Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system

1.1 Introduction
Smaller scale frameworks are basically present day little scale (electrical) control
conveyance frameworks. They bear the cost of various advantages little scale various
advantages, for example, upgrading framework dependability lessening capital
venture and carbon impression and enhancing vitality sources. Smaller scale
frameworks contain a few generators whose sizes may run from a few several
kilowatts to a couple of megawatts. They are not quite the same as customary
concentrated power systems which transmit endless measures of electrical vitality
crosswise over long separations at high voltages. In any case they are like utility scale
control dispersion lattices which create, transmit and manage power to the purchaser
To enhance the proficiency of miniaturized scale frameworks and to lessen fossil
fuel use and contamination, renewable vitality sources might be coordinated with
customary small scale networks. Renewable vitality sources incorporate photovoltaic
power, hydro power and wind control. These are perfect and liberally accessible
vitality sources. Because of the cost adequacy of Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) it is
one of the quickest developing clean power sources. However since the yield force of
WTG is corresponding to the 3D square of the (differing) wind speed it essentially
impacts framework soundness and can bring about vast recurrence and voltage (F&V)
deviations in a smaller scale grid.
This extend concentrate on control of (genuine) energy to decrease recurrence
deviations. For basic establishments, for example, army installations security concerns
have expanded enthusiasm for using smaller scale lattices that permit the office to
work in islanded mode for broadened periods with renewable vitality sources
included. It is basic to keep up the F&V deviations inside a little range to fulfill
military working prerequisites. Rapid framework joined capacity frameworks, for
example, batteries have been proposed for decreasing F&V changeability. However
because of high cost, battery sizes must be minimized and in this manner may soak
amid homeless people, disturbing F&V deviations.
Department of EEE, A.I.T.S, Rajampet

Page 1

Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system

In such circumstances traditional control methodologies are no more drawn out
adequate to oblige these deviations inside a little range and in as far as possible the
battery measure. More refined hearty control calculations are expected to accomplish
better execution in spite of unforeseen unsettling influences and model vulnerabilities.
An assortment of control strategies have been proposed for handling this sort of issue.
Relative Integral-Derivative (PID) control has been very much contemplated by
various analysts. PID control techniques are surely knew however have restricted
capacity to tradeoff overshoot, rise time and damping motions control is considered.
Take note of that control optimizes framework tradeoffs, yet power to model
vulnerabilities is not tended to.
Fuzzy Logic control is used however it is hard to build up a decent (reenactment)
demonstrate for Fuzzy Logic control which can encourage tweaking the controller. In
the work proposed here, we underscore a vigorous control approach which can all the
while convey from the earlier execution ensures whist controlling against innate
framework vulnerabilities.
Besides, stress that the work is centered around islanded small scale matrices
where a critical division of the vitality is originating from renewable sources so
recurrence control is a testing issue, thusly work creates hearty control procedures for
both the battery and customary era frameworks with controllers intended to minimize
battery estimate as while in the meantime fundamentally lessening recurrence variety
in spite of variable loads in the miniaturized scale matrix and the consolidation of a
WTG source.
The controllers are intended to adapt to load drifters, WTG yield changes,
demonstrate instabilities and estimation commotion/errors. They are contrasted and
customary PID control methodologies, and it is demonstrated that moderately little
measures of capacity can significantly diminish recurrence deviation, yet just if
immersion conditions are maintained a strategic distance from by progressively
organizing capacity with other era sources utilizing progressed Multi-Input-MultiOutput (MIMO) control approaches.

Department of EEE, A.I.T.S, Rajampet

Page 2

Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system

1.2 Literature Survey
C. Hernandez [1] describes about the micro gird and also explains about the
minimization of fuel consumption due to the increasing concerns on air pollution and
global warming, the clean green renewable sources of energy are expected to play
more significant role in the future of global energy.
T. Goya [2] deals about an frequency control in isolated island by using parallel
operated battery systems applying and also explains control theory based on droop
A. M. Howlader [3] deals an minimal order observer based frequency control
strategy for an integrated wind-battery-diesel power system association of the local
generators and local loads in order to minimize the energy losses in the electricity
B. Dong [4] describes the Control strategies of dc-bus voltage in islanded
operation of micro grid when micro grid is connected to the utility grid, the voltage of
DC-bus voltage is regulated by the inverter, if it works in islanded operation, DC-bus
voltage must be regulated by renewable energy generations and storage system.
V. Sundaram [5] illustrates about an load frequency control using PID tuned
controller in electric power generation system disturbances caused by load
fluctuations result in changes to the desired frequency value, load fluctuations is an
important issue in power system operation and controlled for supplying sufficient and
both good quality and reliable power.
V. P. Singh [6] discusses about Robustness h-infinity and also controlled load
frequency in hybrid distributed generation system to reduce the load fluctuations
which is important in power system.
R. Dhanalakshmi [7] describes an multi stage fuzzy logic control and their
applications and discusses about the load frequency losses and also their control of an
isolated wind diesel hybrid power system.
F. Dupont [8] deals about an three phase step up and step down transformer to
control the high frequency transformer and also used an dc-dc converter with a threephase high frequency transformer.

Department of EEE, A.I.T.S, Rajampet

Page 3

Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system

R. Sakamoto [9] illustrates the output power leveling of wind turbine generators
using pitch angle control for all operating regions in wind farm and shows the
waveforms which are leveled to reduce their frequency.
D. Rerkpreedapong [10] discusses a robust load frequency control using genetic
algorithms which are used to reduce the frequency drop and linear matrix inequalities
used to reduce the power losses and to increase the robustness.
H. Bevrani [11] explains the robust load frequency controllers are primarily
composed of an integral control; the integrated gain is set to a level that compromise
between fast transient recovery and low overshoot in fast dynamic response of the
overall system.
F. Daneshfar [12] shows the load frequency changes and reduced their drops and
explains about to control the frequency by using multi reinforcement deals the
transmission and distribution by loads with minimum losses.
R. Gagnon [13] deals an Large scale real time simulation of wind power plants
and shows the output with reduced frequency into hydro power system and explains
about an networks for offshore wind plants.
T. Senjyu [14] explains the output power leveling of wind turbine generator for
all operating regions by pitch angle control and also winds turbine technologies
through variable speed wind energy conversion systems.
I. Sigurd [15] measures the values which are used for analysis and designed for
variable feedback controllers for multiple machines.
H. Koc [16] illustrates the Modeling, design and also analyzed the winding
systems for elastic webs and robust control of winding systems are shown for
improving the modeling of the system.
M. Anderson [17] discusses MIMO controllers are designed to cope with load
transients, WTG output fluctuations, model uncertainties and measurement
noise/errors, it shows relatively small amounts of storage which can dramatically
decrease frequency deviation, but only if saturation conditions are avoided by
dynamically coordinating storage with other generation sources, using advanced
Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) control approaches robust control for HVAC
systems are achieved.

Department of EEE, A.I.T.S, Rajampet

Page 4

Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system

J. Doyle [18] deals a theory of feedback control system design that captures the
essential issues, can be applied to a wide range of practical problems, and also
P. Young [19] illustrates the robust controller design for the active mass driver
benchmark problem and a model is built and identified.
Z.Q. Wang [20] explains the robust control design for load frequency control
using µ-synthesis and synthesized the advanced controllers to reduce the frequency
deviation due to occurrence of load changes.
H. Bevrani [21] shows a robust load frequency controller in a deregulated
environment by using µ-synthesis approach and also designed the waveform to reduce
the frequency changes.
Y.W. Li [22] describes a grid-interfacing power quality compensator for threephase three wire microgrid applications and microgrids are essentially modern, smallscale (electrical) power distribution systems. They afford numerous benefits, such as
enhancing system reliability, reducing capital investment and carbon footprint, and
diversifying energy sources.
P. Mattavelli [23] explains the proposed resonant controller provides gains at a
certain frequency and eliminates steady state errors and this controller can be
successfully applied to single grid-connected pv inverter current control and harmonic
control for high-performance ac power supplies.
D.N. Zmood [24] deals about a frequency domain analysis of three-phase linear
current regulator and a new form of stationary frame resonant regulator is derived
which achieves zero steady state errors without requiring the complex transforms of a
synchronous frame regulator.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Work
The main objective of this project is to minimization of frequency deviation. This
work was done by achieving the following objectives.
 To main objective is to reduce the frequency deviations despite the presence of
 To obtain the minimum frequency deviations using µ-synthesis controller.

