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SAFETY

1) Safety

: The protection of people from physical injury.

2) Hazard

: Something with the potential to cause harm.


Eg: Physical Hazard
Chemical Hazard
Biological Hazard
Ergonomic
Psychological

3) Risk

:
:
:
:
:

Heat, Light, Noise.


Acids.
Animal Borne.
Job movements.
Stress.

: The likelihood that harm will occur and the severity of the harm.
Eg: Tripping over cables.
Coming into contact with machinery.

4) Risk
Assessment : Overall process of Risk Analysis, Risk Evaluation, Controls and
actions to resolve risks.
5) ALARP : As Low As Reasonably Practicable is when it can be demonstrated that there
Would be a gross disproportion between the cost of preventative or
Protective control measures and the reduction in risk they would achieve.
6)Risk
Evaluation : The process to support management decisions as to acceptability or risk
Reduction requirement by company the estimated risk against relevant
Criteria.
Qn: How can you carryout Risk Assessment?
Ans: Follow 5 basic steps.
Step1: Identify the hazards:

Workplace inspections
by competent persons.
Talking to the workforce operators, skilled workers.
Non-Inspection Techniques undertaking JSA (breaking into steps).
Examination of documents MSDS, Codes of practice, HSE publications, etc.
Combined Techniques
Looking at the results of Safety Audits of HAZOPs.
Accidents
Accidents Statistic, Investigations, Ill-Health
complaints.
Near Miss Reports
To indicate problem areas.

Step2: Decide who may be harmed and how?

Consider vulnerable employees such as young workers, trainers, pregnant women,


visitors, contractors, public.
Consider what are the hazards, how likely to occur, consequences, number of
employees exposed, frequency of exposure, existing controls.

Step3: Evaluate the Risk and Existing precautions.

This will decide the necessity of additional precautions to be taken.


To know even after precautions the Risks is High, Medium or Low. To do this use
Likelihood and Severity Matrix.
Likelihood (Probability)
5 = certain, imminent.
4 = Very likely
3= Likely
2 = Unlikely
1 = Very unlikely

Severity (Outcome of the Hazard)


5 = Fatality.
4 = Major disabling Injury.
3 = Injury, Non-Disabling, Illness,
(over 3 days)
2 = Minor injury under 3 days.
1 = Minor injury no time off.

Risk Assessment Factors: Likelihood x Severity (Scale1 to 25).


* These numbers provide an indication of priority and the extent of the risk.
* High Risk
15 -25 (seek specialist advice)
Medium Risk 8- 15 (further risk reduction measures should be considered)
Low Risk
1- 7(Risk Tolerable).

Control Measures : Use Hierarchy of control (ERIC prevents Death).


Evaluation of Existing Precautions:
a) Consider workplace precautions :
*Machine Guards
* PPE
* Safe system of work
*Good Hygiene practices * First Aid
* Traning
* Provision of information * Ventilation * Job rotations.
b) Risk Control Systems (RCSs):
* These are the systems required to ensure that the workplace
Precautions continue to operate.
Eg: RCS for machinery guarding Regular Inspections.
For PPE - Training, Storage, etc.
*Therefore these methods means that it is impossible to keep risks at a
reasonably low level although it is not possible to have a completely hazard
Free environment.

Step4: Record the Findings:

Significant hazards should be recorded and trial hazards and risks can
be ignored.
Record such things as
* The number of people affected.
* The adequacy of existing controls.
* Any further precautions necessary.

Step5: Review Assessment and Revise if necessary,


* Accidents/Incidents * Policy Review * Compensation claim.
* Changes in process/materials/premises/legislation/work patterns.

PTW
PTW: Formal written system used to control certain types of work which are
potentially hazardous.
Qn: what is the objective of PTW?
Ans: Objective of PTW is to implement Safe System of Work by getting sign
From experienced, trained, authorized person for approval of permit to
Work which includes.
*
*
*
*

Hazards involved.
All precautions required together with emergency procedures.
Who may carryout the work?
The limits of the permit to work area or equipment.

Qn: What is the Design of PTW?


Ans: * The job location/plant identification.
* Description of work.
* The period of time.
* Description of the hazards which are, or might be present.
* The tests & checks before starting work to be taken.
* Additional precautions to be taken while undertaking the work.
* Authorization Competent person Approving Authority.
* Acceptance - Performing Authority (Permit Receiver).
* Time extensions/ Shift change procedures.
* Hand back (close out) Conforming work completed.
* Cancellation.
Qn: Describe about the copies of PTW?
Ans:
Top (Yellow) Copy to be issued to and retained by the Supervisor in Charge of the work.
First (Pink)

- Copy to be placed in transparent plastic envelop and


Displayed at place of work.

Both
(Yellow & Pink) To be returned to the authorize person to be destroyed
When work is complete.
Second (Blue) - Copy to be retained in pad for record purposes, with the
Work completed signatures.

Qn: Describe about Permit Authorization and Competency to perform work?


Ans:
This is the key since authorized person plays important role.
Employer should check authorized persons
* Age (must be fully mature & responsible person).
* Training, Qualification, Experience.
* Knowledge of the particular plant/equipment/hazardous work
Process involved.
* Ability to control the situation and the personnel involved.
Qn: Write about the Types of Permits?
Ans:
Hot
Work Permit

Cold
Work Permit
Electrical
Work Permit

Confined Space
Entry Permit

Source of ignition, welding, flame cutting, grinding, etc.


Precautions- Isolations, drains/sewers within 25 m sealed,
Ventilation, Fire blankets, Smoking prohibition, Fire
Extinguishers, Ear thing for electricity, warning sings.
- Without source of ignition. Eg: Use of Chisel..
- Permits normally covers isolation, ear thing procedures
(LOTO).

- Used in vessels, manholes, tanks, sewers, in which the


Atmosphere is or cold become Toxic, Flammable or
Deficient in Oxygen.
Atmospheric Test:
Toxic Gas

ppm (breathing apparatus to be worn at


50% of OEL or above).
Flammable Gas - % Explosive Limit. (entry not permitted
If reading exceeds 0% LEL).
Oxygen
- Entry not permitted below 20% or above
20.8 %.
Dust/Fibre
Count
- B/A to be worn at 50% OES or above.
Note: In case of Emergency permits cancels automatically.

EXCAVATION

Excavation: A man made cut or cavity below the earth surface by removing
earth by using earth removers.

Trench
: A narrow excavation below the surface of the ground, less than
15 feet, with a depth no greater than the width.

Cave-In

Sloping : A method of protecting workers from cave-in by excavating to


form sides of an excavation that is inclined away from the excavation to
prevent cave-in.

Shielding : A structure to support the sides without collapsing soil.


Eg: Trench Box.

Shoring : Use to prevent movement of soil, where sloping impractical,


showing system consists of posts, wales, struts, sheeting.
Eg: Timber Shoring, Hydraulic Shoring.

Benching : A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating


the sides of an excavation to form one or more series of horizontal levels or
steps, usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels.

: Collapse of the soil due to pressure.

Note:
In carrying out an excavation the soil conditions can vary widely, often in short
distances.
1 Cubic meter Earth = 1.3 Tonnes.
Inspect Excavations:
* At start of every shift before work starts.
* After any event likely to affect the strength or stability.
* After any accidental fall of rock, earth or other materials.
* The inspection report, who made the inspection
Date & Time
Anything identified that could lead to a risk and any further actions that may
be required.
EXCAVATION CHECK LIST:

Qn: What are the precautions for Excavations?


Ans:
Not to undermine nearby structures.
Underground services.
The type of soil.
To prevent collapse.
Prevent falling persons/vehicles in the excavation.
Ensure safe access/egress.
Precautions against flooding/gases.
Checking if the soil is contaminated.
Emergency procedures.
PPE.
Qn: Write about Soil Classification & Identification (OSHA Standards)?
Ans:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Stable Rock
*Natural Solid
Material that
can be excavated
with vertical sides
and remain intact
while exposed.
Eg: Granite
Sand stone.

Type A Soil
Cohesive Soils
with unconfined
comprehensive
strength of 1.5 T
per square foot
or greater.
Eg: Clay
Silty Clay

Type B Soil
Cohesive Soils
with unconfined
comprehensive
strength of 0.5 T
per square foot
But less than 1.5T
Per square foot.
Eg: Angular gravel
Silt

Type C Soil
Cohesive Soils
with unconfined
comprehensive
strength of 0.5T
per square foot
or less.
Eg: Gravel
Loamy sand.

Sandy clay

Silt loam

Sand,
Submerged soil

Qn: How to do Soil Test & Identification?


Ans:
Pocket penetrometer: Once pushed into the soil, an indicator sleve displays the reading.
Used to determine the unconfined compressive strength of staturated cohesive soils.
Visual Test

: If the excavated soil is in clumps. It is cohesive if it breaks up easily


Not staying in clumps it is granular.

Thumb penetration
Test
: Attempt to press the thumb firmly into the soil in question.
If makes identification in the soil only with great difficulty Type A
If penetrates no further than the length of the thumb nail - Type B
If penetrates full length of the thumb
- Type C
Dry Strength Test : Try to crumble the sample in your hands with your fingers. If it
Crumbles into grains, it is granular clay will not crumble into grains,
Only into smaller chunks.
Wet Manual Test

: Wet your fingers and work the soil between them. Clay is a slick
Paste when wet, meaning it is cohesive. If the clump falls a part in
It is granular.
Qn:Write about Sloping & Benching Systems (OSHA)?
Qn:
Max. allowable slopes for excavations < 20 feet based on soil type and angle to
the Horizontal are as follows:
Soil Type
Stable Rock
Type A
Type B
Type C

Height/Depth Ratio
Vertical
:1
1:1
1:1

Slope Angle
90 degrees
53degrees
45 degrees
34 degrees

Benching Systems: There are 2 types of benching Simple & Multiple.

*As a general rule, the bottom vertical height of the trench must not exceed 4 feet (1.2m)
For the first bench.
Subsequent benches may be up to max 5 feet (1.5 m).
Vertical in Type A soil and 4 feet (1.2m).
In Type B soil to a total trench depth of 20 feet (6m).

Fig

Qn: Write about Shoring Systems?


Ans:
Shoring systems consists of posts, wales, struts, sheeting.
There are 2 basic types of shoring. Timber & Aluminum Hydraulic.

Fig

Hydraulic Shoring:

*Hydraulic Shoring is a prefabricated strut and / or wale system manufactured of


Aluminum or Steel.
*Not much better than Timber Shoring to install and remove.

Pneumatic Shoring:

*Same as Hydraulic Shoring. The difference is the usage of air pressure in place of
hydraulic pressure.
Fig.
Qn: Write about Shielding System?
Ans:
Trench Box: The space between the trench boxes the excavation side are backfilled to
Prevent lateral movement of box.
Fig.
Spoil: Temporary spoil must be placed not closer than 2 feet (nearly 1m) from the

Surface edge of the excavation.

CONFINED SPACE

Confined Space: One that has limited or restricted means of entry or exit, is large
enough for employees to enter and perform their work, and is not designed for
continuous occupancy.

Permit-Required Confined Space (PRCS): A Space that has one or more of the
following characteristics.
* Contains or could contain hazardous atmosphere.
* Contains materials that have the potential for engulfing (surround or cover
Completely) the entrant.
* Has an internal configuration such as that an entrant could be trapped or
Asphyxiated.
* Any other recognized safety hazards.
Eg: Manholes Sewer lines or tunnels Storage tanks Silos (storage tower)
Boilers
Pipelines
Pits
Wells
Underground utility vaults and storage.

Qn: What are the types of Confined Spaces?


Ans:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Class 1 Confined Space


* This is permit required confined space
(PRCS) where required Breathing
Apparatus

Class 2 Confined Space


* This is permit required confined space
(PRCS) where not required Breathing
Apparatus.

Qn: What are General Atmospheric Hazards?


Ans:

1)Oxygen Deficiency:

* Air Contains 78 % Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen.


* < 19.5% of Oxygen level causes serious health problems (breathing)
Oxygen consumed by variety of chemical process.
* Aerobic bacterial growth (consume oxygen to live)
* Oxidation of rusting materials.

