societies directlywithout the
assistance of any middleman.2.3.2 Input service:It is one of the fundamental
objectives of MILKFED to carry out activitiesfor promoting milk production in the
State. In view of this, various technical inputservices like veterinary health care,
artificial insemination services, vaccination, supply
43. of VERKA balanced cattle feed and quality fodder seed etc. are provided for
enhancingmilk production and economic development of farming community.2.3.3
Cattle induction programme:Government of Punjab has identified dairy sector as
thrust area for ruraldevelopment. Recently, Milkfed Punjab has signed memorandum
of understanding(MOU) with State Bank of India, State Bank of Patiala and Oriental
Bank of Commercefor providing loan up to Rs.50,000/- without any collateral
security to milk producerfarmers for purchase of milch cattle on soft terms and low
rate of interest.2.3.4 Clean milk production programme:For improving quality of raw
milk right from milk producers level, qmassive programme called CMP has been
launched under which 290 Bulk MilkCoolers have been installed in the societies and
many more in pipe line. Besides, morethan 1226 Automatic Milk Collection Stations
have been provided to the societies forbringing efficiency and total transparency in
the system. Traditional manual method ofmilk testing at society level is being
replaced with Electronic Milk Testers.2.3.5 Women dairy products:Household level
dairying is largely the domain of women especially insmall and marginal household
families. In view of this fact, Milkfed has undertakenWomen Dairy Project in six Milk
Unions namely Hoshiarpur, Ropar, Patiala, Jalandhar,Ludhiana and Amritsar with an
objective to empower rural women in the field of dairy.This Programme is being
implemented under Support to Training & EmploymentProgramme (STEP) with the

assistance of Government of India. Under this programme,390 women societies with


20596 women beneficiary members will be organized.
44. 2.4 Marketing:MILKFED is serving nation wide consumers through its net work
ofRegional offices and very strong Distribution channels. MILKFED markets a wide
rangevariety of Verka products which include liquid milk, skimmed milk powder,
whole milkpowder, ghee, butter, cheese, lassi, SFM, Ice Cream, etc. The annual turn
over ofMILKFED has crossed Rs.1255 crores. Verka is a brand leader in milk powders
and SMPmarketed by MTLKFED commands a premium price over powders
manufactured bycompetitors which include multi national as well as private trade
and other CooperativeFederations. Now Verka is known for its quality, freshness,
purity and of course its homemade taste.2.4.1 Extension of the board:After winning
faith of innumerable consumers, Verka did not stop.Changing times brought new
trends, needs, tastes and hopes. Verka, dynamic as ever tooacquired newer forms
of adding values to milk and milk products. Apart from introducingnew variants of
UHT long shelf life milk and SFM in carry away bottles, Milkfed has aplan to add
more variety of flavours in SFM. VERKA Ice Cream in different flavours
andpackagings is available in the market. Many new products are in pipe line.In true
sense,milk had never meant so much before.2.4.2 Export of milk products:After
carving a niche in the national market, Verka brand has reached inforeign market
also. MILKFED has established its Ghee market in Middle East . VerkaGhee reaches
all the emirates and is available almost in all super markets. Thepenetration is so
deep that Verka ghee is available even in far off labour camps. Inaddition to Dubai,
Saudi Arabia, Muscat, Australia and Japan, Verka Ghee is exported toNewzealand
and Malasia also.
45. 2.5 Quality assurance programme:Quality assurance programme (QAP) which is
a part and parcel of dairyplant improvement programme(DPIP) was taken up in
Ludhiana Milk union with theTechnical guidance from NDDB. The main objective of
the programme is to improveefficiency of plants coupled with loss management to
bring down the cost of production,improve the quality of milk and milk
productsmanufactured to ameliorate the general hygienicand house keeping
standards and above all toenhance the profitability and financial viability ofthe milk
plants to enable milk producers to getbetter price for there products.Verka milk
product may go on stir:cutting across party affiliations, all 12 directors on the board
of the verkamilk plant, Ludhiana, have got together to threaten an agitation if the
milkfiedmanagement does not increase the procurement price of milk from
producers.At a meeting held at the verka milk plant here today, the
directors,belonging to the shiromani Akali dal (SAD), paramjit singh
ghawadi(congress) and fivedirectors each from SAD and congress, said the milkfied
management never takes updevelopment issues unemployment.The directors have
demanded that the rates of purchases of milk from milkproducers should be
increased immediately. They want an end to interference too.Ludhiana, november II
in the backdrop of seizure of adulterated milk in thecity, the verka milk plant has