1.4 Organization of Thesis
Department of EEE, A.I.T.S, Rajampet

Page 5

The description of each chapter is as follows. Chapter-2: Explains the energy storage system. Chapter-3: Discusses system setup and modeling of micro grid. Chapter-5: Illustrates the designing of controller. Chapter-1: Describes a brief introduction. A. literature survey. Rajampet Page 6 .I.T. Chapter-6: Presents simulation results and future scope. Chapter-4: Deals about uncertainties and robust controller.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system This thesis consists of six chapters. Department of EEE. aim and objectives.S.

in the spring pressure).1 Introduction Vitality stockpiling is the catch of vitality delivered at one time for use at a later time. Vitality stockpiling includes changing over vitality from structures that are hard to store to all the more advantageously or monetarily storable structures.I. A twist up clock stores potential vitality (for this situation mechanical. synthetic. Ice stockpiling tanks store ice (warm vitality as idle warmth) solidified by generally squandered vitality during the evening to take care of pinnacle daytime demand for cooling. lifted temperature. for example. The vitality is not put away specifically but rather the impact on daytime utilization is identical.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM 2. 2. while others can persevere for any longer. A few innovations give fleeting vitality stockpiling. gravitational potential. a rechargeable battery stores promptly convertible synthetic vitality to work a cell phone. coal and gas store old vitality got from daylight by life forms that later kicked the bucket got to be covered and after some time were then changed over into these powers.2 Micro grid Department of EEE.S. and a hydroelectric dam stores vitality in a supply as gravitational potential vitality.T. A gadget that stores vitality is at times called an aggregator. inactive warmth and motor. Vitality comes in different structures including radiation. power. electrical potential. Sustenance (which is made by an indistinguishable procedure from fossil fills) is a type of vitality put away in substance shape. Rajampet Page 7 . Fossil energizes. A.

S.I. which are typically called client miniaturized scale networks. genuine smaller scale frameworks (µgrids). Department of EEE. dispersed generators. Miniaturized scale lattices are power dissemination frameworks containing loads and Distributed Energy Resources (DER. or controllable burdens) that can be worked in a controlled.T. Rajampet Page 8 . Or maybe the concentration of the definition is on two elements:  It is a privately controlled framework.  It can work both associated with the conventional matrix (megagrid) or as an electrical island. composed manner either while associated with the fundamental power arrange or while islanded.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system A microgrid is a limited gathering of power sources and loads that regularly works associated with and synchronous with the conventional concentrated framework (macrogrid) yet can detach and work self-rulingly as physical and additionally financial conditions direct. which are frequently called milligrams (miniaturized scale lattices). stockpiling gadgets. now and then a very unpredictable one. A. Note there is no reference to the genuine era or other DER advances included and in truth numerous smaller scale frameworks will include a mix of assets. There are two noteworthy sorts of small scale matrices those are conventional utility client. (for example.

At the most abnormal amount. or security of supply and more cost proficient power framework substitution.within the Smart Grids idea competent to abuse the full advantages from the incorporation of substantial quantities of little scale circulated vitality assets into low-voltage power dispersion frameworks. change of dependability of supply. There is additionally a philosophical viewpoint established in the conviction that privately controlled frameworks will probably settle on savvy adjusted decisions. minimization of general vitality utilization.1: Schematic diagram of controllers. enhanced vitality productivity. misfortune diminishment. between interests in proficiency and supply advancements. the Smart Grid has 3 parts: Department of EEE. Small scale networks can arrange every one of these benefits and present them to the megagrid in a way and at a scale that is predictable with current framework operations in this way staying away from major new speculations that are expected to coordinate rising decentralized assets. Rajampet Page 9 .Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 2. for example. voltage control. i. for example. decreased natural effect. clog help. Smaller scale matrices have been proposed as novel appropriation organize design as demonstrated figure 2.1.I. A.S.e. The operation of microgrids offers unmistakable focal points to clients and utilities.T. system operational advantages.

3 Power systems An electric power framework is a system of electrical segments used to supply. For some power frameworks. exchange and utilize electric power. the wellspring of force is outer to the framework yet for others it is a piece of the framework itself it is these inner power sources that are examined in the rest of this segment. A. Specific power frameworks that don't generally depend upon three-stage AC power are found in flying machine electric rail frameworks and cars.g.S. business structures and homes.g. The larger part of these frameworks depend upon three-stage AC control standard for substantial scale control transmission and conveyance over the advanced world.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system  Improved operation of the legacy high voltage matrix. smaller scale matrices and dynamic circulation systems.1 Supplies All power frameworks have at least one wellsprings of force. energy components or photovoltaic cells. e.3.T. Coordinate current power can be provided by batteries. by savvy metering or continuous estimating  New appropriated substances that have not existed beforehand. Littler power frameworks are likewise found in industry. e. 2.I. through utilization of synchronous phasers  Enhanced matrix client association. Rajampet Page 10 . Rotating current power is regularly provided by a rotor that twists in an attractive field in a gadget known as a turbo generator. There have been an extensive variety of methods used to turn a turbines rotor from steam warmed Department of EEE. 2.g. A case of an electric power framework is the system that provisions a locales homes and industry with power for sizable areas this power framework is known as the network and can be extensively partitioned into the generators that supply the power the transmission framework that conveys the power from the producing focuses to the heap focuses and the appropriation framework that bolsters the ability to close-by homes and enterprises. e.

I. The speed at which the rotor turns in mix with the quantity of generator shafts decides the recurrence of the substituting current created by the generator. for example. turn at submultiples of a similar speed thus produce electric current at a similar recurrence. gas and oil) or atomic vitality. Most loads expect a specific voltage and. for example. for rotating current gadgets. for instance. gearless wind turbines or connected to a network through a nonconcurrent tie.S.3. Contingent upon how the posts are sustained. On the off chance that the heap on the framework expands the generators will require more torque to turn at that speed and in a commonplace power station more steam must be provided to the turbines driving them. Along these lines the steam utilized and the fuel consumed are straightforwardly subject to the amount of electrical vitality provided. A special case exists for generators joining power hardware. will ordinarily be single-stage working at 50 or 60 Hz with a voltage somewhere around 110 and 260 volts (contingent upon national measures). A higher number of stages prompts to more proficient power framework operation additionally expands the foundation necessities of the framework. A special case exists for brought together aerating and cooling frameworks as these are presently ordinarily three-stage since Department of EEE. The machines found in home.T. However there are different contemplations. 2. All generators on a solitary synchronous framework. To be more specialized mechanical speed of operation for the turbine and therefore the quantity of shafts required. for instance the national network. Power lattice frameworks associate various generators and burdens working at a similar recurrence and number of stages the commonest being three-stage at 50 or 60 Hz. These heaps extend from family apparatuses to modern hardware. a specific recurrence and number of stages. rotating current generators can deliver a variable number of periods of force.2 Loads Control frameworks convey vitality to burdens that play out a capacity. a High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) connection can work at frequencies autonomous of the power framework recurrence. Rajampet Page 11 .Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system utilizing fossil fuel (counting coal. falling water (hydroelectric power) and (wind control). A.