* Combustion and displacement by other gases (welding/cutting torch)


Oxygen
Content
18-23%
12-16%
10-12%
6-10%

Symptoms
None
Increased Pulse Rate
Rapid Pulse Rate, Nausea,
Headache
Rapid Pulse Rate, Nausea,
Headache

0-6%

Physical Effects
None
Lack of fine co-ordination
In fingers & hands.
Breathing difficulties, lack
of co-ordination.
Complete lack of coordination, inability to react
to danger, loss of
consciousness.
Death

Rapid Pulse Rate, Nausea,


Headache
Oxygen Enrichment: Oxygen more than 23.5% called enrichment which
causes Fire.(ie) easy to catch fire.

2) Flammable/Combustible materials:
* Eg: H2S, CO, Acetylene, Methane.
* The proper mixture of fuel and oxygen varies from gas to gas. But
Explosion range defined as the area between LEL & UEL.
* When the mixture is above the UEL, it can readily move into flammable
Range with the addition of dilution air.
* In Confined Spaces potential source of ignition, open flames, arcs from
Electrical equipment, hot surfaces, static electricity and frictional sparks.

3) Toxic Gas Hazards:


* Toxic gases or poisonous gases present two kinds of risks in confined
Space.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Irritation
Asphyxiation
* Many gases, existing in Low
Concentration in the air, are
irritating to the bodys respiratory and nervous system.

* Any gases which when present in high concentration, causes displacement of oxygen
in the body.
Eg:
1) CO, which is produced by incomplete
Combustion of carbon fuels. CO kills by
Chemically combining with the hemogloBin in red cells. This greatly reduces the
Ability of the blood to carry oxygen to the

Body tissues and brain cells.

35 ppm
500ppm
1000ppm
2000ppm
2500ppm
4000ppm

2) H2S more toxic than CO. It is produced


Through the decay of organisms & natural
Materials.
CO Exposure Effects
H2S Exposure Effects
PEL over 8 hours shifts
10ppm
PEL over 8 hour shift
Slight Headache
50-100ppm
Mild eye and respiratory
irritation.
Confusion, Nausea,Discomfort 200-300ppm Marked increased in eye
and lung irritation.
Tendency to Stagger
500-700ppm Unconsciousness after 30
minute exposure.
Unconsciousness after 30 1000ppm or Death with in minutes.
minute exposure
more
Fatal in less than one hour.
To prevent mechanical/electrical hazards in Confined Space follow LOTO.

Qn: How can you measure and monitor atmospheric hazards?


Ans:

OXYGEN: According to the stand 19.5% is the minimum and 23.5% is the
maximum Range for Oxygen in Permit Required Confined Spaces (PRCS).

COMUSTIBLES: Measure the % of LEL and according to the standard, the


acceptable Level for any combustible is at or below 10% of its LEL.

TOXIC: Measure the concentration of toxic substances which might be


available and compare same with TLV (PEL).
Eg:
CO 35 ppm for 8 hours.
H2S 10 ppm for 8 hours.

WORKING AT HEIGHT.

In U.S each year an average between 150 & 200 workers are killed and more than
100,000 are injured.

To protect workers need to follow :


* Select fall protection systems appropriate for given situations.
* Use proper construction and installation of safety systems.
* Supervise employees properly.
* Use safe work procedures.
* Train workers in the proper selection, use, maintenance of fall protection
system.

Areas where fall protection required:


* Ramps, runways, walkways
*Leading edge work, unprotected sides, edges.
* Excavations.
* Roof works, Pre-cast concrete erection.
* Hoist areas
* Building Constructions.
* Form work and reinforcing steel.

Fall protection standard:


* Set a uniform threshold height of 1.8m (6ft) or above.
* Employer must assess the workplace to determine if the walking or working
Surfaces have enough strength to safely support workers.
* Select proper fall protection system to protect exposed employees at 1.8m (6ft)
or more.
* Provide proper training.
Qn: Write about Fall Protection Systems?
Ans: 1) Guardrail Systems
3) Positioning Device Systems
5) Safety Net Systems
1) Guardrail Systems:
Fig

2) Personal Fall Arrest Systems


4) Safety Monitoring Systems.
6) Warning Line Systems.

Top edge height of top rails must be 42(1.1m) + 3 (8cm) above the
Walking / working level.

Screens mid rails mesh, intermediate vertical members must be installed between
The top rail & working level at least 21 (53 cm) high.

Guardrail must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 200 pounds applied


On the top from both the directions.
Mid rail shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least 150 pounds in any
downwards or outward directions.
A toe board with minimum 3.5 high, should be capable of with standing a force
of at least 50 pounds.

Guard rails shall be to protect workers from punctures, lacerations, prevent


clothing from snagging.

Distance between vertical posts should not be more than 2.8 ft.

If no mid rail the distance between posts should not be more than 19.

2) Personal Fall Arrest Systems:

These consist of an anchorage, connectors, body harness must do the following:


* Limit Max. Arresting force on an employee to 1800 pounds when used with a
A body harness.
* Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 1.8m (6 ft) nor
Contact any lower level.
* Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit Max. 3.5 ft (1.07m) (Shock
Absorber).
* To keep at least 3 ft. clearance from the ground.
Calculating Total Fall Distance.
fig

Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an


employee from falling a distance 6 ft. or the free fall distance permitted by the
system whichever is less.
Use of body belt prohibited on 1/1/1998. FBH required.
The anchoring point must withstand a force not less than 5000 pounds.

3) Positioning Device Systems:

Harness is to be setup that a worker can free fall no farther than 2 ft.
(Positioning Device).
Secured to an anchorage capable of supporting 3000 pounds.
Fig

4) Safety Monitoring Systems:

Used which no other alternative fall protection has been implemented.


Competent person to monitor the safety of workers.
Employer shall ensure that the safety monitor is competent in the recognition of
fall hazards.
Is capable of warning workers of fall hazard dangers and in detecting unsafe work
practices.
Close monitoring with good communication by the Supervisor by using
barricades.

5) Safety Net Systems:

Safety net must be installed as close as practicable under the walking/working


surface and never more than 30 feet (9.1m) below such levels.
Install with sufficient clearance underneath to prevent contact with the surface
or structure below.
Max. Size of each safety net mesh opening shall not exceed 36square inch nor
be longer than 6 (15cm) on any side.

Safety net boarder rope for webbing with minimum breaking strength of 5000
pounds.
Safety net must extend outward from the outermost projection as below.
fig

Net distance below the working surface


Up to 5
5 10
> 10

Minimum horizontal distance to nets outer


edge.
8 feet
10 feet
13 feet

Safety net shall be inspected at least once a weak for wear, damage and other
deterioration
Safety net shall be capable of absorbing an impact force of drop test consisting
of a
* 400 pounds (180kg) bag of sand 30 (76cm) in diameter dropped from the
Highest walking / working surface at which workers are exposed, but not less
Than 42 (1.1m) above the level.

6) Warning Line Systems:

Consists of ropes, wires, chains, supporting stanchions, set up as follows:


* Flagged at not more than 6 foot intervals with high visibility materials.
* Rigged and supported so that the lowest point including sag is no less than 34
From the walking/working surface and its highest point is no more than 39
From the walking / working surface.
*Shall be erected around all sides of roof work areas.
*When mechanical equipment is being used,
The warning line shall be erected not less than 1.8m (6ft) from the roof edge
Parallel to the direction of mechanical equipment operation, and not less
Than 10ft (3m) from the roof edge perpendicular to the direction of
Mechanical equipment operation.
*When mechanical equipment is not being used,
The warning line must be erected not less than 1.8m (6ft) from the roof edge.
*Emergency procedures, rescue personal, rescue equipment, communications,

First Aid requirements should be on place.

Qn: What are the Hazard and Precautions of Roof Work?


Ans:
HAZARDS

Fragile Roof Materials.


Roof Edges.
Slippery Sloping Roof Surfaces.
Materials falling from roof.
Contact with overhead electricity
cables.
Manual Handling.

PRECAUTIONS
(for pitched roof inclined more than 10%)
Carryout roof survey prior to work
starting.
Safe means of access to roof.
Roof edge barriers.
Roof ladders or crawling boards.
Identifying & Covering roof lights.
Facilities to raise & lower materials
safely.
Protection for persons below.
Provision of safety harness (if
necessary).
Avoid working in severe adverse
weather conditions.
Competent workers & Supervisors
(for flat roof).
Above & Safe use of bitumen
boilers, Safe use of burning gases,
Training in manual handling.

STAIRWAYS & LADDERS

A stairways or ladder must be provided at all worker points of access where there
is a break in elevation of 19 (48cm) or more and no ramp, runway, embankment,
or personal hoist is provided.
Fig.

In case only one access it should be clear. If 2 accesses at least one should be clear
without any obstructions.
Stairways:

Temporary staircase with landing 30 (at least) deep and 22 wide at every 12 ft.
or less of vertical risk.

Fig.

Stairways must be installed at least 30 and no more than 50 from the horizontal.

Fig.

Variations in riser height or stair tread depth must not exceed in any stairway
system.
Where doors or gates open directly onto a stairway a platform must be provided
that is at least 20 (51cm) in width beyond the swing of the door.
Stairways having 4 or more risers, or rising more than 30 (76cm) height,
whichever is less, must have at least one handrail.

In handrails, top rail should be capable of withstanding, at least 200 pounds of


weight applied within 2 (5cm) of the top edge in any downward or outward
direction, at any point along the top edge.
The height of handrails must not exceed 37 (94 cm) or less than 30 (76cm)
from the upper surface of the handrail to the surface of the tread (Top surface of
stair/step).
The height of the top edge of a stair rail system used as a hand rail must not be
Less than 37 nor less than 36 from the upper surface of the stair rail system to
the surface of the tread (If before 15th March 1991, not less than 30).
Hand rails to grasp and to prevent falls.
Unprotected sides, edges of stairway landing must be provided with standard 42
guardrail system.

Ladders: General requirements including Job-made ladders:

A double-cleated ladder (or) two or more ladders must be provided when ladders
are the only way to enter or exit a work are having 25 or more employees, or
when a ladder serves simultaneous two-way traffic
Rungs, Cleats, steps of portable and fixed ladders must not be spaced less than
10(25cm) apart, not more than 14(36cm) apart, along the ladders side rails.
A metal spreader or locking device must be provided on each step ladder to hold
the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used.
Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except for
identification or warning labels which may be placed on one face of a side wall.

Portable Ladders:

The minimum clear distance between side rails for all portable ladders must be
11.5 (29cm).
Rungs, steps of portable metal ladder must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled,
coated with skid resistant material or treated to minimize slipping.

Fixed Ladders:
Each step or rung of a fixed ladder must be capable of supporting a load of at least
250 pounds (114kg) applied in the middle of the step or rung.
Rungs, steps of fixed material must be corrugated (shaped into alternate ridges
and grooves), knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or treated to
minimize
Slipping.
If the total length of a climb on a fixed ladders equals on exceeds 24 feet (7.3m)
the following requirements must be met.
* Fixed ladders must be equipped with either

a) Ladder safety devices.


b) Self retracting lifeline, and rest platforms at intervals not to exceed 150ft.
(45.7m) or
c) A cage or well and multiple ladder sections, each ladder section not to
exceed 50ft (15.2m) in length.
These ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections and landing platForms must be provided at a max. Intervals of 50ft (15.2m).

The bottom of the cage must be between 7ft (2.1m) and 8ft (2.4m) above the
point of Access to the bottom of the ladder.
The top of the cage must be a minimum of 42 (1.1m) above the top of the
plat form, or point of access at the top of the ladder.

