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Composition 2

Cause and Effect Essay


To Thanh Nhi 201632708

Obesity can lead to health problems


As fast food gets cheaper than cooking at home, more and more people eat unhealthy.
This is one of the causes that can lead to gaining weight, which might lead to obesity. First of
obesity can be defined as an excess of body fat (Grundy 2009). Due to the extra body fat, one
can get more cautious about their appearance but what matters more is what happens inside their
body. Obviously, obesity affects peoples outer appearance but moreover it can cause severe
damages inside the body as well, causing health issues. This essay will focus on what kind of
health problems could be caused by obesity.
When thinking of how excessive weight could affect ones body, it is joint problem.
According to the Harvard Health Publications, excess puts additional stress on weight-bearing
joins (Harvard Health Publications). Furthermore, Stanford Health Care points out specific
areas like knees and hips that are affected the most by obesity due the stress placed on the joints
by extra weight (Stanford Health Care). These symptoms show that it is the so called
osteoarthritis, a painful degenerative condition that can affect one or more of the joint
mentioned above (Lementowski and Zelicof 148). They continue arguing that:
Any increase in weight may be roughly multiplied by these factors to reveal the excess force across the
knee when an overweight person walks. This increase in force elevates stress on articular cartilage and causes its
eventual breakdown, which in turn causes proliferation of periarticular bone (to distribute the increased forces) and
culminates in decreased joint space. If unchecked, this vicious cycle continues until the joint space is obliterated.
Several studies have directly examined the obesity caused mechanical changes occurring in the knee and in the
articular cartilage in general (Lementowski and Zelicof 149).

Another big health problem obesity can lead to is diabetes. Obesity, particularly truncal
obesity, is closely correlated to the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Leong and
Wilding 221). The condition most strongly influenced by body weight is type 2 diabetes
(Obesity Prevention Source). 90% of type 2 diabetics have a body mass index (BMI) of >23 kg
m2 (Kopelman 13). According to Stanford Health Care, this type of diabetes usually begins
in adulthood but, is now actually occurring in children. Obesity can cause resistance to insulin,
the hormone that regulates blood sugar. When obesity causes insulin resistance, the blood sugar
becomes elevated. Even moderate obesity dramatically increases the risk of diabetes (Stanford
Health Care). Additionally, Mokdad shows evidence from several studies indicates that obesity
and weight gain are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and that intentional weight loss
reduces the risk that overweight people will develop diabetes (Mokdad). He continues saying
that each year, an estimated 300 000 US adults die of causes related to obesity, and diabetes is
the sixth leading cause of death (Mokdad). Also, compared with men and women in the normal
weight range (BMI lower than 25), men with BMIs of 30 or higher had a sevenfold higher risk of
developing type 2 diabetes, and women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 12-fold higher risk
(Harvard School of Public Health).
The last health issue this paper will discuss is cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a major
contributor to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the developed world, and yet has only
recently been afforded the same level of attention as other risk factors of coronary artery disease
(Poirier and Eckel 448). Furthermore, a repeat analysis that statistically accounted for blood
pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes weakened the associations, suggesting that these factors
mediate the effect of obesity on stroke (Harvard School of Public Health). Grundy argues that
the foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

(ASCVD) (Grundy 2009). As the upper paragraph talks about diabetes, he states that once a
patient develops type 2 diabetes, risk for ASCVD is enhanced (Grundy 2009). Through this
observation, one can see that one disease can lead to another one and that they are in some way
linked to each other.
Through the previous paragraphs, one can sum up that obesity does indeed cause severe
health problems. Starting from joint problems also called osteoarthritis, as well as diabetes to
cardiovascular disease and many more, one can conclude obesity is a factor to all these health
issues. To prevent any of those to occur, losing weight through a healthy diet is the first step.
Also, seeking advice from doctors and specialist in those diseases will be helpful. Moreover,
monthly check ups in the hospital are another way of treating these health issues. If one finds out
about it early, it is easier to treat the disease.

Work Cited:
Grundy, Scott M. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Disease. The Journal of
Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89.6 (2009): Web.
Harvard Health Publications. Why weight matters when it comes to joint pain. April 2015,
Web.
Harvard School of Public Health. Obesity Prevention Source. Web.
Kopelman, P. Health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Obesity reviews (2007): 1317. Print.
Lementowski, Peter W. MD, and Stephen B. Zelicof, MD, PhD. Obesity and Osteoarthritis
American journal of orthopedics (2008): 148-151. Print.
Leong, King Sun, John P. Wilding. Obesity and diabetes. Best Practice & Research Clinical
Endocrinology & Metabolism (1999): 221-237. Print.
Mokdad, Ali H. et al. Prevalence of Obesity, Diabetes, and Obesity-Related Health Risk
Factors, 2001 (2003), Print.
Poirier, Paul, Robert H. Eckel. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Current Atherosclerosis
Reports 4 (2002): 448453. Print.
Stanford Health Care. Effects of Obesity. Web.