In a framework conductors might be named having a place with the transmission framework.3. Selection of channels is based upon contemplations.3 Conductors Conductors convey control from the generators to the heap. transient over voltages. for example.S. Control quality issues happen when the power supply to a heap goes amiss from the perfect. control framework burdens can be unfavorably influenced by a scope of worldly issues. glimmer. 2. Overhead line conductors might be fortified with steel or aluminum compounds.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system this permits them to work all the more productively. Department of EEE. which encourages littler measures of force at lower voltages (normally under 69 kV) from the heap focuses to adjacent homes and industry. for an AC supply. At any one time the net measure of force devoured by the heaps on a power framework must equivalent the net measure of force created by the provisions less the power lost in transmission. Aluminum has bring down cost for a similar current conveying limit and is the essential metal utilized for transmission line conveyors. the perfect is the current and voltage in-a state of harmony fluctuating as an impeccable sine wave at a recommended recurrence with the voltage at endorsed plentifulness. this determines the measure of force the gadget expends. Copper with lower resistivity than Aluminum was the conveyor of decision for most power frameworks. high recurrence commotion. These incorporate voltage hangs. A. which conveys a lot of force at high voltages (regularly more than 69 kV) from the creating focuses to the heap focuses or the dissemination framework. Notwithstanding managed over voltages and under voltages (voltage control issues) and in addition supported deviations from the framework (recurrence direction issues).T. cost.I. A last thought with burdens is to do with power quality. In any case. transmission misfortunes and other attractive qualities of the metal like rigidity. stage irregularity and poor power calculate. plunges and swells. All gadgets in your home will likewise have a wattage. Rajampet Page 12 .

A. This responsive power can be given by the generators themselves through the conformity of generator excitation.T. Links utilized for underground transmission or building wiring are protected with cross-connected polyethylene or other adaptable protection. Rajampet Page 13 . increment the power consider) which may never surpass 1.3. little conveyors utilized for building wiring are frequently strong. using alleged synchronous condensers (synchronous machines which go about as condensers which are variable in VAR esteem through the change of machine excitation) or nearby huge burdens. Responsive power does no quantifiable work yet is transmitted forward and backward between the receptive power source and load each cycle.4 Capacitors and reactors Most of the heap in a run of the mill AC control framework is inductive. Control calculate remedy might be connected at a focal substation. glass or polymer separators. yet it is regularly less expensive to give it through capacitors subsequently capacitors are frequently set close inductive burdens to diminish current request on the power framework (i.S. this prompts to the development of a fanciful type of force known as responsive power. the rating is controlled by the time when the list of the conductors would get to be inadmissible. For overhead conductors. 2. As present stream increments through a conductor it warms up. Overhead conductors are typically air protected and bolstered on porcelain.0 and which speaks to an absolutely resistive load.. Conductors are commonly appraised for the greatest current that they can convey at a given temperature ascend over encompassing conditions. Since the voltage and current are out-of-stage. particularly in light business or private development. Vast transmitters are stranded for simplicity of taking care of. the present falls behind the voltage. For protected conductors.e. the rating is controlled by the protection.I. Department of EEE.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Conductors in power frameworks might be put overhead or underground. using supposed static (condensers which are altered in VAR esteem).

5 Power electronics Control gadgets are semi-conductor based gadgets that can switch amounts of force extending from a couple of hundred watts to a few hundred megawatts.S. Reactors introduced in arrangement in a power framework additionally restrict surges of current stream. the effectiveness of the power framework may really be enhanced by exchanging in reactors. Control gadgets are likewise found in for all intents and Department of EEE. The great capacity of force gadgets is correction or the change of AC to DC control. In light load conditions. where the stacking on transmission lines is well underneath the surge impedance stacking.3.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Reactors devour responsive power and are utilized to direct voltage on long transmission lines. They are at the heart of all current electric and cross breed vehicles where they are utilized for both engine control and as a component of the brushless DC engine. Arrangement reactors can likewise be utilized to breaking point blame streams.T. Control hardware additionally include in an extensive variety of more outlandish employments. Rajampet Page 14 . control hardware are in this manner found in practically every advanced gadget that is provided from an AC source either as a connector that attachments into the divider or as part inner to the gadget. 2. In spite of their generally straightforward capacity their speed of operation (commonly in the request of nanoseconds) means they are equipped for an extensive variety of errands that would be troublesome or incomprehensible with routine innovation. HVDC is additionally alluring for interconnects on the grounds that it permits recurrence autonomy along these lines enhancing framework security. A. Control hardware are likewise basic for any power source that is required to deliver an AC yield however that by its temperament creates a DC yield.I. little reactors are in this manner quite often introduced in arrangement with capacitors to confine the present surge connected with exchanging in a capacitor. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) is utilized in light of the fact that it turns out to be more conservative than comparable high voltage AC frameworks for long separations (hundreds to a large number of kilometers). They are utilized by numerous photovoltaic establishments both mechanical and private.

commutates can and have been utilized as a part of petrol controlled autos the change to alternators in blend with power gadgets has happened as a result of the enhanced sturdiness of brushless apparatus. Control gadgets are additionally at the heart of the variable speed wind turbine.6 Protective devices Control frameworks contain defensive gadgets to forestall harm or harm amid disappointments.I. aerating and cooling.S. Some electric railroad frameworks additionally utilize DC power and therefore make utilization of force gadgets to encourage matrix energy to the trains and regularly for speed control of the train's engine. Customary wind turbines require huge building to guarantee they work at some proportion of the framework recurrence. rectifier trains were mainstream these utilized power hardware to change over AC control from the railroad organize for use by a DC engine. The more colorful employments of force hardware originates from the past area where the quick exchanging times of force gadgets were utilized to give more refined responsive remuneration to the power framework.3. At the point when Department of EEE. In the center twentieth century. While routine innovation would be unsatisfactory for a cutting edge electric auto. The utilization of force hardware to help with engine control and with starter circuits can't be belittled and notwithstanding correction is in charge of force gadgets showing up in an extensive variety of modern apparatus. this is on account of the power gave by the autos batteries alone is inadequate to give start. The quintessential defensive gadget is the wire. So the batteries must be revived while driving utilizing DC control from the motor a deed that is commonly proficient utilizing power hardware.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system purposes all advanced petrol controlled vehicles. inward lighting. A.T. Rajampet Page 15 . radio and dashboard shows for the life of the auto. however by utilizing power gadgets this prerequisite can be disposed of prompting to calmer more adaptable and all the more exorbitant wind turbines. 2. Control hardware even show up in present day private aeration and cooling systems. Today most electric trains are provided with AC power and run utilizing AC engines yet at the same time utilize control gadgets to give reasonable engine control.

Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system the current through a breaker surpasses a specific edge. Early transfers worked based upon electromagnetic standards like those said in the past section.I. delivering a circular segment over the subsequent crevice that is then smothered intruding on the circuit. smaller than normal circuit breakers are commonly utilized. after they have worked wires must be supplanted as they can't be reset. second.T. These gadgets join the instrument that starts the trek (by detecting overabundance current) and also the system that breaks the present stream in a solitary unit. wires are regularly deficient as the sole wellbeing gadget in most power frameworks as they permit current streams well in abundance of that that would demonstrate deadly to a human or creature. Distinctive transfers will start trips contingent on various insurance plans. Also. This can demonstrate badly arranged if the circuit is at a remote site or an extra breaker is not close by. A superior plan however emerges by embeddings a bimetallic strip before the solenoid this implies rather than continually creating an attractive compel the solenoid just delivers an attractive drive when the current is sufficiently solid to distort the bimetallic strip and finish the solenoids circuit. the current is go through a solenoid and in case of overabundance current stream. the wire component liquefies. The main issue is settled by the utilization of circuit breakers gadgets that can be reset after they have broken current stream. In these scaled down circuit breakers. Intertwines however have two issues: First. A.S. An over current hand-off might start an excursion if the current on any stage surpasses a specific limit though an arrangement of differential transfers may start a Department of EEE. current transfers are application particular PCs that figure out if to trip based upon readings from the power framework. In higher controlled applications the defensive transfers that identify a blame and start a trek are separate from the electrical switch. Given that breakers can be worked as the powerless purpose of a framework wires are perfect for shielding hardware from harm. In cutting edge frameworks that utilization not exactly around 10 kW. Some scaled down circuit breakers work exclusively on the premise of electromagnetism. Rajampet Page 16 . the attractive draw of the solenoid is adequate to constrain open the circuit breakers contacts.

