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Genetic Optimization Algorithm

Zahra Emrani*, and Karim Mohammadi**

* zemrani@Elec.iust.ac.ir

** mohammadi@iust.ac.ir

on Extended Compact Genetic Algorithm (ECGA)[7]

is presented that solves routing design problem in the

mesh based NoC with an objective of minimizing the

bandwidth which the entire system required, that is,

balancing the link load of entire system. While GA is a

kind of random optimization algorithm based on the

Genetic intelligence, it is applicable to solve NP

problems. However, it is always susceptibility to

entrapment at local optima.

In this paper, with use of ECGA solve NOC routing

problem. Compared to basic GA Algorithm[8], the

technique has better performance and significantly

guarantees the bandwidth requirement.

solution for the global communication challenges of Systemon-chip (SoC) design in the nanoscale technologies. This

method tries to develop an efficient routing algorithm for

Network-on-Chip. The proposed routing methodology, based

on the Extended Compact Genetic Algorithm Optimization, is

applied on the 2D-Mesh NoC platform to balance the link

load. Experimental results show that this routing algorithm

can efficiently assign deadlock-free, minimal routing paths

for traffic traces in a short period of time.

Keywords:

Network-on-chip

(NoC),

routing

algorithm, Extended Compact Genetic Algorithm.

1.

Introduction

appropriate network-on-chip, the most important issues

that need to be addressed are: the selection of suitable

routing algorithms, selection of proper connections,

reduction of power utilization, improvement of

reliability, and balance the link load. NoC Routing is

one of the most important affects on efficient in NOC.

The routing strategy determines the path followed by

each packet between a sourcedestination pair.

The goal of this article is to offer an appropriate

routing approach with balance the link load in a

network-on-chip.

Deadlock-free and livelock-free are important

factors for the routing operation. The use of the virtual

channels is one of the approaches that has been

proposed in [1][3] for getting rid of deadlock and

livelock, and which has been applied in the networkson chip with different topologies. The XY routing

algorithm for two-dimensional meshes has been

presented in [4]. In this algorithm, a packet moves, first

along the X dimension and then, along the Y

dimension. This algorithm is not adaptive, but it is

deadlock-free. In [5], a partially-adaptive routing

algorithm has been presented in which the virtual

channels are not used.

In [6], a routing algorithm, called the odd-even turn

algorithm, has been proposed, which is based on the

turn model. In this algorithm, some of the turns are

prevented from happening, according to two rules, and

thus, a lack of deadlock is guaranteed.

Therefore, XY routing is simple, it does not take a

balance for communication traffics. The novelty of this

technique is that it solves the NoC routing problem in

the presence of bandwidth constraint to balance the

link load of network.

2.

whose processing sources (the IP cores) are based on a

communication

infrastructure

made

up

of

switches/routers and the interconnection network

consisting of communication links between the

components of the network-on-chip.

On the whole, the network-on-chip consists of the

following main components:

1. Switches (routers): these are used for receiving,

routing, and sending of data packets throughout

the network.

2. Network interface: the main function of the

interface is to facilitate communication between an

IP core and the related switch, and also to

encapsulate data.

3. Intermediate connections: the main task of these

connections is to provide communication between

switches, and they could consist of one or several

physical or logic channels.

Data are transferred among the cores in the form of

packets. Generally, a packet consists of two main parts:

the header, and the data. The header includes

information such as the address of the sender of the

packet in the network, address of the destination

intended for the packet, and other information, if

necessary. Throughout the network, the packets are

transferred in the form of smaller units called flits.

A simple network-on-chip with mesh connection,

along with the relevant details has been shown in

Figure 1. This system comprises 16 computational

resources including processors, memories, hardware

19thIranianConferenceonElectricalEngineering(ICEE),IEEE,2011

task, and each directed arc aij =(ti,tj) represents the

communication from ti to tj.

Definition 2: A Topology Graph TG=G (N, L) is a

directed graph where each vertex ni represents a node

of the network, and each directed arc lij=(ni,nj)

represents a physical unidirectional channel (link)

connecting node ni to nj .

The routing algorithm of this paper is to choose a set

of reasonable and shortest paths for each trace, under

the constraints of bandwidth, so that the congestion of

communication is minimized. So the definition of

Routing Function is as follows:

Definition 3: A Routing Function R(n): R={R(n,m) :

n, m N} gives the set of paths that can be used to

send messages from source node n N to the

destination node m N, and the final set of paths must

balance the link load of system, at the same time,

satisfies the bandwidth constraint.

