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Advanced Fluid Mechanics Midterm

10:20am-12:40pm, Nov. 22 (Tuesday)


1. (10pts) Please derive [ v] in cylindrical coordinates (as a function of r , , and z)
Note: v is vector and = r


z , and some other useful tables are in appendix 1/4.
r
z
r

2. (10pts) A surface with normal direction described by a vector n is located in a force field described
by a stress tensor T. The force per unit area exerted on this surface can be described by [ nT]
(a) (5pts) Write down the general expression of [ nT]
(b) (5pts) If nx= 1, ny= 2, nz= -1;
Txx=1, Txy=1 Txz= 0,
Tyx= 2, Tyy=1 Tyz= 2,
What is the force per unit area at the plane?

Tzx=0, Tzy=1 Tzz=1

3. (20pts) An incompressible Newtonian fluid is bounded by two planar, solid surfaces with an angle
=/2. One surface slides past the other at a velocity U in the direction specified in Figure 1. Both
surfaces are assumed to extend indefinitely. Re(r)=Ur/ <<1 is valid at the region close to the
corner (for very small r).
(a) (5pts) Write the governing equation and the associated boundary conditions for the stream
function
(b) (5pts) Guess the solution form of from the boundary conditions
(c) (10pts) Find , and the flow velocity vr and v in this small r region.
(note: (d2/d2) (d2/d2) f =0 could be solved by using two steps: (d2/d2) g = 0 and (d2/d2) f =
g , if necessary)

=0

Figure 1.

4 (20pts) The
4.
T volumeetric flow raate (Q) in ann inclined tu
ube can be measured
m
by a capillary
y flow meteer
shown in
i Figure 2. The fluidd flowing inn the inclin
ned tube (raadius R) haas a density
y of and a
viscosityy of . Thhe testing fluuid in the caapillary metter has a deensity of M and a visco
osity of M.
The surfface tensionn between the
t two fluids is, thee contact anngle is, annd the radiu
us of the left
capillaryy is 2r and of
o the right capillary iss r. The incllined tube has
h an anglee of and
d length of L
betweenn A and B pooints.
(a) (7ptss) Express the
t volumettric flow raate (Q) in th
he tube, as a function oof PA and PB (dynamiic
presssure)? Assuume that thee liquid is incompressi
i
ible and Neewtonian annd steady sttate has beeen
reachhed.
(b) (7ptss) What is thhe correlation betweenn PA, PB, and
d H? (Expreess PA as a ffunction of PB and H.)
(c) (6ptss) How to determine Q from meeasurable H?
H (Expresss Q as a fuunction of H but not a
function of PA, PB, PA or PB.)

Figure 2
5 (20pts) A long solid circular cylinder
5.
c
of length
l
L an
nd radius R1 is falling at velocity U through a
liquid heeld within a cylindricall vessel of radius
r
R2 cllosed at the bottom, as shown in Figure
F
3. Thhe
movemeent of the cyylinder is cooaxially witth the vessel. Steady staate has beenn reached and the liquiid
is incom
mpressible and Newtoonian. R1, R2, U are known parrameters, buut the presssures at thhe
entrancee (P0) and exxit (PL) of thhe gap are unknown.
u
(a) (6ptts) Write thhe governinng equationss and boundary condittions. Show
w how you simplify thhe
goveerning equattions with thhe conditionns specified
d in the probblem.
(b) (8ptts) Solve thhe velocity profile of the
t liquid in
n the gap between
b
thee inner cylin
nder and thhe
vesseel wall (as a function of
o PL and P0).

(c) (6pts) Obtain what the pressure difference (PL-P0) is based on U and other known parameters?
(Hint: Use mass balance. The fluid displaced by the falling cylinder must leave from the gap.)

P0

PL

Figure 3
6. (20pts) An incompressible Newtonain fluid is enclosed by the two very large parallel plates with a
distance of 2B, as shown in Figure 4. Both of the plates are forced to oscillate in the x-direction at
a rate of Vcoswt.
(a) (6pts) Write the governing equations and boundary conditions. Show how you simplify the
governing equations with appropriate assumptions.
(b) (6pts) What is the velocity profile of the fluid between the two plates?
(c) (4pts) Do a dimensional analysis and show the suitable non-dimensional variables and groups.
Under what conditions the systems can be viewed as quasi-steady state?
(d) (4pts) When w is very large, the accumulation term and viscous term are both important only
in the region close to the plates. That is, the thickness of the layer influenced by the two plate
motion is much smaller than B. Please estimate the suitable characteristic length () is in this
situation.

Figure 4