5. Leftover Current Devices (RCD) require a different unbiased line for every stage and to have the capacity to trip inside a time span before mischief happens. Rather it is currently regular for plant to be controlled from a hardware like a desktop PC. 2. the consoles controlling the plant no longer should be close to the plant itself. The primary supervisory control frameworks actualized comprised of a board of lights and switches at a focal comfort close to the controlled plant. exchanging on generators. Indeed. 2. controlling generator yield and changing in or out framework components for support.5 Power systems in practice In spite of their basic parts. This is commonly not an issue in most private applications where standard wiring gives a dynamic and nonpartisan line for every machine and the voltages are generally low however these issues do confine the adequacy of RCDs in different applications. for example. The capacity to control such plant through PCs has expanded the requirement for security and as of now there have been reports of digital assaults on such frameworks bringing about huge disturbances to power frameworks. 2. Rajampet Page 17 . This segment presents some regular power framework sorts and quickly clarifies their operation.4 SCADA systems In vast electric power frameworks Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is utilized for assignments.1 Residential power systems Department of EEE. for example.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system trek if the total of streams between them demonstrates there might be present spilling to earth.I. even with the establishment of a RCD introduction to power can in any case demonstrate deadly. industry. control frameworks shift generally both regarding their plan and how they work. Today SCADA frameworks are a great deal more refined and because of advances in correspondence frameworks. The lights gave criticism on the condition of plant (the information securing capacity) and the changes permitted acclimations to the plant to be made (the supervisory control work). A.T.S.

On the off chance that this packaging were to wind up experience the hypothesis is the association with earth would bring about a breaker to outing subsequently keeping the future electric shock of a tenant taking care of the machine. There have been various minor changes throughout the year to routine of private wiring. A. Rajampet Page 18 .Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Private abodes quite often take supply from the low voltage appropriation lines or links that keep running past the home. A couple of decades back little residences would be sustained a solitary stage utilizing a devoted two center administration link. Department of EEE.T. Circuits would have both a dynamic and impartial wire with both the lighting and power attachments being associated in parallel. These work at voltages of somewhere around 110 and 260 volts stage to earth contingent on national models.  Dwellings are commonly associated with each of the three periods of the circulation framework with the stages being discretionarily allotted to the houses single stage circuits.S. This would be made accessible to apparatuses to interface with any metallic packaging. By tradition the lighting and machine circuits are kept separate so the disappointment of an apparatus does not leave the homes inhabitants oblivious.  For wellbeing reasons RCDs are currently introduced on machine circuits and progressively even on lighting circuits. Attachments would likewise be furnished with a defensive earth. smaller than usual circuit breakers are currently quite often utilized as a part of the wire box rather than wires as these can without much of a stretch be reset by tenants. The dynamic line would then be go through a fundamental disengaging switch in the breaker box and afterward split into at least one circuits to nourish lighting and apparatuses inside the house. Probably the most huge ways advanced private power frameworks have a tendency to differ from more established ones include:  For accommodation. All circuits would be melded with a fitting breaker based upon the wire measure utilized for that circuit.I.

Substantial business establishments will have an organized arrangement of subpanel separate from the principle appropriation board to take into account better framework insurance and more productive electrical establishment. brilliant machines. strip malls or elevated structures are bigger in scale than private frameworks.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system  Whereas aeration and cooling systems of the past might have been sustained from a devoted circuit appended to a solitary stage brought together ventilation systems that require three stage power are currently getting to be basic.5.T.  Protective earths are currently keep running with lighting circuits to take into account metallic light holders to be earthed. Rajampet Page 19 .2 Commercial power systems Business control frameworks. The targets of the studies are to guarantee appropriate gear and conductor measuring and to organize defensive gadgets so that insignificant interruption is cause when a blame is cleared. Department of EEE. Take off of shrewd lattice innovation additionally suggests a central reengineering of the power administrations industry albeit run of the mill utilization of the term is centered around the specialized foundation.6 Smart grids A keen lattice is an electrical network which incorporates an assortment of operational and vitality measures including shrewd meters. for example. A.I. Electronic power molding and control of the generation and appropriation of power are critical parts of the shrewd framework. Commonly one of the biggest machines associated with a business control framework is the High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) unit and guaranteeing this unit is sufficiently provided is a vital thought in business control frameworks.S. Electrical plans for bigger business frameworks are typically considered for load stream impede levels and voltage drop for relentless state loads and amid beginning of extensive engines. renewable vitality assets and vitality effectiveness assets. 2. 2. Controls for business foundations put different necessities on business frameworks that are not put on private frameworks.

S. Albeit numerous courses are touted as a component of the keen framework. Reconciliation of the new framework data is one of the key issues in the outline of shrewd matrices. In view of the differing scope of components there are various contending scientific categorizations and no concurrence on an all inclusive definition. for example.I. 2.6. 2. Rajampet Page 20 . A. Different capacities result from the profoundly incorporated utilization of advanced innovation with power networks. the old matrix likewise highlighted various courses. state estimation that enhance blame identification and permit self mending of the system without the intercession of experts.T.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system 2. Beginning electrical cables in the matrix were fabricated utilizing a spiral model later availability was ensured by means of numerous courses alluded to as a system structure. A significant part of the work that has been going ahead in electric matrix modernization particularly substation and dissemination computerization is presently incorporated into the general idea of the brilliant framework. Department of EEE. This will guarantee more solid supply of power and decreased weakness to characteristic calamities or assault.6.3 Reliability The shrewd matrix will make utilization of advances. Electric utilities now wind up making three classes of changes change of foundation called the solid lattice in China expansion of the advanced layer which is the quintessence of the shrewd matrix and business handle change important to benefit from the interests in keen innovation.6.1 Smart grid definition A typical component to most definitions is the use of computerized handling and correspondences to the power framework making information stream and data administration vital to the shrewd lattice.2 Features of the smart grid The savvy lattice speaks to the full suite of current and proposed reactions to the difficulties of power supply.

Department of EEE. charging from the batteries of electric autos.2: Generation of power system Great frameworks were intended for one route stream of power yet in the event that a nearby sub-arrange creates more power than it is devouring.T.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system However this made another issue if the present stream or related impacts over the system surpass the points of confinement of a specific system component it could fizzle and the current would be shunted to other system components which in the long run may bomb additionally bringing on a domino impact. A.2 era transmission and conveyance foundation will be better ready to handle conceivable bidirection vitality streams considering circulated era.I. Figure 2.4 Flexibility in network topology In figure 2. pumped hydroelectric power and different sources. from photovoltaic boards on building rooftops additionally the utilization of energy units. A brilliant network means to deal with these circumstances. for example. wind turbines.S. 2.6. the invert stream can raise security and unwavering quality issues. Rajampet Page 21 .

2.6. Rajampet Page 22 .Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system 2. A. disposing of truck moves for meter perusing and lessening truck moves by enhanced blackout administration utilizing information from cutting edge metering framework frameworks.S.6. The general impact is less excess in transmission and dissemination lines and more prominent use of generators prompting to lower control costs. A brilliant lattice may caution all individual TVs or another bigger client to decrease the heap briefly or constantly.5 Efficiency Various commitments to general change of the productivity of vitality foundation are expected from the sending of shrewd lattice innovation specifically including request side administration killing ventilation systems amid transient spikes in power value diminishing the voltage when conceivable on dispersion lines through Voltage/VAR Optimization (VVO). It likewise gives service organizations the capacity to lessen utilization by conveying to gadgets specifically keeping in mind the end goal to forestall framework overburdens. Department of EEE. 2. In spite of the fact that the aggregate load is the entirety of numerous individual decisions of the customers the general load is not a stable moderate changing augmentation of the heap if a famous TV program begins and a great many TVs will draw current in a split second.7 Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing To decrease request amid the high cost crest use periods interchanges and metering innovations illuminate shrewd gadgets in the home and business when vitality request is high and track how much power is utilized and when it is utilized.T.6. Utilizing numerical expectation calculations it is conceivable to foresee what number of standby generators should be utilized to achieve a specific disappointment rate.6 Load adjustment/Load balancing The aggregate load associated with the power matrix can shift essentially after some time.I. In the conventional network the disappointment rate must be diminished at the cost of more standby generators. Generally to react to a quick increment in power utilization quicker than the startup time of a huge generator some extra generators are put on a dissipative standby mode.