To sum up, the ultimate goal is minimize the link

load:

router via an interface. Every router is also connected

to the routers around it. Each router consists of four

exit ports and four enter ports (except the edges), and

for every port, some buffer has been allocated for use

in the routing algorithm.

Min{

ai , j A

(1)

respectively:

Bw( ai , j ) : the bandwidth of each

communication trace .

challenges of interconnection networks. The routing

algorithm determines the path that each packet follows

between a sourcedestination pair.

3.

static two-dimensional XY grid NoC has been used. the

packet transmission latency from the source node Ri to

the destination node Rj is determined by the relative

distance of Ri & Rj , and the situation of network

congestion.

For reduce the latency of data communication, the

most effective way is to alleviate network congestion,

and the key of alleviating the congestion is to balance

the link load.

Balance the link load causes to optimize the latency,

and reduce the transmission time, so as to achieve the

purpose of reducing the task execution time. Moreover,

the link load is defined according to the bandwidth of

links in the networks.

To better analyze the routing problems, we present

some definitions and assumptions in this section.

On this basis, in order to illustrate the NoC routing

problem clearly, the mesh based NoC design problem

is defined as follows:

Given a directed graph G (V, A) where V is the set of

vertices and A is the set of edges. Otherwise, the

directed arc from vertex vi to vertex vj is indicated with

aij (vi , vj ) . Given an edge a A, src (a) and dst(a)

respectively stand for the source and the destination

vertex of the edge (e.g., src(aij)= vi and dest(aij) = vj).

Definition 1: A Communication Graph CG = G (T,

A) is a directed graph where each vertex ti represents a

0, lk nij

f (lk )

1, lk nij

U (lk ) : the link load of system.

(2)

routing of the communication traces subject to the peak

bandwidth constraint on the router ports, so as to

balance the link load of system.

4.

Algorithm Implementation

4.1

ECGA

The ECGA[7] is an estimation of distribution

algorithm that replaces the variation operators of GAs

with sampling probabilistic models of promising

candidate solutions. The ECGA is based on a key point

that choice of a suitable probability distribution is

equivalent to linkage learning.

The measure of a suitable distribution is quantified

based on minimum description length (MDL) models.

The key idea in MDL models is that all things being

simpler distributions are better than more complex

ones. The MDL restriction penalizes both inaccurate

and complex models, thereby leading to an optimal

probability distribution. Thus, MDL restriction

reformulates the problem of finding a suitable

distribution as an optimization problem that minimizes

both the probability model as well as population

representation.

The probability distribution used in ECGA is a class

of probability models known as marginal product

19thIranianConferenceonElectricalEngineering(ICEE),IEEE,2011

Therefore, ECGA decrease the probability to

entrapment at local optima.

The offspring population is generated by randomly

choosing subsets from the current individuals

according to the probabilities of the subsets as

computed in the probabilistic model.

marginal distributions on a partition of the genes and

are similar to those of the compact GA (CGA) and

PBIL. Unlike the models used in CGA and PBIL,

MPMs can represent probability distributions for more

than one gene at a time. MPMs also facilitate a direct

linkage map with each partition separating tightly

linked genes. For example, the following MPM, for a

four-bit problem represents that the 1st and 3rd genes

are linked and 2nd and 4th genes are independent.

Furthermore, the MPM consists of the following

marginal probabilities:{p(g1= 0, g3= 0), p(g1= 0, g3= 1),

p(g1=1, g3=0), p(g1= 1, g3= 1), p(g2= 0), p(g2= 1),

p(g4= 0), p(g4= 1)}, where gi is the value of the ith

gene.

The ECGA can be algorithmically outlined as

follows:

1. Initialization: The population is usually initialized

with random individuals. However, other

initialization procedures can also be used.

2. Compute the fitness value of the individuals.

3. Selection: The ECGA uses roulette-wheel

selection. However, other selection procedures can

be used instead of roulette-wheel selection.

4. Probabilistic model: Both the structure and the

parameters of the model are searched in ECGA. A

greedy search heuristic is used to find an optimal

model of the selected individuals in the population.

5. New individuals: New individuals are created by

sampling the probabilistic model.

6. Replace the parental population with the offspring

population.

7. Repeat steps 26 until some convergence criteria

are met.

