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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

ALC BK GRAMMAR
FROM 1 TO 24

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

SADRAJ:
BOOK 1....................................................................3
BOOK 2....................................................................6
BOOK 3....................................................................8
BOOK 4..................................................................10
BOOK 5..................................................................12
BOOK 6..................................................................15
BOOK 7..................................................................17
BOOK 8..................................................................18
BOOK 9..................................................................21
BOOK 10................................................................24
BOOK 11................................................................27
BOOK 12................................................................31
BOOK 13................................................................34
BOOK 14................................................................40
BOOK 15................................................................46
BOOK 16................................................................51
BOOK 17................................................................54
BOOK 18................................................................60
BOOK 19................................................................66
BOOK 20................................................................72
BOOK 21................................................................81
BOOK 22................................................................96
BOOK 23..............................................................105
BOOK 24..............................................................114

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 1
ITS A BOOK.
a book.
It is
a pen.
It + is = Its
a pencil.
WHAT IS THIS?
What is this?
What + is =
Whats this?
Whats
Its a book.
WHATS THAT?
book.
my
pen.
This

is

This is

THIS AND THAT


a book.
That + is =
a pencil.
thats
a door.
THIS IS MY PEN.
This is a book.
That is my chair.
Thats your pen.

SINGULAR

your

pencil.

This is a table.

her

home.

That is a chair.

his

chair.

PLURAL
These are
tables.
Those are
chairs.

I'M A STUDENT. YOU'RE A TEACHER. BILL'S A PILOT.


a student.
a student.
I am

You are

a pilot.

a pilot.

I'm

a doctor.

a doctor.

a teacher.

a teacher.

a barber.

You're

cook.
Bill is

I am

a barber.
cook.

a pilot.

Bill's

a pilot.

WHAT AM I? WHAT ARE YOU? WHAT'S BETTY?


a student.
am I?

You are

a teacher.

Betty is

a pilot.

What

Are you?
is Betty?

THEY'RE NOT DOCTOR. THEY'RE MECHANIC.


not
a pilot.
I'm
He's

a doctor.

She's

a barber.

Bill's

a mechanic.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

You're

a student.

We're

barbers.

Bill and I are

teachers.

not

They are

students.

Mr. and Mrs.Jones


are

doctors.

THEY AREN'T PILOTS


He

He

is not student.

She

She

You

We

are not students.

They

Is

a student.

aren't

students.

You

We

They

It
This
That
She
He

is

Is

he
she
this
that
it

Am
Are

isn't

ARE THEY STUDENTS?


a desk.
a doctor.
Those
a barber.
a techer.
These
a mechanic.
doctor?
pilot?
They
teacher?
book?

Are

desks.
are
doctors.

these
those
they

ARE YOU A STUDENT?


a student?
you
Are
a mechanic?
we
a pilot?
they
teacher?
a mechanic?
a book?

I
you
he
she
Bill
it

barbers.
pilots.
techers?
desks?

a students?
a teachers?
a mechanics?

IS THAT YOUR PENCIL? NO, IT ISN'T.


Are you a student?

Yes, I am.
No, I'm not.

Is he/she a
doctor?

Yes, he/she is.


No, he/she isn't.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Is this a pen?

Is that a pen?
there
Are

we
you

Yes, it is.

No he's/she's
not.

No it is not.

Yes, they are.

Are these
pencils?
No, it's not.
Are those
pencils?
No, it isn't.
Yes they
No the're
are.
not.
Yes, we
No, we're
students?
are.
not.
Yes, you
No, you're
are.
not.

No, they're not.


No, they aren't.
No, they aren't.
No, we aren't.
No you aren't.

ARE YOU A STUDENT? YES, I'M A STUDENT.


Yes I'm
Are you a student?
a student.
No, I'm not
Yes, she's
Is she a teacher?
No, she's not
a teacher.
No, she isn't
Yes, this is
Is this a pen?
a pen.
No, this isn't
Yes, they're
Are they doctors?
No, they're not
doctors.
No, they aren't

The box
The clock
The book

ON / IN / UNDER
on
is
in
under

the table
the box
the table

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 2
Bill is tired.
Sue is tired.
The student is
tired.

Is Bill tired?
Is Sue tired?
Is the student
tired?

You are sick.


We are sick.
They are
sick.
The children are
sick.

Are you sick?


Are we sick?
Are they sick?
Are the children
sick?

IS THE BOY VERY ANRGY?

Is

he
she
the boy
the man
the child

Where is
Where are

very

very

young?
sad?
sick?
well?
tired?

under the desk.


on the chair.
in the classroom.
in the barracks.

THIS IS OUR CLASSROOM.


our
classroom.
your
lab.
their
brother.

Whose sister is she?


She is his sister.

WHOSE MONEY IS THIS?


Whose money is this?
Whose pens are
these?
This is our money.
They are my pens.
THIS IS BETTY'S BOOK.
Whose books are
those?
That books belongs to
Those are Betty's boks.
Betty.

Whose book is
that?
That is Betty's
book.
am
are

Is

he
she
the boy
the man
the child

WHERE'S YOUR FRIEND?


the map?
The map is
the student?
the books?
The books
are
the pilots?
The pilots
are

This is

I
You

happy?
angry?
old?
hot?
cold?

inside

He
She

is outside

You
They

are inside

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

It

I
You
He
She
We
You
They

We

THEY'RE LISTENING TO THE TEACHER.


(present progressive)
am reading.
I'm
reading.
are writing.
You're
writing.
You
Hi's
He
is sitting.
sitting.
She's
not
She
We're
We
are going.
You're
going.
You
They're
They

ARE YOU EATING?


I
Am
I
You
you
Are
He
She
he
Is
she
You
We
They
you
Are
we
they
Question
Are you studing?
Is he studing?
Is she studing?
Are you studing?
Are they studing?

reading.
writing.
aren't

going.

am eating
eating
are studing

breakfast now.
breakfast now?
your lesson.

studing

your lesson?

listening

to tapes?

are watching

TV.

watching

TV?

Yes
Yes, I am.
Yes, he is.
Yes, she is.
Yes, we are.
Yes, they
are.

No
No, I'm not.
No, he's not.
No, she's not.
No, we're not.
No, they're not.

or

sitting.

No, he isn't.
No, she isn't.
No, we aren't.
No they
aren't.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 3
WE EAT BREAKFAST AT THE SNACK BAR
(present simple)
I
You
He
She
We
They

eat
eat
eats
eats
eat
eat

Tom and Bob


They
Tom
He

brekfast at the snack bar.


breakfast every day.
brekfast at the snack bar.
do not
don't
does not
doesn't

eat
gets up
get up

at noon.
at midnight.
at 6 o'clock.
at 5 o'clock.

The boys
Do the boys

watch
watch

television.
television?

Bill
Does he

eats
eat

breakfast every day.


breakfast every day?

I HAVE A BOOK. SHE HAS A RADIO.


I
You
We
They
He
She

have
has

a pen.
an apple.
an orange.
a radio.
a pencil
a book.

WHAT DOES TOM STUDY?

Do + not = Don't
Does + not =
Doesn't

Do you get up early?


Yes, I get up early.
Yes I do.
Does Tom get up late?
No, Tom doesn't get up
late.
No, he doesn't.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Does
What does

Tom

Does
What does

Mike

HOW OFTEN DO YOU SPEAK


WAS/WERE
I
amam
How often
Mr. Brown
is is
I
wasare
Mr. Brown
wasdo
TheyHow often
are
does
Jery and Sue
were
HE WANTS TO STUDY.
(Do)
I
You
(don't)
We
They
(Does)
He
(doesn't)
She

studyes
study
study?
goes
go
do

English.
English?
to school at 7:30.
to school at 7:30?
at 7:30?

ENGLISH?
I
in the U.S. now.
he/she
in theyou/we/they
Spain last year
I
in theyou/we/they
U.S. now.
he/she
in the Spain
last year

want to
wants to

late?
early?
here?
swim?
eat?
study?

study.
eat.
go.
read.
write.
speak.

WHO WAS IN THE NAVY LAST YEAR?


Was
Who was
Was
What was

Anthony Lucas

was
in the Army?

in the Army.

was
on the
9 table?

on the table.

in the Army?
The dictionary
on the table?

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

WHERE WERE YOU LAST NIGHT?

Was
Were
Where was
Where were

John
They
John
they
John
they

was
were
at the library last night?
at the snack bar last night?
last nigth?
last night?

at the library last night.


at the snack bar last night.

BOOK 4
SIMPLE PRESENT
We walk to class every day.
He walks to class every day.

SIMPLE PAST
We walked to class yesterday.
He walked to class yesterday.

Spelling : verb+ed = simple past


play + ed = played
walk + ed = walked
close + ed = closed
study + ed = studied

NEGATIVE SIMPLE PAST TENSE


He did not play tennis.
He didn't play soccer.
SIMPLE PAST TENSE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
The show started at 8:00.
Did the show started at 8:00?
Yes, it did.
Yes, the show started at 8:00.
No, it didn't.
No, the show didn't start at 8:00.

Jack played baseball yesterday.

RANK + LAST NAME


Gen
+ last name
Col
Maj
Capt

10

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Lt
Sgt
SIMPLE PRESENT
We drive to work every day.
He drives to work every day.

SIMPLE PAST
We drove to work yesterday.
He drove to work yesterday.

CAN
Can is used to express ability.
STATEMENT :
The students can read well.
NEGATIVE :
Marry can't speak Franch.
QUESTION :
Can you fly an
Yes, I can. No, I can't.
airplane?
Who can play soccer
Bill can. Bill cannot.*
well?
What languages can you
I can speak English and
speak?
Spanish.
Cannot = can't. - Jedina negacija koja se pie bez odvajanja.

MUST
Must is used to express something is necessary
I have a test tomorrow.
I must study tonight.
STATEMENT :
He's in the military
He must wear his uniform.

Don't do this!

MUST NOT
Must is used to express prohibition
We must not eat in the
Don't eat in the
classroom.
classroom.
We must not open the
It says,''Do not open the
door.
door.''

MAY/CAN
May and can are used to express permission
Children you may have some fruit after
dinner.
STATEMENTS :
You can leave early
today.
QUESTIONS :
May I sit
Yes, you may.
No, you may not.
here?
Can I write in my
Yes, you
No, you can't.
book?
can.

11

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

do
are
are
does
is
is

How
much
How
much

SINGULAR
PLURAL

HOW MUCH
the shoes cost?
the shoes?
they?
the shirt cost?
the shirt?
it?

did
was
was
did
were
were

THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE


NEAR
this
these

the shirt cost?


the shirt?
it?
the shoes cost?
the shoes?
they?

NOT NEAR
that
those

BOOK 5
WHICH BOOK DO YOU WANT?
book
Which
do you want?
house
THERE IS / THERE ARE
There + be is used to say that something exist.
There is book on your desk.
there + is = theres
There are three pans under the table.
there + are = therere
Yes, there is.
Is there map on the wal?
No, there isnt.
Yes, there are.
Are there desks in the
classroom?
No there arent.
SOME / ANY
STATEMANT
NEGATIVE
QUESTION

: Bill has some money.


: Bill doesnt have any money.
: Does Bill have some money?

12

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

CAN
Can is used to mean possibility.
STATEMANT
: You can buy shoes at the shoe store.
NEGATIVE
: You cant buy a car at the BX.
Yes, you can.
: Can you get haircut on
Saturday?
No, you cant.
QUESTION
To Dallas.
: Where can we go this
weekend?
We can go to Dallas.
I HAVE A LOT OF MONEY.
a lot of / lots of / some
a few
desks, pencils, students, tachers,
tables, chairs, stores, clothes,
dollars,
apples, etc.

a little
salt, sugar, soup, shampoo,
toothpaste,
butter, soup, orange, milk, water, rice,
money, fruit, ment, etc.

WILL
Will is used to express future time.
: John will work tomorrow night.
STATEMANT
: John will be here tomorrow.
: John will not work tomorrow night.
NEGATIVE
: John will not be here tomorrow.
I
Ill
I
We
Well
We
You
Youll
You
He
will
Hell
He
will
=
work.
=
She
Shell
She
not
It
Itll
It
They
Theyl
They
l

I
We
You
He
She
It
They

wont

AN / A / THE
1. Use an in front of noun that begins with a vowel sound.
It is used when the speaker is talking about a thing in gluesal.
an aunt
an orange
an egg
an uncle
an I.D. card
an hour
2. Use a in front of noun that begins with a consonant sound.
It is also used when the speaker is talking about a thing in gluesal.

13

work.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

a boy
a girl
a men
a woman
3. Use the in front of noun that begins with any sound. It is used for a specific
things
when the speaker and the listener are thinking about the same personor
things.
the student
the office
the teachers
the bananas
MANY / MUCH
Many is used with nouns you can count. It means a lot of.
He has many books.
Do they have many children?
We didnt see many pilots there.
Much is used with nouns you cannot count. It also means a lot of.
It used in negative sentences and questions.
He didnt drink much coffee.
Did he have much work last week?
HOW MANY ? HOW MUCH ?
How many is used with nouns you can count.
How many
children
you have?
Five.
I have five children.
How many
books
did he buy?
Two.
He bought two books.
How much is used with nouns you cannot count.
How much tea you drink every day?
Three cups. I have five children.
How much fruit did she buy?
Five pounds. I drink three cups of
tea a day.
WE HAVE TO GO TO THE LAB.
Have to is used to express something that is necessery. It is the same as
must
: We have to wear our new uniforms.
STATEMANT
: She has to be at the airport at 7:30.
QUESTION
: Do we have to wear our caps outside?
Yes, we have to. No, we dont have to.
: Does he have to buy a new coat?
Yes, he has to. No, he doesn have to.
: What time does she have to be there?
: When do you have to leave?
: Where do you have to go?
Do not have to is used to say that something is not necessery.
: We dont have to go to the bank. We have money.
NEGATIVE
: She doesnt have to wear a uniform. Shes a civilian.

14

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 6
WE THINK YOURE NICE.
We think that youre nice.
WHAT DID HE THINK?
Bob thought the game was good.
Who thougt the game was good?
Did Bob think the game was good?
What did Bob think? (about the game)

ED THINKS IT WILL COST LOTS OF MONEY.

15

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

How much money


Where
When

Ed thinks
does Ed think
Ed thinks
does Ed think
Ed thinks
does Ed think

the car will cost


the car will cost?
he can buy a car
he can buy a car?
he can buy a truck
he can buy a truck?

ME, HIM, HER, THEM, US


SUBJECT PRONOUNS
I
you
he
she
OBJECT PRONOUNS
Me you him her
WOULD LIKE (TO)
I want
I would like
I would like to have

I
You
He
She
We
They
How
What
Who
When
Where

we
us

in Houston.
next month.

they
them

some chocolate ice cream.

+ would like (to)


?

Would

it
it

a lot of money.

I'd
You'd
He'd
She'd
We'd
They'd

I
You
He
She
We
They

like (to)?

like (to)?

SOMETHING, ANYTHING, NOTHING


Something and anything are used in afirmative statements.
EXAMPLES: Let's order something for dessert.
There's nothing in this suitcase.
Something and anything are used in questions.
EXAMPLES: Would you like something for drink?
Did the teacher say anything about the quit?
Anything is used in negative statements.
EXAMPLE : I didn't eat anything for breakfast.
INDIRECT OBJECT

16

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

DIRECT OBJECT
Joh sent

a postcard

Sally got

a ticket
INDIRECT OBJECT
Tom
him
Ann
her

Joh sent
Sally got

ALSO = TOO
is
is also
can
can also
flew
also flew

Bill
Ted
Bill
Ted
Bill
Ted
Is
Can
Does

he

INDIRECT OBJECT
to Tom.
to him.
for Ann.
for her.
DIRECT OBJECT
a postcard.
a ticket.

a pilot.
fly a plain
yesterdey.

DO YOU ALSO SPEAK FRENCH?


a student?
is.
also
speak French?
Yes,
he
can.
speak English?
does.
SIMILAR

AND

OPPOSITE

(statements)
AND

BUT
I called Jan. We talked for an hour.
I called Jan, and we talked for an hour.
I also called Steve. He wasn't home.
I also called Steve, but he wasn't home.

BOOK 7
MAKING COMPARISONS
tall
clean
narrow
(-er+than)
weak
slow
long
wet
+t(er)

17

ADJECTIVES
taller
cleaner
narrower
weaker
slower
longer
wetter

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

big
sad
hot
happy
heavy
rainy
windy
thirsty
hungry
nice
large
little
late
wide
blue
ADJECTIVE
big
heavy
light
new
old
wide

+g(er)
+d(er)
+t(er)

bigger
sadder
hotter
happier
heavier
rainier
windier
thirstier
hungrier
nicer
larger
littler
later
wider
bluer
SUPERLATIVE
the biggest
the heaviest
the lightest
the newest
the oldest
the widest

+ier

+r

COMPARATIVE
bigger
heavier
lighter
newer
older
wider

How old are you? I'm twenty years old.