2.9 Market-enabling The savvy framework takes into consideration methodical correspondence between providers (their vitality cost) and buyers (their readiness to pay) and allows both the providers and the shoppers to be more adaptable and complex in their operational techniques.6. for example.I.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system An utility diminishing the use of a gathering of electric vehicle charging stations or moving temperature set purposes of aeration and cooling systems in a city.T. Rajampet Page 23 . sun oriented power and wind control even without the expansion of vitality stockpiling. Whenever organizations and buyers see a direct financial advantage of utilizing vitality at off pinnacle times the hypothesis is that they will incorporate vitality cost of operation into their purchaser gadget and building development choices and subsequently turn out to be more vitality proficient. This could mean making tradeoffs. Generators with more noteworthy adaptability will have the capacity to offer vitality deliberately for most extreme benefit while rigid generators.6. Current system foundation is not worked to take into consideration many conveyed encourage in focuses and normally regardless of the possibility that some nourish in is permitted at the nearby dissemination level the transmission level framework can't oblige it. cycling on/off aeration and cooling systems or running dishwashers at 9 pm rather than 5 pm. It is suspected that customers and organizations will have a tendency to expend less amid appeal periods on the off chance that it is workable for shoppers and purchaser gadgets to know about the high value premium for utilizing power at pinnacle periods. for example.S. base load steam turbines and wind turbines will get a fluctuating duty in light of the level of interest and the status of alternate generators as of now working. Department of EEE.8 Sustainability The enhanced adaptability of the shrewd lattice grants more noteworthy infiltration of exceedingly factor renewable vitality sources. To rouse them to reduce utilize and perform what is called top abbreviation or pinnacle leveling costs of power are expanded amid appeal periods and diminished amid low request periods. A. for example. 2. Just the basic burdens should pay the pinnacle vitality costs and buyers will have the capacity to be more key in when they utilize vitality.

Many brilliant lattice transfer speed redesigns are paid for by over provisioning to likewise bolster purchaser benefits and sponsoring the interchanges with vitality related administrations or financing the vitality related administrations.T.6. Dispensing with the portion of interest that happens in these spikes disposes of the cost of including store generators cuts wear and tear and amplifies the life of gear and permits clients to cut their vitality charges by advising low need gadgets to utilize vitality just when it is least expensive. The aggregate sum of force request by the clients can have a wide likelihood dispersion which requires save creating plants in standby mode to react to the quickly changing force use. (for example. and warmth pumps) will be all around set to play the market. fridges. warm banks.S. A. This restricted stream of data is costly the last 10% of creating limit might be required as meager as 1% of the time and brownouts and blackouts can be exorbitant to shoppers. security.11 Provision megabits control power with kilobits sell the rest The measure of information required to perform checking and turning ones machines off consequently is little contrasted and that as of now coming to even remote homes to bolster voice.I. higher rates amid pinnacle hours with correspondences. At the household level machines with a level of vitality stockpiling or warm mass.6. web and TV administrations. Department of EEE.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system The general impact is a flag that honors vitality productivity and vitality utilization that is touchy to the time differing restrictions of the supply. Dormancy of the information stream is a noteworthy worry with some early shrewd meter designs permitting really the length of 24 hours delay in getting the information keeping any conceivable response by either providing or requesting gadgets. 2. 2.10 Demand response support Request reaction bolster permits generators and burdens to connect in a computerized design progressively planning interest to smooth spikes. for example. Rajampet Page 24 .

which is much quicker than the speed of existing SCADA advances. Numerous in the power frameworks designing group trust that the Northeast power outage of 2003 could have been contained to a much littler range if a wide territory pharos estimation arrange had been set up. Rajampet Page 25 . Department of EEE. A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) is a system of PMUs that can give continuous checking on a provincial and national scale. A. In the 1980s. Since power and correspondences organizations are by and large separate business undertakings in North America and Europe it has required significant government and extensive seller push to urge different endeavors to coordinate. it was understood that the clock beats from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites could give extremely exact time signs to gadgets in the field permitting estimation of voltage stage point contrasts crosswise over wide separations. Examine proposes that with substantial quantities of PMUs and the capacity to look at voltage stage edges at key focuses on the framework. PMUs can take estimations at rates of up to 30 times each second. dynamic form.7 Phasor measurement units Rapid sensors called Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) appropriated all through a transmission system can be utilized to screen the condition of the electric framework.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system This is especially genuine where governments run both arrangements of administrations as an open imposing business model.T.I. robotized frameworks might have the capacity to change the administration of force frameworks by reacting to framework conditions in a fast.S. 2. Phasor are representations of the extent and period of rotating voltage at a point in the system.

The vitality sources incorporate both ordinary and renewable era frameworks. Low recurrence stack homeless people are taken care of by routine generators.1. The green pieces demonstrate that specific segment is under control for fancied execution. Rajampet Page 26 . Figure 3. and so it is primarily used for suppressing the high frequency load transients caused by renewable energy sources. transport bars.1: Structure of microgrid with attached storage system The attached storage system can react much more quickly to load transients.S. transmission lines and capacity frameworks. variable burdens furthermore a battery based capacity framework. Department of EEE. A.T.1 Introduction A run of the mill setup of a microgrid with capacity framework is appeared in figure 3. On the normal transport bar are vitality sources.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system SYSTEM SETUP AND MODELING 3. more advanced control techniques are required to deliver the system performance requirements. In order to maintain the nominal frequency in such a system. This framework can be promptly stretched out into more mind boggling microgrids with extra generators. Here framework steadiness is reflected by causing just restricted framework recurrence deviations regardless of the nearness of huge homeless people.I. The fundamental thought is to build the utilization of renewable vitality thus diminish the fossil fuel utilization while in the meantime keeping up framework security. loads.

and then shifted to deviations around 0 (corresponding physically to deviations from nominal 60 Hz ). Rajampet Page 27 . Figure 3.u).4.3 and Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) is shown in 3. Storage System (SS) is shown in 3. Figure 3.2.2: Conventional generator (Small Power System) model This model consists of three parts: conventional generator (CG) is shown in 3.3: Battery model The corresponding Simulink models are shown in figures 3.I. 3. Note that in order to limit the model complexity simple transfer functions. 3.2 Modeling In order to minimize the frequency deviation a mathematical model is used for system analysis and controller design. A.S. However these models still capture the essential power/frequency tradeoffs in such systems.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system 3.T.4. Since is caused by the imbalance between the power generated and the power consumed by the load. Department of EEE. Models are used for each of these blocks in the controller design process.3. signals in the model are first normalized to per unit (p.2.

S.T.2 and 3. change in battery power and change in twist control as separately. the SS yield variety and WTG yield variety are composed as change in load control. It is controlled in a roundabout way by ordering change in player control. A. What's more the State of Charge (SoC) variety of the SS is demonstrated by incorporating its yield control deviation. There is no influence over these two signs. Department of EEE. These three signs are summed at the summing obstruct in the Conventional Generator (CG) show alongside the CG yield variety change in era control. Other renewable sources can be taken care of in a comparable manner. Here the controlled yields are utilized for minimizing paying little respect to how the annoyances change. In the interim change in load power and change in wind power are considered as bothers to the framework in the hearty controller amalgamation strategy.I.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 3. In spite of the fact that is a controlled yield the yield is constrained by an immersion square in order to anticipate quick charge and release. Amid the charging or releasing periods a battery based capacity framework goes about as load or era correspondingly.3 the control signs are ug and ubattery individually is considered as the blunder flag. The controller gets estimations and yields incitation/control signals. Rajampet Page 28 . In this model change in battery power and change in era power are controlled power deviations as appeared in figures 3.4: Wind turbine generator model Consequently the heap variety.