The following greedy search heuristic is used to

find an optimal or near-optimal probabilistic model.

1. Assume each variable is independent of each

other. The model is a vector of probabilities.

2. Evaluate the model complexity and population

complexity values of the current model.

3. Consider all possible ( - 1) / 2 merges of two

variables.

4. Compute the model and compressed population

complexity values for each model structure.

5. Select the merged model with lowest combined

complexity.

6. If the combined complexity of the best merged

model is better than the combined complexity of

the model computed in step 2, replace it with the

best merged model and go to step 2.

7. If the combined complexity of the best merged

model is less than or equal to the combined

complexity, the model cannot be improved and the

model of step 2 is the probabilistic model of the

current generation.

probability to entrapment at local optima in GA and

CGA is high and cause to decrease the efficiency.

4.2

The NoC Routing Based on ECGA

After every IP core mapping to resource node in the

NoC, the shortest distance (minimum hop distance)

between IP cores in NoC architecture is fixed.

However, there often exist more than one such paths

for a data going from source node i(xi,yi) to destination

node j(xj,yj). Fig.2 shows two different routing paths

from node (0, 0) to node (2, 2) with the same total

length.

Fig. 2: Two different routing paths from node (0, 0) to node(2, 2)[8]

find the shortest path between source and destination.

Extended Compact Genetic Algorithm (ECGA)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Apply selection.

Model the population using a greedy MPM search.

Generate a new population according to the MPM

found in step3.

If stopping criteria is not satisfied, return to step2.

Fig. 3: Steps of ECGA for NOC Routing [7]

each communication trace, the hop distance between

the source node and destination node determines the

number of binary arrays, which stands for the routing

information. Moreover, the number of X and Y jump

respectively determine the number of the Binary Array

"1" and "0". That means, the legality of gens can be

verified by computing the number of 0 and 1 in binary

arrays. At this point the fitness function is the link load

of the network.

In ECGA less parameters of GA technique couple

together.

19thIranianConferenceonElectricalEngineering(ICEE),IEEE,2011

5.

[3]

Experimental Results

whether the algorithm can find suitable routing scheme

under the bandwidth constraint, measures the

performance of algorithm, that is, the judgment

standard is to the number of effective routing schemes

under a set of fixed mapping. Simulation results are

based on some typical applications shown in Table 1.

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

Graph ID

G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

Nodes

6

7

8

12

12

Edges

6

8

11

13

15

[8]

[9]

2d meshes, " In Proc. of Intl Conf. Parallel Processing, pp.

101-104, 1992.

Intel Corporation, "A Touchstone DELTA System

Description," 1991.

C. J. Glass and L. M. Ni, "The turn model for adaptive routing,

" Journal of the of the Association for Computing Machinery

(ACM), vol. 20, no.2, pp. 278-287, 1992.

G. M. Chiu, "The odd-even turn model for adaptive routing, "

IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 11, no.

7, pp. 729-738, 2000.

K.Sastry1, D.. E. Goldberg, and D. D. Johnson, "Scalability of a

Hybrid Extended Compact Genetic Algorithm for Ground State

Optimization of Clusters," Materials and Manufacturing

Processes, vol. 22, pp. 570-576, 2007.

G. Fen and W. Ning, "Genetic Algorithm Based Mapping and

Routing Approach for Network on Chip Architectures,"

Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 91-96,

2010.

X. Chuan pei, Y. Xiao feng, Chen Yu qian. "A Technique for

NOC Routing Based on Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization

Algorithm," in proc. 2009 IEEE Genetic and Evolutionary

Computing Conf., pp.607-610.

utilization of various benchmark applications after

route generation. As seen from the figure, ECGA better

results than Basic GA.

1.8

Maximum Link Bandwidth

(Normalized Values)

1.6

1.4

Basic GA

ECGA

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

6. Conclusion

In this paper, the link load is chose as goal of twodimensional mesh NOC routing. This method not only

achieved effective, deterministic, deadlock-free,

minimal routing paths allocation program, but also

balance the link load of system. According to the

simulation results, This method has a favorable impact

on the performance of a network-on-chip. Compared to

the Basic GA algorithm, the algorithm is based on

ECGA, has a better optimization effect.

References

[1]

[2]

Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 194205,

1992.

Y. M. Boura and C. R. Das. Efficient fully adaptive wormhole

routing in n-dimensional meshes. In Proc. of Intl Conf.

Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 589596, 1994.

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