General rules for the usage of all ladders:


When using portable ladders as access to an upper landing surface, the side rails
must extend at least 3 feet (0.9m) above the upper landing surface.
Ladders must be maintained free of oil, grease, other slipping hazards.
Distance between the base and height of the ladder while working must be 1:4
(75o).
Ladder must secure on firm level ground.
Ladders placed in areas as passage-ways, door ways or drive ways (or) where they
can be displaced by workplace activities (or) traffic must be secured to prevent
accidental movement (or) a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activity away
from the ladder.
The open around the top and the bottom of the ladders must be kept clear.
While in use, dont move ladder.
For electrical works, ladders must have non-conductive side rails.
Dont use top step of a stepladder.
Cross-bracing on the rear section of stepladders must not be used for climbing
unless the ladders are designed and provided with steps for climbing on both front
and rear sections.
Keep 3 point contact with the ladder (1 foot + 2 hands (or) 2 foot + 1 hand).
When ascending or descending the worker must face the ladder.
Worker should not carry any object or load to prevent loss of balance.
The length of single ladder should not exceed 30feet (9m).
Two section ladders shall not exceed 48 feet and over two-section ladders shall
not exceed 60 feet in length.
Each section of a multi-section ladder shall overlap the adjacent section by at least
The number of feet as follows.
Length up to 36 feet
: 3 feet overlap.

Length over 36 feet up to 48 feet


Length over 48 feet up to 60 feet

: 4 feet overlap.
: 5 feet overlap.

Section ladder:

Fig.

LADDERS NEBOSH STANDARDS.

A ladder should be primarily regarded as a means of access to a work platform.

It should be used for work that is short term, light duty, low risk where there is no
alternative.

Timber which is a non-conductive ladder should be used for electrical works.


Timber are prone to warp if exposed to atmosphere.

Aluminum ladders should not used, because may be damaged in corrosive


atmosphere.

Classification of Ladders :( U.K used in other parts of the world).


Class 1: Heaviest duty: Suitable for construction work where the ladder is subject

to substantial loads.
Class 2: Lighter Trades such as decorating, where relatively low loads are involved.
Class 3: Light Eg: domestic use.
Qn: What are the main Hazards and Precautions in the usage of ladders?
Ans:
HAZARDS
PRECAUTIONS
Over reaching from ladder.
Ladders rested on firm level base.
Unsecured, unstable ladder.
Use of stabilization devices.
Ladder at wrong angle.
Secure ladder by correct angle 75o
of 1:4 ratio.
Ladder not extended above step off
Tied off at top or footed at base on
point.
level ground.
Using damaged, worn ladder.

Extend suitable distance above step


Metal ladder in contact with over
off point (1.05 m minimum).
head power lines.
Top of ladder against a solid
Materials carried up ladder falling.
surface.
Vehicle collision with base.
Use wooden ladders near overhead
Manual Handling-Carrying &
cables/erect goal posts and signs.
Erecting.
Provide equipment to raise
materials/tools.
Provide hoisters to carry tools.
Only one person at a time on the
ladders.
Rungs clear of grease etc.
Barrie off base and display warning
sings.
Use of ladder by trained users.
Assistance when moving/erecting
ladder.
Inspection and maintenance of
ladders/ladder register.
Qn: What precautions to be taken when using Step-Ladder?
Ans:

Suitable for task.


No work carried out from top step.
Workers maintain 3 point contact.
Step ladder in good condition.
Properly erected and legs fully extended.
Positioned on even ground.

Close to work avoid over reaching.


Not over loaded.
Footed if necessary.

SCAFFOLDING

Scaffolding : A temporary elevated working platform.


Sole board
Or
Sole plate
: A timber plank positioned beneath base plates (2 or more) to
distribute the scaffold load more evenly over the ground.

Base Plate
area.

: A plate used for spreading the load in a standard over a greater

Base Jack

: A base plate with means of vertical adjustment.

Standard
: A vertical or near-vertical tube which bears the weight of the
scaffold and its load.

Ledger
: A scaffold tube which is connected between two adjacent
standards. Ledger acts as a support for the putlogs and transoms.

Brace
: A tube fixed diagonally across the length and/or width of a scaffold
or through a scaffold to increase its stability.

Raker

Transom
: A tube spanning across ledgers to form the support for boards or
units Forming the working platform (or) to connect the outer standards to the
Inner standards.

Bay

: The distance between pairs of standards.

Platform

: One or more platform units in one level within a bay.

Lift

: A storey.

Couplers

: The units to join tubes together.

: An inclined, load bearing tube.

Puncheon
: A vertical support not founded upon the ground but starting off
from within a scaffold.

Putlog
: A tube with one end flattered. The flat end is pushed into a wall
joint, the open end is coupled to a ledger. It may support a working platform.

Through Tie
Assembly
: The components used to secure the scaffold to the inside of the
Structure.

Reveal Tie : The components used to secure the scaffold across reveals (window or door openings) of the structure.

Eye bolt

Bridle
: A horizontal tube between putlogs to span gaps in a wall and
provide support for putlogs or transoms which otherwise could not be fixed.

Foot Tie
Or
Kicker Lift

: These are the ledgers and transoms that are fixed near to the
bottom of standards, approx.150mm from the ground.

Scaffold width : Distance between standards measured at the shortest point also
known as the board width (look at transom length).

* Inspections

Duty

: Means of securing scaffold to the building.

: All inspections should be as laid down in the construction


(Health, Safety, Welfare) Regulations1996.
Access & Working Scaffolds of Tube & Couplers:

Use of
platform

Inspection & Inspection,


Very light
painting,
duty.
stone
cleaning,
light
cleaning &
access.
Light Duty
Plastering,
painting,
stone
cleaning,

Distributed
load on
platforms
KN/m2
0.75

Max.
Number of
platforms.

1.5

2 working
platforms

1 working
platform

Commonly
used width
using 225
mm boards.
3 boards

Max.
Bay Length
(m)

4 boards

2.4

2.7

General
purpose

Heavy
Purpose

Masonry
or
Special
Duty.

glazing,
painting
General
building
work, brick
work,
window
fixing,
rendering,
plastering.
Block work,
Brick work,
Heavy
cladding.
Masonry
work,
concrete
block work,
very heavy
cladding.

2 working
platforms +
1 at very
light duty.

5 boards
Or
4 boards + 1
inside.

2.1

2.5

2 working
platforms +
1 at very
light duty.

1 working
platform +
1 at very
light duty

5 boards
2.0
Or
5 boards + 1
inside or
4 boards + 1
inside.
6 to 8 boards 1.8

*Scaffold Tubes:

Tubes should be manufactured and tested in accordance with BS 1139 part 1


Specification for tubes for use in Scaffolding.
3 main tubes are in common use are

Black Steel Tubes

Galvanized Steel Tubes

Aluminum Alloy Tubes

More resistant to corrosion.


Outer diameter 48.3 mm.
Wall thickness
4 mm.
Weight
4.4 kg/m
More resistant to corrosion.
Outer diameter 48.3 mm.
Wall thickness
4 mm.
Weight
4.4 kg/m
More flexible than steel, not strong.
Use Aluminum tube on the top of
steel tube in tall scaffold structure.
At height temp. tube may be
weaken.
Outer diameter
48.3 mm.
Wall Thickness
4.5 mm.
Weight
1.7 kg/m

*Inspection:
The ability of a scaffold to carry its load is largely depends on the strength and
condition of the tubes.
Tubes must be
* Straight.
* Free from cracks, splits, bad dents, excessive corrosion.
* Cut square and clean at each end.

Common faults.

Fig.
*Storage:

General length of Scaffold Tube : 6.3 m


Shorter (Transoms) Length
: 1.5 m and 1.8 m.
Store according to size for easy identification.
*Scaffold Boards:

Normally boards manufactured from Sawn and seasonal timber.


Boards should comply with BS 2482 Specification for Timber Scaffold Boards.
This identifies the types of wood which may be used in the manufacture of
scaffold boards
And recommends a method of testing to assess their bending strength.
Timber board thickness 38mm, 50mm, 63mm.
Wide
225 mm
Long
3.9 m.
Shorter boards are in size commonly 225mm x 38 mm in cross section.
* Steel Decking & Laminated Boards:

A number of firms market stagings which are made of steel (or) Aluminum (or)
Laminated boards.
Each board should be with clear marking.
* British Standard Number (BS 2482)
* Identification mark of the supplier.
* Letter M or V denoting machine or visually graded.
* Word support followed by the max. span in meters over which the board has

to be supported followed by the abbreviation Max.


Eg: BS 2482 AB CO.M support 1.5 Max.
This is normally given on the hoop irons (or) nail plates which provide board
end protection.
*Inspection & Maintenance:
Common Faults:
* Traffic Damaged

* Broken

* Split.

* Cut & Worn

* Damaged hoop iron

* Wrapped/Twisted.

*Storage:

Should be stacked no more than 20 high with stacks separated by short timber
battens, and placed on level timbers, off the ground, for protection from surface
water.
Boards should be protected from weather and have a free circulation of air.
* Types of Scaffold Couplers:

* Right-angle Couplers (Doubles):


Used to connect ledgers to standards.
Designed & Tested to achieve a right-angled connection with a minimum SWL of
635 kg.
*Putlog Couplers (Clips & Singles):
Used to connect transoms to ledgers.
Suitable for light duty use (referred to as non-load bearing).
Must be capable of passing the slip test as specified by BS Standards.
*Swivel Couplers:
Used to connect tubes at any angle.
Normally used to connect braces to standards.
Swivel couplers should never be used as Right-Angle Couplers.
* Inspection & Maintenance:

Rusty threads (if not defective) should be wire brushed and lightly oiled.
Store by type, kept clean and dry in strong sacks, lightly oiled to prevented rust.
Each sack no more than 30 fittings.

*Scaffold Foundations:

In general foundations for a scaffold must be adequate to carry and spread the
load imposed both locally at each standard, and to collectively carry the whole
weight of the scaffold.

* Base Plates:

Hard Surfaces
Surfaces of
Intermediate
Hardness

: * Steel and Concrete.

: * pavements, hard asphalt, timber & flooring.


*where necessary use base plates or metal packing plates.

*Sole Boards:

Use timber board beneath the base plate to prevent the penetration of
standards in the soil.
Sole board beneath any one standard should be at least 1000 cm2, with no
horizontal dimension less than 22 cm.
If sole board is of timber, thickness should not less than 3.5 cm.
Heavy duty scaffolds and poor ground will require stronger foundations,
On firm ground
- 500 mm long x 225 mm x 35 mm.
On soft ground
- 765 mm long x 225 mm x 35 mm.
Under two standards 1.55m long x 225 mm x 35 mm.

* Soil Compaction:

Soil or ground beneath the sole board should be well compacted and free from
irregularities which make the sole board unstable and poorly bedded.
On slopes exceeding 1:10 a check by qualified Engineer needed.

* Ties:

To ensure the stability of the scaffold it is necessary to tie it to the adjacent


structure. The system of tubes which prevent movement either towards or away
from the Structure is referred as a Tie.
Tie usually pass through the faade of the structure and should e secured to the
scaffold with the load bearing right angle couplers as close to a node point
(junction of standard and ledge) as possible.
Sometimes swivel coupler may be used.
Dont use parapets, railings etc. which is not strong enough.
Scaffold ties should be fixed every 25m2 of the face area and be evenly spaced,
both horizontally and vertically, at least every 6m.

For scaffolds greater than 50m high, the number and position of ties should be
designed by scaffold design engineers.

TYPES OF TIES:
* Through Ties:

Should be placed as close to the window reveal and secured with right-angle
couplers.

* Box Ties:

Should be set preferably at lift level and be secured to both inside and outside
ledgers on standards unless this is likely to obstruct free access through the
scaffold, in which case they may be fixed to a single inside standard load
bearing couplers should be used.

*Lip Ties:

Where not possible to use box ties, lip ties may be used. These consist of L
shaped arrangement for adequate strength to the building.

*Screw or Anchor Ties:

A variety of screwed plates, sockets and nuts are available for setting into
concrete, during pouring, for subsequent use as the anchor for a tie.

Fig.
*Reveal Ties:

Use reveal ties where other ties not possible.


Most common device is a threaded bar and nut (reveal screw pin) which can be
adjusted, expanding.
Should not use on putlog scaffolds.
Reveal ties should not exceed 50% of the total number of ties.

* Rakers:

Where it is not possible to provide normal ties, the stability of a scaffold can be
achieved by the use of rakers.

A single, un jointed raking tube, should not more than 6.3m in length and should
be with 75o (1:4).
Foot of the raking tube must be tied back to the main scaffold.