How old is Steve? He's ten years old.
How old are Mr. and Mrs. Clark? They're both thirty years old.
How old is their house? It's fifteen years old.
I
You
Sue and I
The boys
Backy
He
John

knife

cutting meat

cup

drinking
caffee

use
for
a camera

taking picture

glass

drinking milk

uses

BOOK 8
BOB IS GOING TO ARRIVE AT 4:30
I
He
You

am
is
are

(not) going to

leave

WHAT ARE YOU GOIN TO DO?

18

at 8:00

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Steve is
Is Steve
What is Steve

run.
run?
do?

going to

JOHN WANTS TO PLAY VOLLEYBALL

John

begins
forgets
learns
likes
needs
remembers
starts
tries
wants

to speak English.

RAY NEEDS TO BUY A NEW CAR


Do
Did
Does
Did

they
need

to lock the door

need
needed
needs
needed

to lock the door

don't
didn't
doesn't
didn't

need to lock the


door

Sue

they
Yes,
Sue

they
No,
Sue

THE SOFA IS HEAVIER THAN THE CHAIR


CHINESE IS MORE DIFFICULT THAN ENGLISH
***

big
cool
cold
clean

large
late
light
long

sad
short
sick
small

19

-er

than

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

***

clear
fast
hard
high
hot

low
new
hear
nice
old

slow
straight
strong
tall
weak

angry
dirty
early
easy
cloudy

happy
healthy
heavy
hungry
narrow

preaty
thirsty
ugly
windy
nasty

more
less

more
less

-er

than

awful
upset

***

than

beutiful
delicious
difficult
different
exciting
expensive
important
interesting
terific

***

than

CHICAGO HAS THE TALLEST BUILDINGS


- est
the

***

big...
(kao u tabeli gore)
- est

20

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

awful

most
east

upset

most
least

beautiful...
(kao u tabeli gore)

the

***

***

WHEN ARE YOU GOIN TO SEE MAJOR WILLIAMS?


I MAY SEE HIM AT LUNCH.
I
You
John
Marie
Bob an Linda
Steve and I

may
go to the movie.
might

TELL LT JONES THAT I'LL SEE HIM AT THE LIBRARY


Tell
Don't tell

him
her
Steve

that

we'll go at 6:30.

BOOK 9
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE U FUNKCIJI FUTURA
The plane

will arrive
is going to arrive
is arriving

21

at 9:00.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

AL'S TIRED BECAUSE HIS HAD A LONG TRIP


I don't have any money

Because

I spent it all yesterday.


it's the end of the month.
I lost my wallet.

because

I spent it all yesterday.


it's the end of the month.
I lost my wallet.

I don't have any money

THE BREAD SMELLS GOOD (linking verbs)


is
feels
looks
sounds
smells
tastes

This

good.

ANNE WAS STUDYING IN THE LIBRARY (past progressive)


I
Mark
Mark and All

was studying
was studying
were studying

last night.

ASK CAPTAIN HENRY TO COME TO MY OFFICE


Ask
Bob
Tell

to pay the bill.


to write a chack.
to go to the store.

DID YOU ASK THE WAITER TO BRING US COFFEE?


NO, I ASKED HIM TO BRING THE MENU.
Don't put your shoes on the bed. What did she tell you to do?
She told me not to put my shoes on the bed.
Please, tell Don (not) to to call before 6:00. What time did he ask Don to call?
He asked Don (not) to call before 6:00.
YOUR UNIFORM IS SIMALAR TO MINE
Bob's shirt is like Mike's. Their shirts are alike.
My name is the same as your name. Our names are the same.
Tim's car is similar to Allen's car. Their cars are similar.

22

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Army uniforms are different from Navy uniforms.


Army and Navy uniforms are different.
I WANT TO TELL YOU SOMETHING

Tell

me
you
him
her
them
us
someone
Frank

a story
a lie
a secret
the truth
the time

PLEASE DON'T TELL ANYONE


Affirmative sentence - Elizabeth sow someone at the lab.
Negative sentence - Peter didn't see anyone at the lab.
Question
- Did you see anyone/someone at the lab?
IS MIKE A CAREFUL DRIVER? YES HE DRIVES CAREFULY.
ADJECTIVE
bad
careful
careless
correct
safe
slow
busy
happy
easy

SUFFIX

ADVERB
badly
carefully
carelessly
correctly
safely
slowly
busily
happily
easily

ly

* Some adverbs have an irregular form


** Some have the same form for both the adjective and adverb
* good
** fast
** hard

well
fast
hard

I THINK THIS MOVIE IS BORING


I forgot that we have test today.
I think that this movie is boring.

23

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

He hopes that you'll come to his party.


Did you remember that there's a test today?
Did he understand that the movie started at 7?
Did you realize that ve're leaving tomorrow?
forget
learn
see

guess
think
read

hear
hope
know

realize
remember
understand

* After this verb indicating mental activity you use a that noun close as
direct object. Notice that is optinal.
ALEX IS GLAD THAT TIM AND BOB ARRIVED SAFELY

I'm

happy
pleased
glad
angry
sorry
upset

that

he went there.

After the verbs apologize, notice the use of/for +gerund (verb+ing).

BOOK 10
THERE'S NO MONEY FOR A NEW CAR
There's
a lot of
sugar

24

in soda pop.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

There's

a little
no
a lot of
a few
no

students

JIM KNOWS HOW TO PLAY TENNIS


found out
forgot
knew
learned
Bill
remembered
showed
told
me
taught
asked
(me)

in juice.
in a diet dink
in room A.
in room B.
in room C.

how to

fix the car

WHEN, WHIL, AFTER, BEFORE, UNTILL


Jerry listens to the radio while he studies.
Bonnie sow the new sofa when she come in.
Major Sims will write to us after he arriwes home.
James was waching TV before his brother called.
Fran can't buy a new car untill she saves some maney.
The students were studing when the teacher walked in.
When the tacher walked in, the students were studing.
IT'S THE SAME, BUT DIFFERENT
BE SUPOSED TO
I'm
You're
He's
She's
We're
They're

relax.
be on time for class.
wear a seatbelt.
leave the house.
drink and drive.
not supposed to
smoke
in
the
classroom.
Am I
be in this bulding?
Is he
go to the lab now?
Is she
raport to the captain?
supposed to
Are you
obey traffic low?
Are we
go to the PX?
Are they
play football?
IS EVERYONE GOING TO THE PARTY? YES, EVERYBODY IS GOING.
supposed to

Does everyone/everybody like to go to the mall?

25

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Yes everyone likes to go to the mall.


No (not), everybody likes to go to the mall.
CHARLES WASN'T AFRAID TO FLY THE HELICOPTER.
SUBJECT
BE
Ted
isn't
Col Davis
will be
Calvin
was
Janet
was
Frank
was
Lt Brooks
is
Is Linda

ADJECTIVE
ready
pleased
upset
happy
glad
sorry
afraid

INFINITIVE
to leave
to speak
to hear
to be
to help
to say
to leave

the party.
at graduation.
about the accident.
back in town.
Judy more.
good-bye to his mem.
alone.

TONY'S PLANE ARRIVES AT 3:05


Sometimes we use the simple present tense to express a future action.

The bus

will arrive
is going to arrive
is arriving
arrives

tomorrow.

GERUNDS
The object of a verb is usually a noun or pronoun.
I like basketball.
(noun)
The object of a verb can also be a gerund. A gerund is the ing form of a
verb.
It is used as a noun.
I like playing basketball.
(gerund phrase)
Mike
The boys
Does William
Sgt Klime
Janet
The Martins

starts
enjoy
mind
didn't begin
finished
like

moving
playing
stopping
exersing
eating
driving

POLITE REQUESTS

26

next veek.
soccer.
here?
until 7 a.m.
before Peter.
along the ocean.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

We use could you and would you to make polite request (when we need
another person's help).
Yes of course I can.
No, I'm sorry, I can't.
Yes, I'll be happy to help you.
I'd like to, but I can't right now.

Colud you please open the door?


Would you help me with this box?

BE ABLE TO
Be able to is the word to express ability. It is the same as can.
John is able to speak three languages.
John can speak languages.
I wasn't able to go last night.
I couldn't go last night.
We'll be able to leave tomorrow.
We can leave tomorrow.

Present
Past
Future

IMPERSONAL
Active voice
:

subject +
It +

27

weather
time
"IT"
distance
temperature
verb +
object
is +
o
35 F /cold/

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 11
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
has
John
had
a red car
has had
is
Roby
was
in New York
has been
CONTRACTIONS
I have
Ive
You have
Youve
He has
Hes
She has
Shes
=
It has
Its
We have
Weve
You have
Youve
They have
Theyve

now.
last year.
for six month.
today.
Thursday..
since Monday..

Has

Hasnt
+

Have

not =
Havent

THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE


is used to refer to actions or events that began in the past and continue
into the
present. It is the closer to the present than the present perfect is.
It stresses that an action or event is not finished. It also suggest that it
will
continue in to the future.
EXAPLE : Theyve been talking on the phone for an hour.
: Theyre talking now and may talk for another hour.
: Keith has been studing since 4:30.
: Ann and Bob have been studing since 4:30.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Someone and somebody are used affirmative staements and questions.
EXAMPLES : Someone wonts to speak to you on the phone.
: Somebody forgot to put gas in the car.
: Can someone please take this book to the library?
: Has somebody been using my pen without asking me?
No one and nobody are used in affirmative statements.
EXAMLES : No one wants to leave before the general does.
: The weather was owful, nobody gat to work on time.
Anyone and anybody are usually used in negative statements and in
afirmative and
negative questions.They are sometimes used in afirmative statements.
EXAMLES: I didnt know anyone at the party last night.
Can anyone give me a ride home after class? Doessnt any one have a pencil?
Was anybody in the office when you got there? Anybody can learn another
language.

QUESTIONS WITH HOW LONG


The phrase how long is used to introduce questions about length of time.
EXAMPLES : How long did you stay at the party?
: How long will they be on vacation?
: How long is the flight to New York?
BECOME AND GET
Become and get are used as linking verbs to show a change in
state or conditions.
SUBJECT
LINKING VERB
SUBJECT COMPLEMENT
Most captains
become
majors. (noun)
become
(or) get
The homework
confusing. (adjective)
ADJECTIV CLAUSES
An adjective clauses is group of words that describes a noun or
pronoun.
Adjective clauses begin with who, which or that.
Who refers to people. Which refers to things. That refers to both people and
things.
Mr. Steves is the one
who
teaches Spanish.
Ropers is the store
which
sells tires.
This is the watch
that
broke last week.
Mr. Dial is the man
that
fixet it for me.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

TOO + PREDICATE ADJECTIVE + TO - INFINITIVE


One of the meanings of too is more than enough. Too followed by an adjective
and
a to infinitive, means more than necessary for a particular purpose.
EXAMPLES : The test was too long for us to finish. (we couldnt finish the test
because
it was longer than necessary).
: These shoes dont fit well. Theyre too tight. (these shoes are tighter
than
they should be in order to fit well).
TO+ADJECTIVE
FOR+NOUN/PRONOUN
INFINITIVE
Candy is
too sweet
to eat.
for me
Coffee is
too bitter
to drink.
Carol was
too tired
to drive.
Itll be
too early
for the children
to get up.
INFINITIVE PHRASE OF PURPOSE
An infinitive or infinitive phrase placed after a verb tells the reason for which
something is done.
EXAMPLES : Jim didnt have any news. He just called to talk. (he only called
because
he wanted to talk).
: Beth stopped at store to buy some milk. (she stopped at the store
because she wanted to buy some milk).
INFINITIVE
PHRASE OF PURPOSE
Ray moved
to save
a little money.
Lt Lee want
to talk
to the supervisor.
Dont use a pen
to mark
the answer sheet.
Roger called
to invite
us to his party.
THE SUFFIX Y
A suffix is a letter or group of letters added at the end of a word.
When the suffix y is added to a noun the noun becomes an adjective which
means
like, full of, or characterized by something. When the noun ends with e,
drop the e before adding y.
EXAMPLE : The weather was soapy. (the weather was full of soap)
cloud
cloudy
sun
sunny
fun
funny
rain
rainy
grease
greasy
salt
salty
ice
+y=
icy
snow
+y=
snowy
leak
leaky
soup
soupy
noise
noise
storm
stormy
oil
oily
water
watery
COULD AS PAST ABILITY
COULD = WAS ABLE TO COULD + NOT = COULDNT

30

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

TOLD
Jan told
Jim told
I told

INDIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT OBJECT
THAT
PAST TENSE NOUN CLAUSE
Jim
she was out of money.
her
that
he had some cash.
Jan
I have some cash.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
The following prepositions indicate time : at, in, on, before, after, from, with, till,
to, for and since.
At is used with time of day with an age, and with the words right, first, last,
beginning and end.
EXAMPLES : at noon, at midnight, at 7:30 a.m.
: at the age of twelve
: at right, at first, at last
: at the beginning, at the end
On is used with days and dates. It can also used parts of a certain day and the
words time and schedule.
EXAMPLES : on Monday, on your birthday
: on October 18
: on the evening of June 8
: on time, on schedule
In is used with quantities of time and with the words beginning and end.
EXAMPLES : in ten minutes, in an hour
: in week, in two years
: in the beginning, in the end
Before and after are used with time of day, with nouns that name events or
occurences.
EXAMPLES : before noon, after 5:00 p.m.
: before December 31, after April 15
: before the gam, after dinner
After can also be used with a quantity of time.
EXAMPLE : after six month, after thirty years
From is used with to and till/until to indicate periods of time.
EXAMPLES : from 1985 to 1993
: from May 1 until June 15
: from 10:00 a.m. till 5:30 p.m.
Untill/till can also be used alone with days, dates, and times.
EXAMPLES : until next Friday, till next week
: until 1997, till August 2
: until 10:00 p.m., till midnight
For is used with periods of time.
EXAMPLES : for half an hour, for three weeks, for one year
Since is used with definite times.
EXAMPLES : Since Sunday, since 6:00 this morning, since 1988

31

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 12
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
Main clause
we drive
we are driving
If the weathers good,
to the beach.
we well drive
were going to drive
how will you tell me?
If you finish early,
what will you do?
where are you going?
Main clause
If clause
can / could
may / might
Tom
should
come
if he doesnt have to study.
must / has to
is able to
Can / could you
Will / would you
read my paper
if you have time.
Are you going to
If clause

PRESENT PERFECT
I
We
You
They
He
She

have
have
not

Have

I
we
you

Has

they
he
she

studied all
afternoon.

has
has
not

studied all
afternoon?

COMPARATION OF PAST TENSE AND PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


We use past tense to describe situations that happened at a definite time in the
past.
We use present perfect tense to describe situations that have happened at on
indefinite time (or times) in the past, or situations that have begin in the past
and
have continuited to the present.
ADVERBS : ALREADY, STILL, YET, ANYMORE, ANY LONGER, NO LONGER
We use already to say something happened before now, or before this time. It is
used in questions and affirmative statements.
EXAMPLES : Ed already has a high school diploma.
: Mr. Smith is already here.
: Are they already in elementary school?
We use still to say that a situation is continuing. It ussualy goes in the middle of

32

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

the
sentence with verb. It is used in questions and negative statements.
EXAMPLES : Ed still doesnt have a college degree.
: It was worm yesterday and its still warm today.
: Are you still waiting?

We use yet to ask or talk about something that did not happen before now, but
might
in the future. It goes at end of the sentence. It is used in questions and negative
statements.
EXAMPLES : Im very hungry. Is dinner ready yet?
: Can you wait ten minutes? John isnt here yet.
Anymore and any longer are used in questions and negative statements.
They go at the end of the sentence.
EXAMPLES : Is he in high school anymore/any longer?
: She isnt in the Army anymore/any longer.
No longer is used in afirmative statements. It goes in the middle of the sentence
with
the verb.
EXAMPLES : He is no longer a student.
: She no longer work at night.
I DONT HAVE ANY MONEY, SO I NEED TO WRITE A CHECK.
We use the conjuction so to express result of a situation.
SITUATION
RESULT
Because I dont have any cash,
so Ill write a check.
I CAN PAY A CASH FOR THE GAS, OR I CAN GHARGE IT.
We use the conjuction or to express a choice.
We can charge the gas,
we can pay cash for it.
or
We can charge the gas
we can pay cash for it.
YOU COULD BE A WINNER OF A MILLION DOLLARS.
Could is used to express possibility.
could
The keys
may
be in the kitchen.
might
THE ING AND ED ADJECTIVES
The ing adjective describes the person/thing causing the feeling.
The ed adjective describes the person experiencing/havin the feelings.
INDIRECT SPEECH
direct speech (present tense)

33

indirect speech
(past tense)

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

What did Tom


say?
Tom : I know the answer
Tom said (that)
he knew the
answer.
A noun clause is used to report what someone has said.
This is called indirect speech or reported speech.
The following charges are made :
1) The present tense verb in direct speech changes to the past tense in indirect
speech.
2) The pronouns are changed in indirect speech.
3) The conjuction that, is used to introduce the clause. It is sometimes omitted.