installed a free milk-testing centre outside its main gate onfreozpur road.The
centre will be providing free milk testing facility from 9 am to 5 pmon all working
days, said Anup singh, general manager, verka milk plant. The companyis milling
over the idea to extend the facility even on Sundays.
46. It has asked consumers to get 250 ml of unpasteurized milk at the
tests,including for synthetic milk, done there. within ten to fifteen minutes a report
will behanded over to the consumer, said a company employee. In the past few
weeks, thehealth department has seized a huge quality of adulterated milk from
several shops in thecity. there is an increase in the supply of spurious and
adulterated milk in the market. soit was the need of the hour to open this kind of
center,Anup singh said. Due tounawareness and lack of facilities of getting milk
tasted, the residents had no option butto use be-level milk and its products, he
added. The verka milk plant receives about 2.50lakh liters of milk daily from 750
villages of Ludhiana district through villages-level milkcooprative socities,In the
last five months I have cancelled the contacts of many contractorswhose supply
was not up to the mark, anup singh.ualthrough there was a lot of politicalpressure
on me. I didnt bow to it and cancelled the contracts of 20 to 25 years
oldcontractors. The company says it tests the milk at milk cooprative socities first
and thenagain at verka milk plant just to rule out any adulteration in it.To keep a
strict vigil on private daily owners, anup singh said the companywas planning to
raid some private dairy owners along with the health authorities.We willtake
random milk samples from dairies and the health department will take strict
actionagainst those indulging in adulteration, he added.
47. Chapter-3RESEARCH METHODOLOGYObjectives of study:1. Comparison of verka
and another brand of beverages.2. To know the satisfaction level of customer with
the quality of verka beverages.3. To know reason for preferring verka beverages
than another by customers.4. To know the satisfaction level of customers with
availability of verka beverages.Research methodology:Research methodology is the
way to systematically solve the researchproblem .when we talk about research
methodology we not only talk about researchmethods but also talk about the logic
behind the method we use in the context of ourresearch thats why out research
result are capable of being evaluated either by theresearcher himself or by
others.The purpose of this section is to describe the methodology carried
outcomplete the work. The methodology plays a dominant role in any research work
.Theeffectiveness of any research work upon the correctness and effectiveness of
the researchmethodology.Research design:A research design is an arrangement of
conditions for collection & analysisof data in a manner that aims to combine
relevance to the research purpose with theeconomy in procedure .it constitutes the
blueprint for collection, measurement &analysisof data. I have used convenient,
analytical and descriptive methods.Research instruments:Questionnaire is most
common research instrument in collecting primarydata during marketing
research .A questions presented to respondents. Because of itsflexibility, the

questionnaire is by far the most common instrument used to collectprimary data.