* Working Platforms:

The construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996, requires


platform, with minimum 600mm width.

3
4
5
6 to 8

boards wide
boards wide
boards wide
boards wide

- painting
- stacking materials
- brick layers
- heavy work.

600 mm
870 mm
1.07 m.
1.3 m to 1.7 m.

* Guard rails & Toe boards:


Every platform where a person could fall from 2m or more must be protected.
Top rail
: Height 42 + 3. Capable of 200 pounds applied on the top from
Both directions.
Mid rail
: Height 21 + 3. Capable of 150 pounds applied in any downward
or outward direction.
Toe board
: Height 3.5
. Capable of 50 pounds.
Max. Gap between floor & toe board : .
Distance between vertical posts should not be more than 2.8 ft.
If no mid rail, the distance should not be more than 19.
ROPES:
Qn: What are the types of ropes?
Ans:
Ropes can be broadly split into natural fibre and man made fibre ropes.
Natural Fibre

Man-Made Fibre
Polyamide (Nylon)
Polyester
Polyethylene
Polypropylene.

Manila
Sisal
Hemp
Cotton
Coir

Ropes larger than 8mm in diameter are generally supplied in 220mm lengths.

Most common size of rope used for lifting materials in scaffolding is 18mm
diameter. This is the correct size for the use with a gin wheel.

Ropes are classified by the number of strands and the manner in which the
strands are twisted and plainted together. The only type in common use is the 3
strand plain (or Hawser laid) rope.
Fig.

Man-made fibre ropes replacing natural fibre ropes, because they are stronger,
less liable to chemical attack, completely resistant to mildew and rot and have
better water resistance.

Polypropylene good for scaffolding but temperature should not exceed 50o C
where there is a loss of 13% in strength.

* Care & use of Fire Ropes:


Storage:
Store in dry cool room that has good air circulation.

Dont store on floor, in boxes, in cup boards where the air circulation restricted.
They should be hung up in loose coils on large diameter wooden pegs well above
the floor.

Protect from wet weather and sunlight. They should be kept away from boilers
Radiators, steam pipes and other sources of heat and all exhaust gases.

Dry and clean wet ropes before storing them. Moisture not only hastens decay but
also causes the rope to kink very easily. Too much heat will cause the fibres to
become brittle and the rope will be unfit for further service.

* Use of Ropes:

Never overload a rope.

Never drag a rope along the ground. The outside will be damaged and grit will
Become embedded and destroy the internal fibres.

Never drag over sharp edges, one part of a rope over another.

Knot or bend will weaken it by approx 50%.

Pack all sharp corners when lifting materials.

Never use fibre rope near welding or flame cutting operations to prevent damage
and fire.

* Inspection:

Inspection for external wear, cuts and abrasions, internal wear between the strands
and deterioration of the fibres.

* Knots, Bends & Hitches:


Most common knots hitches used in scaffolding are

Rolling Hitch: preferred knot for lifting tubes & boards.


Fig.

Figure of Eight Knot: Used to lock a rope in position (or) to prevent it sliding
through a block.
Fig.
Timber Hitch : Suitable for lifting boards.
Fig.
Square Lashing: Used in scaffolding to secure ladders to the scaffold structure.
Lash both stiles.

*Gin Wheel & Rope:

Commonly used to raise materials, which are tied to the end of a 18mm
diameter rope passed over a single wheel pulley.
Gin wheel (pulley) is fixed to a horizontal cantilevered tube.
Two types of Gin Wheel: Ring Type & Hook Type.
Ring Type

Designed to fit over


a scaffold tube.

Hook Type

Fibre rope should


have a minimum
diameter of 18mm
and a stopper knot
(usually a figure of
eight knot).

Gin wheel usually


suspended from a
cantilevered tube.
This should be
properly fixed with
right angle couplers,

Max.load one time


50 kg.

preferably to two
standards, approx.
2m above the
landing place.
If the cantilevered
part of the tube is
unsupported, the
point of suspension
should not extend
more than 750mm.
Must be suspended
on a 6mm wire
lashing with at least
5 turns around the
hook & tube.

*Protective Fans:
Fans are erected to afford protection from anything which may fall from a scaffold or a
building. They comprise an inclined framework of scaffold tubes covered with scaffold
boards.
Fig

Types of Fan:

Class A: A light duty fan with a max. load equivalent to 0.75 KN/m2, suitable for
protection from paint & mortar droppings.

Class B: Medium duty 1 KN/m2, for protection from bricks, aggregates and like
weights from heights not exceeding 10m.

Class C: A fan with a loading over 1 KN/m2, which should be designed to suit the
application.

Class D: A fan for arresting the fall of persons or like weights from a height of 6m
or two storey. This is a safety net system and should be in accordance with BS
3913 and rigged in accordance with CP 93.

*Note: Fans consist of outriggers or needless extended from the scaffold, supported
by wires or spurs (rakers).
Construction requirements: (Fans attached to buildings).

Outriggers should be spaced every 1.5m for fans attached to buildings, and
every bay when attached to scaffolds.

Wires: Most purpose made slinging wire is 8mm. independent wire rope
core (IWRC), which has a breaking strain of 4 ton but a SWL of 0.5 Tonnes.
Wires should be fixed using a round turns and bulldog grips. Dont Use 6mm
diameter wire.
Qn: What are the types of Scaffoldings?
Ans:
Independent Tied Scaffolds.
Put log Scaffolds.
Birdcage Access Scaffolds.
Tower Scaffolds.
System Scaffolds.
* INDEPENDENT TIED SCAFFOLDS:

Consists of two rows of standards parallel to the building. Joined together with
ledgers fixed with right angle couplers. In turns transoms are fixed at right angle
to the ledges with putlog couplers.
Most independent scaffolds are 5 boards wide and 4 boards between the standards
and one board between the inside standard and the building.
Independent scaffolds may not be built higher than 50m without expert advice.
Longitudinal bracing every 30m along scaffold either continuous or dog-leg.
Ties should be every other lift and approx. every 6m along the scaffold. Not more
than half of the ties should be reveal ties.
* Access:
1) Main working platform can often be 30m 40m above the ground.
2) For higher working platforms (above 20m) a ladder tower is the preferred means
of access.
3) The distance between landings must not be more than 9 m.
4) Access holes should not be more than 500mm.
5) Ladders should project at least 1m above each landing with 75o angle.
* Erection of an Independent Scaffold:
1) Position first pair of standards.
2) Fix first ledger.

3) Position standard and transom.


Fig:
4) Repeat at other end.
5) Fix second ledger.
6) Fix foot tie.
7) Attach braces and check structure is plumb and level.
8) Pace brace in RACs fix at top.
9) Attach intermediate standards and transom.
10) Plumb remaining standards and fix intermediate transoms to suit boards.

* PUTLOG SCAFFOLDS:

Also called brick layers scaffold is erected with tubes and fittings to support a
work platform adjacent to a wall or building.
Scaffold consists of a single row of standards parallel to the face of the wall,
supported and tied together by a ledger. The ledger also supports the outer end of
the putlog, the other end of which is inserted into the wall.
Fig.

* Construction:
Standards:
Placed on base plates, founded on sole boards. Space between two standards, should
not exceed 2.1m with a max. distributed load of 2.5 KN/m2. The lift height normally
1.35m.
Ties:
Through ties must be inserted on alternate lifts to the full height of the scaffold, and
every 6m horizontally.

Bracing:

Facade or sway braces must be fixed in normal way. Advisable to fit ledger brace
every third standard.
Bridle Tube:
Where It is necessary to by-pass a window or door opening a bridle tube is connected
to the underside of the putlogs and acts as a support for the ends of putlogs not
supported by the brickwork. It should fix with right-angled couplers.
*Bride tube also serves as the inner fixing point for braces.
* Putlog Scaffold Erection Sequence:
Fig.
1) Erect standard on sole board and base plate and fix first putlog to standard with
right angle coupler.
2) Fix second standard and putlog as before.
Fig.
3) Fix ledger to standards below putlog. The structure is temporarily supported with
rakers.
Fig.
4) Level and fix foot tie ledger approx. 150mm above base plate.
Fig.
5) Fix bridle tube approx 100mm from wall.
Fig.
6) Brace the structure. Ledger braces may be fixed from bridle to foot tie and include
faade brace to provide longitudinal stability.
*BIRDCAGE ACCESS SCAFFOLDS:

Normally used inside building to provide a platform for working on ceilings,


soffits or in the installation of lighting or ventilation or sprinkler systems. For
large projects involving longer periods of time, a bird cage scaffold is required
(for small jobs use tower or hydraulically operated aerial platform where
possible).

* Requirements:
Max. loading

: 0.75KN/m2 (Equivalent to 1 man every square meter).

Standard Spacing : Max. 2.5 m in each direction.


Lift Heights

: 1st Lift max 2.5 m, subsequent lifts max. 2m.

Edge Bays

: Width of edge bays may be 3 or 4 or 5 boards.

Ledgers

: Fix in a horizontal. Fix the first lift at 2.5m and subsequent lifts
at 1.8 m 2 m centres. (BS recommends 2.5 m first lift 2m
subsequent).

Transoms

: Fix with right-angle couplers (on non-working lifts) Transoms to


standards.
Fix transoms to ledgers (working lifts) with right-angle or putlog
couplers.
Generally one transom should be fixed in each bay, not more than
300 mm from a standards.

Bracing

: Stability to the full height of the scaffold at each corner in both


directions.

Ties

: Tying normally achieved by butting walls with alternate ledgers


and transoms. Alternatively box or reveal ties may be necessary.

Working Platform : Working platform close boarded minimum 600mm wide. If 3.9m
Boards used, each board must span at least 4 transoms. Handrails,
Toe boards must be inside the standards.
Access

: Access by using ladders and landings.

* Erection Sequence of Birdcage Access Scaffolding:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Erect standards at each corner and secure with foot ties.


Attach ledges a first list.
Insert intermediate standards and ledgers.
Fix faade braces at each corner.
Fix centre standard.
Attach temporary transoms.
Attach ledges for second lift.
Continue facade bracing in zig - zag or dog leg fashion.
Repeat up to top level guard rail final.
Fig.

* TOWER SCAFFOLDS:

When scaffold towers are formed from steel scaffold tube and fittings they may
either be fitted with castors or wheels for mobility, or constructed as stationary
towers.
Access to the working platform by ladder may be either inside or outside the
structure.
Light duty access towers are used, will not support a load greater than 1.5 KN/m2
SWL should display on working platform.
Fig.
Heavy duty towers with special design.
Stationary towers more stable than mobile towers. These are generally built to
greater heights than mobile towers.
Foundations : * Scaffold towers must be vertical, even if erected on sloping
Ground.
* Mobile Towers should move only in firm level surfaces.
* Check for additional loads which may be imposed when guys or
ballast weights are used.
Standards
Ledgers &
Transoms

: * Vertical, stable joints should be made with sleeve couplers.


: * Lowest ledgers, transoms fixed as near to caster as possible.
* Spacing of transoms 1.2 m 1.5m or less.

Bracing

: * Base lift to top level.

Ladders

: * Ladder should lash at top & bottom on each stile.


* Foot of the ladder is about 150 mm clear of the castor so that
the tower can be moved easily.

Stability

: * Height : Width (base)should not


exceed 3.5 : 1 (mobile within buildings).
3 : 1 (mobile adjacent to buildings).

Castors

* Minimum base 1.2 m.


: * Castors should fit.
* Brakes in good condition & greased regularly and rotate freely

of casters.
* Wheel treads in good condition.
Loading

: * Should not greater than 1.5KN/m2.

Ties
&
Guying

: Guys with correct tension, anchor points.

*Erection Sequence of Mobile Towers:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Fig.
Erect standards at each corner and secure to foot tie.
Measure off first lift and fix ledgers, transoms level and secure with right-angled
couplers.
Add braces on all 4 sides and fix plane place. For mobile towers fit castors, secure
and brake.
Fix intermediate transoms and deck out temporary working platform.
Measure off second lift and fit ledgers & transoms.
Add braces & intermediate transoms.
Board out working platform and add guard-rails & toe boards.