0 Hz/pu Storage system Battery time constant Tb 0.1: Model parameters Parameters Conventional generator Rating Governor time constant Tg 0. Rajampet Page 29 .993 Kg m2 Air density ρ 1. of measurements 3 No.I. Department of EEE.225 Kg/m3 Rated output Pwg 350 kw Phase voltage V 692.1s Diesel engine time constant Td 5. Our controller does not command the WTG rather the WTG produces power according to the given wind speed profile (and hence acts as an unknown disturbance as far as our system is concerned).00443 ohms Rotor reactance X2 0.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Table 3. The WTG actual output power is normalized by its rated output and again shifted to deviations around zero.82 W Stator resistant R1 0.0534 ohms No.S.0376 ohms Rotor resistance R2 0.0s Inertia constant M 0.00397 ohms Stator reactance X1 0. wind power is zero unless the angular speed of the gear box output is higher than the synchronous angular speed. of controls 2 Control system A real wind profile is used here with a sample time of 50 ms simulated for 500 s.1s Wind turbine generator Blade radius Rw 14m Inertia coefficient J 62.15 pu MWs/Hz Damping constant D 0. A fixed pitch angle of 10 is used.T.008 pu MW/Hz Speed droop R 3. A.

1 Introduction Department of EEE.W / Vwind (3.2) Pwm= Cp(λ. All the modeling parameters are listed in table 3.4 and are given as: λ = Rw . A.β) (3.S.SsR1)2+ S2 (X1 + X2)2 (3.1. windmill output. Rajampet Page 30 .T.4) (3.3) Ss = (ω0 – ω) / ω0 Pwg= -3V2 Ss(1+Ss) R2 / (R2 .I.5) Where the wind speed is is windmill rotor cross section area is synchronous angular speed and is angular rotor speed for a windmill. Slip and WTG output power as shown in figure 3.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Tip speed ratio power coefficient. UNCERTAINTIES AND ROBUST CONTROL 4.β)Vw3ρA / 2 (3.1) Cp = f (λ.

time of utilization and ongoing evaluating instruments.T. vitality administration frameworks. vitality robbery counteractive action and control techniques bolster. Department of EEE. electromagnetic mark estimation/examination. Advances include: propelled microchip meters and meter perusing gear. When all is said in done brilliant matrix innovation can be assembled into five key regions: 4. wide zone observing frameworks. assembling and broadcast communications and are being adjusted for use in matrix operations.2 Technology The greater part of savvy lattice advances are as of now utilized as a part of different applications. checking gear wellbeing. The contrast between the genuine framework and its scientific model (used to create controller outlines) is known as model vulnerability. remote work systems and different innovations.2. Rajampet Page 31 . information is being gathered by means of modem instead of direct system association. dissemination computerization.1 Integrated communications A few correspondences are a la mode yet are non uniform since they have been produced in an incremental manner and not completely coordinated. Zones for development include: substation mechanization.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system No numerical model can precisely depict a physical framework.2. control line bearer interchanges and fiber optics. for example.2 Sensing and measurement Center obligations are assessing clog and lattice steadiness. This demonstrating blunder can drastically influence the execution of a control framework. Much of the time. A. progressed switches and links.I. 4.S. supervisory control and information procurement (SCADA). 4. request reaction. backscatter radio innovation and Digital defensive transfers. dynamic line rating.

I.S.3 Smart meter A savvy lattice regularly replaces simple mechanical meters with computerized meters that record use progressively. WiFi. Progressed Metering Infrastructure may give a correspondence way stretching out from power era plants toward one side the distance to end utilize electrical utilization in homes and organizations.3 Uncertainty models The two types of uncertainty which are taken into consideration while designing a robust controller are: Figure 4.2. water radiators and gadgets. fiber.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system 4. Contingent upon the utility program. 4. cell or electrical cable transporter). These end utilize utilization gadgets may incorporate outlets (savvy attachment) and other keen framework empowered apparatuses. indoor regulators. Regularly this innovation is alluded to as Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) since meters alone are not valuable all by themselves and should be introduced in conjunction with some sort of interchanges foundation to recover the information to the utility (wires. Department of EEE.T.  Unmodeled Dynamics: These arise due to neglected or unknown dynamics of the plant. for example.1: Control configuration for µ-synthesis  Modeling Errors: These arise due to inaccurate dynamics in the model of the plant (particularly at high frequencies). clients might be reached or gadgets might be closed down or have their setting changed naturally amid times of pinnacle request. A. Rajampet Page 32 . for example.

I. Rajampet Page 33 . Given this setup the system robustness can be quantified via the smallest structured which makes the matrix singular at any given frequency. Department of EEE. Finally note that we utilize conventional PID control for comparison purposes. Among them only µ-synthesis control is specifically designed to cope with system uncertainties. A. Computing this quantity over all robustness this metric is termed the structured singular value (denoted) which stated mathematically is defined for a matrix μ(M) = (4. Note that µ-synthesis controllers are designed so as to deliver both robust stability and robust performance.1) where M is the lower linear fractional transformation (LFT) of P and K. Of course µ-synthesis sacrifices some nominal performance (as compared to optimal control methods like) but provides robustness to model uncertainties.g.T. disturbance and noise rejection). H2.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system These perturbations are usually lumped together in a structured uncertainty description where is block diagonal as shown in figure 4. and is block diagonal.. Note that this robust control approach yields a powerful tool for synthesizing multivariable controllers with high levels of robustness (to uncertainty) and performance (tracking. The uncertainties considered in this robust control approach are described via norms bounds but these mathematical descriptions can be related back to classical measures (e. gain and phase margins). The Robust Control Tool box from Matlab is used in this project for design analysis and simulation purposes. Robust control theory has been studied extensively in the literature and we refer interested readers for detailed information. and µ-synthesis controllers are all designed based on optimal/robust control theory.S.1.

A.T. In order to precisely specify the robustness and performance criteria the first step is to decide upon the design system interconnection.1. Figure 5.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system CONTROLLER DESIGN 5.3 Multiplicative model instabilities of 5%and 3% are added to model pieces Diesel and Rotating Mass and Load to speak to displaying mistakes as appeared in figure 5.1: Plant with model uncertainties for µ-synthesis design 5.2 Uncertainty in the System Ostensible models of the little power framework and battery are appeared in figures 3.S. Unmodeled high recurrence progression can likewise be Department of EEE.1 Introduction The D-K iteration approach for µ-synthesis controller design is used in this project.I. Rajampet Page 34 . This aims to deliver a closed loop system with optimized performance in the presence of disturbance signals while state the same time retaining robustness to system model uncertainties.2 and 3.

