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13 visualizações14 páginasforces and motion notes

Nov 19, 2016

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forces and motion notes

© All Rights Reserved

13 visualizações

forces and motion notes

© All Rights Reserved

- Exam 1 Solutions
- Constrained Motion Problems
- Forces in Motion
- 2.2 Force, Power in Metal Cutting Q&A for Student
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A force results from the interaction between two objects. A force can be defined as a push or a

pull which acts upon an object as a result of its interaction with another object.

When one object exerts a force on another object it always experiences an equal opposing

force in return from the object it exerted the force on. Or in other words when two objects

interact, the forces they exert on one another are equal and opposite. These forces are referred

to as the action and reaction forces.

Forces are measured in units called Newton (N). The unit is named after the famous physicists

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) who Laws of Motion are instrumental in understanding the

effects of forces.

Examples of forces

Weight

Weight is the force of gravity, which is the pull of the Earth on an object. To understand the

force of gravity the concept of mass needs to be understood as well.

The mass of an object is the amount of matter it contains. Thus mass is a measure of how much

stuff is in an object. Mass is measured in kilograms (kg) and is the same no matter where the

object is located in the universe. For example and object of mass 10kg on the Earth will have

the same mass of 10kg on the moon or anywhere else in the universe. Weight on the other

hand is a measure of the pull of a planet i.e. Earth on the stuff contained in the object. The

direction of the force of gravity is downwards towards the centre of the Earth.

As mentioned earlier when two objects interact they exert equal and opposite forces. The force

that opposes the force of gravity in called the Normal Force. This is equal to the force of gravity

and acts in an upwards direction (opposite to the downwards direction of the force of gravity).

This is exerted by the surface upon which the object is positioned on. Therefore the force of

gravity is the action force and the normal force is the reaction force.

FREE BODY FORCE DIAGRAMS

Free-body force diagrams are used to give a clear and simple indication of the effect of the

forces acting on an object. In a free-body force diagram only the forces acting directly on the

object are shown. The forces are represented by arrows, the direction of the arrow gives the

direction of the force and the size of the arrow represents the size of the force. This assists the

reader in determining the net force acting on the object.

Friction

Frictional forces are the forces that oppose or prevent motion. These forces are a result of the

interaction between the surfaces of two objects (more precisely due to the attractions between

the molecules of the surfaces in contact). The reason why a football that is kicked eventually

comes to rest is due to the friction forces between the surface of the rolling ball and the grass

and air it is in contact with.

Magnetic Forces

This is the force produced by magnetic materials which pulls or repels other materials. For

example the magnetic strip on a refrigerator door catch pulls the door to the refrigerator frame

to keep the door closed.

The relationship between forces and motion were first fully explained by Sir Isaac Newton in

the sixteenth century. Before explaining Newtons laws of Motion it is important the term

resultant force is understood.

Resultant Force

The resultant force on an object is the sum of all the individual forces acting on the object

taking into account the direction in which they are acting. Therefore all the forces acting on an

object may be replaced by a single force which has the same effect as all the original forces

acting together.

Newtons first law deals with objects at rest or those moving at constant speed.

Newton stated that if the resultant force on an object is zero then an object at rest will remain

at rest and an object in motion will continue its motion in the same direction at constant speed.

This means that all objects have a natural tendency to keep on doing what they are doing. All

objects have a reluctance to change their state of motion and require an unbalanced force to

bring about a change.

The reluctance or resistance for a mass to change its state of motion is referred to as inertia.

This is why it is critical for drivers and passengers to wear seat belts. Passengers in cars possess

a lot of inertia; if the car is forced to stop suddenly the passengers in the car will still move

forward, the seatbelts however exert large forces on the passengers to stop them.

The animation below explains Newtons first law of motion:

Newtons first law deals with objects at rest or objects moving at constant velocity. His second

law deals with the motion of accelerating and decelerating objects.

We know from everyday life examples such as pushing a car that if two people push a car on a

flat road it will accelerate faster than if one person was pushing it. Thus, there is a relationship

between the size of the force and the acceleration. We also know that it is easier for two

people to push a small car than a large truck and for the same applied force the small car will

accelerate faster than a large truck. Therefore there is also a relationship between mass and

acceleration.

Experimentation proves that acceleration of a body is proportional to the force applied. This

means that acceleration doubles when the force doubles or acceleration trebles when the force

trebles, thus the greater the force the greater the acceleration. This relationship is represented

as:

Experiments also show us if you keep the force constant and double the mass, the acceleration

will halve. This means the acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass i.e. the greater the

mass the less the acceleration.