USED TO
We used to to say that somethin happened regularly or existed in the past but
no
longer happens or exists now.
EXAMPLES : I used to be a student at that college. Now Im an instructor
there.
WOULD
We use wolud when we talk about things that often happened in the past.
EXAMPLES: When my sister and I were young, my family would go to the
mountains.
If the weather was good, we would get up early and go swimming in the cold
river.
Used to is also possible in these sentences.
COMPARATIVE OF ADVERBS
Use er for the comparative form of early and adverbs that dont edn in ly.
EXAMPLE : John can run faster than his brother.

34

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 13
DO YOU IMAGINE THEYLL WIN THE GAME
We use so after some verbs as a substitute for a that-noun clause. The most
common verbs followed by so are think, believe, guess, hope, imagine, and
suppose.
Will Jack come to the party?
I think so. (I think that Jack will come.)
Has Bill finished his work?
I hope so. (I think that Bill has finished his work.)

The negative depends on the verb:


I think so.
I believe so.
I imagine so.
I suppose so.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

I dont think so.


I dont believe so.
I dont imagine so.
I dont suppose so.

I guess so.
I hope so.

-------------------------------------

I guess not.
I hope not.

I M SURE YOULL UNDERSTAND THIS EXERCISE


We use a that-clause after the adjective certain, sure, and positive to express
an opinion about someone or something.
Im certain that I can go this weekend.
Hes sure that hell pass the test.
Were positive that well have enough money for the car.
The conjunction that is many times omitted in conservatrion.

35

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

-ER AND EST FORMS OF ADVERBS


The er and est forms are used with one syllable adverbs.
early*
far
fast
hard
high
late
low
near
slow
soon
straight

earlier (than)
farther (than)
further (than)
faster (than)
harder (than)
higher (than)
later (than)
lower (than)
nearer (than)
slower (than)
sooner (than)
straight (than)

the earliest
the farthest
the furthest
the fastest
the hardest
the highest
the latest
the lowest
the nearest
the slowest
the soonest
the straightest

* early is an exception to the rule.


COUL AS PERMISSION
Could is frequently used to request permission. It is like may and can.
Could I borrow your book, please?
May I ask you a question?
Can I leave early today?
Can or cant are usually used as responses to a request for permission with
could.
Could I borrow your book, please?
Yes, of course you can.
Could I leave early today?
Im sorry. You cant.
We have a meeting at 1500.

36

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

REVIEW OF MODALS
May, might, and could are used to express possibility.
Wheres Joe?
He may be in his office.
He might be eating lunch.
He could be at home.
Can and is, am, are able to are used to express ability in the present or future.
Coul and was, were able to are used for the past.
She can speak three languages.
They are able to speak French and Spanish.
I couldnt swim when I was young.
My grand father was able to speak Russian.
May, can and could are used to request permission.
May I come in?
Can I swim here?
Could I use your phone?

NOUN ADJUNCTS
Adjectives usually modify or describe nouns.
a nice day
a cold winter
Nouns can also modify nouns. They are called noun adjuncts.
A store that sells shoes is a shoe store.
When a noun modifies another noun, the first noun is stressed.
a can opener
a wedding ring
some paint brushes

37

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

PHRASAL VERBS
The term phrasal verb refers to a verb and an adverb that are together. This
verb and adverb have a special meaning.
He put on his hat.
She wrote down the telephone number.
They threw away the old newspapers.
Many times a phrasal verb will have an object. There are two possible
positions for the object.
If the object is noun, it can come before the adverb or after it.
He turned on the radio.
He turned the radio on.
Shell look up the word in the dictionary.
Shell look the word up in the dictionary.
If the object of phrasal verb is pronoun (me, you, him, her, etc.), the pronoun
must be between the verb and the adverb.
I like the hat. Try it on.
Ill give you the money, but you must pay it back.
Shes sleeping. Dont wake her up.
Phrasal verbs are very common in conversation.
MODAL IN REPORTED SPEECH
When a modal is used in the direct speech, it is frequently changed in reported
speech.
DIRECT SPEECH
(present tense)
may
might
can
could
am/is/are able to

REPORTED SPEECH
(past tense)
might
might
could
could
was/were able to

38

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

SUFFIX ER AND -OR


The suffix er and or can be added to some verbs to make nouns to express
the meaning of one who.
He teaches students to read.
Hes a teacher.
She collects stamps.
Shes a stamp collector.
* Collector, visitor, educator, and instructor are spelled with or.

HOW + ADJECTIVE
The questions word how has many uses. It is often used with adjectives to ask
questions.
How long asks about length.
How high asks about height.
How tall* asks about height.
How far asks about distance.
How wide asks about width.
How deep asks about depth.
How old asks about age.
How heavy asks about weight.
Hoe hot/cold asks about temperature.
A question with what can be for a question with how.
How long is it?
What is its length?

tall is used to refer to someone or something from the ground up;


high is used when talking about something at a point above the
ground.

39

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

IF CLAUSES
Certain if conditional sentences express something that is true. The simple
present tense can be used in the if clause and the imperative or present
tense in the main clause.
If clause
(condition)

Main clause
(result)

If the TV doesnt work, push this button.


If I get up at 0600, I get to work on time.
If I dont eat lunch, I become hungry by 2:00 p.m.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
LARGE QUANTITIES
Many is used to refer to count nouns.
Much is used to refer to noncount nouns. Its usually used in negative
sentences.
A lot is used to refer to both count and noncount nouns.
SMALL QUANTITIES
A few is used to refer to count nouns.
A little is used to refer to noncount nouns.
GENERAL QUANTITIES
Some, any and none are used to refer to both count and noncount nouns.
Use some in an affirmative statement and question.
Use any in negative statement and a question.
Use none in an affirmative statement only.

40

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 14
PLURAL COUNT NOUNS
Count nouns are nouns that may be preceded by a or an in the singular.
a book
a man
an apple a fish
Count nouns can be made plural.
Regular plurals are formed by adding:
Irregular plurals
- es to words
- es, changing
-s, to words
have different
ending in these
the y to i, to
ending in a
forms
letters : s, z, x, ch, words ending in a
vowel + y and
and sh;
consonant + y;
other words
boxes
families
books
fish
sendwiches
duties
chairs
deer
dresses
cities
tables
children
inches
libraries
words
feet
wishes
boys
teeth
faces
men
pages
women
knives
The es or s that is added to count nouns to form the plural has three
different pronunciations.
/Iz/
/s/
/z/
boxes
books
tables
dresses
suits
sons
sandwiches
cooks
words
dishes
boots
windows
pages
crops
boys
quizzes
recruits
duties
horses
ranks
jobs
chances
basics
times
classes
caves
services
eggs
JUST/SOON
Just and soon are adverbs of time.
Just is used to indicate recent completion in the past.
Soon is used to indicate expected completion in the near future.
John just arrived from New York.

41

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

His brother will arrive from Los Angeles soon.


AS . AS COMPARISONS
We use an as . as construction with adjectives and adverbs to make
comparisons. Look at the examples.
1.

Jack is twenty years old.


Bill is twenty years old.
Jack is as old as Bill.
(= They are the same age.)

2.

Fred is rich.
He is richer than his brother John.
John isnt as rich as his brother Fred.
(=Fred is rich.)

3.

Linda finished her work in two hours.


Betty finished in the same time.
Betty worked as fast as Linda worked.
(=Betty and Linda worked at the same speed.)

4.

Bob studies hard every night.


Mary sometimes studies.
Mary doesnt study as hard as Bob does.
(=Bob studies harder than Mary.)
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
The future progressive is formed with
Will + be + Verb ing
It is used to express an action that will be in progress at or up to a
particular time in the future.
Well be leaving at noon on Friday.
Tom wont be leaving until midnight tonight.
ADVERBS OF DEGREE
We can use certain adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs to make
the meaning stronger. These adverbs have the general meaning of very.
For example:
Extremely cheap (adverb + adjective)
Really interesting (adverb + adjective)
Rather good (adverb + adjective)
Terribly noisy (adverb + adjective)

42

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Quite fast (adverb + adverb)


So well (adverb + adverb)
Very quickly (adverb + adverb)
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES WITH WHERE AND WHEN
Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place. It comes right after the
place.
We found a restaurant.
The food was good (at the restaurant).
We found a restaurant where the food was good.
(Where refers to restaurant, a place)
When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time. It comes right
after the noun.
The summer was hot.
We went to San Francisco (during the summer).
The summer when we went to San Francisco was hot.
(When refers to summer, a noun of time)
IF CONDITIONAL
Certain if conditional sentences express something that true. The present
progressive or the present perfect can be used in the if clause, and the
future, a modal, or the imperative can be used in the main clause.
IF CLAUSE
MAIN CLAUSE
(Condition)
(Result)
Present Progressive
Future/Modal/Imperative
If youre looking for Bill,
youll find him in the library.
you can find him in the library.
go to the library.
Present Perfect

Future/Modal/Imperative

If you havent been to the park,

were going to go this Sunday.


you should go this Sunday.
go this Sunday.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

GERUNDS AS SUBJECTS AND OBJECTS OF PREPOPSITIONS


A gerund is the ing form of a verb.
Example: eating, playing, sleeping
A gerund is used as a noun. The most common noun function of a gerund is
the object of a verb. The gerund plus the words that go with it is called a
gerund phrase.
He enjoys teaching English.
We finished working about an hour ago.
A gerund or gerund phrases can also be used as the subject of a sentence.
Driving on wet roads can be dangerous.
Learning a second language is fun.
A gerund of gerund phrase can be used as the object of a proposition.
You can turn off the radio by pushing this button.
Are you interested in learning German?
He apologized for being late.
The following is list of common proposition combinations with verbs and
adjectives that gerunds can follow:
Verb + preposition
apologize for
believe in
decide on
finish with

look forward to
plan on
talk about
thank someone for
think of

adjective + preposition
afraid of
bored with
excited about
fond of
frightened of
happy about
interested in

nervous about
proud of
scared of
tired of
worried about

MUST AS PROBABILITY

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Must is used with the simple present tense or the present progressive to
expres probability.
Steve is smiling. He must be happy.
I smell smoke. Something must be burning.
Must not is used for the negative.
Johans lights are off. He must not be at home.
Betty isnt eating. She must not be hungry.
MEAKING DEDUCTIONS AND CONCLUSINS
We use the modals must, may, might, and could to make deductions and
conclusions from the information that we receive.
Must is used when we are very sure or very certain about something. May,
might, and could are used when we are less sure or certain.
Must
May
Might
Could

very sure
|
|
less sure
REVIEW OF MODALS

Must and have/has to both express necessity and obligation.


You must have money to buy a car.
I cant go. I have to study for a test.
Must not is used to express prohibition.
You must not smoke in the building.
(Dont smoke in the building.)
You must not drive through a red light.
(Dont drive through a red light.)
Not have/has to is used to express lack of necessity.
Tomorrow is Saturday. We dont have to go to class.
We have a lot of time. We dont have to study.
Will and be going to are both used to express future time.
Frank will finish packing tonight.
He is going to finish packing tonight.
Could and would are used to make requests.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Would you close the window, please?


Could you please hand me the sugar?
OUGHT TO AS ADVICE
Should and ought to are both used to give advice?
You dont look good. You should see a doctor.
You dont look good. You ought to se a doctor.
INDIRECT/REPORT SPEECH
When a modal is used in direct speech, it is frequently changed in reported
speech.
DIRECT SPEECH
REPORTED SPEECH
(present tense)
(past tense)
will
Would
present BE going to
past BE going to
must (necessity)
have/has to

had to*
had to

not have to

didnt have to

must not (prohibition)


must not
*Notice that had to is used instead of must in past tense reported speech when
must means necessity
IREGULAR ADVERBS
Some adverbs have irregular comparison.
ADVERB

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

well
badly

better than
worse than

the best
the worst

The comparative form is used when referring to two people or things.


The superlative form is used when referring to three or more people or things.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 15
NEVER EVER
OFTEN FREQUENTLY

SELDOM ALWAYS
OCCASIONALLY

USUALLY
SOMETIMES

There are some adverbs that are called


adverbs of frequency.
Notice where they are in the sentences. The most common position is before
the verb, but after BE. They can also come at the beginning or end of the
sentence.
She is seldom on time.
Is she usually on time?
She never comes here.
Does she always come here?
MORE AND MOST
More and most are used with adverbs of 2 or more syllables for the
comparative and superlative from.
ADVERB
slowly

COMPARATIVE
more slowly than

SUPERLATIVE
the most slowly

carefully

more carefully than

the most carefully

frequently

more frequently than

the most frequently

These are some examples of adverbs formed by adding ly to adjectives.


*Note the spelling changes.
correct
correctly
careful
carefully
beautiful
beautifully
cautious
cautiously
natural
naturally
slow
slowly
soft
softly
nervous
nervously
quiet
quietly
quick
quickly
*easy
easily
*reasonable reasonably

*angry

angrily

PROMOTET ---- PROMOTION


The suffix ion may be added to some verbs to form nouns. Note the spelling
changes.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

collect collection
educate education
locate location
operate operation
confuse confusion
instruct instruction
select selection
promote promotion
WILL and WOULD
We use will and would to say what we want or want to do.
Can I help you please?
Yes, Id like a cheese sandwich.
(= I want a cheese sandwich.)
Were having a party next weekend. Can you come? Yes, Id love to.
(= Yes, I want to come.)
That box looks heavy. Ill help you with it.
(= I want to help you with it.)
Should, ought to, and be supposed to have the same meaning. They are
used to give advice.
You should study more.
You ought to do better.
Were supposed to take off our hats inside.
Used to is used to express an activity, situation, or a habit that existed in the
past but which no longer exists.
I used to smoke ten years ago, but I dont any longer.
Would is used to express an action that was repeated regularly in the past.
Used to can also be used this way.
When I was a boy, my father would play basketball with us.
When I was a boy, my father used to play basketball with us.
Must is used to express deduction and probability.
Johns not in class. He must be sick today.
Can is used to say that something is possible.
We can se the lake from the living room.
You can walk to that pool. Its very close.
Flying in an airplane can be dangerous.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

LETS GO SOMETHING
To express an indefinite place or location we use the adverbs something,
anywhere, and nowhere.
This is how they are used:
Somewhere in affirmative question/statements,
Anywhere in affirmative question/negative statements,
Nowhere in short answers, (nowhere means not anywhere.)
Are you going somewhere?
Are you going anywhere?
Yes, Im going somewhere.
No, Im not going anywhere.
Where are you going?
Nowhere.
WAS/WERE GOING TO
Was/were going to is used to say what someone intended to do in the paste,
but didnt.
Johan was going to flay to Paris, but he changed his mind.
My sister was going to meet me for dinner, but she forgot.
ELSE
The word else is used with adverb and pronoun compounds of some -, any -,
no-, and every-:
Someone else/somebody else
Anyone else/any body else
No one else/nobody else
Everyone else/everybody else

= some other person


= some other person
= some other person
= some other person

Something else
Anything else
Nothing else
Everything else

= some other thing


= some other thing
= no other thing
= every other thing

Somewhere else
Anywhere else
Nowhere else
Everywhere else

= in/at/to some other place


= in/at/to some other place
= in/at/to some other place
= in/at/to some other place

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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH


When a modal is used in direct speech, it is sometimes changed in reported
speech. Notice will/would. *
DIRECT SPEECH
REPORTED SPEECH
(present tens)
(past tense)
Ought to (advice)
Ought to
Should (advice)
Should
Used to/would (past routine)
Used to/would
Used to (discontinued past habit)
Used to
Must (deduction)
Must
Must not (deduction)
Must not
Was/were going to
Was/were going to
Would like to (desire)
Would like to
Will*/would (willingness)
Would*
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
The following words are reflexive pronouns:
myself
ourselves
yourself
yourselves
himself
themselves
herself
itself
A reflexive pronoun is used as an object and refers to the subject of the
sentence or clouse.
He looked at himself in the mirror.
She injured herself during the game.
The children went to the movie by themselves.
Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis.
I know the door was locked. I myself locked it.
I locked it myself.
LINKING VERBS
We use adjectives after certain verbs called linking verbs. When an adjective is
used after verbs. When an adjective is used after a linking verb, the adjective
modifies the subject of the sentence.
The most common linking verbs are:
appear
get
be
keep
become
remain
feel
seem

smell
sound
stay
taste

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Examples:
Your friend is very nice.
The coffee tastes strong.
Tom appeared calm during the storm.
The food will remain cold on the ice.
Bill seems nervous about his operation.
SUFFIX LY
The suffix ly can be added to nouns of time to make adjectives and adverbs.
The most common nouns are:
Day
+ - ly
daily
Hour
+ - ly
hourly
Month
+ - ly
monthly
Night
+ - ly
nightly
Week
+ - ly
weekly
Year
+ - ly
yearly
The ly words above can be used as both adjectives and adverbs.