48. Sampling technique:In order to take the sample for the study sample technique
selected israndom sampling technique.Sample size:100 customer of Ludhiana
districtData collection:Primary data:It done from the randomly selected people from
the customer.Secondary data:It done from various books, journals, newspapers and
various internet websites.
49. Chapter-4Data analysis and interpretationQ.4.1 Do you often purchase Milk
beverage?Response No. of respondents PercentageYes 98 98%No 2 2%Total 100
100%Above table shows that more respondents often purchase milk beverages,
very few ofrespondents said they do not purchase milk beverages.98%2%YesNo
50. Q.4.2 Brands of beverages prefer mostly?Brand of beverages preferred
mostlyOption No. of respondents PercentageMother dairy 6 (Average) 6.11Amul 22
(good) 22.44Verka 70 (excellent) 71.45Others 0 0Total 98 100%Above table shows
that more respondents prefer verka beverages, another prefer amuland few prefer
mother diary, because verka is mostly available in
Punjab.6.1122.4471.45001020304050607080Mother dairy Amul Verka Others
51. Q.4.3 Frequency of purchase verka beverages?Frequency of purchases verka
beveragesOption No. of respondents PercentageDaily 70 71.44Weekly 14 14.3Twice
in a week 10 10.2Fortnightly 4 4.06Total 98 100Above table shows that mostly
consumer use verka beverages daily and some use weeklyand others twice in a
week or fortnightly.71.4414.310.24.0601020304050607080Daily Weekly Twice in
aweekFortnightly
52. Q.4.4 Consumer verka beverages?Response No. of respondents PercentageYes
96 97.96No 2 2.06Total 100 100%Above table shows that mostly consumer
purchase verka beverages, very few said theydo not purchase verka
beverage.98%2%YesNo
53. Q.4.4.B Preferred pack size?Options No. of respondents Percentage200ml 26
26500ml 34 341 litre 40 40Total 100 100Above table shows that more respondents
prefer one litre pack size and other 500ml andfew prefer 200
ml.2634400510152025303540200ml 500ml 1 litre
54. Q.4.4.C Problem with verka beverages?Options No. of respondents
PercentageQuality problem 0 0Supply problem 1 1.45Price problem 0 0Others 1
1.45Satisfied 96 97.1Above table shows that very few said there is supply problem
and other problems inverka beverages.98%0%1%0%1%Quality problemSupply
problemPrice problemOthersSatisfied
55. Q.4.5 Satisfaction level with verka beverages?Options No. of respondents
PercentageHighly satisfied 26 26.53Satisfied 58 59.18Undecided 12
12.24Dissatisfied 2 2.05Highly dissatisfied 0 0Total 98 100Above table shows that

some respondents are highly satisfied, many are satisfied, few aredissatisfied and
others are undecided.26.5359.1812.242.0500102030405060HighlysatisfiedSatisfied
Undecided Dissatisfied Highlydissatisfied
56. Q.4.6 Customer retentive about verka beverages?Options No. of respondents
PercentageYes 96 97.76No 2 2.06Total 98 100Above able indicates that more
respondents are retentive about verka beverages becauseof its brand image and
good quality.98%2%YesNo
57. 4.7 Customer get verka beverages from?Options No. of respondents
PercentageRetailers 72 73.47M.F. Store 20 20.41From other sources 6 6.12Total
98Above table indicates that more retailers purchase verka beverages from
retailers, anotherfrom manufacturing stores and few from other
sources.73.4720.416.1201020304050607080Retailers M.F. Store From other sources
58. 4.8 Preferred season from verka beverages?Options No. of respondents
PercentageSummer 40 40.81Winter 2 2.06Springs 2 2.06All seasons 54 55.13Total
98 100Above that indicates that mostly peoples prefer verka beverages in summer
and allseasons. Very few said that they prefer verka beverage in winter.40.812.06
2.0655.130102030405060Summer Winter Springs All seasons
59. 4.9 Satisfaction with availability of verka beverages at the outlets or retailers?
Options No. of respondents PercentageYes 96 97.96No 2 2.06Total 98 100It is
pertinent from above table that more people are satisfied with availability of
verkabeverages, because verka beverages are almost easily available to
customers.98%2%YesNo
60. 4.10 Satisfaction with quality of beverages?Options No. of respondents
PercentageYes 96 97.96%No 2 2.06%Total 98 100%Above table shows that mostly
people are satisfied with the quality of verka beverages,very few they are not
satisfied with the quality of verka beverages.962YesNo
61. Most liked feature in verka beveragesOptions No. of respondents
PercentageNutrients 22 22.44Taste and flavor 52 53.06Packing 6 6.12Cost 2
2.06Brand image 16 16.32Total 98 100%Above table shows mostly people liked
taste and flavor, some liked nutrients, very fewlike it for brand image, packing and
cost of verka beverage.22.4453.066.122.0616.320102030405060Nutrients Taste
and flavor Packing Cost Brand image
62. Q.4.12 Preference 4 different attributes of verka beverages?Nutrients % Taste %
Cost % Packing % Availability %Excellent 24 24.5 50 51 12 12.3 2 2.1 14 14.5Good
66 67.4 34 34.7 60 61.3 56 56.8 50 51Average 8 8.1 14 14.3 26 26.4 40 41.1 34
34.5Total 98 100 98 100 98 100 98 100 98 100Above table shows that respondents
like Nutrients, taste and cost of verka beverages.Availability and packaging is good,
but not excellent.010203040506070Nutrients Taste Cost Packing
AvailabilityExcellentGoodAverage