The net load which should be satisfied by some mix of the generator and battery is because of both the physical load and the WTG yield. Take note of that there are three control flags. 5. A. Rajampet Page 35 .4 Penalty Signals The signs we punish in the outline interconnection viably determine the execution criteria for the controller plan improvement handle. So as to minimize the framework recurrence deviation the initially punished flag is the yield.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system incorporated as extra irritations. The net Department of EEE. These signs are independently punished (as a result of various coveted limitations).I. We just join the two into a solitary "unsettling influence" at the same summing intersection. Furthermore control flag punishment weights are likewise included. 5. Also a punishment is constantly connected on all control signs to restrain the control power.S. Be that as it may we don't expect the WTG yield to be under our control for controller configuration purposes. Take note of that heap draws control from the framework however WTG infuses control into the framework. What's more there is dependably sensor clamor in all estimations and these are likewise included as unsettling influence signals.5 Performance weights Selection The decision of execution weights to be utilized as a part of the controller is more troublesome. Here the control signals following up on the diesel motor and battery are punished. To restrain over the top use of the capacity framework its SoC flag is punished too. the first is assigned for low recurrence diesel motor control the second one is appointed for high recurrence battery control and the third one is utilized for keeping up the battery at half of its SoC. however we don't do as such here.3 Disturbance Signals on the system Two noteworthy unsettling influences in the framework emerge from varieties in load and renewable source (WTG) era. In our framework SoC sensor and speed sensor commotions are considered. Estimation commotion is added to the recurrence deviation and SoC signals.T. 5.

I. On the off chance that the requirement is to be forced over all recurrence then a consistent pick up is utilized.T. Fourier Transform investigation is connected to the heap and WTG yield.3) Figure 5. The battery fulfills the power demands for the higher frequency range.1) (5. battery and SoC are chosen as: (5.2 gives the bode plot of the control error signals.S. The weights are chosen so as to mirror the above recurrence substance of the (craved) signals with weighting capacities dynamic in the sought recurrence ranges. Rajampet Page 36 . fundamentally the battery (release/charge) at high recurrence yet then additionally screen the battery SoC (which is a low recurrence flag) and abstain from depleting/cheating it.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system load profile shows both high and low recurrence varieties. The WTG yield range demonstrates that its sufficiency is generally spread between 6 rad/s to 60 rad/s. Department of EEE. A.2) (5. The recurrence range investigation demonstrates that the outstanding amplitudes of load profile are underneath 6 rad/s. Since the generator provides the lower frequency load demands its penalty function has larger amplitude in the lower frequency range between and as shown in blue. Henceforth the weights on the control blunder signals for generator. The low recurrence stack varieties are dealt with by the diesel generator. The battery can convey/ingest energy to/from the framework all the more rapidly (through release/charge) thus it is utilized to soggy the high recurrence varieties. Subsequently controller profile needs to use basically the diesel motor at low recurrence.

S. Rajampet Page 37 .T. The control weight for controlling the diesel engine and battery are given as: Department of EEE. In other words SoC is carefully controlled during the high frequency range where the battery is being rapidly charged and discharged. The SoC error signal is not penalized during the lower frequency range where the battery is less active but the penalty kicks in at higher frequencies.3: Bode plot of control signal weights The weights on the control input are selected in the same way. so as to avoid saturation events Figure 5.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 5. A.2: Bode plot of performance weights Its error signal weight has its largest amplitude at the even lower frequency range from to but then remains significant all the way out to very high frequencies as shown in green.I.

It is to be noted that the system already contains dynamic uncertainties via weighting functions. D)of the linearized open loop plant model (P in figure 4. Weights on load and WTG outputs are also applied. In this way our MIMO controller design approach will yield a closed loop design where each component primarily handles the region.1) is obtain using the MATLAB command ‘linmod’ (applied to figure 5.1 is first linearized with an operating point of 0.S.3. which indicate that the system has 12 states. 5.1 along with the interconnection structure. which set the robustness specification.6 Design of µ-synthesis Controller Using the system uncertainties and weights are developed by the interconnection state space model can be built using the Robust Control Toolbox. It is best suited for with an appropriate combination of resources dealing with the transition region.1.5) The design weight functions for the control signals are shown in figure 5. The selected weights with model uncertainties are shown in figure 5. Rajampet Page 38 . As shown in figure 5.1) resulting in a system of order 12.4) (5. The given simulink model in figure 5. there are 12 first order transfer functions. A.The block diagonal Department of EEE. B. The state space representation (matrices A.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system (5. The structured uncertainty description specifies the perturbed plant model and it is normalized so that. As the figure shows during the high frequency range the generator control signal is penalized since we do not wish the generator control signal to be active in this range but rather let the battery deal with small fast transients. C. On the other hand the battery control signal weight amplitude is heavily penalized in the low frequency range since we do not wish the battery to try to handle large slow transients that are better handled by the generator.I.T.

This permits Department of EEE. The PID controller is tuned based on the nominal plant. representation and programming in a simple to use environment where issues and arrangements are communicated in commonplace numerical documentation. The designed robust controller is seen to be of order 12 (same as the design interconnect). We use the DK iteration algorithm for µ-synthesis in Matlab Robust Control Tool bar to design a µ-optimal robust controller K for our uncertain model. uncertain control design interconnection model. including graphical building. A. This means that robustness to uncertainties is not specifically addressed although of course classical control tuning approaches implicitly try to cope with uncertainty. The Linear Fractional Transformation (LFT) of the linearized uncertain plant (P) and the block diagonal uncertainty structure is taken to obtain the weighted. Run of the mill utilizes incorporate Math and calculation Algorithm advancement Data procurement Modeling. Rajampet Page 39 .2 MATLAB MATLAB is an elite dialect for specialized figuring.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system uncertainty structure as shown in figure 4. We utilize the Ziegler Nichols method for PID tuning and the PID comparison case is implemented with 100% battery attached. reenactment. SIMULATION AND RESULTS 6. investigation and representation Scientific and designing illustrations Application improvement.1 is then obtained as an uncertain linear time invariant object. The iterative algorithm combines µ-synthesis and µ-analysis to deliver both robustness to uncertainties and optimized performance. It coordinates calculation. Matlab is an intuitive framework whose fundamental information component is an exhibit that does not require dimensioning.S.1 Introduction In order to determine the control indices the proposed techniques as explained in the previous sections were used.T.I. This represents a low complexity controller which is easily implemented for real time operation on modern hardware. and prototyping Data examination. 6.

Department of EEE.S.I.T. Rajampet Page 40 . A.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system to take care of numerous specialized registering issues particularly those with lattice and vector details in a small amount of the time it would take to compose a project in a scalar no intelligent dialect.

Where. rated capacity 1. Department of EEE. initial state of charge at 10% to the simulink model. Pm = Mechanical power in watts.T.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system 6. The inputs to the simulink model are wind velocity and pitch angle (β).2v. A.5amph.1: Simulink model of MIMO The battery ratings are voltage at 1. and pitch angle (β).3 Simulation diagram of MIMO Figure 6.S.I. the performance co-efficient Cp of the turbine is defined as the mechanical output power of the turbine divided by wind power and a function of wind speed. rotational speed. Rajampet Page 41 . Cp reaches its maximum value when β reaches zero value.

T.1 Subsystem diagram of MIMO with µ-synthesis controller Figure 6.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system β = pitch angle in degrees.2: Subsystem with µ-controller 6.S.I.The output is the windmill power. A. Rajampet Page 42 . The first input is the wind velocity in m/s.3.3. 6. The second input is the blade pitch angle (β) in degrees .2 Subsystem diagram of MIMO with Resonant controller Department of EEE.

3: Subsystem with resonant controller 6. Rajampet Page 43 .S.4 by using µ control for this particular no battery and WTG output battery needs to be operated at least 50% of its maximum rated output power the frequency deviation almost 3% which is unacceptable.I. A.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 6.4 Simulation and results for µ-synthesis and Resonant controller Figure 6. In general for microgrids frequency deviation should be limited to 1% otherwise breakers will trip.4: Frequency deviation for no-battery with µ control As shown in figure 6. Department of EEE.T.

A.I.T. Department of EEE.6: Frequency deviation for 3% battery with µ control As shown in figure 6.S.5: Frequency deviation for no-battery with resonant control As shown in figure 6.5 by using resonant control for this particular no battery and WTG output battery needs to be operated at least 50% of its maximum rated output power to limit within 1% to control the frequency deviation by without battery frequency deviation is not reduced than maximum battery.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 6.6 by using µ control for this particular 3% battery and WTG output battery needs to be operated at least 50% of its maximum rated output power to limit within 3% of its maximum rated output. it still limits the maximum frequency deviation within 0. Rajampet Page 44 .6% . Figure 6.