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BOOK 16
Its a good plan to save money every month.
Its expensive to take a taxi.
Its not healthy to skip meals.
Its fun to swim.
HAD BETTER
Had better means should. Had better not means shouldnt.
You had better pay the rent today.
Youd better get to class on time.
Youd better stop at the red light.
You had better not forget to pay the rent.
Youd better not be late for class.
Youd better not run the red light.
WHY DONT and WHY NOT
Use the infinitive of the verb (without to) after why dont you and why not.
I ask for a drink?
Why dont you call him?
Why dont we watch the news?
Why not open it now?
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
The past perfect tense expresses an activity that was completed before
another activity occurred in the past.
He started the car after theyd fastened their seat belts.
I hadnt met him before he came to our class.
She had gone inside by the time he thought to ask her.
The past perfect tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the
verb. It is used when you are talking about two things that have already
happened.
PASSIVE VOICE: BE PASSIVE
SUBJEKT
VERB
OBJECT
The secretary
types
the letters.
The letters
are typed
To form the Be passive:
Add be + - ed (past participle) to the verb.

52

AGENT
(by the secretary).

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Move the object of the sentence to the subject position.


Add by to the original subject and move it to the agent position. The agent may
be omitted.
MUST, HAVE TO, AND HAVE GOT TO
I must cash a check.
I have to cash a check.
I have got to cash a check.
The soldiers had been marching for hours before dinner.
The tourist had been moping during the rain storm.
Ted and Bon hadnt been watching TV while I was shopping.
WHICH DO YOU PREFER?
I prefer meat to chicken.
You prefer boating to skiing.
She prefers tea rather than coffee.
We prefer to ride rather than walk.
BE UNABLE TO
I
Sue
He
You
Bill and I
They
Sue
Frank

am
was
is
was

unable to

fix it.

are
were
isnt able to
is unable to
cant
wasnt able to
was unable to
couldnt
ENOUGH

I m dirty enough to take a shower.


Jim couldnt jog fast enough to catch Bill.
Do you swim regularly enough to keep fit?

53

install the battery


be here last night

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

MANY and MUCH


Count nouns are thing that can be
counted
lessons
showers
dollars
spoons
cups
glasses
minutes
people
Too many is used to express more
than enough. Use too many with
count nouns.

apply
cancel
continue
examine
imagine
invite
prepare
recommend

Noncount nouns are thing that cant


be counted
information
rain
money
sugar
coffee
water
time
news
Too mach also means more than
enough. Use too much with
noncount nouns.

+ ation

54

application
cancellation
continuation
examination
imagination
invitation
preparation
recommendation

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

BOOK 17
LINKING VERBS
The linking verbs in the list are used to express a state of condition. They also
reflect a point of view.
To be often follows the verbs appear and seem in this pattern.
John
is
his father.

It

tastes
sounds
looks
smells
feels
seems
appears

He

seems
appears (to me*)

(to me*) like

to be*

the cake we had in


Paris.
a good idea.
a nice place to stay.
smoke in this room.
another cold evening.
the right thing to do.

angry.
a nice person.
in a hurry.
interested in books.

* This can be also placed at the beginning or at the end of sentence.


* To be often follows the verbs appear and seem in this pattern.
INDIRECT SPEECH : YES / NO QUESTIONS
Direct
John: Can we
go to Europe?
speech
Indirect
John asked
whether if
the could
go fishing.
speech
(Sam)
Direct
Jack: Do you
go to Europe?
speech
want
Indirect
Jack asked
whether if
I wanted
to go to
speech
(me)
Europe.
Note that the present tense verbs change to past tense, the order of the verb
and
the subject changes, and the pronouns and possessive adjectives change
from one
person to another.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

The act of
condition
decide
destroy
divide
reduce
base

VERB NOUN (-tion/sion)


The result of
The act of
The result of
condition
decision
intend intention
destruction
introduce introduction
division
prescribe prescription
reduction
solve solution
-tion/-sion (suffix)
Stress shift to the
right

EMBEDDED YES/NO QUESTIONS AS NOUN CLAUSE (statements)


Is supposed to rain?
I dont know
I wonder
I cant remember
if
its supposed to rain (or not).
whether
Ive forgotten
Im not sure
I have no idea
When a yes/no question is changed to a noun clause, whether or if is used to
introduce the clause.
EMBEDDED YES/NO QUESTIONS AS NOUN CLAUSE (questions)
Is Major Simms in?
Do you know
Can you tell me
Could you tell me
if
Major Simms is in (or not).
Could you please tell me
whether
Do you have any idea
Do you by any chance
know
EMBEDDED QUESTION-WORD QUESTIONS AS NOUN CLAUSE
(statements)
is the library?
Where
When
will he leave?
Who
can help me?
I wander
where
the library is?
when
he will leave?
I dont know
who
can help me?
I cant remember
Ive forgotten

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

Im not sure
I have no idea
EMBEDDED QUESTION-WORD QUESTIONS AS NOUN CLAUSE
(questions)
When
does the library open?
What
time is it?
Do you know
Can you tell me
Could you tell me
when
the library opens?
Could you please tell me
what
time it is?
Do you have any idea
Do you by any chance
know
When a question-word questions is changed a noun clause, the same
question
word is used to introduce the clause.

SUBJECT

JANET PREFERS HER HAIR LONG.


VERB
DIRECT
ADJECTIVE
OBJECT
COMPLEMENT
prefer
like

my coffee

hot.
black.
strong

Note that in this type of sentence, the noun or pronoun comes before the
adjective.

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ACTIVE
VOICE

PASSIVE
VOICE

I didnt

PASSIVE VOICE WITH MODALS


SUBJECT
VERB
will
must
ought to
put on
should
wear
They
can
remove
may
take off
could
have to
dont have to
SUBJECT
VERB
will
must
ought to
should
put on
Shoes
can
worn
Hats
be
may
removed
Gloves
could
taken off
have to
dont have
to

OBJECT

shoes.
hats.
gloves.

AGENT

(by then).

RELATIVE PRONOUNS/ADJ/ADV + INFINITIVES


decide
find out
forget
know
learn
when
remember
which
how
who
where
show
(her)
what
tell
(him)
teach
(them)
ask
(you)

to leave.
to buy.
to cook.
to ask.
to go.
to do.

MANY PEOPLE DRIVE 65 MPH EVEN THOUGH THE SPEED LIMIT IS 55.
Although my apartment is quite small, I like it a lot.
I like my apartment a lot although it is quite small.

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Though that restaurant is very expensive, its always full.


That restaurant is always full though it is very expensive.
Even though the parade was long, many people stayed.
Many people stayed even though the parade was long.
HIS DEATH SEDDENED THEM ALL.
The fire
soft
I
weak
You
black
hard
dark

We
The workers
Bill

The death

He

You
rising
intonation
falling
intonation

short
wide
deep

- en (s)
- ened

tight
sharp
loose

the pots.
the dishes.

the pool.
the lake.

the screw.

sad

the children.

WE HAVE TO READ THESE DIALOGS, DONT WE?


TAG QUESTIONS
doesnt study every day,
does
hasnt written his family,
has
he?
isnt leaving tomorrow,
is
should do homework,
shouldnt
have a large family,
dont
you?
are student here,
arent
-tag Qs = ask for information

rising intonation

falling intonation

-tag Qs =

ask for agreement

QUESTIONS intonation
YES/NO questions
TAG questions (informative)
Listing
Imperative
W/H questions
TAG questions (agreement)
Statements

HE LOVES THIS BOOK, AND SO I.


I went downtown.
positive additions
I did too.
He went downtown, and
so did I.
He went downtown.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

She doesnt like fish.

They dont like fish.


neither do they.
She doesnt like fish, and
they dont either.

negative additions

WRITING SKILLS
The six step writing process :
1. Understand your task and conditions
2. Gather an organize your ideas
3. Write a complete draft
4. Edit your draft (ruthlessly)
5. Fight for feedback
6. Go final (finalize your draft) and proofread (careful)
Seven rules of the writing stile :
1. Use mostly short, conversational words
2. Write short sentences
3. Prefer active voice
4. Write short paragraphs
5. Write short papers
6. Put the main idea up front
7. Be correct*, credible, and complete (*spelling, punctuation, grammar, word
usage)
15-15-1-2 rule effective writing
30 second rule whats important and why*
* ask somebody to read your text, and ask him for opinion

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BOOK 18
PAST PASSIVE VOICE WITH BE

ACTIVE
VOICE
PASSIVE
VOICE

SUBJECT

VERB

Lt Hill

flew

The plane

was flown

DIRECT
OBJECT
the plane.

AGENT

by Lt Hill.

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to join nouns, adjectives, adverbs,
verbs, phrases, and clauses.
Both and and not only but also indicate addition.
Either or indicates choice/alternative.
Neither nor indicates negative choice/addition.
Each conjunction should be placed immediately in front of the word, phrase, or
clause it connects.
EXAMPLE: Both Janet and her sister arrived last night.
You can either go with me or stay here.
Hes not only intelligent but also wealthy.
Roy drives neither carelessly nor fast.
When the compound subjects of a sentence are joined by either or/neither
nor, the general rule is that the number of the verb is determined by the
number of the noun phrase closest to it.
EXAMPLE: Either Mr. Reynolds or his sons always attend the companys
annual meeting.
Neither the passengers nor the bus driver was injured in the
accident.
INDIRECT SPEECH

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

When a question is reported in indirect speech, the question word or words


remain the same. However, some of the other words in the original question do
not.
1.
2.

Present tense verbs change to the past tense.


Pronouns and possessive adjectives change from first or second person
to third person (unless someone is reporting his own words).

DIRECT SPEEACH
(present tense)
INDIRECT SPEEACH

Ann:
Ann asked (Tom)

What
Why
What
Why

is the matter, Tom?


Are you so late?
the matter was.
He was so late.

ANTICIPATORY IT
In some sentences the pronoun it comes before, or anticipates, the subject of
a sentence. It does not refer to a particular person or thing; it only takes the
position before the verb usually filled by the subject. An anticipatory it is often
used in the pattern below.
IT

BE - VERB
is

ADJECTIVE
possible

It
was

clear

THAT NOUN CLAUSE


someone made a
mistake.
(that)
the party was over.

IF CLAUSES
(UNREAL PRESENT CONDITIONAL)
If clauses that refer to an unreal, or hypothetical, situation* in the present use
verbs in the subjunctive mood. Their forms are the same as those of the past
tense, except for the verb be. Where, not was, is used with singular nouns
and I, he, she, and it.
CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (CAUSE)
If he exercised regularly,
If you called Steve now,
If we left earlier,
If I were you,

MAIN CLAUSE (EFECT)


he would probably feel better.
you might be able to reach him.
we could get home before dark.
Id follow the doctors advice.

The if- clause can also follow the main clause. In this pattern, there is no
comma between the clauses.
MAIN CLAUSE (EFECT)
Sam wouldnt get so confused
You could get your money back

CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (CAUSE)


if he followed instructions.
if you had your sales slip.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

I might understand her better


This would be a better movie

if she spoke more slowly.


if it werent so long.

*Such a situation is often also called a condition contrary to fact.

WISH + THAT NOUN CLAUSE


(PRESENT UNREAL SITUATION)
When wed like to be able to change the present situation, we often use the
pattern below to express the way that we feel. Since the situation presented in
the noun clause is not real, past subjunctive verb forms are used in it.
WISH
The student wish
My instructor wishes
Captain Wilson wishes
The trainees often wish
Jim often wishes

THAT NOUN CLAUSE


they graduated sooner.
she could retire next year.
he were a four star general.
they werent in the service.
he were living in Europe.

(that)

BE USED TO / ACCUSTOMED TO VERSUS USED TO


Used to can indicate a discontinued past habit something that was once
done regularly but is not anymore. When it is used in this way, it is followed by
an infinitive without to (that simple form of the verb).
USED TO
Harry
Janet
They

used to

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO
In an office downtown.
Classes at the university.
To work together every day.

work
teach
ride

Used to can also express the same meaning as accustomed to. Than, like
accustomed to, it is followed by a noun or a gerund.
BE USED TO / BE ACCUSTUMED
TO
They are used to
Jean isnt used to
We were accustomed to
I wasnt accustomed to

NOUN / GERUND
beef and potatoes for dinner.
eating supper at six oclock.
dry weather in Arizona.
carrying an umbrella everywhere.

VERB + DIRECT OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE


SUBJECT

VERB

DIRECT
OBJECT

63

TO INFINITIVE

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

I
We
They

advise
expect
require

you
everyone
their customer

to make a reservation.
to leave the meeting.
to pay in advance.

These are some of the verb which can appear in this pattern:
ask
instruct
teach
advice
invited
tell
allow
need
want
cause
order
warn
convince
permit
would like
expect
require
help
select
NEGATIVE QUESTIONS
Negative questions are formed by adding the word not after the verb or modal.
EXAMPLE:

Were you not at the meeting?


Did the secretary not notify you?
Why was everyone not told about it?

However, a contraction of not and the verb or modal is almost always used in
informal speech and writing.
EXAMPLE:

Werent you at the meeting?


Didnt the secretary notify you?
Why wasnt everyone told about it?

The use of a negative yes no question indicates that the speaker thinks he
already knows the answer. He hopes for or expects an affirmative response
from the listener, even though he does not always receive one.
EXAMPLE:

Wasnt the game postponed?


Yes, it was put off until next weekend.
Havent we met somewhere before?
No, I dont believe so.

A negative question that begins with a question word is simply a request for
information.
EXAMPLE:

Why wasnt the game held today?


The coach had to be out of town.
Who hasnt met the new commander yet?

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

No one in our office has.

TAG QUESTIONS
STATEMENT
Youre a pilot,
They study a lot,
We can leave now,
Hes not a pilot,
They dont study a lot,
We cant leave now

TAG
arent you?
dont they?
cant we?
is he?
do they?
can we?

Tag questions are statements with a short question attached. The short
question, or tag, asks the listener to agree with or confirm the speakers
statement.
If the verb in the statement is affirmative, the verb in the tag is negative.
EXAMPE: You were there, werent you?
If the verb in the statement is negative, the verb in the tag is affirmative.
EXAMPLE: The captain wasnt there, was she?
The contracted forms of negative verbs are almost always used in both the
statement and the tag.
CANT / COULDNT AS LOGICAL IMPOSSIBILITY
Cant and couldnt are often used to mean Its not possible that or Its
impossible that
EXAMPLE:

Its not possible for the car to be out of gas.


Its impossible for the car to be out of gas.
The car cant/couldnt be out of gas.
HAVE, MAKE, AND GET
(CAUSATIVE)

Have, make, and get are often used to indicate that one person has the power
to force another to do something.

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

EXAMPLE:
go instead.

If the major cant attend the meeting, hell have the captain

When the Jacksons work in their house or yard, they


make their children help.
Ive been calling the store for an hour, but I cant get
anyone there to answer the phone
Get is followed by a noun or pronoun and a to infinitive. Have and make are
followed by a noun or pronoun and infinitive without to.
had
fix
made
He
the mechanic
the car.
got
to fix
PERFECT MODALS
Modals in the perfect tense have the following meanings:
May have, might have, and could have express possibility about a past action
or condition.
EXAMPLES:

The secretary may have gone to lunch.


They might have taken a different flight.
You could have cashed a check at the BX.

Must have indicates that a deduction is being made about a past action or
condition.
EXAMPLE: Theyre not hungry. They must have already eaten.
Should have and ought to have indicate that a past obligation wasnt fulfilled.
They also express the idea that a sensible action was not taken.
EXAMPLES:

We should have asked Ted to eat dinner with us.


I ought to have studied more for the test.

Should not have is used to indicate that a past action or


condition was not wise.
EXAMPLE:
He shouldnt have changed lanes without signaling.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
MAIN CLAUSE
Shes a person
Is that the book
Heres the money

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
(whom)
Id like to meet.
(which)
the teacher gave you?
(that)
I borrowed from you.

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Adjective clauses, like adjectives, describe nouns, pronouns, or words serving


as noun. They are often introduced by the relative pronouns who or whom,
which, and that. When these pronouns are the objects of verbs or propositions,
they can be omitted.
EXAMPLES:

The book which I wanted was not available.


The book I wanted was not available.
That is the man whom* I was talking about.
That is the man I was talking about.
There is the car that I want to buy.
There is the car I want to buy.

*Many Americans use WHO instead of WHOM


THE SUFFIX MENT
VERB
advertise
agree
appoint

SUFFIX
+ - ment =

NOUN
advertisement
agreement
appointment

The suffix ment can be added to certain verbs to form a noun that means
the act or result of something.
EXAMPLES:

retirement = the act or result of retiring


enlistment = the act or result of enlisting
government = the act or result of governing

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BOOK 19
POSSESSIVE NOUNS
To show that people own possess something, we add an apostrophe and s
(s) to a singular noun or irregular plural noun. The pronunciation is the same
as with plural nouns.
When the final sound is voiced (word that and with the letters m, n, b, v, l, r, g,
or vowel), we pronounce s as /z/.
EXAMPLES:

Sally rent this apartment.


This is Sallys apartment.
The restroom for men is next to the elevator.
The mens restroom is next to the elevator.