63. Chapter-5Findings of the study1. 98%of respondents often purchase milk


beverage and 2%do not purchase milkbeverage.2. 71 .45%respondent prefer verka.
22.44%respondents prefer amul and rest 6. IIprefer mother dairy.3. Out of 100,
71.44% respondents purchase verka beverage daily,14.3%respondentspurchase
verka beverage weekly ,10.2% respondent verka beverage twice in aweek and
4.06%purchase verka beverage fortnightly.4. Out of 100 respondents 97.96%
consume verka beverage and 2.06%do notpurchase verka beverage.5. Out of 100
respondents 26% respondents prefer 200 ml 34% prefer 500 ml and40%prefer I
liter.6. Out of 100 respondents I.45%respondents said quality problem and 1.45%
saidprice problem and 97.1% satisfied.7. Out of 100 respondents 26.53% are highly
satisfied with verka beverages .59.18%satisfied, 12.24% undecided and 2.05% are
dissatisfied.8. Out of 100 respondents, 97.96% respondents retentive about verka
beverages and2.06%respondents are not retentive about verka beverages.9. Out of
100 respondents 73.47%respondents gets verka beverages fromretailers,20.41%
respondents gets verka beverages other sources.10. Out of 100 respondents
55.13%respondents prefer verka beverages in all seasons,40.81 %in summer and
2.06%in winter and in springs.11. Out of 100 respondents 97.96% respondents are
satisfied with availability of verkabeverages at respondents and outlets and rest
2.06%are not satisfied.12. Out of 100 respondents 97.96% are satisfied with quality
of verka beverages andrest 2.06%are not satisfied.
64. 13. Out of 100 respondents 22.44% like verka beverages because of
nutrients,53.06%because of taste. 6.12%because of packing, 2.06%because of cost
and16.32% like because of brand image.14. Out of 100 respondents 24.5% said
nutrition is excellent, 67.4% said good and8.1% said average.51% said taste is
excellent, 34.7% said good and 14.3% saidAverage.12.3% said cost is excellent,
61.3% is good and 26.4% is average. 2.1%said packing is excellent, 56.8/a said
good and 41.1% is average.14.5% saidavailability is excellent, 51% said good and
34.5 said average.
65. Suggestions1. At some places it was found that demand is more but availability
is notsatisfactory so quick and adequate supply must be insured.2. There should be
replacement of products if that product is damaged by companysown fault. For
instance passed expiry date or poor packaging.3. Packing of verka beverages should
be improved like cane can be used for packingof cold coffee and milk which are
earlier packed in bottle; it will attract the morecustomers.4. Time based feedback
must be taken by the company from customers, so thatwhich problems are faced by
the regarding verka beverages.5. There should be home delivery of milk in some
areas like P.A.U Ludhiana.
66. Limitation of the study1. There is not a particular trend followed in this industry
to promote sales. Actionsare taken according to the situation and the situation
changes very fast in theindustry.2. The number of shops is very large in the number
and it is very difficult to cover allof them.3. No replacement of damaged and expired
products.4. No advertisement is there.

67. ConclusionBeverages industry is very competitive industry and dominance of


verka makes it tougherfor other brands to establish in the field. So in order to
complete in this market everythingshould be perfect with mm focus on distribution.
The distribution must be proper andretailer s must be the main centre of focus.
They are the people who can make difference.verka beverage mach with
expectation of customers and they are fully satisfied with thequality and availability
of verka beverages .Customer purchase verka beverage becauseof its good quality
and price mostly peoples consume verka beverage daily. Customersare retentive
about verka beverages because of its good taste and nutrition. Customerprefers
verka beverages than another brand because its availability is good in Punjab.
Forpromotion of sales there should be more improvement in packing because it is
good notexcellent and in scheme also. Advertisement is good so no need to more
stress on it. Thuswe can say that verka provide healthy beverages to customers.
68. AppendixConsumer survey formName of customer __