Combing these two results we get:

This equation gives the mathematical form of Newtons second law of motion,

which states:

The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to the mass of the object and directly

proportion to the force acting on the object.

Provided the force is measured in Newton the second law can be written mathematically as:

The unit for measuring force is the Newton. One Newton is defined as:

The force which gives a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1 m/s2

The animation below explains Newtons second law of motion:

The force acting on an object in free fall is called its weight. The acceleration of the object is

due to the force of gravity, therefore from Newtons second law of motion we know;

F=mxa

Acceleration due to gravity is represented by g and is equal to 9.8m/s2.

Therefore,

F=mx g

(where g is acceleration due to gravity)

We know that force acting due to gravity is weight so,

W=mxg

Newtons Third Law of Motion

Newton noticed that forces always come in pairs as a result of the interaction between two

bodies and that the two forces were always equal in size and opposite in direction.

In his third law Newton states:

If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts a force on body A that is equal in size

but opposite in direction.

Newtons third law can be explained by the example of the space shuttle shown in the

animation below:

This is an important point to remember. The two forces in an action-reaction force pair always

act on two different objects. Therefore, the two forces can never cancel each other out. The

forces acting on the shuttle are the weight and thrust (although there will also be a drag force

caused by friction in the atmosphere). The thrust is the reaction force from the exhaust gases.

The action force i.e. the exhaust gases from the rear of the shuttle are not acting on the rocket

rather the rocket pushes on the exhaust gases.

Momentum

Momentum is defined as the product of mass and velocity.

The unit for momentum is kilogram meters per second (kgm/s) and it is a vector quantity as it

has both size and direction. The direction is given by the velocity (velocity = speed in a

particular direction).

p =mxv

Thus, the momentum of an object depends on its mass and its velocity. A 5000kg van travelling

with a velocity of 6m/s will have a greater momentum than a 2000kg car travelling at the same

velocity of 6m/s. However, a 2000kg car travelling at a velocity of 20m/s will have a greater

momentum than the 5000kg van travelling at 6m/s.

From Newtons second laws we know that:

And that the acceleration is the change in velocity by the time taken:

Resultant Force x time taken = change in momentum

This equation confirms that when a resultant force acts on an object it will cause a change of

momentum in the direction of the force and the size of the change depends on the size of the

force and the time for which it acts.

This can be explained by considering a sportsman or sportswoman striking a ball. A good

sportsperson will always follow through when playing a shot. This means the force is applied

for a longer time and so a greater change in momentum can be achieved for a given force.

Lets consider the following example. A batsman strikes a cricket ball of mass 0.15kg

accelerating it from 10m/s to 25m/s. The illustration below shows the force required when the

bat acts on the ball for 1/100th of a second and for 1/10th of a second.

The above example illustrates that the longer the duration of contact or impact in a collision

the smaller the force exerted. Seat belts, airbags and crumple zones in cars also make use of

this concept. During a car accident the seat belt is designed to stretch slightly, thereby

increasing its time of contact with the wearer. This reduces the force of the impact on the seat

belt wearer. Crumple zones in vehicles also increase the length of time of impact with a

colliding object thus reducing the force on the passengers.

Conservation Of Momentum

We know from the equation mentioned in the section above that when a force acts on a body

for a time it results in a change of momentum. When two bodies collide they exert a force over

the same period of time which results in a change in momentum. From Newtons third law we

know if object A exerts a force on object B then object B exerts an equal and opposite force on

object A.

This means that the change in momentum will be equal and opposite.

The principle of conservation of momentum is as follows:

Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision

For the principle of conversation to hold no external forces must act on the colliding bodies as

this would result in momentum being added to the system.

The principle of conservation of momentum also applies to explosions. Explosions are the

opposite to collisions. In explosions objects move apart. An example of this is a rocket. A rocket

gains momentum by the controlled explosion of fuel as the hot exhaust gases move in one

direction the rocket moves in the opposite direction. Thus the momentum of the hot exhaust

gases equals the momentum of the rocket.

Friction

Friction is defined as a force that opposes motion.

When two objects are brought into contact the molecules from the surface of one object get

very close to the molecules on the surface of the other object. This results in forces of

attraction between the molecules and this must be overcome so that one surface can move

over the other.

Objects moving through fluids such as air or water also encounter frictional forces which

reduce their motion. This is known as drag.

Friction prevents objects from moving or slows them down. It also causes wear on surfaces as

they rub against each other and generates heat. Thus energy is wasted in overcoming friction.

Reducing friction

Lubrication

Oil is used as a lubricant and provides a thin layer of liquid which separates the moving

surfaces.

Bearings

Ball bearings reduce frictions by making the moving surface roll rather than slide.

Streamlining

By designing the object to allow the easy flow of fluid around it (streamlining) as is done for

rockets and racing cars the drag can be reduced considerably.

Uses of friction

Although in a lot of cases friction is a hindrance but it is also very essential. In order to walk we

depend on the friction between the soles of our feet or shoes and the ground. The tyres and

brakes on vehicles depend on friction to stop, slow down and start moving. It is the air

resistance or drag that slows down a parachute.

Stopping Distance

Cars rely on friction at the brakes and tires in order to stop.

The total distance a car requires to stop is called the total stopping distance. This is the sum of

the distance covered in the time it takes for the driver to react known as the thinking distance

and the distance the car travels before coming to rest after the brakes are pressed called the

braking distance.

Total stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance

The diagram below gives the shortest stopping distances for a car on a dry road with good

brakes and tires.

From the diagram a clear pattern can be seen between the velocity of the car and the total

stopping distance. The average reaction time of a driver is about 0.7s as the velocity of the car

increases so will the thinking distance from the relationship;

Distance travelled = velocity x reaction time

The braking distances increases because at a faster velocity the car possesses more kinetic

energy. This energy has to be transferred to the brakes; this is transferred as heat and is the

reason why brakes become hot. The relationship between velocity and kinetic energy is,

Kinetic Energy (Joules) = x mass x velocity2

Therefore if the car travels three times the velocity it has 9 times the kinetic energy which

means the braking distance will be nine times longer.

Factors affecting the total stopping distance

The drivers reaction time

The thinking distance depends on the drivers reaction time. Reactions are strongly influenced

by the state of the mind. Thus, a driver under the influence of a drug such as alcohol will have a

much reduced reaction time which will increase the thinking distance. Tiredness and fatigue

also influence reaction time. A tired driver will react a lot slower than an alert driver.

Velocity

As illustrated in the chart above the braking distance increases with velocity. This is explained

by the relationship between kinetic energy and velocity. The greater the velocity the greater

the kinetic energy the brakes have to transfer.

Mass

The mass of the vehicle is also related to kinetic energy in the relationship;

Kinetic Energy (Joules) = x mass x velocity2

The greater the mass the greater the kinetic energy, thus a heavier car will require a longer

braking distance.

Road Surface

Friction between the car tires and the road surface stop it from skidding and sliding. On a wet

or icy road surface the contact between the tires and the road is considerably reduced. If the

driver brakes hard the car will skid therefore the driver needs to apply a reduced force on the

brakes increasing the braking distance.

Tire Condition

Tires are designed with grooves which channel the water away on wet roads in order to ensure

contact of the tire is made with the road. If the tires are worn the friction between the road and

tires is reduced increasing braking distance.

Brake Condition

Worn brakes will take longer to transfer the kinetic energy of the car increasing the braking

distance.

Air Resistance

The force that resists the motion of an object through a gas and liquid is called drag.

For objects moving through air sometimes instead of drag the term air resistance is used. As an

object moves through air, the gas molecules in the air push against the surface of the moving

object resulting in friction between the gas molecules in the air and the surface of the moving

object.

The amount of drag encountered depends on the following:

Shape

An object with smooth lines will allow the air to flow over it more easily reducing the drag. This

is known as streamlining and is why objects built for speed such as racing cars have smooth

bodies.

Speed

Drag increases with speed.

Area

The larger the area of contact the more drag it will experience.

The type of fluid

There will be more drag in a liquid compared to a gas as the molecules are a lot closer together.

A stone will fall much faster in air than in water.

Terminal Velocity

When an object falls it accelerates due to its weight (the downward force of gravity acting on

the objects mass). As it accelerates its velocity increases. The increase in velocity is

accompanied by an increase in air resistance (drag). Eventually the air resistance acting

upwards on the objects equals the weight acting downwards. The overall force on the object is

balance or zero; it therefore cannot accelerate and continues to fall at constant velocity. This is

referred to as the terminal velocity.

The animation below shows the terminal velocity of a skydiver:

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