The women own that car.


The womens car.
When the final sound is voiceless (word that and with the letters s, t, p, f, k),
we pronounce s as /s/
EXAMPLES:

The report the lieutenant made was long.


The lieutenants report was long.

When the final sound ends in the letters s, sh, ch, ge, x, or z, we pronounce s
as /z/
EXAMPLES:

This book belongs to Les.


This is Less book.

When we have a plural noun, we add only the apostrophe () after the final s.
The pronunciation doesnt change.
EXAMPLES:

The students have books.


Those are the students books.
The lunchroom for the employees is closed.
The employees lunchroom is closed.
SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS

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SUBJECT
PRONOUNS
OBJECT
PRONOUNS

you

he

she

it

we

they

me

you

him

her

it

us

them

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS


POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
my
mine
your
yours
his
his
her
hers
its
its*
our
ours
their
theirs
Possessive adjectives are used before nouns.
This is my pen.
Thats your book.
These are her papers.
Possessive pronouns are used alone without nouns.
This pen is mine.
That book is yours.
These papers are here.
*The pronoun its is not commonly used.
INSEPERABLE PHRASAL VERBS AND PHRASAL PREPOSITIONAL
VERBS
Many phrasal verbs and phrasal propositional verbs are inseparable. That is,
they cannot separated by an object. Some, however, can be either separable
or inseparable they often have one meaning when they are separable and a
different one when they are inseparable. These verbs are included in the list
and are marked with an asterisk (*).
be back = to return
be up for = to be eligible for
blow out* = to burst or explode
check in = to register; to report your arrival
check out* = to leave; to report your departure
clear up* = to become clear, speaking of the weather
come back = to return
come in = to arrive as expected
come over = to make a short informal visit
cut down on = to reduce in quantity or amount

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drop by = to visit unexpectedly or informally


drop in = to pay a visit informally
drop off* = to fall asleep
drop over = to visit unexpectedly or informally
end up = to finish in a certain place/way
fall in = to line up in formation
get along with = to be in agreement
get in = to arrive
get off = to leave a vehicle, to leave work
get on = to enter a vehicle
get rid of = to free oneself form, to throw away, to give away something
get up = to rise from a sitting or lying position
go back = to return
go out = to leave the house, especially for fun, to stop burning/shooting
go over = to review, to make a short, informal visit
hold on = to wait, to wait on the phone
look forward to = to anticipate pleasurably
look out (for) = to take care/be careful of
put up with = to tolerate without complaining
run into = to encounter, collide with
run out of = to use the entire supply
sign in/out* = to write ones name on roll for record-keeping purposes
sit down = to take a seat/occupy a chair
stand up = to rise to upright position on your feet
take care of = to assume responsibility for
take part in = to participate in
take off = to depart
watch out for = to take care/be careful
work out = to repair
work out* = to exercise
FEW / LITTLE VS. A FEW / A LITTLE
Few / a few and little / a little can be used as adjectives and as pronouns.
When we use them as adjectives, we use a few/few with count nouns and a
little/little
with noncount nouns.
EXAMPLES: Jan likes a little sugar in her coffee.
Jan likes little sugar in her coffee. (coffee cannot be counted.)
Michelle has a few friends. Michelle has few friends. (friends can be counted.)
A few and a little express, in a positive way, the presence of something even
though
in a small quantity.
EXAMPLES: A few people attended the concert. (Several people were there.)
John knows a little about computers. (He knows some things.)
Few and little express, in a negative way, the absence of nearly all quantity.
EXAMPLES: Few people attended the meeting. (Not many people want.)
Larry knows little about physics. (He knows almost nothing about it.)

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES: PAST UNREAL CONDITION OR SITUATION


Conditional sentences have two parts: the if-clause and the main clause.
One type of conditional sentence is used to show a past unreal condition or
situation.
If tells what could, would, or might happened in the past if a certain condition or
situation had been true. The if- clause has the past perfect tense, and the main
clause uses could have/might have/would have + a past participle. Note that
if-clause may come before or after the main clause.
IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

If we had left earlier,

we

If you had had had more


money,

what

could
might
would
could
might
would

MAIN CLAUSE
Could
Might
Would
Ed

you have done?

IF CLAUSE

you have gone


could
might
would

have been on time.

if you had finished your work?

have passed

if he had studied harder.

WISH: PAST UNREAL SITUATION


We use wish + THAT noun clause (containing a past perfect verb) to express
regret
about a past situation. The word that is optional.
EXAMPLES: I wish I had become a doctor instead of a teacher.
Amy wishes (that) she hadnt bought that dress last week because its on sale
now.
Do you wish (that) you had gone to college instead of getting married?
SUFFIXES: - ABLE / - IBLE
The suffixes able and ible are added to certain nouns and verbs to make
adjectives. These adjectives have the meaning of capable of or
showing/having.
EXAMPLES: We can refund your money. Your money is refundable.
Smoking isnt permitted here. Its not permissible here.
Here is a partial list of some nouns and verbs to which able and iable can be
added:
accept/acceptable
love/loveable
adjust/adjustable
manage/manageable
advise/advisable
measure/measurable

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afford/affordable
agree/agreeable
believe/believable
break/breakable
change/changeable
collect/collectible/collectable
comfort/comfortable
compare/comparable
control/controllable
depend/dependable
disagree/disagreeable

mistake/mistakable
move/moveable
notice/noticeable
obtain/obtainable
permit/permissible
prefer/preferable
prevent/preventable
profit/profitable
question/questionable
reason/reasonable
refund/refundable

enjoy/enjoyable
honor/honorable
inflate/inflatable
knowledge/knowledgeable
like/ likable

rely/reliable
respect/respectable
sense/sensible
tax/taxable
wash/washable

TOO AND VERY


Very is used to express to a great degree. It means a lot or much.
EXAMPLES: This box is very heavy, but Ray can pick it up.
My coffees very hot just the way I like it.
Too is used to express excessiveness; it means more than enough.
The use of too implies a negative result.
EXAMPLES: This box is too heavy. Ray cant pick it up.
My coffees too hot to drink. Ill wait until it cools off.
Both too and very are placed before adjectives or adverbs.

PASSIVE TO INFINITIVE AS DIRECT OBJECT


A passive to infinitive (to+be+past participle) can be used as a direct object
of
certain verbs such as expect, hope, like, need, prefer, and want.
EXAMPLES: Mike expect to be observed on his job.
Lt Wynn hopes to be considered for that assignment.
The general would like to be served immediately.
The colonel needs to be answered honestly.
Mr. Smith prefers not to be disturbed before 9:00.
The women want to be given respect.
INDIRECT SPEECH: REPORTED PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
A present progressive tense in direct speech should be changed to the past
progressive in indirect speech.
DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Ann: Im going to the coast this
Ann said that she was going to the

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coast
this weekend.
Ed asked me if/whether I was
taking
the bus to work tomorrow.
Lee asked Sid when he was
planning
to go to hunting.

weekend.
Ed: Al, are you taking the bus to
work
tomorrow?
Lee: Sid, when are you planning to
go
hunting?

BOOK 20
REVIEW OF INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE QUANTIFIERS
Some adjective quantifiers are used only with nouns which name things that
can be counted. Others are used only with nouns naming things which cannot
be counted. Many, however, can be used with both types of nouns.
ADJECTIVE QUANTIFIERS
COUNT
NOUNS
many
several
a few
few

USED WITH
NOUNCOUNT NOUNS
much
a little
little

BOTH COUNT AND


NOUNCOUNT NOUNS
some
a good
deal of
any
a great
deal of
more
a lot of
most
lots of
enough
plenty of
all

REVIEW OF HOW MUCH/HOW MANY AND UNIT NOUNS WITH OF


To inquire about the amount or quantity of something, we use a question
beginning with how much or how many. How much is used with noncount
nouns and how many with count nouns.
EXAMPLES:

How much gas does this tank hold?


How many gallons of gas did you buy?

To express quantity or amount, we use the pattern below:


UNIT NOUN + OF + COUNT/NONCOUNT NOUN
EXAMPLES:

The recipe calls for a pint of cream.


There were only two cans of soup left.

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OF WITH PRONOUN QUANTIFIERS


To express quantity or amount, we often use a pronoun that indicates how
much or how many, followed by of.
much of
many of
some of
any of

PRONOUN QUANTIFIERS + OF
all of
either of
few of
most of
neither of
a few of
half of
both of
little of
none of
more of
a little of
ENRICHMENT

one of
two of
three of

Who vs. Whom in Formal and Informal English


Whom is normally used in formal English.
With whom are you speaking?
Im speaking with my sister.
About whom are you reading?
Im reading about Abraham Lincoln.
In formal English, the preposition usually comes before whom when a
question is asked:
To whom are you giving book?
My teacher.
From whom did you get a letter?
My cousin.
In formal American English, who is often used instead of whom. The
preposition is then placed at the end of the question:
Who are you speaking?
Who are you reading about?
Who did you get a letter from?
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
Let the cat out of the bag
Meaning:
To let the cat out of the bag means to tell information that was supposed to
remain secret.
EXAMPLE: Maj. Miller didnt want to tell everyone about his new assignments
until it was official, but he did tell his family. His children soon let the cat out of
the bag by telling all of their friends.

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PRESENT PROGRESIVE PASSIVE


The present progressive tense is used to refer to an activity or event which is
currently in progress.
EXAMPLES:

The mechanic is repairing my car.


They are offering courses in Spanish.
The passive form is used when the agent either is not known or is not
considered as important as the action or event.
EXAMPLES:
My car is being repaired (by the mechanic).
Courses in Spanish are being offered.
Passive form of the present progressive tense:
am
is
are

being

past participle

PAST PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE


The past progressive tense refers to actions or events which are no longer in
progress.
EXAMPLES:

Someone was painting their house yesterday.


The doctor was treating the patients.

The use of the passive form emphasizes the receiver of the past action rather
than its agent. It can also indicate that the agent is not known.
EXAMPLES:

Their house was being painted yesterday.


The patients were being treated (by the doctor).

Passive form of the past progressive:


was
were

being

past participle

ELSE
Notice these sentences that contain word pairs with else. They are question
words, pronouns, and adverbs. They mean a different or another person,
thing, time, place, reason, or manner.
Question words
Who
else
Whom

will be at the party?


should we ask to the party?

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What
Where
When
How
Why

else

Pronouns:
He doesnt
remember
Do you know
Can you tell me
Adverbs:
She doesnt
known
Can you tell me

can I do
can I look for my keys?
do you have time?
can I get there?
would he do it?

who else was there.


whom else she spoke to.
what else he said.
where else she should look.
when else to have the party.
how else I can do it?
why else he would say that?
ENRICHMENT

A or an
In definite a appears before a singular count noun that begins with a
consonant sound:
a book

a candle a diamond

a fence

a guard

An another from of a is used before a singular count noun that begins with
a vowel sound:
an example

an actress

an inch

an onion an hour

A and an are not used before plural count nouns.


actress

horses

jackets

keys

letters

magazines

IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS


On the tip of ones tongue
Meaning:
To be on the tip of ones tongue means to be about to remember a word,
name, or anything else.

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EXAMPLE:
Im sure I can tell you Mikes last name in just a second.
Its on the tip of my tongue.
Wait! Dont tell me the answer. Its on the tip of my tongue.
DIRECT OBJECT + PASSIVE INFINITIVE/PAST PARTICIPLE
When we have someone else perform a job for us, we often use a verb of
volition (like, want, need, or expect), followed by a direct object and either a
passive infinitive or a past participle.
Like, want, need, and expect can be followed by either a past participle or a
passive infinitive.
EXAMPLES:

Id like the oil changed this morning.


Pete wants his brakes checked before his trip.
He needs the wheels aligned as soon as possible.
The librarian wants the books to be returned in good

condition.
Wed like the pictures to be taken by a professional
photographer.
Expect is usually followed by a passive infinitive.
EXAMPLES:

The boss expects this job to be done today.


Maj. Garza doesnt expect his orders to be changed.
CAUSATIVE HAVE AND GET

When we cause someone to do something, we use have and get as causative


verbs to express the idea. If what is done is more important than person who is
doing it, or if the agent is unknown, we use the passive causative.
Active voice: I had Mr. James repair my roof last weak.
(have someone do something)
I got the pharmacist to fill my prescription.
(have someone do something)
Passive voice: I had my roof repaired.
(have something doing)
I got my prescription filed.
(have something done)
Have and get are followed by a direct object and a past participle. The
sentences below show the pattern.
Joe
Linda

had
got

his prescription
her letter

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I have to
Did you
How often do you
Why doesnt she
When was the last
time you

get
get
have
have

my transmission
your laundry
your hair
her car

checked.
done?
cut?
painted?

had

the oil in your car

changed?

INDIRECT SPEECH: REPORTED SIMPLE PAST TENSE


When a statement or question in the past tense is reported, two changes
occur:
1.

The tense of the verb changes from simple past to past perfect.

EXAMPLE:

Jane said, Jim joined the Army.


Jane said Jim had joined the Army.
Did Anne attend the meeting? Al asked.
Al asked if Anne had attended the meeting.

2.

First and second person pronouns change to the third person (unless
someone is reporting his own words).

EXAMPLES:

Jim said, I joined the Army.


Jim said that he had joined the Army.
Al asked, Did you attend the meeting, Ann?
Al asked Ann whether she had attended the meeting.
Al asked Ann if she had attended the meeting.
Ann said, Yes, I went to the meeting, Al.
Ann: I told Al that I had gone the meeting.

Verb in the sentence originally


spoken:
was/were
spent
saw
received

Verb the sentence that tells what


was said:
had been
had spent
had seen
had received

- IVE/-TIVE/-ATIVE SUFFIX
Sometimes we can add suffixes ive, -tive, or ative to a verb od noun to make
an adjective. Adjectives formed in this way indicate a certain tendency,
character, or quality.
EXAMPLES:

Linda talks all the time. Shes very talkative.

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This watch has a defect. Its defective watch.


Our farm produces large crops. The land is very
productive.
A change in the spelling of the verb or noun is required in some cases. When
either ive or tive is added to a word that ends with the letter e, that letter
omitted.
EXAMPLES:

communicate/communicative
create/creative
defense/defensive
produce/productive

In other cases. Letters in the stem are changed.


EXAMPLES:

destroy/destructive
persuade/persuasive
ENRICHMENT

For and Since


A time expression that begins with for tells us how long an action or event has
lasted.
Col. Roberts has been in the military for twenty-five years.
My sin has been talking on the phone for a long time.
A time expression that begins with since tells the time when the action or event
began. Since means from an exact time in the past up to the present. After
since, you can use a single word, a phrase, or a clause (sentence).
Mary has worked here since 1984.
Uncle Fred worked hasnt visited us since last summer.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
ALL SHOOK UP
Meaning:
A person who has been very disturbed or upset by something is all shook up
He almost had a car accident this morning. Hes all shook up.
Dont get all shook up. The news might not be as bad as you think.
She gets all shook up when the children dont come home on time.
QUANTITZ AND AMOUNT
1.

We use much and little with noncount (mass) nouns to state quantity and
amount:

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much water
2.

much time

4.

little money

We use many and few with plural count nouns also to state quantity and
amount:
many people many houses

3.

little power

few friends

few books

We use more and the most with both noncount (mass) nouns and plural
count nouns:
more coffee more pencils
the most energy
the most pens
Much is primarily used in question and negative sentences:
George didnt say much.
Pam doesnt put much sugar in her tea.
Has Ed saved much money?

5.

Sometimes too and so are used with much in affirmative sentences:


Were spending too much money.
He eats too much.
She spends so much time in the kitchen.

6.

Little and few usually have a negative idea. Sometimes we use very with
them.
She has little time and money to waste. (not much time and money)
They eat very little.
Few of us can speak German as well as Frank can. (not many of us)
There were very few children there.

7.

Comparatives and superlatives:

COMPARISONS OF QUANTIFIERS: LITTLE, FEW, MUCH, MANY


POSITIVE
little
few
much
many

COMPARATIVE
less (than)
fewer (than)
more (than)
more (than)

SUPERLATIVE
the least
the fewest
the most
the most

The comparative of little is less; the superlative is the least.


The comparative of few is fewer; the superlative is the fewest.
The comparative of much and many is more; the superlative is the most.

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SO (THAT)
The conjunction so (that) is used to introduce clauses that state the purpose
for which something is done.
Mary takes vitamins
He hurried
Shes studying more
Phil moved to Rome

so (that) she wont get sick.


so (that) he wouldnt be late.
so (that) she can graduate on time.
so (that) he could learn Italian.
AS MUCH/MANY AS

To express the idea of equality or the lack of it, we can use as mach as or as
many as in the following pattern:
AS MUCH/MANY (+ noun) + AS + noun/pronoun (verb)
EXAMPLES:

Rita knows as many people as Sarah does.


Ed doesnt earn as much money as Bob.

As many as is used with count nouns.


EXAMPLES:

We took as many pictures as we could.

As much as is used with noncount (mess) nouns.


EXAMPLES:

I dont get as much mail as you do.


ADVERB COMPARISONS

POSITIVE
much
a little

COMPARATIVE
more (than)
less (than)

SUPERLATIVE
the most
the least

ENRICHMENT
Omitting to before the words home and downtown
The words home and downtown are used without the preposition to when
they are used with verbs of motion or direction.
Roger is driving me home after work.
The children ran home to see if their grandfather was there.
He left home when he was a child.

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That bus will take you downtown.


Mr. Nelson walks downtown almost every day.
Bon and Sally went downtown last night.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
Hold your horses
Meaning:
Hold your horses means Be patient, or Wait a minute.
Examples sentences:
1.
2.
3.

Hold your horses! We havent finished fixing the brakes.


Hold your horses! Let me explain firs.
Hold your horses! The food will be ready in a few minutes.

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BOOK 21
We use the comparative from of adjectives and adverbs when we compare or
imply comparison of two persons, thing, etc. We use the superlative from when
we compare or imply comparison of three or more persons, things, etc.
For most adjectives and adverbs of one syllable or those of two syllables that
end in er, le, ow, ure, or y, add er to the adjective or adverb to from the
comparative. To form the superlative, add the est.
Comparative: - er
Superlative: The est
old
young
pretty
late
fast
early

Adjective
older
younger
prettier*
Adverbs
later
faster
earlier*

the oldest
the youngest
the prettiest
the latest
the fastest
the earliest

We use the word than after the adjective or adverb when those that are being
compared are mentioned. In this structure, subject pronouns, he, she, we, you,
they, follow the word than.
We will arrive earlier than they (will).
John runs faster than he (does).
*NOTE: change y to i and add er.
With most adjectives and adverbs of two or more syllables, (except those
mentioned above) put more or less before the adjective or adverb to form the
comparative. To form the superlative, put the most or the least.
Comparative: More/Less

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careful
beautiful
often
beautifully
softly*

Adjective
more careful
more beautiful
Adverbs
more often
more beautifully
more softly

less careful
less beautiful
less often
less beautifully
less softly

Superlative: The Most/The Least


careful
beautiful
often
beautifully
softly*

Adjective
the most careful
the most
beautiful
Adverbs
the most often
the most
beautifully
the most softly

the least careful


the least beautiful
the least often
the least
beautifully
the least softly

*NOTE: There are exceptions.


Irregular Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs
bad
badly
far
good
well

worse
worse
*farther/further
better
better

the worst
the worst
the farthest/furthest
the best
the best

*Farther/further is generally used to indicate physical distances and further is


used to mean additional or describe mental distances.
Paul ran farther than Harry.
Money is the furthest thing from my mind.
TOO + ADVERB + TO INFINITIVE
Besides meaning more than enough or more than is necessary for a particular
purpose*, the word too also indicates a problem or difficulty. Look at too
followed by an adverb and for + object and/or the to-infinitive.
for me.
This city grows too rapidly
(for me) to keep up with it.

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REPORTED PAST PROGRESIVE SPEECH


The past progressive is used to describe an action in the past which was
happening when another action occurred.
Statement with Past Progressive
1st Action
(main clause)
Ben was eating dinner

2nd Action
(time clause)
when Tom called

In reporting what was said in a past progressive statement or a question,


change the past progressive to the past perfect progressive. The verb in
the time clause remains the same.
Questions
say?
tell

What did Al

you?

Reported Speech with Past Perfect Progressive


Al said
Al told

me

Ben had been


eating

(that)

when Tom
called

Yes/No question with Past Progressive


Was Ben eating when Tom called?
Questions
say?
ask

What did Al

you?

Reported Speech with Past Perfect Progressive


Al asked

(me)

if
whether

Ben had been


eating

when Tom called

********
Question Word Questions with Past Progressive
Where
What

was Ben
eating

when Tom called?

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Questions
say?
ask

What did Al

you?

Reported Speech with Past Perfect Progressive


Al asked

where
what

(me)

Ben had been


eating

when Tom called

Enrichment
Elder/eldest are used as replacements of older/oldest, but they can only be
used to imply seniority within a family or social group.
His eldest son came to visit him.
The eldest son is only five years old.
Frank is may elder brother.
Elder cannot be placed before than, so older must be used in this comparison.
Frank is older than I am.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
PAINT SOMEONE A PICTURE
Meaning
Paint someone a picture is used to express anger or impatience when you
have explained something very clearly to someone and that person does not
understand what you are talking about.
Example Sentences
1. Ive told you how to complete this assignment at least three times
already. What do you want me to do, paint you a picture?
2. Sgt Olsen already explained to the airmen where they need to
report. They still dont seem to understand. Does he need to paint
them a picture?
3. The recruits still dont know what to do. I guess the DI had better
paint them a picture.
SO (THAT)/SUCH (THAT)
So (that) is used with adjectives, adverbs, or noun phrases. (The phrases

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may have much or many in them.)


Such (that) is only used with noun phrases. (The phrases never have
much or many before the noun.)
SITUATION
RESULT
so
tall
Jim is
(that)
he has to bend to enter.
such
a tall man
SHOWING EFECT OR RESULT
Note the placement and punctuation of connectives which show effect or
result.

Mr. Green lost his job

as a result,
thus,
therefore,
consequently,

he cant buy a new


car.

Mr. Green lost his job

As a result,
Thus,
Therefore,
Consequently,

he cant buy a new


car.

ASKING ABOUT DEGREE WITH HOW + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB


How tall is he?
How well does he play the guitar?
REVIEW OF BE PASSIVE
In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive
verb. The passive is formed with the verb BE + the past participle. The agent may
or may not appear in passive voice sentences.
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
AGENT
Capt Lee
helps
Lt Reed.
They
wash
the car
ACTIVE VOICE
Capt Lee
helped
Lt Reed.
They
washed
the car
Lt Reed.
is helped
by Capt Lee.
The car
are washed
PASSIVE VOICE
Lt Reed.
was helped
by Capt Lee.
The car
were washed
PRESENT PERFECT BE PASSIVE

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The present perfect passive is used to indicate an indefinite past action or event.
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
AGENT
ACTIVE VOICE
Capt Lee
has helped
Lt Reed.
They
have washed
the car
PASSIVE VOICE
Lt Reed.
has been helped
by Capt
The car
have been washed.
Lee.
CHANGING TO NOUNS
Complete the chart. Add the suffixes y, - ty, - ity, or ility to the adjectives to
form abstract nouns. Notice the stress (/) while you repeat the words.
-Y
ADJECTIVE
/
honest
- ty
JECTIVE

NOUN
/
honesty
NOUN

/
certain
/
entire
/
special
/
uncertain
/
loyal
/
safe
- ity
ADJECTIVE
/
electric
/
formal
/
real
/
personal
/
regular
/
national

88

NOUN

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

/
public
/
neutral
/
fatal
/
stupid
/
elastic
/
rigid
/
humid
/
technical
/
senior
/
popular
- ity (silent vowel dropped)
ADJECTIVE
NOUN
/
secure
/
creative
/
clear*
/
active
/
severe
/
generous*
- ility (l + silent vowel dropped)
ADJECTIVE
/
responsible
/
eligible
/
visible
/
able

NOUN

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/
sensible
/
flexible
/
probable
/
dependable
/
reliable
/
capable
/
possible
*irregular spelling change
Enrichment
Count Noun vs. Noun count Noun
Some words can be count nouns or noun count nouns. When the word
refers to a substance, material, or happening in general, it is considered a
noun count noun. When it refers to a kind of substance, material, or
happening, or a particular unit made up of that substance, material, or
happening, it is considered a count noun.
non count noun
There was much activity
going on.

count noun
They planned many activities.

Some plants need more light


than others.

Do you have a light?

Agreement was prevalent


among the visitors.

We had an agreement.

Other words which can be used either way include:


art
decision
history
justice
pleasure
stone
virtue

bone
duty
honor
kindness
science
success
war

brick
fire
hope
language
sound
time
worry

IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS

90

cake
hair
injustice
pain
space
thought

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

UPTIGHT
Meaning
Very anxious, worried, or nervous
Example sentences:
1. Im really uptight about the English test.
2. Alex was uptight about getting married.
3. Relax. Dont get so uptight about meeting your girlfriends family.

RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


A restrictive adjective clause modifies a noun by describing or giving additional
information about that noun. It always directly follows the noun to which it
relates. Since it follows so closely, this clause frequently separates the noun
from the verb.
Adjective clauses can be introduced by the relative pronouns that/which/who
and relate to the subject of the clause. In this type of structure, the clause is
linked to part or all of the main clause.
S
V
The book is on the table. It
is
interesting.
The book that is on the table is interesting.
S
V
The movie was on TV yesterday.
It
made
The movie which was on TV yesterday made me cry.
S
V
The man is my neighbor.
He
is
The man who is my neighbor is very tall.

me cry.

very tall.

MORE RESTRICTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE


Adjective clause may be introduced by the relative pronouns who(m)/
which/that and relate to the object of the clause. The relative pronouns may be
omitted.
S
V
O
The woman was beautiful.
I
met
her
The woman (who(m)* I met in the library was beautiful.
The course is very difficult.

S
I

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in the library.

V
O
am takingit this semester.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

The course (which) Im taking this semester is very difficult.


S
V
The wallet belongs to Larry.
Mark
found
lab.
The wallet (that) Mark found in the lab belongs to Larry.

O
it

in the

*NOTE: In informal English, who is often used as an object pronoun.


WHERE/WHEN USED AS RELATIVE ADVERBS
Some adjective clauses may be introduced by the relative adverb where/when
and relate to the place or time.
I prefer the French restaurant. We ate there last week.
I prefer the French restaurant where we ate last week.
Do you remember the night? We ran out of gas.
Do you remember the night when we ran out of gas?
WHOSE IN RESTRECTIVE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
Another restrictive adjective clause is introduced by the relative adjective
whose. It is used to show possession and replaces the possessive adjectives
in combined sentences. It comes directly after the noun to which it relates and
almost always refers to people.
Last night, we met a man. His wife was born in Australia.
Last night, we met a man whose wife was born in Australia.
The people are being transferred. Were buying their house.
The people whose house were buying are being transferred.
PAST PERFECT BE PASSIVE
The past perfect passive is used to indicate an action or event which occurred
before another action or event un the past.* Note that passive voice changes
occur only in the main clause of the statement.
MAIN CLAUSE
TIME
EXPRESSION
VOICE
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
ACTIVE
John
had
PASSIVE
The report
finished
the report.
before Al left
had been
finished.
*
3:00
The report was finished.

4:00
Al left the office.

92

6:00
now.

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

ANTICIPATORY IT + GERUND
A gerund is frequently used as the subject of a sentence.
Traveling to Europe this summer will be exciting.
Not buying a new car was a big mistake.
Sometimes the gerund is used in a sentence with an anticipatory it
construction. The it and the gerund phrase mean the same thing.
Itll be exciting traveling to Europe this summer.
It was a big mistake not buying a new car.
The pattern used in these sentences is:
It + Be + noun/adjective + gerund phrase
NONREFERENTIAL THERE + GERUND
There + Be means something exists. It can sometimes be followed by a
gerund phrase.
There was yelling and screaming at the football game.
There will be celebrating after the graduation.
There is no smoking in this building.
Enrichment
Fixed propositional phrases
There are several propositional phrases which are fixed. Below are some
which relate to places or institutions and the purposes for attending these.
1.

go to/come to bed = to sleep


The children have a already gone to bed.

2.

be in/stay in bed = for rest


Doctor: If you want to feel better, you need to stay in bed until your fever
is gone.

3.

get out of bed = after resting/sleeping


I dont like getting out of bed in the winter.

4.

go to/come to school = to study


Henry is going to school.
be at breakfast/at dinner/at the table = having a meal
Theyre at breakfast.

5.
6.

be in class = attending or teaching a class

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Mr. Edwards is in class.


7.

go to/be at church = for worship


Many people go to church on Sunday.

8.

be at/go home = in ones own house


Were going home.

9.

go into/be in the hospital = for medical treatment


Shes going into the hospital tomorrow.

10. go to/be at the university = for study


Hell be at the university until May 30.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
DO JUSTICE TO
Meaning
To do justice to means to treat someone justly, or to appreciate something
properly.
Example sentences
1.
2.
3.

Jim certainly does justice to his wifes excellent coking.


This picture looks exactly like you. It really does you justice.
Johns test grade doesnt do him justice. He knows much more than the
score indicates.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE REDUCED TO TO INFINITIVE PHRASE

Restrictive adjective clauses can be reduced to to infinitive phrases. For +


noun or pronoun sometimes comes before the to infinitive phrase.
Roger has a lot (that) he must learn.
Roger has a lot to learn.
Mr. Kent is the man (whom) you should talk to about your taxes. Mr. Kent is
the man to talk to about your taxes.
I bought some snacks (that) we can eat later.
I bought some snacks for us to eat later.
Relative clauses introduced by when and where can also be reduced to to
infinitive phrases.
Do you know a place (where) I can buy batteries?

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Do you know a place to buy batteries?


Saturdays the only day (when) I can do the laundry.
Saturdays the only day to do the laundry.
I know of a good place (where) you can meet me.
I know of a good place for you to meet me.
GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES AFTER BE
The to infinitive and gerund forms can be used as subject complements after
the verb BE. There are differences in the usage of the two. Subjects which
express duty, advice, purpose, etc., are often followed by infinitives.
Jims goal is to learn Russian.
Her purpose in life is to be a good teacher.
His advice was not to fly in this weather.
His favorite sport is swimming.
Her biggest problem is doing her homework.
NOUN CLAUSES AFTER CERTAIN VERBS
A noun clause can be used after certain verbs that express necessity and
requesting. Some of the more common verb are:
advice
ask (= request)
command

recommend
request
suggest

insist
order
urge

That can be used to introduce these clauses. It can also be omitted in this
structure. When a noun clause follows one of these verbs, the verb in the
clause has no s for third person singular and no ed for past tense. Be is
used instead of is, am, are. We say that the verb is a subjective form.
His mother insisted (that) he be home at eight.
I suggested to John (that) he study for the test.
Mr. Former recommended (that) we not leave today.
Enrichment
Among and Between
Among is used to talk about more than people or things.
We shared the quart of ice cream among the four of us.
Dont worry about not knowing anyone at the party; youll be among friends.
Between is used to talk about only two people or things.
Between the two of us, John and I were able to fix the TV.
Lloyd couldnt decide between the blue shirt and the white one, so he bought
both of them.

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Between is also used with two pairs of items.


For lunch, we had a choice between chicken and rice, and soup and salad.
And not or is used between the two items.
Don had to choose between studying and going to a movie.
In informal English, between is sometimes used to talk about more than two
items.

IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS


ITS BEYOND ME
Meaning
When we say that something is beyond us we mean that were not capable
of understanding it - - its beyond our ability to understand.
Example sentences
1.
2.
3.

Im afraid I cant help you with that math problem. Higher mathematics is
beyond me.
Why Harold insists on driving to Florida when he could fly is beyond me.
Tina and Ted are always arguing. How they can remain friends is beyond
me.

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BOOK 22
PRESENT PROGRESIVE VS. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
PRESENT PROGRESIVE
Use the present progressive to talk
about something that is happening
now.
EXAMPLE:
1. Look! Its snowing!
2. Excuse me, what are you doing?
3. John and his cousin are jogging
around the block.
4. Can you please talk lower? Im
listening to the radio.
5. Shes boiling water so she can
make tea.
6. Wheres Jack?
Hes visiting his mother.

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


Use the simple present tense to talk
about something that happens all the
time.
EXAMPLE:
1. It usually snows here in that
winter.
2. What do you do after class
most of the time?
3. Do you ever jog? Yes, I jog
every morning.
4. He often listens to the radio
after class.
5. Water boils at 100 degrees
Centigrade.
6. Jack visits his mother every
Friday.

REWIEW OF YES/NO QUESTIONS


STATEMENT
A statement gives some kind of
information.

YES/NO QUESTION
A yes/no question is a simple
question which elicits a yes or no
answer. It can begin with forms of do,
forms of be, has/have/had, or modals.
EXAMPLE:
1. Do they live in New York? Does
he ride a bicycle to work?
2. Is she studying French at night?
3. Will they leave tomorrow?

EXAMPLE:
1. They live in New York. He rides
a bicycle to work.
2. Shes studying French at night.
3. Theyll leave tomorrow.

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4.
5.
6.
7.

Linda lost her keys.


They were studying when the
lights went out.
You should eat. Jacks made
soup.
The girls had already eaten
before they got home.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Did Linda lose her keys? Didnt


she lose her keys?
Were they studying when the
lights went out?
Should we eat? Has Jack made
soup?
Had the girls already eaten
before they got home? Hadnt
the girls already eaten before
they got home?

PREFIX RE
The prefix RE has the meaning of again.
AS IF / AS THOUGH
The conjunctions as if and as though are preferred in formal speech to
introduce an adverb of manner which expresses how someone or something
looks, sounds, smells, feels, or seems. Informally, however, we se like.
as if
It smells as though
something is burning.
like*
We can also use as if or as though to show how someone does something.
EXAMPLE:

Helen speaks as though she knows that subject very well.


Bob always acts as if hes mad.
Rita reads that story as though shes written it.

*colloquial or informal speech


SUFFIX NESS
We can the suffix ness to some adjectives to make nouns which then
express the quality or state of being.
EXAMPLE:
dark/darkness
*dizzy/dizziness
*empty/emptiness
eager/eagerness
*ready/readiness
*friendly/friendliness

great/greatness
*happy/happiness
ill/illness
*lazy/laziness
quick/quickness
sick/sickness

*Note the spelling; change y to i.


Enrichment

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Subject/verb Agreement with either .. or / neither .. nor


When we use the conjunctions either . or / neither .nor, the verb of the
sentence agrees with the subject that is closest to it.
Look at the following sentences:
Either my sister or my brother is going to visit him.
Either my brother or my sister are going to help him move.
Neither you nor your friend was helpful.
Neither John nor his friends were there.

IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS


A BITTER PILL TO SWALLOW
Meaning
A bitter pill to swallow means something that is very difficult or something
that you dont like to do like medicine that doesnt test good, but that you
must take.
Example sentences:
1. He wrecked his friends car end had to pay for the repairs. That was a
bitter pill to swallow.
2. He failed his test and didnt graduate with his friends. That was a bitter pill
to swallow.
NOUN AS OBJECT COMPLEMENT AFTER VERBS OF CHOOISING
In sentences that contain verbs of choosing, considering, and thinking, two
nouns can follow the verb. These two nouns refer to the same person or the
same thing. These sentences may be written different ways.
EXAMPLE:
The players elected Jim as their leader.
The players elected Jim to be their leader.
The players elected Jim their leader.
(Jim = leader)
The commander has declared next Monday as a holiday.
The commander has declared next Monday to be a holiday.
The commander has declared next Monday a holiday.
(next Monday = a holiday)
NOTE: In same sentences, either as or to be can be used, but not both.

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REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO ADJECTIVE PHRASES


Sentences that contain adjective clauses can be shortened by changing the
adjective clauses to adjective phrases. Either the present or past participle is
used in the phrase.
EXAMPLE:
Cars that are parked on the grass must be moved.
Cars parked on the grass must be moved.
No one who is taking the test may leave the room.
No one taking the test may leave the room.
The meal that is being planned is a special one.
The meal being planned is a special one.
REDUCING ADJECTIVE CLAUSES TO PROPOSITIONAL PHRASES
Sentences that contain adjective clauses with a subject pronoun and the verb
be followed by a propositional phrase or the verb have and a direct object can
be shortened by changing the adjective clauses to propositional phrases.
Adjective clauses that contain have/dont have are reduced to propositional
phrases containing with or without.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
Subject
Prepositional
SUBJECT
PREDICATE
pronoun +
Phrase
Be/Have
The pay phone
thats
on the wall
doesnt work.
The pay phone
The cap

----------that has

on the wall
a star on it

doesnt work.
is the generals.

The cap

-----------

with a star on it

is the generals.

SEQUENCING MODIFIERS BEFORE NOUNS


Study the columns below. They show the kinds of words that can be used to
describe something and the order in which the words are usually placed.
Determiner
Adjective
Adjective
Noun used
Noun head
that tells
that gives a
that gives a
as an
- word
which or
general
physical
adjective
how many
description
description
an
exciting
soccer
match
Moms
delicious
hot
apple
pie
dangerous
narrow
mountain
roads
their
heavy
combat
boots
the
clear
blue
sky
no
major
health
problems
two
interesting
new
TV
programs
eager
young
college
students

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AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

several
a dozen

cheap

small
white

state
paper

colleges
plates

Enrichment
Lay/Lie
Lay is verb that means to place or to put. It is often incorrectly used instead
of lie, which means to rest or to remain in a certain position.
Use lay when something is happening to a person or a thing.
EXAMPLE:
Please lay the books on the floor.
Ed is laying new carpets in his house.
Stan laid his hand on his sons shoulder.
Is the new carpet being laid on top of the old one?
Use lie when there is no person or thing receiving the action of the verb.
EXAMPLE:
Why dont you lie down and take a nap.
The newspaper was lying on the front porch.
The patient lay in his hospital bed for two weeks.
Sue soon realized that shed lain in the sun too long.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
A TIGHT SPOT
Meaning:
A tight spot means a difficult situation.
Example Sentences:
1. After Tom finished eating an expensive dinner in the restaurant, he
discovered that he didnt have enough money to pay for it. He was in a
tight spot.
2. Ann is in a tight spot because her parents dont like the man she planes
to marry.
3. Sgt Smith found himself in a tight spot when his car ran out of gas in the
middle of the desert.
VERB + THAT NOUN CLUSE
A clause is a group of words that a subject and a verb and is used as part of a
sentence. There are certain verbs that are followed by that (optional) + noun
clause.
NOUN CLAUSE

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I think

(that) Ill leave tomorrow.

Did you forget (that) John isnt here today?


The following verbs can be used with noun clauses beginning with that:
agree
figure out
imagine
observe
remember
believe
find out
indicate
predicate
say
decide
forget
know
read
tell
discover
guess
learn
realize
think
doubt
hear
notice
regret
understand
feel
hope
EMPHATIC DO
When we want to stress or emphasizes an action, we can use do, does,
or did before the verb.
EXAMPLE:
Do you want to play soccer with us this
afternoon?
I dont play soccer, but I do play tennis.
Does Andy have a class tonight?
Not tonight, but he does have one Monday.
Did you meet my niece last night?
No, but I did meat your nephew.
NOTE: Use the emphatic do sparingly.
SUFFIXES FUL AND LESS
We can add the suffixes ful and less to some nouns to make
adjectives. The suffixes ful and less have opposite meanings: - ful
means ful of or having; and less means without or not having
EXAMPLES: power

The general is a very powerful man.


He has a lot of power and authority.
I couldnt do anything. I felt powerless.
I didnt have the power to do anything.

car
Shes a careful driver.

Kay always obeys the traffic laws.


Gary doesnt follow traffic laws. Shes

a careless driver.

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We cannot add these suffixes to all nouns to make words with opposite
meanings.
EXAMPLE: friend

Hes friendless.
He doesnt have a friend.
We cant add full to friend.
Enrichment

Take
We say take when we mean get, have, use, or do.
Take a bath or shower.
Take the bus or cab, taxi, train, plane.
Take your medicine.
The nurse will take your temperature with a thermometer.
Take a picture with a camera.
Take a look at this.
Take a seat (Please sit down.)
Take your time. (Dont hurry; do your work correctly.)
We say take when we mean tray.
Ill take a chance,
We use take for an amount of time or location.
It takes fifteen minutes to drive from here to the airport.
The briefing will take place at 3:00 p.m. in room 308.
We use take when we write something down for the record.
The hotel clerk will take your name and address when you check in to the
hotel.
We use take when we mean hold or accept.
The gas tank will take more than 15 gallons. (hold)
I wont take less than $2,000 for this used car. (accept)
This vending machine only takes quarters. (accept)
We say takes after when we mean looks like or acts like.
Our son takes after his father.
We use take in both polite invitations and angry responses.
Lets take a walk. (Polite invitation to go walking.)
Take a walk! (Angry response. Go away; youre bothering me.)
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS

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HIT THE NAIL ON THE HEAD


Meaning
We use the expression hit the nail on the head when a person does or
says the correct thing or is exactly right.
Example Sentences
1.
2.
3.

You hit the nail on the head when you said the food here was both
delicious and inexpensive.
Mr. Jones said I hit the nail on the head when I told him it would rain
today.
Captain Smith hit the nail on the head when he said the computer would
save us a lot of time and money.
MODAL REVIEW: CAN/WAS OR WERE GOING TO/BE UNABLE TO/
HAD BETTER

Can is used to show possibility.


Example: You can see the whole city from this tower.
Mark can jog tonight if he finishes work early.
Was/were going to is used to show past intention.
Examples: I was going to call you, but I didnt have time.
We were going to go to the beach, but it started to rain.
Be unable to is used to show inability or incapability.
Examples: Ed has lost his watch and is unable to find it.
The sound was too low, so we were unable to hear the tape clearly.
Had better is used to give advice.
Examples: We had better call off the soccer game tonight.
Its starting to rain. Youd better take your umbrella.
GET PASSIVE
Get passive is used to refer to an action that happens to something or
someone.
Examples:

The house will get finished eventually.


John and Sue got married last Saturday.
Rome didnt get built in a day.
Larry has gotten accepted by Smith University.
IDIRECT SPEECH: REPORTED PRESENT PERFECT

A present perfect tense in direct speech should be changed to the past


perfect in indirect speech.
EXAMPLES:

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Have you ever been to Paris, Paul?


No, Ive never been there.
(later)
What did Pam ask you?
She asked if I had ever been to Paris.
I havent finished this report?
Has Kirk finished his report?
No, he said he didnt finished it yet.
Haw many times have you seen this movie?
Ive seen it four times. I really like it.
(later)
Rick, what did Lee ask you?
He asked how many times Id seen the movie.

Enrichment
Accept/Except
Accept and except have different meaning but are sometimes confused with
one another because they sound almost alike.
Accept means to take or to receive.
Please accept my congratulations.
Roger can either accept the assignment or retire.
The waiter gladly accepted Georges generous tip.
Except may be used in two ways. It can have the meaning to leave out, or it
can mean but or excluding*.
The TI wont except us from taking the test.
Has the judge excepted anyone from jury duty?
The military excepts women from serving in combat.
Everyone except Edgar voted for Edward.
Ed ate everything on his plate except the eggs.
Except for a brief storm, the weather was beautiful.
*excluding = not including
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
BITE THE BULLET
Meaning:

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Bite the bullet means to accept with courage the prospect of an unpleasant
or difficult situation.
Example Sentences:
1.
2.
3.

I borrowed my Dads car, and I had a small accident. Hes going to be


mad. I guess Ill just bite the bullet and tell him.
Were going to have to cut down on spending. In fact, were going to have
to eat out less often. You may to bite the bullet an look for job.
Sgt Leno doesnt want to go through combat training again. However, its
required, so shell have to bite the bullet and do it.

BOOK 23
PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES AS NOUN MODIFIERS
A participle is a verb form which can be used either in a verb phrases or as an
adjective. The present participle ends in ing. The past participle ends in ed,
-d, -t, -n or en.
EXAMPLES:

The water which is boiling produces steam.


(present participle used in a verb phrase)
Boiling water produces steam.
(present participle used as an adjective)

He opened the envelope which had better sealed. (past


participle used in a verb phrase)
He opened the sealed envelope. (past participle used as
an adjective)
In a participle noun combination, the noun receives the primary stress (/), and
the participle receives the secondary stress (^).
^
/
EXAMPLES: We walked for a mile in the pouring RAIN.
^
/
The bank will return your cancelled CHECKS.
REVIEW OF QUESTION WORD QUESTION
Question word questions are used to ask for specific information, such as a
time, a name, a location, or a reason. They begin with one of the question
words: who, whom, which, what, where, why, and how.

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EXAMPLES:

Wheres the party?


Whos invited?
How many people will be there?
What time does the entertainment start?
When are you going?

PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES AS OBJECTIVE COMPLIMENTS


A present or past participle can be used after a direct object to modify the
direct object. The direct object and participle will follow the verb catch,
discover, find, keep, or leave. (Note: The verb catch does not ordinarily take a
past participle as a compliment.)
A present participle is used when the direct object performs an action. A past
participle is used when the direct object receives the action.
SUBJECT
We
He

VERB
found
kept

DIRECT
OBJECT
the other quests
his fear or
heights

PARTICIPLE
waiting for us.
hidden.

Enrichment
Get
We use get every day in many common expressions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Could you get some coffee? (bring)


I got a package from today. (received)
Can you get Europe on your shortwave radio? (receive)
Shes getting sick; I think she has a fever. (becoming)
When will we get to New York? (arrive)
I got Fred to help me move the refrigerator. (influenced)
Hes nice when you get to know him. (succeed in)
Come on, Dad; we never get to go to the movies! (permission)
Well have to get our own lunch; Moms sick. (prepare)
He didnt get what I meant. (understand)
Her loud gum chewing really gets to me! (annoys)
I got a bulls-eye! (I hit the center of the target!)
She has to get her car fixed. (have something done)
Maybe you can get a blanket from Joe. (borrow)
He got his leg broken in the accident. (experienced)
Get off my back! (angry response: Dont bother me anymore!)
Get lost! Get out here! (angry response: Go away!)

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IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS


FULL STEAM AHEAD
Meaning:
Full steam ahead means to proceed using a lot of force and energy.
Example Sentences:
1.
2.
3.

Jack couldnt wait any longer and proceeded full steam ahead with his
plan to open a new store.
Sometimes, people go full steam ahead on a project and then have to
slow down.
Are you slow and cautious, or do you like to do things full steam ahead?

REVIEW OF THE IMPERATIVE FORM


The second person imperative is used to give commands, instructions, and
directions. The simple form of the verb (the bare infinitive) is used. The
negative imperative is formed with do not or dont.

(You)

ANSWER THE PHONE


Answer
Dont move
Go

the phone, please.


the victim.
two blocks straight
ahead.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF TIME

Adverb clauses of time show the chronological relationship of one action to


another. They usually modify the verb of the main clause but can also modify
the whole sentence. Most follow the main clause and are not separated from it
by a comma.
EXAMPLE:
Please lock the door when you leave.
Other precede the main clause and are followed by a comma.
EXAMPLE:
When you leave, please lock the door.
Adverb clauses of time are introduced by the following conjunctions: as, after,
before, now that, until, when, while, whenever, since, and as soon as.
As you read these examples, notice the tenses of the verbs in the main and
adverb clauses.
Time Expressed
1.

Verb in Main Clause

Verb in Time Clause

present:
simple present/imperative
simple present
We select the candy we want before we pull the handle.

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Dont stop this procedure until the doctor comes.


2.

present:
simple present/imperative
present progressive
Make some tea now that the water is boiling.
They can read their letters now that the children are sleeping

3.

future:
future/future equivalent simple present
Shell read a magazine after she washes her clothes.
Well eat as soon as John arrives.
I plan to eat lunch after I wash the car.

4.

past: past progressive


simple past
He was waiting at the corner when the light turned green.
They were playing soccer when I come home.

5.

past: simple past


past progressive
It rained for about an hour while (when) we were fishing.
He played the guitar while she was dancing.

6.

past: past progressive


past progressive
John was singing as (while) he was driving to work.
We were thinking of home as (while) we were looking at the pictures.

7.

past: simple past


simple past
Last winter, Linda caught a cold whenever anyone sneezed in her
direction.
Tom jumped whenever (when) the drill sergeant yelled at him.

8.

past: present perfect/past perfect


simple past
I havent talked to him since he came home.
I had forgotten Ellen until I ran into her at the mall.
He had refused to believe it until (before) he saw it on TV.
THE GERUND AS A NOUN MODIFIER

A gerund is a verbal noun ending in ing. It can be used before another noun
to describe that nouns purpose.
EXAMPLE:

a fishing boat = a boat for fishing

In gerund noun combination, the gerund receives the primary stress (/); the
other noun receives a weaker stress called third stress (\).
/
\
EXAMPLE:
typing paper = paper for typing
Enrichment
These verbs are always followed by gerunds.
admit

consider

deny

risk

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avoid

appreciate

mind
stop*

enjoy

dislike

*except when stop is followed by an infinitive or purpose


A gerund is a verb with an -ing ending which is used as a noun.
EXAMPLE:

Ed likes swimming.

A gerund is also sometimes used in noun compounds.


EXAMPLE: He goes to the swimming pool when he cant get to the beach.

She enjoys

eating fish at Tonys Seafood Restaurant.


going to the movies every Friday night.
dancing at the Officers Club.
speaking American English.
listening to any kind of music.
watching the news on TV.
riding her horse in the country.

opening the window for me, please?


closing the door when you leave?
answering the phone when Im at lunch?
Do you mind not smoking? This is the nonsmoking area.
holding the baby for a few minutes?
doing the dishes?
Carrying the groceries upstairs?

IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS


STEADY AS A ROCK
Meaning:
This phrase means that a person is very dependable and reliable or that
something doesnt move because it is heavy and solid.
Example sentences:
1.
2.
3.

You can depend on Tom to do the job. Hes as study as a rock.


That table is as steady as a rock.
When he fired the pistol, his hand was steady as a rock..
PROPOSITIONS OF PLACE AND DIRECTION

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Propositions which indicate place or location:


at
above
among
behind
below
beneath inside

beside
near
over
between next to
throughout
in
on
under
in back of on top of underneath
in front of opposite

Propositions which indicate direction of movement:


around
as far as in
away from
down

from

on
onto

into
off

out (of)
past

through
to
toward(s)
up

THE SUFFIX WARD


The suffix ward(s) is used to form adjectives and adverbs which indicate a
direction in time or space.
EXAMPLE:
northward, southward, eastward, westward, upward(s),
downward(s), backward(s)
THE SUFFIX ERN
The suffix ern indicates that something occurs in or is situated in a certain
direction. It is added to nouns to form adjectives.
EXAMPLES:

northern, southern, eastern, western

INDIRECT SPEECH: REPORTED PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE


When a statement or question in the present perfect progressive tense is
reported, two changes occur:
1.

The tense of the verb changes from the present perfect progressive to the
past perfect progressive.

EXAMPLES:

Jim said, Ann has been teaching French.


Jim said that Ann had been teaching French.
Jan asked, Have you been working here long, Ed?
Jan asked Ed if he had been working here long.

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2.

First and second person pronouns change to the third person (unless
someone is reporting his own words).

EXAMPLES:

Ken said, Ive been trying to lose weight.


Ken told me that he had been trying to lose weight.
Kay said, Ive been trying to reach you, Jan.
I told Jan I had been trying to reach her.

Verb in the sentence originally


spoken:
have/has been _________ ing
hasnt/havent been ______ing

Verb in the sentence that tells what


was said:
had been __________ ing
hadnt been ________ ing

Enrichment
Fewer and Less
Use fewer before plural count nouns.
Use less before noncount nouns.
There are fewer women then men in the marines.
This week we have lees time for studying.
There are fewer bicycles on the highway today.
Im trying to use less sugar in my coffee.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
TO KEEP ONES FINGERS CROSSED
Meaning:
To keep ones fingers crossed means to wish for good luck.
Example sentences:
1. Keep your fingers crossed that Ill pass the test.
2. Im keeping my fingers crossed that Ill get the job.
3. Cross your fingers that I win the race.
THE PREFIX PREThe prefix pre- indicates an action or condition which happens or comes
before another action or condition. When a word begins with the same letters
as the prefix, a hyphen is usually placed before the word.
USING SHOULD, OUGHT TO, AND SHOULD HAVE TO EXPRESS
EXPECTANCY
Should and ought to are used to express what we suppose is happening now
or will probably happen in the future.

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EXAMPLES:

I mailed the package yesterday.


You should get it tomorrow.
We ordered dinner 20 minute ago.
The waiter ought to be bring our food soon.

Should have is used to express expectations about actions or conditions in the


past.
EXAMPLE:

The flight left Miami on schedule.


It should have already landed in New York.
REVIEW OF ADVERBS OF DEGREE

Adverbs of degree are used to emphasize or limit adjectives or other adverbs.


The following adverbs or degree are placed in front of the word they modify.
a little
absolutely
almost
awfully
barely
completely

entirely
extremely
fairly
far
hardly
just

much
nearly
only
quite
rather
really

scarcely
so
somewhat
such a(n)
too
very

On adverb of degree differs from these: Enough follows the adjective or adverb
it modifies.
EXAMPLES:

I though the test was fairly easy.


Al found the exam extremely difficult.
He must not have studied hard enough.
The students did rather well on their tests this morning.
SUFIXES ANCE/-ENCE

The suffixes ance and ence can be added to verbs to form nouns which
name an act, condition, or quality.
EXAMPLE:
accept + -ance = acceptance
(the act of accepting)
exist + -ence = existence
(the condition of existing)
Enrichment
No, nothing, none
The words no, nothing, and none should not be used in a sentence that has
another negative word.

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Correct: I didnt have time to finish the test.


Incorrect: I didnt have no time to finish the test.
Correct: I wasnt doing anything when you called.
Incorrect: I wasnt doing nothing when you called.
Correct: I dont have any.
Incorrect: I dont have none.
IDIOME AND EXPRESSIONS
ON/OF TARGET
Meaning
On target means correct. This expression is used when talking about
problems or ideas.
Off target means wrong or away from the main idea.
EXAMPLES:
1. The colonels briefing on changing strategies was really on target. We
have to change strategies if we want to succeed.
2. My answer was really off target. I thought he was talking about an
electrical conductor, not a musical conductor.

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BOOK 24
THE GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT
Some verbs in English are followed by a gerund or a gerund phrase. The
gerund is the verb form which ends in ing. The gerund is used as a noun.
TYPE OF
SUBJECT
VERB
GERUND (PHRASE)
SENTENCE
Affirmative
I
put off
studying until today.
She
practices
speaking English every
They
considered
day.
inviting Mary.
Negative
I
dont like
He
doesnt miss
wearing glasses.
They
dont mind
being with his family.
helping the police.
I
like
She
regrets
not wearing glasses.
They
deny
not being with her family.
not helping the police.
Interrogative
Do you
like
Did he
continue
playing the guitar?
Can they
begin
studying French?
working on the report
now?
This is a partial list of verbs which can be following by a gerund.
allow
enjoy
postpone
resist
anticipate
escape
practice
start
appreciate
finish
put off
stop
begin
imagine
quit
suggest

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cant help
consider
understand
continue
deny
discuss

keep
like

recall
recommend

mind
miss
permit

regret
remember
report

tolerate

THE SUFFIX FY/-IFY


The suffix fy or ify is added to some nouns and adjectives to make verbs.
The suffix expresses the meaning of to make or become. *Note the spelling
changes.
EXAMPLES:
*beauty/beautify
*glory/glorify
*pure/purify
class/classify
just/justify
*simple/simplify
*clear/clarify
*liquid/liquefy
solid/solidify
*electric/electrify
person/personify
*terror/terrify
*false/falsify
REDUCING AN ADVERB CLAUSE OF TIME TO A MODIFING PHRASE
An adverb clause of time is introduced by conjunctions such as after, before,
since, until, when, whenever, and while. It can be reducing to a modifying
phrase if the subject of the main clause and the subject of the adverb clause of
time are the same. This is done by omitting the subject of the adverb clause
and by changing the verb in the adverb clause to the ing form. If the verb BE
is present in the adverb clause, its also omitted (*).
EXAMPLES:
I feel sleepy whenever I study after dinner.
I feel sleepy whenever studying after dinner.
Before we opened the door, we heard a loud noise.
Before opening the door, we heard a loud noise.
Could you walk after you fell off the horse?
Could you walk after falling off the horse?
While you were* in Germany, did you hear the news?
While in Germany, did you hear the news?
ENRICHMENT
LITTLE/FEW
Little can mean small in amount (not much). It modifies only mass nouns.
EXAMPLES:

I have little time to spend in Chicago.

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There is little traffic on the road this morning.


She has little money in the bank.
There is little work left to do.
Few means small in number (not many). It modifies only count nouns.
EXAMPLES:

There are few people who have climbed that mountain.


She has few friends in this city.
There are few pilots stationed at this base.
We have few doctors available for duty right now.
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS

HAVE ONES HANDS FULL


Meaning
To have ones hands full means being extremely busy or having too many
jobs and/or responsibilities.
Examples sentences:
1.
2.
3.

Mary just accepted her fifth assignment to be turned in on Monday.


She really has her hands full.
There were many injuries from that train crash. The doctors and
nurses had their hands full.
Joan went on an unexpected business trip and had to leave her
husband in change of the house and their six children. He certainly
had his hands full.
THE PREFIX CO-

Co- prefix which has meaning of joint and together with. Sometimes coappears as com-, con-, or cool- like in the words compress, contain, and
collect.
ONE USE OF THE GERUND
A gerund or gerund phrase can be the subject of a sentence and may appear
before the verb. It can be made negative by placing the word not before the
gerund. If theres a subject of the gerund, it must be in the possessive* form.
EXAMPLES:
Eating too much candy is bad for your teeth.
Not getting enough sleep will make you feel tired at work.
Johnnys* fast driving caused him to lose his license.
ANOTHER USE OF THE GERUND
A gerund or gerund phrase can be the subject of a sentence and may appear
after the verb in an anticipatory-it construction.
EXAMPLES:

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Its been a pleasure meeting you.


(means the same as)
Meeting you has been a pleasure.
It hasnt been fun climbing this mountain.
(means the same as)
Climbing this mountain hasnt been fun.
ONE MORE USE OT THE GERUND
A gerund or gerund phrase may by as the object of a preposition. It can be
made negative by placing the word not before the gerund. If theres a subject
of the gerund, it must be in the possessive* form.
EXAMPLES:
Thank you for being friend.
We were happy about not having homework.
When he spoke to the soldiers, the colonel insisted on their* standing at
attention.
TAG QUESTION
Tag question are short question which are attached to statements. Affirmative
statements have negative tag questions. Negative statements have affirmative
tag questions.
Tag questions can have a rising intonation or a falling intonation. Each kind of
intonation expresses something different. Tag questions with a rising intonation
are used to seek confirmation the speaker is not certain about the
information. Tag questions with a falling intonation are used to seek agreement
the speaker is certain about the information and wants you to agree with
him.
SUBJUNCTIVE THAT NOUN CLAUSE AFTER ANTICIPATORY IT
A noun clauses which follows an anticipatory it construction has the verb in
the subjunctive mood.
Anticipatory -it
Subjunctive noun clause
Its
Adjective
(that)
I be on time
you do the work.
advisable
he not fail the exam.
best
she remain in class.
better
the book be studied.
compulsory
we report to the chief.
critical
they go to the meeting.
essential
important
mandatory
necessary
required

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urgent
ENRICHMENT
Expressions Preceding ING Verbs
The following expressions always precede ING verbs:
Be busy
Be worth
Be no use
Have fun
Have trouble
Have difficulty
Have a hard time
Have a good time
Have a difficult time
Spend + expression of time
Stand + expression of place
Sit + expression of place
Lie + expression of place
EXAMPLES:
We are busy studying the lesson.
Its not worth talking to him. He doesnt want to listen.
Theres no use turning on the lights. The power is off.
John had fun playing tennis.
Major Keel has trouble speaking English.
Jeff had difficulty in finding a place to live.
They had a hard time opening the window.
Ron and Roy had a good time watching the movie.
Im having a difficult time pronouncing the words correctly.
Ken spent 2 hours practicing football.
We stood in the line waiting for the food.
Wally sat at the table reading a book.
Debbie is lying on the floor watching TV.
IDOMS AND EXPRESIONS
GO FLY A KITE
Meaning
To go fly a kit means to go away or leave. You say this when someone is
bothering you, and you want his or her to leave.
Examples:
1. She bothered me with her continues talking, so I finally told her to go
fly a kit.

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2.
3.

The salesman bothered Ted so much that he finally told him to go fly
a kit.
When I asked her for a date, she told me to go fly a kit.
TENSES INDICATING FUTURE

A future action or condition is expressed with will or be going to. When theres
certainty about a future action, the simple present tense or the present
progressive may also be used. Time expressions often accompany these last
tenses to clarify time.
will depart
The train is going to depart
departs
is departing

at 2:30 p.m.

TO INFINITIVE AS DIRECT OBJECT


An infinitive is the word to + the simple form of a verb. An infinitive may be
used as a noun. In the pattern illustrated below, an infinitive or an infinitive
phrases is used as a direct object. Note the negative form of the phrase.
Direct Object
Subject
Verb
Infinitive Phrase
Mr. Crane
likes
to go to the movies.
Jerry
is planning
to cook dinner tonight.
The students
will need
to do their homework.
Louise
has decided
not to watch TV.
Monty
promised
not to spend all his
The men
agreed
money.
not to fight.
This is partial list of verbs which are followed by an infinitive. The verbs with an
asterisk (*) may also be followed by a gerund or gerund phrase.
afford
agree
aim
appear
arrange
ask
attempt*
begin*
bother
care

choose
continue*
decide
demand
determine
expect
fail
forget*
happen
hate*

hesitate
hope
intend*
learn
like*
love*
manage
mean*
need*
neglect*

120

offer
plan*
prefer*
prepare
proceed
promise
refuse
regret*
remember*
request

seem
start*
tend
threaten
try*
volunteer

wait
want
wish

AMERICAN LANGUAGE COURSE

PASTE PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE IN INDIRECT


SPEECH
When direct speech with a past perfect or past perfect progressive tense is
changed to indirect speech,
1) The tense doesnt change
2) that may be added (its optional)
3) personal pronouns and progressive adjectives change, for example, you
may be changed to me, your to my
4) in questions, the word order changes from question to statement
(verb/subject order)
5) in yes/no questions, add if or whether
DIRECT
Ed: Id worked in a bank before I came to this job.
Ann: Id been swimming before Sam called.
SPEECH
Ron: Where had Kim studied English before she came here?
INDIRECT

Pam: Had you met Mr. Wong before?


Ed said (that) hed worked in bank before he came to this job.
Ann said shed been swimming before Sam called.

SPEECH
Ron asked where Kim had studied English before she came
here.
Pam asked me if/whether I had met Mr. Wong before.
ENRICHMENT
Advice/Advise
Advice and advise are sometimes confused with one another because they
look and sound almost alike.
Advice is a noun which means a recommendation or a opinion given by one
person to another person on how to act or behave.
EXAMPLES:
pronunciation.

I asked the teacher for his advice on improving my


The advice he gave me was very helpful.
My mother gave me advice about raising children.

Advise is a verb which means to given advice to someone.


EXAMPLES:

Can you advise me where to buy a good used car?


The doctor advised me to stop smoking.
We were advised to study hard for the test.

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IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS


STAND OUT IN A CROWD
Meaning
To stand out in a crowd means to call attention to oneself.
Example Sentences:
1. At the military graduation ceremony, the graduate out of uniform stood out
in a crowd.
2. Because of his extreme height, my roommate stands out in any crowd.
3. Linda is so beautiful that she stands out in a crowd.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: SOME-, ANY- AND NO- COMPOUNDS
The indefinite pronouns something, someone, somebody, anything, anyone,
and anybody can be used in questions.
EXAMPLES:
Did Al put something in his car?
Did you see someone/somebody in the lab?
Would you like anything to drink?
Did you speak to anyone/anybody about your problem?
The indefinite pronouns something, someone, somebody, anything, anyone,
anybody, nothing, no one, and nobody can be used in affirmative sentences.
EXAMPLES:
Ed put something in his desk.
I saw someone/somebody in the library.
You may choose anything you want from the men.
Anyone/anybody in that office can help you.
Nothing you say will change my mind.
No one/nobody wants to do the assignment.
The indefinite pronouns anything, anyone, and anybody can be used in
negative sentences.
EXAMPLES:
Joe didnt bring anything to wear for cold weather.
I dont want anyone/anybody to know Im leaving.
INDEFINITE ADVERBS: SOME-, ANY-, AND NO- COMPOUNDS
The indefinite adverbs someplace, somewhere, anyplace, and anywhere can
be used in questions.
EXAMPLES:
Would you like to go someplace/somewhere after dinner?

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Are you going anyplace/anywhere this weekend?


The indefinite adverbs someplace, somewhere, anyplace, anywhere, no place,
and nowhere can be used in affirmative sentences.
EXAMPLES:
John went someplace/somewhere this morning.
Sit down anyplace/anywhere when the show begins.
Eds going no place/nowhere during his vacation.
The indefinite adverbs anyplace and anywhere can be used in negative
sentences.
EXAMPLES:
I feel ill, so I wont go anyplace/anywhere tonight.
VERBS OF PERCEPTION + BARE INFINITIVE OR PRESENT PARTICIPLES
Certain verbs of perception and their objects are followed by the bare infinitive
(the simple verb form without to) or the present participle (the ing form of
the verb). The bare infinitive is used to emphasize completion of the action.
The present participle is used to emphasize the duration of the action.
These verbs follow the pattern:
feel
hear
listen to

look at
notice

observe
see

*smell
watch

*The verb smell can be used only with the present participle form.
EXAMPLES:
We saw him run/running across the field.
I didnt hear Bill knock/knocking at the door.
Did you notice the doctor go/going into the room?
Cant you smell the cookies baking in the kitchen?
THE SUFFIXES ENT/-ANT
We can be add the suffixes ent/-ant to some verbs to make adjectives. They
express that has, shows, or does.
EXAMPLES:
-ent
absorb/absorbent
*converge/convergent
depend/dependent
differ/different
*excel/excellent

-ent
assist/assistant
*observe/observant
*please/pleasant
*rely/reliant
resist/resistant

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insist/insistent
*neglect/negligent

*tolerate/tolerant

*NOTE the spelling change.


ENRICHMENT
A few/A little vs. Few/Little
A few and a little focus on the presence of something even if its only in a
small amount. Few and little focus on the absence of something theyre
equivalent to: not many and not much.
EXAMPLES:
They offered us a little help. (some)
They offered us little help (not much)
There are a few seats left. (several, maybe 5 or 6)
There are few seats left (not many, maybe 2 or 3)
A few/ a little show a positive view:
Few/little show a negative view:
IDIOMS AND EXPRESSIONS
OVER ONES HEAD
Meaning
Over ones head means beyond someones understanding or too difficult.
Example Sentences
1.
2.
3.

Max shouldnt have taken physics in his firs year of school. The subject is
over his head.
While the teacher explained. Lee stood there confused. It went over his
head.
The little boy was bored at the opera because it was over his head.

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