02%) takes place. when the PID controller is used for controlling the plant with uncertain load and WTG variation (even with the full battery is attached). a bigger frequency deviation (0. Department of EEE.7: Frequency deviation for 3% battery with resonant control As shown in figure 6. Hence. it still limits the maximum frequency deviation within 0.8 the PID controller is tuned without specific consideration of uncertainties (unmodeled dynamics and/or disturbance signals). Figure 6. Rajampet Page 45 .Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 6.I.T.7 by using resonant control for this particular 3% battery and WTG output battery needs to be operated at least 50% of its maximum rated output power to limit within 3% of its maximum rated output.3% .S. A.8: Frequency deviation for maximum battery attached with PID As shown in figure 6.

10 the resonant controller is tuned with specific consideration of uncertainties (unmodeled dynamics and/or disturbance signals). Hence.S. a frequency deviation (0. Figure 6.10: Frequency deviation for maximum battery with resonant control As shown in figure 6.T.0015%) takes place. A. Rajampet Page 46 .002%) takes place has much better performance than the PID based method. when the µ controller is used for controlling the plant with certain load and WTG variation (even with the full battery is attached). Department of EEE. when the resonant controller is used for controlling the plant with certain load and WTG variation (even with the full battery is attached).9: Frequency deviation for maximum battery with µ control As shown in figure 6. Hence. A frequency deviation (0.I.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 6.9 the µ controller is tuned with specific consideration of uncertainties (unmodeled dynamics and/or disturbance signals). and it significantly reduces the peak frequency deviations.

S. Hence the PID controller can no longer maintain acceptable system performance.I.017% and 10% noise is added to all measurements.12: Frequency deviation for 10% model uncertainty and measurement noise with µ control As shown in figure 6.11 the system frequency deviation when 10% model uncertainty is added to the diesel engine and rotating mass models the frequency deviation reduced to 0. A.11: Frequency deviation for 10% model uncertainty and measurement noise with PID control In order to specifically examine system robustness as shown in figure 6.12 the system frequency deviation when 10% model uncertainty is added to the diesel engine and rotating mass models the frequency deviation reduced to 0.012% and 10% noise is added to all measurements. However Department of EEE. But disturbances arising from the load and WTG variation are also present as before.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Figure 6. Rajampet Page 47 .T. Figure 6.

13: Frequency deviation for 10% model uncertainty and measurement noise with resonant control As shown in figure 6.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system the µ-synthesis controller can still provide satisfactory performances despite these significant uncertainties. Rajampet Page 48 .S. Figure 6.14: Power variation without attached battery with µ control As shown in figure 6. the resonant controller can still provide satisfactory performances despite these significant uncertainties.008% and 10% noise is added to all measurements. A. Figure 6. However.I.T. there is no battery.13 the system frequency deviation when 10% model uncertainty is added to the diesel engine and rotating mass models the frequency deviation reduced to 0. The reason is that. in this case.14 with µ control has more high frequency harmonics on the generator power variation (in green). and so the generator is forced to compensate the high frequency load/wind Department of EEE.

I. in this case. at 268 s the generator increases its output power by 7% to match the 3% increase in load and 1% decrease in wind generation.16: Power variations and maximum rated battery power with µ control As shown in figure 6. The generator output follows the net load (combined load and WTG) Department of EEE. Figure 6.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system power variations. A. In the high frequency components in the system are being smoothed by the battery.14 with µ control.15 with resonant control has more high frequency harmonics on the generator power variation (in blue).T. there is no battery. Rajampet Page 49 . Figure 6. and so the generator is forced to compensate the high frequency load/wind power variations. In the high frequency components in the system are being smoothed by the battery.S. The reason is that.15: Power variation without attached battery with resonant control As shown in figure 6.

T.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system variations and provides the major portion of power. The battery is reacting to the high frequency transients while keeping its SoC around the desired operating point. This can drive the battery into saturation and not allow the engine to running at its optimal operating Department of EEE.6% to match the 0. Figure 6.4% increase in load and 0.18: Frequency deviation on battery control signal for modified weights with µ control By the above conditions.I. at 268 s the generator increases its output power by 0. A. where larger disturbances occur.17: Power variations and maximum rated battery power with resonant control As shown in figure 6.1% decrease in wind generation. The generator output follows the net load (combined load and WTG) variations and provides the major portion of power. the battery operation range interferences with the diesel engine functioning range.17 with resonant control. The battery is reacting to the high frequency transients while keeping its SoC around the desired operating point. Figure 6. Rajampet Page 50 .S.

I. This can drive the battery into saturation and not allow the engine to running at its optimal operating point. Figure 6. So that poorer performance is obtained when the modified weight function is used in the controller design as shown in figure 6. Figure 6.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system point. Rajampet Page 51 .S.19: Frequency deviation on battery control signal for modified weights with resonant control The battery operation range interferences with the diesel engine functioning range. So that better performance is obtained when the modified weight function is used by the resonant controller as shown in figure 6.T. to achieve the desired robust performance.19 our resonant controller achieve the desired robust performance.18 µ synthesis controller design was the result of a careful weight selection process.20: Frequency deviation on battery control signal for original weights with µ control Department of EEE. where larger disturbances occur. A.

Figure 6. A. to achieve the desired robust performance. Compared to modified weights as shown in figure 6.synthesis and Resonant controller: Frequency Deviations Battery µ synthesis Resonant Charging states controller Controller 1 No battery 0.T.0017 S.0071 0. Performance comparison of µ. Rajampet Page 52 .014 2 3% 0.21: Frequency deviation on battery control signal for original weights with resonant control By using original weights with resonant control the frequency deviation on battery control is achieved better performance. to achieve the desired robust performance.0035 3 100% 0.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system By using original weights with µ control the frequency deviation on battery control is achieved better performance than the modified weight as shown in figure 6.S.027 0.21 resonant controller design was the result of a careful weight selection process.0025 0.20 our µ synthesis controller design was the result of a careful weight selection process.NO Department of EEE.I.

004 Table 6.008 2 Modified weights 0.NO Parameters µsynthesis Resonant controller controller 1 Uncertainties & noise 0.T. Since battery-based storage systems are very expensive. In other words.S. The battery based storage system is constantly charged or discharged to deal with fast transients. to enforce good tradeoffs in the controller. one can significantly reduce system frequency deviation in a micro grid. system robustness and performance is well balanced.1: Frequency deviation comparision using µ-synthesis controller and resonant controller with battery charging states Frequency Deviations S. Department of EEE. the robust control approach allows us to deliver that performance level whilst utilizing a smaller battery. this is a significant advantage.005 3 Original weights 0.005 0.012 0. At the same time it is necessary to keep the SoC around 50%. and careful weight selection is crucial. and has better performance. shown that by combining a small battery with a sophisticated robust control algorithm. Rajampet Page 53 .Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system Table 6. This new approach is much more robust.this approach utilizes µsynthesis for the controller design. specifying a certain allowable frequency deviation.2: Frequency deviation comparision using synthesis controller and resonant controller for 10%model uncertainities and measurement noises CONCLUSION In this project.I. since the model uncertainties and system performances are considered at the same time.016 0. During the controller design process. as compared to conventional PID control. A.

The resulting closed-loop microgrid system does not control these devices (battery and generator) independently. but rather simultaneously employs the generator to handle large slow load transients.Mitigation of microgrid frequency deviation by robust control of attached storage system which the MIMO controller does. A. plans to extend the application of these tools to control of reactive power and voltage in microgrids. Future scope In future work. Rajampet Page 54 .T. Finally notice that this project focuses on control of real power and frequency. while utilizing the battery to smooth out fast transients. Conventional generators are slower.I. Department of EEE. and deliver the bulk of the power while coping with large load variations. In this way the overall system performance of the microgrid is optimized.S.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful