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CHE425: Problem set #4

1. A fractionation tower operating at 101.3 kPa produces a distillate of 95 mol% acetone (A),
5 mol% water, and a residue containing 1 mol% A. The feed liquid is at 125 oC and 687 kPa
and contains 57 mol% A. Before entering the tower, the feed passes through an expansion
valve and is partially vaporized at 60oC. From the data below, determine the molar ratio of
liquid to vapor in the feed. Enthalpy and equilibrium data are: molar latent heat of A = 29,750
kJ/kmpl; molar latent heat of H2O = 42,430 kJ/kmol; molar specific heat of A = 134
kJ/kmolK; molar specific heat of H2O = 75.3 kJ/kmolK; enthalpy of high-pressure, hot feed
before adiabatic expansion = 0; enthalpy of feed phases after expansion are hV = 27,200
kJ/kmol and hL = 5,270 kJ/kmol. All data except K-values, are temperature-independent.
Equilibrium data for acetone- H2O at 101.3 kPa
T(oC)
56.7
57.1
60.0
Mol% A in liquid
100
92.0
50.0
Mol% A in vapor
100
94.4
85.0

61.0
33.0
83.7

63.0
17.6
80.5

71.7
6.8
69.2

100
0
0

2. (Seader 4.15) Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for mixtures of water and isopropanol at 1 atm
are given below.
Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for isopropanol and water at 1 atm.
T,oC

93.00 84.02 83.85 81.64 81.25 80.32 80.16 80.21 80.28 80.66 81.51

1.18

21.95 46.20 47.06 53.44 55.16 64.22 68.21 68.26 74.21 82.70 91.60

8.41

9.10

28.68 34.96 60.30 67.94 68.10 76.93 85.67 94.42

Notes: Composition of the azeotrope: x = y = 68.54%. Boiling point of azeotrope: 80.22oC.


Boiling point of pure isopropanol: 82.5oC.
(a) Use Matlab (do not use spline command) to plot T-x-y and x-y diagrams. Remember to
plot over the entire range from 0 to 100% including the azeotrope. (b) When a solution
containing 40 mol% isopropanol is slowly vaporized, what is the composition of the initial
vapor? (c) If the mixture in part (b) is heated until 75 mol% is vaporized, what are the
compositions of the equilibrium vapor and liquid? (d) Calculate the K-value and value of at
89oC.
3. Construct a Txy and a xy phase equilibrium diagram for n-hexane (1) and n-octane (2) at
14.7 psia. The equilibrium ratios for these two species are given:
K1=exp(-1778901.0./T.^2+6.96783-0.84634*log(P))
K2=exp(-7646.816./T+12.48457-0.73152*log(P))
In these equations, T is in R and P is in psia.
Note: Use Matlab to plot the diagrams and label the figures with your name using the Title
command. (See example 4.1-1).

4. (Seader 4.16) Using the Txy and xy diagrams from problem 3, determine the temperature,
amounts, and compositions of the vapor and liquid phases at 14.7 psia for the following
conditions with a 100 lbmol mixture of nC6 (H) and nC8 (O). (a) zH = 0.5, f = V/F = 0.2; (b) zH
= 0.4, yH = 0.6; (c) zH = 0.6, xO = 0.7; (d) zH = 0.5, f = V/F = 0; (e) zH = 0.5, f = V/F = 1; and (f)
zH = 0.5, T = 660oR.
5. (Seader 4.19) A liquid containing 60 mol% toluene and 40 mol% benzene is continuously
distilled in a single equilibrium stage at 1 atm. What percent of benzene in the feed leaves as
vapor if 90% of the toluene entering in the feed leaves as liquid? Assume a relativity of 2.3
and obtain the solution graphically.
6. (Seader 4.20) A liquid containing 60 mol% toluene and 40 mol% benzene is continuously
distilled in a single equilibrium stage at 1 atm. What percent of benzene in the feed leaves as
vapor if 90% of the toluene entering in the feed leaves as liquid? Also determine the
temperature. Solve the problem by assuming an ideal solution with the following vapor
pressure data:
Data:Vaporpressure,Psat,data:lnPsat=AB/(T+C),wherePsatisinkPaandTisinK.
Compound
Benzene(1)
Toluene(2)

A
14.1603
14.2515

B
2948.78
3242.38

C
44.5633
47.1806

You can follow the following procedure assuming 100 kmol feed.
- Assume a temperature
- Calculate equilibrium ratios
- Calculate V/F
- Calculate y1
- Calculate the amount of toluene in the vapor. If the calculate value is (0.1)(0.6)
(100) = 6 kmol, then temperature guess is correct. Otherwise, guess another T,
and repeat the above steps.
7. One hundred kmol of a feed composed of 25 mol% n-butane, 40 mol% n-pentane, and 35
mol% n-hexane is flashed. The flash drum is at 100 psia and 700oR. Determine the fraction of
the feed in the vapor phase and the liquid and vapor compositions. The K-values are given by
lnK=A/T2+BCln(P),wherePisinpsia,TisinoR
Compound
A
B
C

==============================================
nButane
1280557
7.94986
.96455

nPentane
1524891
7.33129
.89143

n-Hexane
1778901
6.96783
.84634

8. (Seader 4.22) One hundred kmol of a feed composed of 25 mol% n-butane, 40 mol% npentane, and 35 mol% n-hexane is flashed. If 80% of the hexane is in the liquid at 240oF,
what are the pressure and the liquid and vapor compositions? The K-values are given by
lnK=A/T2+BCln(P),wherePisinpsia,TisinoR
Compound
A
B
C

==============================================
nButane
1280557
7.94986
.96455

nPentane
1524891
7.33129
.89143

nHexane
1778901
6.96783
.84634

Note: Must solve by trial and error by assuming values of pressure to obtain the K-values
then solve the Rachford-Rice equation
( K i 1) xiF
i 1) 1 = 0

f (K

The correct pressure is obtained when the liquid product contains (0.35)(0.80)(100) = 28
kmol/h of nC6.

Ref: J. D. Seader and E. J. Henley, Separation Process Principles , Wiley, 2011