* SYTEM SCAFFOLDS:

System scaffold easy to assemble.


Many systems available, ranging from light Aluminum alloy access towers to
heavy steel support structures. Majority of systems made from standard diameter
tubes, so that they can be used with standard scaffold fittings.
There is no national or common specification for System Scaffolds. Care should
be taken not to mix different systems.

Components:
Standards come in a variety of lengths and have performed connectors welded at
equal distances along their length.
Ledgers are in varying lengths with connectors welded to each end. The
connection is made when the wedge, cup or bolt is hammered or screwed tight.
Transoms are generally made to receive either 4 or 5 boards. The ends of the
transoms are connected to the standards in the same way as the ledgers.
Braces to fit the different bay sizes.
Boards also called stagings or battens, in variety length, width, thickness
available.

Adjustable base plates essential except on completely level surfaces. Care should
be taken to establish whether the adjustable base plate is designed for heavy or
light duty. Use and SWL where necessary.

Fig.
* Erection of System Scaffold:
1) Level ground. If necessary use adjustable base plate.
2) Position base plate/adjustable base plates/jacks in roughly the correct place.
3) Lay out transoms and ledgers for the first bay so they are ready to fix after the
standards are in place.
4) Place a pair of standards on two adjustable base plates and loosely fix bottom
transoms.
5) Fix transom at head height or above to form a frame.
6) Fix ledger and third standard.
7) Complete bay and adjust jacks to ensure that bottom legers and transoms are
level.
8) Tighten up wedges/fixing attachments.
9) Deck out as necessary before erecting subsequent bays and lifts as required.
10) Complete to working lift, deck out and fix guard rail, toe boards, braces, ties as
required.
11) Where returns are necessary, careful planning required to ensure the scaffold fits.
This should be done at first lift stage.
* Definitions:

Anchorage : Component cast or fixed into the building for the purpose of
attaching a Tie.

Anchor-guy : A pin or tube driven into the ground at approx. 45o to the
horizontal to provide an anchorage for a rope.

Board-Clip

Box Tie
: An assembly of tubes and couplers forming a tie for the scaffold
by enclosing a feature such as a column.

Brace- faade
Or
Face
: A brace parallel to the face of a building.

Brace

: A clip for fixing a board to a scaffold tube.

Longitudinal : A brace in the plane of the longer dimension of the scaffold,


particularly in birdcage.
Brace
Transverse
: A brace in the plane of the shorter dimension of the scaffold.

: A horizontal tube fixed across an opening or parallel to the face


of a building to support the inner end of a putlog transom or tie
tube.
Butt Tube
: A short length of tube.
Butting Tube : A tube which butts up against the facade of a building or
other surface to prevent the scaffold moving towards that surface.
Castor
: A swiveling wheel secured to the base of a vertical member for
the purpose of mobilizing the scaffold.
Decking
: The boards (or) units forming the working platform.
Faade Brace : A brace parallel to the face of a building.
Gin wheel
: A single pulley for fibre ropes attached to a scaffold for raising
or lowering materials.
Joint Pin
: An expending fitting placed in the bore of a tube to connect one
tube to another coaxially.(see spigot).
Ledger
Or
Cross Brace : A brace at right angles to the building.
Normal Facade: A facade which permits the fixing of through ties and non
movable ties.
Puncheon
: A vertical tube supported at its lower end by another scaffold tube
or beam and not by the ground or on a deck.
Putlog
: A tube with a blade or flattered end, to rest in or on part of the
brick work or structure.
Putlog
Coupler
: A coupler used for fixing a putlog or transom to a ledger, or to
connect a tube used only as a guard-rail to standard.
Raker
: An inclined load-bearing tube.

Reveal Tie

Brindle

: The assembly of a reveal tube with wedges or screwed fittings and


Pads, if required, fixed between opposing faces of an opening in
A wall together with the tie tube.
Reveal Tube : A tube fixed by means of a threaded filling or by wedging between
Two opposing surfaces of a structure.
Eg: between two window reveals, to form an anchor to which the
Scaffolding may be tied.
Scaffold
Putlog
: A scaffold which has one line of standards to support the outside

Edge of the deck and utilizes the wall being built or the building to
Support the inside edge.

Scaffold
Suspended

Spigot
Tie Tube
Tie Box

Transom

Transoms
Butting

Transom
Needle
Width

: A scaffold hanging on ropes which is capable of being raised and


Lowered.
: An internal fitting to join one tube to another coaxially (Joint Pin).
: A tube used to connect a scaffold to an anchorage.
: An assembly of tubes and couplers forming a tie for the scaffold by
Enclosing a feature such as a column.
: A tube to connect the outer standards to the inner standards or
Spanning across ledgers to form the support for boards or units
Forming the working platform.
: A transom extended inwards to butt the building to prevent the
Scaffolding moving towards the building.
: A transom extended from or into a building.
: The width of a scaffold measures at right angles to the ledgers from
Centre to centre of the upright. Sometimes designated by the number
Of boards, within the uprights and the number beyond the uprights
On extended transoms.

Working
Platform : The deck from which building operations are carried out.
* For independent Scaffolds:
440 mm platform width
Clearway
- where materials need to be deposited.
600 mm passage
- wherever the passage of materials is
necessary.
300mm
- If men are required to sit on the edge of
the platform to do their work.

Qn: How can you prevent of falling materials?


Ans:
Toe boards to prevent items being kicked off.
Mesh guards to prevent items falling through guardrails.
Catch nets /debris chutes to prevent items falling to ground.
Safe means of raising / lowering material.
Qn: When Scaffolding will be inspected?
Ans:
After erection.
After adverse weather conditions.
After being struck by a vehicle.

After substantial alteration.


Once every 7 days.

Qn: What are the reasons of collapsing Scaffolds?


Ans:
Wrong materials.
Unstable foundations.
Improperly designed.
Improper erection
Overloading.
Modified incorrectly.
Undetermined by excavations.
Hit by machinery.
Excessive winds/rain.
Qn: How will you examine Scaffoldings?
Ans:
Base - firm ground and sole plates.
Line of standards and ledgers.
Conditions of tubes and fittings.
Correct couplers.
Joints staggered.
Spacing of transoms to support boards.
Boards good condition and correct overhang.
Guardrails and toe boards.
Bracing.
Means of access.
Ties number & position.
Signs of damage by falling loads, etc.
Not overload.
Security of stacked materials.
Putlog Scaffoldings:
Above all.
Spacing of putlogs.
Putlogs properly inserted in wall.
* TOWER SCAFFOLDINGS:

Dimensions of a structure will vary according to need, but the corner standards
should never be less than 1.2m apart.

Wheels, or castors, not less than 125mm in diameter and fitted with brakes which
cannot accidentally be released, should be locked into the base of the standard.
SWL should
Indicate.
Base clear should be 150 mm.
Lifts should not exceed 2.7m.
Diagonal bracing at about 40o in zig zag position to the full height of the structure
on all 4 sides.

*Height limitations:
Height to base ration should not greater than

Stationary internal tower 4 : 1


Stationary external tower 3.5 : 1
Mobile internal tower
3.5 : 1
Mobile external tower
3 : 1.

Recommended Max. Height for Mobile Scaffold =9.6m. Except that this
may be increased that this may be increased to 12m if it tied to a structure
when in use.

*Working platform should be fully and closely boarded to an area of at least 1.2 x 1.2m
With boards at least 38mm thick.
Transoms should be spaced at not more than 1.5m intervals.
On smaller towers, where boards less than 1.5 m in length are used, additional
transoms required to provide at least 3 supports. Heavier duty towers may be
specially designed.
Toe boards must raise at least 150mm above platform level. Guard-rails must be
between 910mm to 1.15m above the platform with the distance between the top of
the toe board and the guard rail not exceeding 765mm.

*MEWPS (Mobile Elevating work platforms):

Can provide excellent safe access to high level work.


When using a MEWP make sure
*The operator fully trained & competent.
*Working platform fitted with a guard rails, toe boards.
*Suitable firm & level ground.
*Not overloaded.

*Clear of overhead obstructions.


*Work area is cordoned off to prevent below the work platform and collisions.
*Outriggers are extended.
Suspended Access Equipments:
* Covers such things as suspended cradles.
Eg: Window cleaning cradles, boat wains chairs etc.
* Main precautions:
* Regular inspections.
* SWL.
*Competent staff.
*Safely working equipment.
* Platform edge protection.
*Guardrails, toe boards, fitted.
*Adverse weather rules.
*Protected electricity supplies.
*Communication.
*Emergency procedures.

ELECTRICITY
Flow of electrons from positive to negative terminals in a circuit is called
Electricity.
In an electrical circuit there must be Potential Difference or Pressure Difference to
cause electric current to flow. The unit of measurement of electrical pressure is
the Volt.
Eg:

* Standard P.D. between two main terminals in a normal domestic supply is


240V.
* In an electrical circuit the electric current flow can be increased by using
thicker Conductor.
* Unit of measurement of electric current flow is the Ampere.
DEFINITIONS
Resistance

: Obstructions in the flow of current. Unit Ohm.

DC

: The expression DC (Direct Current) refers to electrical systems where


Current flows in one direction only between positive and negative
terminals.
Eg: Battery.

AC

: The electrical current is constantly reversing its direction of flow at a


Given frequency.
Eg: Electricity supply mains.
The frequency is measured in cycles per second and is expressed in HZ.

Conductors : Materials which allow electric current to flow easily through them.
Eg: Copper, Steel, Water (Low resistance).
Insulators

: Materials which do not allow electric current to flow easily through them.
Eg: Plastic, Rubber, Wood (High resistance).

Ohms Law : I = V/R ( I= current, V= Volts, R=Resistance).


Watts
Kinds of
Electricity
Simple
Circuit

: W=VI ( W=Watts, V=Volts, I=Ampere).


: Static Electricity (Stationary):
Dynamic Electricity (moving): Flow of electrons through a conductor.
:

Fig.

Qn: What are the main hazards of Electrictiy?


Ans:
1) Electric Shock:
* Electric shock can occur when current flows through the body in two ways.
a) Direct Contact: Eg: Working near power lines.
b) Indirect Contact Eg: The insulation on a drill is damaged and the drill is placed on a

work bench which becomes a live conduction.


* Factors influencing severity of electrical shock
* Current in amperes (above 25 mA could be lethal).
* Length of contact time (Speed of action of fuse or circuit breaker).
* Current path through the body (most common paths are hand to foot & hand to hand)
*Conductivity/resistance of the body (sweating will increase conductivity of the skin).
*The voltage (Voltages below 50V and preferably below 25V are preferred).
*Conductivity of the environment (wet area more severe than dry area).
*Age and health status of the victim.
* Action on finding someone in contact with electrician.
* Insulate the supply if possible. (Switch off).
* If current cannot be switched off stand on some dry insulating material.
* If breathing has stopped give mouth to mouth resuscitation.
*Ensure professional help has been called for.
2) Arcing:
* Electricity of sufficient pressure (voltage) can jump an air gap, causing shock effects to
Persons not actually in contact with a conductor.
Eg:
Opening or closing circuits.
When static electricity is discharged.
Arcing takes place in the atmosphere that contains an explosive mixture.
3) Fire:
* Electricity is one of the most common cause of fire both in home and workplace.
*Electric flow through a conductor generates heat. This heat raises the temperature of
The conductor. As a result, resistance in the conductors increases, further raising the
Temperature. Thus, circuits conducting a high rate of current and generating more
Resistance than it can handle, may create enough heat to cause Fire.

Main Causes of Fire:


* Inadequate circuits for the current
Eg: 5 amp wiring carrying 13 amp.
* Overload Circuits.
Eg: Use of multiple socket adaptors.
* Incorrect fuses or nails wire to replace fuse.

* Damaged wiring & insulation.


* Loose Connections.
* Overheating of cables on coils.
* Overheating due to lack of ventilation/thermal insulation.
* Flammable materials close to electrical equipment.
4) Explosions:
* Explosions occur when electricity provides a source of ignition for an explosive
Mixture in the atmosphere. Ignition can be due to overheated conductors or equipMent, or normal arcing (sparking) at switch contacts.
5) Burns:
*These can be a product of arcing where the intense heat of the arc causes burns to the
Skin or they can result from an excessive flow of electricity through the tissues of the
Body causing tissue damage.
The effects may be:
Damage to the nervous system.
Fibrillation (irregular heartbeat).
Tissue burns at entry and exit.
Damage to internal organs.
Muscular contractions.
Physical trauma.
Stopping breathing / the heart (cardiac arrest).
Qn: What are the secondary effects of Electricity?
Ans:

Thrown backwards.
Falls from height.
Unintentional movement of machine.

Qn: What are causes of Electrical Accidents?


Ans:

Unsafe equipment and /or installation.


Unsafe workplaces caused by environmental factors.
Unsafe work practices.

Qn: How can you prevent Electrical Accidents?

Ans:
*Insulation
: Glass, mica rubber, plastic put on electrical conductors.
*Electrical
Protective
Devices
: Fuse, Circuit breakers, GFCI.
*Guarding
: Electrical equipment operating at 50V or more must be guarded.
*Grounding :
*PPE
: Insulating blankets, gloves, face protection.
*Good work
Practices
: LOTO, Wiring design & protection.
Qn: Describe the following:
Ans:
FUSE: (over current protection).
*A weak link designed to melt, breaking the circuit at excessive currents.
Advantages
*Cheap.
*Easy to replace.
*Protect the equipment from overload.

Disadvantages
*Dont protect the person.
*Slow to operate.
*Inaccurate.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS: (Over current protection):


*Electro magnetic devices which perform the same functions as fuses.
Advantages
* Auto Trip.
* Protects equipment from overload.

Disadvantages
* May be mistaken for RCDs.
* Do not protect the individuals.

EARTHING: (Earth leakage protectors).


* Electricity will always try reaching earth. Earthing means providing a path to earth
lower than the human body.
Advantages
* Prevent indirect electric shock.
* Readily identified.

Disadvantages
* Requires specialist for installation,
testing.
* No protection if removed.

ISOLATION:
*Shutting off the electrical supply to an item of equipment
Eg: Maintenance work.
Advantages
Disadvantages
* Safest option.
* May isolate other equipment.
* Physically locked off.
* May be reconnected unless locked off.
* Prevents live fault finding.
REDUCED LOW VOLTAGE:
* Consequences of electrical shock can be greatly reduced.
* Reducing the main voltage by means of a transformer to a lower safe voltage typically
110V or 55V and is used on construction sites etc.
Advantages
Disadvantages
* At 55V injury unlikely.
* Specialist equipment
* Color coded cables for easy
Eg: Transformer required.
identification.
* Lead from supply to transformer needs
protection with RCCD.
RCCD (Residual Current Circuit Breakers):
*Compares the current flowing into the system with the current flowing out. When the
level differs by a present value the RCD will open rapidly and interrupt the supply.
Advantages
Disadvantages
* Rapid Response.
* May isolate other important equipment.
*Easy to use, test, reset.
* Mechanical device which could fail.
*Cannot be reset with a fault on the circuit. *No overload protection,
DOUBLE INSULATION:
*Covering live parts by two separated layers of insulation. Eg: PVC as cable insulation.
Advantages
Disadvantages
*Two layers prevent contact with live parts. * Damage to equipment casing defects
* No earth required.
double insulation.
*No earth. So no protection if used with
equipment that requires earth.
Qn: What will you check Portable Electrical Equipments?
Ans: Main areas to consider when looking for the dangers in the use of portable electrical
Equipment are
1) The plug 2) The cable/lead 3) The joints & connections. 4) The appliance.
The plug

: * No fuse or fuse replaced by nail, etc.


* Damage to plug casing.

* Incorrect wiring inside plug.


* Earth wire detached from connection.
The cable

: *Being run over by vehicles.


* Dragged over rough surfaces.
* Trapped in machinery.
* Exposed to hot surfaces/corrosive chemicals.
* Continuous flexing.
* Insulation failure.

The joints
&
Connections : * Makeshift, temporary connections.
*Leads pulled out of cord grips.
*Connected wires incorrectly so that metal work becomes live.
*Wrong Connections.
*Poor earth connections preventing fuse from working.
The Appliance : * Damaged casing.
* Worn or damaged connections.
Qn: What are the precautions to be taken when using portable electrical equipments?
Ans:

Reduced Voltage operation.


Use of RCCD.
Apparatus and cables should be protected against overload by fuses and/or circuit
breakers.
Cables should be insulated.
Correct types of sheeting to suit working conditions.
Sufficient socket outlets to minimize the need for trailing cables.
Use of cable drums wherever possible.
Correct maintenance & repair.
Correct connections.
Reduced voltage operation.
Regular inspections.
Properly trained operations.
Qn: What is inspection & maintenance procedure for electrical equipments?
Ans:
Suggested that fixed wiring installations should test every 5 years. (Low risk
environment offices) every 3 years (High risk factory).
Types of inspections:
User Checks

before use, plug, cable, sings of damager, over heating.

Formal visual
Inspections

Weekly by an appointed person, fuse ratings, connections


To plug & appliance.

Combined
Inspection &Test - PAT (portable Appliance Testing). See below table,
Type of
Premises

Type of
Equipment

Construction
Sites
Industrial
including
commercial
kitchens.

110 V
230 V
Stationary
IT
Movable
Portable
Hand Held.
Equipment used IT
by Public
Movable
Portable
Schools
IT
Portable.
Hand Held
Hotels
IT
Portable.
Offices &
IT
Shops
Portable.
Hand Held

User Checks

Formal visual
inspection

Weekly
Daily
Weekly
Weekly
Before Use
Before Use.
Before Use.
Variable ie
children rides.
Daily.
Weekly.
Weekly.
Before Use.
Weekly.
Before Use.

Monthly
Weekly
1 Month
1 Month
1 Month.
Monthly.
Weekly.
Weekly.
4 Months.
4 Months.
24 Months.
12 Months.
24 Months.
12 Months.
6 Months.

Combined
inspection &
Testing.
3 monthly
Monthly.
12 Months.
12 Months.
12 Months.
6 Months.
6 Months.
12 Months.
6 Months.
6 Months.
12 Months.
12 Months.
12 Months.
48 Months.
24 Months.
48 Months.
24 Months.
12 Months.

* Note: The above only suggested inspection.

Qn: When will get shocks?


Ans:

Both wires of an electric circuit.


One wire of an energized circuit and ground.
Part of a machine which is Hot because it is contacting an energized wire and the
ground.

1 mA just feel shock.


5 - 10 mA cant let go.
20 - 50 mA - possible fatal.
60 - 800 mA - probably fatal.

7.5 Watt Christmas tree light.


12 Watt Electric Shaver.
100 Watt - Bulb
1000 Watt Hair dryer.

Qn: Write about GFCI ?


Ans: GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) a device which projects against serious
shock.
GFCI not an over current device.
It senses an imbalance in current flow over the normal path and opens the circuit.
GFCI usually installed on circuits that are operated near water.
Fig.

Qn: Write about Guarding?


Ans: Guarding must be for equipment operating at 50V or more to avoid accidental
contact.
Can be located in a room, enclosure, or partitions behind, balcony, platform,
gallery area, 8feet above the floor of the work area.
Fig.

Qn: Write about Grounding?


Ans: Grounding necessary to protect from electrical shock, safeguard against fire, protect
against damage to electrical equipment.

Two kinds of grounding electrical circuit or system grounding accomplished when


one conductor of the circuit is internationally connected to earth, protects the
circuit should lighting strike or other high voltage contact occur.
Electrical equipment grounding occurs when the equipment grounding conductor
provides a path of dangerous fault current to return to the system ground at the
supply source of the circuit should the insulation fail.
When a tool or other piece of electrical equipment is grounded, a low resistance
path is intentionally created to the earth. This path has enough current-carrying
capacity to prevent any buildup voltages in the equipment which could pose a
hazard to an employee using the equipment.
No guarantee that an employee will never receive a shock. But this is simple
procedure to reduce the likelihood of accidents.

Qn: What are Safe working practices?


Ans:

Dont wear metal objects (rings, watches, etc). May cause arcing.
Safe distance (over head power lines)
10 feet - for 50KV or less
Add 4 - for every 10KV over 50KV.
Safe distance (Electrical Equipment).

Working space 30 width - 600 V or less (Equipment doors and hinged


panels must have at least a 90o opening provided in the work place).
Fig.
Working space 36 width - up to 600V (between the equipment and the
wall).
Fig.
COMPLETE WITH FIG.

FIRE
Fire: The result of a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with Oxygen,
destroying its form by the heat generated in the reaction.
Qn: What are the factors to support combustion?

Ans: Fuel, Oxygen, Heat.


Fig.
*Oxygen in Air 21% but min 16% needs to burn for a fire.
*LEL & UEL of Fuel, not to burn.
Qn: Define Extinguish?
Ans:
If one or more elements of the fire is removed, the fire will be extinguished.
Cooling
- removal of heat.
Starving
- removal of fuel.
Smothering
- removal of Oxygen.
Fuel: Solid / Liquid / Gas. Eg: wood / petrol / butane.
Qn: What are the sources of ignition?
Ans:
Naked flames.
Electricity (overheating/Arcing).
Smoking materials.
Hot work (welding, burning).
Chemical reactions (giving off heat).
Friction (Inadequate lubrication).
Static Electricity.
Lighting.
Improper storage of flammable materials.
Lack of inspection & supervision.
Collapse of the building.
Being crushed in attempt to escape.
Qn: How many ways which persons can be harmed in Fire?
Ans:

Being burnt.
Inhaling Toxic Fumes.
Effects of smoke.
Depletion of Oxygen supply.
Collapse of the building.
Being crushed in attempt to escape.
Flash Point : The temperature at which a vapor given off by substance will ignite
when brought to a source of ignition.
Fire Point : When the fire point is reached sufficient gas or vapor is being given
off to sustain a flame when in contact with a source of ignition.

Auto Ignition
Temperature: This is the temperature at which gases or vapour will ignite without
any external source of ignition.

Flammable : Liquids with a flash point between 32oC are classified as highly
flammable.

Highly
Flammable: Liquids with a flash point below 32oC are classified as highly
flammable,

Qn: What are the principle/main causes of the spread of Fire?


Ans:
Conduction : Movement of heat through a material usually solid.
Convection : Movement of hotter gases up through the air. This is the main cause of
Spread of fire. The heated air pass through gaps and cause to start fire
Elsewhere.
Radiation : Transfer of heat through the air.
Direct burn : Combustible materials in contact with naked flame.
Qn: What are the causes of Fire?
Ans:

Deliberate (Arson).
Electrical Faults.
Misuse of electrical equipment.
Smokers material.
Loss of control over the firing of rubbish.
Oil/gas heating equipment and portable heaters.
Unsafe storage of materials.
Welding/hot works.
Mechanical heat (sparks/friction).

Qn: How cay you classify Fire?


Ans:
TYPE

EXTINGUISHER

Combustible Solids Eg: Coal, paper, etc.


Flammable Liquids Eg: Alcohol, Petrol
Flammable Gases Eg: Butane, Hydrogen
Metals Eg: Mg, Al.
Cooking Media Eg: Veg. oil or animal fats.

Water&CO2, foam, dry powder.


Smothering by foam, CO2, Water.
Smothering by dry powder, foam.
Smothering by Soda Ash, Talc, Limestone,
Dry Sand.
Foam

Qn: What precautions to be taken to minimize the risk of Electrical Fire?


Ans:

Pre-Inspection by users.
Frequent inspection & maintenance by competent person.
Avoid misuse of equipment.
Prevent overloading.
Isolate if not in use.
Improved means of protection. Eg: RCD (Reduced Current Device).
Housekeeping.
Staff Awareness Training.

Qn: What are the steps of Fire Risk Assessment?


Ans:
Step1 : Identify the Hazard:
*Hazards of fuel, oxygen, heat.
Step2 : Identify who could be harmed & how.
*Vulnerable people such as pregnant women, children, young, disabled.
Step3 : Evaluate the risks & the adequacy of the control measures.
*Fire prevention : (To prevent a fire starting).
*Eliminate/Reduce the storage of flammable material.
*Good House Keeping to prevent accumulation of rubbish.
*No overloading.
*Regular inspection of electrical system.
*Storage of flammable materials 50liters in work room.

*Fire protection : (To prevent fire spreading).


* Compartmentation by fire resistant walls. Each section should be
Protected from fire which have fire resistance of 30mts and close

automatically in the event of fire. This holds back the fire and
smoke to safe leave of occupants.
* Fire Resistant Materials: Use bricks, concrete, steel etc. for building
Constructions.
* Fire Precautions:(To reduce the risk to the occupants, contents, building in
The event of fire).
1) Fire/Smoke Detection:
Smoke Detectors
: First sign of a fire is smoke. Use alarms.
Heat/Flame Detectors : May be used as a means of triggering
Sprinkler systems etc.
2) Fire Alarms:
* Should be audible in all areas/premises.
* In noisy area use flashing light.
* Gongs, bells, break glass points, automatic detection systems are
Useful.
* Alarm test weekly. Maintain regularly & keep records.
3) Means of Escape:
* 2 routes in opp. Directions.
* Clear marked direction arrows.
* Emergency Lighting.
* Fixed stairs to upper floors.
* Travel distance between any point in a building and the nearest
Final exit or protected area should not exceed
18m if only one exit.
35m if more than one exit.
* Min. width of a fire exit 750mm. 800mm for wheel chair users.
* Should not <1m wide of corridors or escape routes in offices.
* Stairways should be min.800mm width.
* Exit route free from obstructions.
* Final exit door opening outwards.
* Exit to assembly point.
* Escape means of door should not lick. If lock, key should be in
Key box, close to the exit.

4) Means of Fighting Fire: Extinguishing

* Fuel
Shutoff the supply.
* Oxygen - blanket, foam, dry powder, sand etc.
* Heat
- water.
*Two main types of fire fighting systems
1) Fixed installations 2) Portable extinguishers.
* Fixed Installations:
a) Hose reels : *Usually a coil of 25mm internal diameter flexible
hose attached to a metal former permanently
connected to the mains water supply.
*Whenever possible use 6m from the nozzle to the
Building when it is fully extended.
b) Automatic
Sprinkler
System : * Designed to extinguish early stages.
* In the event of fire, as heat from the fire reaches,
Sprinkler automatically open, and release water.
c) Total
Flooding
System
: * Mostly used in electrical control rooms,
Computer room to prevent damage to the equipment.
* Automatic flood of CO2 in the event of fire.
* Portable Extinguishers:
a) Water

- Used on class A fire. Dont Use for electric fire or


flammable liquid fires to prevent shock & to
prevent formation of explosive cloud.

b) Foam

- Contain Water & Chemical which produce foam.


Foam provides a blanket effect which smoother
The fire. Useful for Class B fires. Ie. Flammable
Liquids, cooking oil fires.

c) Dry
Powder - * Has smothering effect, chemically interacts and

Excludes oxygen.
* Designed for A, B, C powders provide extinction
Faster than form, but risk of re-ignition,
* If used indoors, problem to the operator due to
Inhalation of the powder & obstruction of vision.
d) CO2

- * Smoothers with inert gas blanket and excludes O2.


* This type is in effect a high pressure gas cylinder
Containing liquefied CO2 and fitted with nozzle.
* Safe to use on electrical fires and on burning
Liquids.
* Use with care-asphyxiation can occur in confined
Space. Discharge tube should be in the hand
During operation, as icing occurs which can be
Very harmful to the skin.
* Display check, weekly inspection (Fire Wardens)
Of safety clips, indicating device, corrosion,
External damage.
* Annual serviced by a competent person & the date
Recorded on the extinguisher. 5 yearly including
Full discharge 20 year complete overhaul or
Replacement.

e) Sand - * Smoothers small solid fuel or flammable liquid


fires and excludes Oxygen.
* Must be kept dry.
* Special extinguishing agents used may be
Graphite, Talc or Salt for metal fires.
Qn: What should include for employees in Fire Fighting Training Programmed?
Ans:

Means of raising alarm.


Contact emergency services.
Fire evacuation routes.
Roles of all including Fire Marshals.
Assembly points.
When not to tackle fire.
Types of fire extinguishers to be used.
Evacuation Procedure.

Qn: Why Regular Fire Drills needed?


Ans:

To satisfy legal requirements.


To check alarm sound be heard in all parts of the premises.
To test effectiveness of evacuation procedure.
To familiarize employees with alarms, evacuation procedures, escape routes,
assembly points.
Provide an opportunity for fire wardens & others with specific functions to
practice their designated roles.

Qn: What are the general rules for using portable Fire Extinguishers?
Ans:

Fight the fires in upwind direction.


Start fighting the fire from safe distance 2 to 5 m away from the flame.
Direct the stream to the base of the fire.
Sweep the stream from side to side.
Dont leave the fire area unless completely out.

Qn: How can you distribute Extinguishers?


Ans:

Should place in locations which have easy access.


Mounted on walls,
not more than 5 ft above the floor with no more than 40 lb(18kg) weight.,
not more than 3.5 ft above the floor, with more than 40lb(18kg) weight.
In no case clearance between the floor & extinguisher should not be less than 4.

LIFTING & RIGGING

Lifting
: Moving people or things from place to place.
Rigging : The system of ropes supporting.
Lifting
Equipment : Cranes, winches (lifting device consisting of a cable winding round a
horizontal rotating drum), pulley blocks, etc.

* Cranes:

After manufacture, before use a crane must be proof tested (overload) by a % of


its SWL. This may be between 10% & 25% depends type of crane, as specified by
BS 7121.This means crane designed to operate with SWL of 100 Tons may be
proof tested to 125 Tons and certificate by the manufacture starting SWL of 100
Tons.

Qn: Write about types of Cranes?


Ans: The 4 types of cranes are
1) Overhead Traveling Crane (Gantry).
2) Gantry Cranes.
3) Tower Cranes.
4) Mobile Cranes.
1) Overhead Traveling Cranes:
These cranes run along a fixed track above the workplace and also load can be
transferred from side to side on rails which run along the crane beams.
Main hazards.
Derailment due to overloading or obstruction on the tracks.
Absence of adequate stops at the end of rails.
Prevent a crane approaching within 6m of any persons working on or near the
track to prevent accidents.
Measures to be taken complete isolation, locking off electrical supply, PTW
system.
Clear hand signals for directing overhead cranes by Rigger.
2) Gantry Cranes:

Run on rails at ground level and are found in docks and container terminals.

3) Tower Cranes:

Accidents are caused by incorrect assembly of the crane, insufficient access


to the job, mast or drivers job.
Safe access to the crane required for maintenance inspection, repair, erection,
dismantling.

4) Mobile Cranes:

Generally incorporate telescope booms and rotate through 360o on the Chasis.
Main hazard
Overturning (extend outriggers fully to prevent overturning).
As the boom moves out from the centre of gravity of the crane so the load that can
be lifted is reduced. Indicators within the cab warning of the load in relation to the
angle of the boom are required.

Qn: What are the Hazards and Precautions in Lifting Operations?


Ans:
HAZRDS

Over turning
(Weak support, operating outside
the capability and by striking
obstructions).
Over loading
(Exceeds operating radii, operating
capacity failure of safety devices).
Collision with other cranes,
overhead cables or structure.
Failure of support.
(Placing over cellars and drains, out
riggers not fully extended not solid
ground).
Loss of load from failure of lifting
tackle or slinging procedure.
Failure of load bearing part.
High winds, affect the stability of
outdoor lifting operations.

PRECAUTIONS

Suitability of crane
(Lift capacity, reach, etc.)
Stable ground conditions.
Use of outriggers.
Avoidance of obstructions.
Use of outriggers.
Avoidance of obstructions.
Overhead power lines.
Designated & protected area.
Suitable & tested lifting tackle.
Correct slinging techniques.
Competence of personnel.
Load near ground if traveling.
Good visibility.
Communication between the
operator & rigger.
Monitoring of wind speeds.

Qn: What Safety measures to be taken when using cranes for safe operation of cranes?
Ans:
Pre-check by operator.
Lifting equipment must be adequate strength and stability for the load, stress
induced at mounting or fixing points, strength of the lifting gears must taken into
consideration.
SWL must be marked clearly on lifting equipment, accessories. SWL depends on
the configuration of the machinery.
Load indicators
Rated capacity indicator (known as Automatic Safe Load indicators).
Rated capacity limiter which provides audible and/or visual warning.
Load limiting device to stop operation if SWL is being exceeded.
Controls
Should be clearly identified and of the Dead-Man Type.
Over travel
Switches Limit switches to prevent the hook or sheave block being wound
up to the cable drum.

Access

Safe access should be provided for the operator and for use during
inspection and maintenance/emergency.

Operating
position
Should not be carried out without authorization and never on
lifting tackle.
Lifting
attachment Chains, slings, wire ropes, eye bolts, shackles should be tested /
examined.
Qn: What factors to be considered for Employee Safety during Lifting?
Ans:

Not exceeding SWL.


Trained Personnel.
Good Communication between all operatives.
Equipment inspections, maintenance.
Barricades.
Correct lifting procedures.
Adequate Supervision.

Qn: What are lifting accessories (tackles)?


Ans: Lifting beams, chains, wire ropes, textile slings, hooks, rings, shackles, eye bolts,
etc.

Qn: What are the Hazards & Precautions for Lifting Accessories?
Ans:
HAZARDS
Overloading
(Wrong attachment, under estimation of
the load to be lifted).
Using makeshift attachments
(To be tested after manufacture or
repair).
Incorrect slinging arrangements
(Not attaching too wide an angle on
chain sling).
Damaged attachments.
(Chains can be deformed, cracked or
stretched wire ropes can have broken
wires or kinks and textile slings can be
cut or abraded).
Un inspected attachments:
(Lifting accessories to be inspected by a
competent person every 6 months).
Damage to accessories during use.
(Not using packing at sharp corners
leading to the accessory being
damaged).

Failure to examine accessory before


use.

Lack of training.

Qn: What are Crane Safety Measures?


Ans:

PRECAUTIONS
All accessories certified tested.

SWL clearly marked.

Inspection by competent persons, at


regular intervals.

No repair to accessories on site.

Proper storage after use.

Training for staff in safe use.

Barricades around the swing area of a revolving cab in areas where pedestrians or
traffic pass close by.
Never operate cranes closer than 10 feet from power lines voltage > 50,000 V
require greater distance.
Use tag lines to control load.
Dont distract the crane operator. Only one signalman at a time.
Never excavations distance between the edge of the excavation and crane should
1.5 x depth (for average soil only). Better use 3m or 5m distance.
Keep out from under suspended loads.
Make sure the crane operator can see the
Rated Load Capacities.
Operating Speeds.
Special hazard Warning or instruction.
Blocking under outrigger shall spread the load of the crane.
Cabs glass with good vision.
A ladder or steps shall be provided to give access to a cab roof. Guard rails, hand
holds, steps shall be provided on cranes for easy access to the car and cab.

Qn: Write about types of Slings?


Ans: 1) Chains
4) Natural fibre rope

2) Wire rope
5) Synthetic fibre rope

3) Metal Mesh
6) Synthetic Web.

Chains:
Fig.

Commonly used because of their strength and ability to adapt to the shape of the
load.
Care should be taken because of damage by sudden shocks.
Misuse of chain slings could damage the slings, resulting in sling failure and
possible injury to an employee.
Chain slings best choice for lighting hot materials (up to 1000oF)
When alloy chain slings consistently exposed to service temperature. In excess of
600oF, operators must reduce the working load limits in accordance with
manufacturers recommendations.
Inspect slings for stretching, kinks, gouges.

Wire Rope:
Fig.

Composed of individual wires that have been twisted to form strands.


Strands twisted to form a wire rope.
When wire rope has a fibre core, it is usually move flexible, but it is less resistant
to environmental damage.
Core that is made of a wire rope strand tends to have greater strength and is more
resistant to heat damage.

Rope Lay:
One complete wrap of a strand around the core.
(or)
The direction the strands are wound around the core.
(wire rope is referred to as right lay or left lay).
(or)
The direction the wires are wound in the strands in relation to the direction of the
Strands around the core.

In Regular Lay rope, the wire in the strands are laid in one direction while the
strands In the rope are laid in the opposite direction. (Right lay, Regular lay Left
lay, Regular Lay). Good resistance to kinking & twisting and easy to handle.
In Lang lay, the wires are twisted in the same direction as the strands.
* Recommended for many excavating, construction, mining applications,
including draglines, hoist lines and other similar lines.
* More Flexible.
Left Lay rope has its greatest usage in oil fields on rod and tubing lines, blast
hole rigs, and spudders.
Where rotation of right lay would loosen couplings. The rotation of a left lay rope
tightens a standard coupling.

Wire Rope Sling Selection:


1) Strength:

Strength of a wire rope is a function of its size, grade, construction.

Max.load limit is determined by means of appropriate multiplier. New wire rope


slings have a design factor or 5.
Eg: Wire rope sling with a strength of 10,000 pounds and a total working load
of 2,000 pounds has a design factor (multiplier) of 5.

2) Fatigue:

A wire rope must have the ability to withstand repeated bending without the
failure of the wires from fatigue.
Best means to prevent fatigue failure is to use blocking or padding to increase the
radius of the bend.

3) Abrasive Wear:

The ability of a wire rope to withstand abrasion (scraping or wearing away) is


determined by the size, number of wires, construction of the rope.
Smaller wires bend more, offer greater flexibility but less able to withstand
abrasive wear.
Larger wires less flexible, better able to withstand abrasion than smaller wires of
the more flexible ropes.

4) Abuse:

Misuse of wire rope causes birdcage (the wire rope strands are forcibly untwisted
and become spread outward) which is structural damage.

* Wire rope life:

Bending, stresses, loading conditions, jerking, abrasion, corrosion, sling design,


environmental conditions, history of previous usage affect the wire rope life.

* Wire rope sling inspection:

Before use.
Operator should check the twists or lay of the sling.
If 6 randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken, if 3 wires in one strand of a
rope lay are damaged, the sling must not be used.
End fittings and other components should be inspected.

*Field Lubrication:

No rule on how much or how often this should be done. Depends on the
conditions the sling is used.
Heavier loads, greater number of bends, more adverse the conditions under which
the sling operates, the more frequent lubrication required.

* Storage:
Store in well ventilated area, dry building or shed.
Never store on the ground to prevent corrosion and rust.
Better to use more frequently than idle.
* Discarding Slings:
*Factors to remove (discard) from service.
Severe corrosion.
Localized wear (shiny worn spots) on the outside.
A 1/3 reduction in outer wire diameter.
Damage or displacement of end fittings hooks, rings, links, collars by
overload or misapplication.
Distortion, kinking, birdcages, evidence of damage to the wire rope structure.
Excessive broken wires.
* Fibre Rope & Synthetic Rope:

Used primarily for temporary work such as construction, painting jobs, marine
operations.
Best choice for use on expensive loads, highly finished parts, fragile parts,
delicate equipment.

* Fibre Rope:

They should be used only on light loads, must not be used on objects that have
sharp edges and where exposed to high temp, severe abrasion or acids.
Choice of rope type and size depend on the application, the weight to be lifted and
the sling angle.
Inspect surface, dry, brittle, scorched, discolored fibres.
Check the interior of the sling. A build-up of powder-like saw dust on the inside
of the fibre rope indicates excessive internal wear, which is unsafe.
Scratch the fibres with fingernail, chemical damage must be removed from
service.

*Synthetic Web Slings:

Number of advantages, most common Nylon, Dacron, Polyester. They have the
following properties in common.
Strength
Convenience
Safety

- Can handle up to 300,00 lbs.


- Can conform to any shape.
- Will adjust to the load contour (shape) and hold it with a tight,
Non-slip grip.
Load Protection- Will not mar(ruin), deface, or scratch highly polished or delicate
Surfaces.
Long Life
- Unaffected by mildew, rot, bacterial. Resist some chemical
Action, excellent abrasion resistance.
Economy
- Low initial cost-plus long service life.
Shock
Absorbency
-Can absorb heavy shocks without damage.
Temperature
Resistance
- Unaffected by temperature up to 180oF.
* Nylon:

Use wherever Alkaline or greasy condition exist. Also use when neutral
conditions prevail and when resistance to chemicals and solvents is important.

* Dacron:

Use where high concentrations of Acid solutions such as Sulphuric, Hydrochloric,


Nitric, Formic Acids, where high temperature bleach solutions are prevalent.
Dont use in alkaline conditions because it will deteriorate.

* Nylon (or) Polypropylene:

Use instead polyester where acids or bleaching agents are present and also ideal
for applications, where a minimum of stretching is important.

Defects:
Synthetic web slings remove if
Acid or caustic burns.
Melting/charging of any part of the surface.
Snags, punctures, tears, cuts.
Broken/worn stitches.
Wear/elongation exceeding the amount recommended by the manufacturer (or)
distortion of fittings.
*Safe Lifting Practices: Mainly 4 factors to be considered
1) The size, weight, centre of gravity of the load:
In order to make a level lift, the crane hook must be directly above this
point.
2) Number of legs & angle with the horizontal:
Angle increases, rated capacity of sling decreases.
3) Rated capacity of the sling:
Depends on the type of sling, size of the sling, type of hitch. (operators
must know the capacity of the sling, use manufacturers charts/tables).
Under no circumstances, slings rated capacity should not exceed.
4) History of Care & Usage:

Misuse, mishandling causes accidents. Slings must be protected from sharp


edges, bends by means of cover saddles, burlap padding, wood blocking.

Position the hook directly over the load and seat the sling squarely within
the hook bowl. This gives the operator max. lifting capacity without
bending or overstressing the sling.

*After the sling properly attached to the load,


Make sure that the load is not lagged, clamped, bolted to the floor.
Guard against shock loading by taking up the slack in the sling slowly. Apply
power cautiously to prevent jerking at the beginning of the lift, and
accelerate/decelerate slowly.
Check the tension on the sling. Raise the load few inches, stop & check the
balance.
Check the clear path of travel. Never allow anyone to ride on the hood or load.
Keep all persons clear while the load raised, moved, or lowered.
Never allow
More than one person to give signals.

Raise the load more than necessary.


Leave the load suspended in the air.
Work under the suspended load.
After completion of work, clean the sling, check for damage, tore in clean, dry
airy place. Best to hang it on a rack or wall.

* Maintenance of Slings:
Chains:
Must be cleaned as dirt or oil may hide damage.
Operator must inspect the total length of the sling, periodically looking for
stretching, binding, wear or nicks and gouges. If sling stretch more than 3%
longer, remove from service.
Binding is the term to know the condition of a slings individual links free
movements.
Heavy nicks and/or gouges must be filed smooth, measured with calipers,
minimum allowable safe dimension as per manufacturers recommendation.
Wire rope:
Wire rope slings, like chain slings, must be cleaned; they must be lubricated
according to manufacturers instructions.
Lubrication prevents/reduces corrosion and wear due to friction & abrasion.
Before applying lubricant, the sling should be dry. Otherwise sling traps moisture
against the metal and hastens corrosion.
Corrosion deteriorates wire rope.
Fibre Ropes & Synthetic Webs:
Fibre ropes & synthetic webs generally discarded rather than serviced or repaired.
Operators must follow manufacturers recommendation.
General Points:
* Lifting:

light
Medium
Heavy
Payload

< 20 Tons.
20 Tons to 40 Tons.
40 Tons to 100 Tons.
> 100 Tons.

*Critical Lifting:
1) 90% of the crane rated capacity for the crane configuration.

2)
3)
4)
5)

Require two or more cranes (Tandem).


Payload > 20 Ton located such that the load, crane boom or rigging could fall on.
Electrical lines, transformers, Racks or pipe bridges, vessels.
Operating Unit (live, running unit or plant) containing flammable, explosive,
hazardous gases or liquids, etc.
6) Weight of load exceeds 50% of capacity of the crane.

jib

Cranes 5 to 10 years old accepted, more than 10 years not accepted (Third
party Certificate required).
More than 30 knots wind speed stop the work.
Working under overhead power lines safe distance = Length of the crane
fitted + 6m.
Mobile lifting equipment shall not be operated when the top of the job/fly
can reach within 3m of live overhead power cables.
Color code for every 3 months.

*Color Code: Charged every 6 monthly after inspection/ registration.


* Rigging Capacity Card: (Synthetic Web Slings).
Sling
Body
width
(inches)
1
3
6

Vertical

Choker
( 25%less)

Vertical
Basket

60o
Basket
(1.7%)

45oBasket
(1.4%)

30o
Basket

1000
3000
6000

750
2200
4500

2000
6000
12000

1700
5200
10,400

1400
4200
8500

1000
3000
6000

Use wear pad, to get more life for Synthetic Slings.


Knot reduces 50% of the capacity of the sling.
30o sling angle reduce the capacity of the sling.

* Wind Speed:
S.No
1
2

Description
Calm
Moderate
Breeze

Knots
0 10
11 - 16

Miles/hr.
0 - 1.15
12.65 - 18.4

Km/hr.
0 - 1.184
20.24 - 29.44

3
4
5
6

Fresh Breeze
Strong Breeze
Near Gale
Gale

17 - 21
22 - 27
28 - 33
34 - 40

19.55 25.3 32.2 39.1-

24.15
31.05
37.95
46

31.38 - 38.64
41.48 - 49.68
51.52 - 60.72
62.56 -

* Types of Slings:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chain

*Combines
Superior
Strength
Ease of
Handling
And
Durability.

Wire Rope

*Most commonly
used sling.
*Lowest cost.

Mesh

* Wire and chain


Excellent in
Lifting objects
that are hot or
have sharp
edges such as
Bar stock or
Plate steel,
Good balance.

Used In

Used In

Used In

1) Heavy
Loads

1) Heavy
loads

1) Machine
shops.

2) Elevated
Working

2) Construction
industry.

2) Steel ware
Houses.

Synthetic.
(Nylon/Polyester/Poly propylene)

* Both web and round slings


are used where loads must
be protected from damaged
The light weight and flexibility reduce fatigue and
strain on the rigger.
*Polyester/Nylon dont
use excess of 180oF.
* Polypropylene dont
Use excess of 200oF.
* Dont Use where fumes
Vapors, sprays, mists or
Liquids of acids or
Phenolies are present.

Temp.
3) Severe
Lift
Condition.
4) Heavy
Machinery
Operation.

* Crane parts & Diagram:

Breaking Load (7 Tons)


Safety Factor (7:1) = ----------------------------------- (means it breaks at 7 Tons lifting)
SWL (1 Ton)

*
SWL

M.B.L (Minimum Breaking Load)


= -----------------------------------------S.F (Safety Factor)

Eg: A sample of 1 dia steel wire rope has a M.B.L. of 40 Tons. Determine SWL.
Solution: Since S.F of wire rope is 5:1
M.B.L
SWL = ------S.F

40
----5
---1

= 40 x 1/5 = 8 Ton.

* SWL is the load that can safely be lifted provided your lifting equipment is in good
condition and has 3 items makes on it
ie SWL, I.D.No, Color Code.
* Centre of Gravity = The point of balance of the load.

*Chain Blocks:
Dont overload your chain block.
Dont step in under the load.
Dont try to suspend a load with two blocks.
Dont pull up too far or pull down slamming fast.
Dont use the chain with a kink (a sharp twist in something straight).
Dont get the load dragged against floor.
Dont give the load a sudden take-off (step at 10cm above the floor and then pull).
Dont turn round the chain block as loaded.
After use remove any soil and water from the surface of the load chain and apply
a thin coat of grease.
*Shackle Information:

I.D manufacturer number assist user easy to track slings.


Slings with Aluminum fittings never use in Acid/Alkali environments.
Nylon/Polyester slings must not use of at temp above194oF (95oC).

*Wedge Sockets:

Safety regulations vary concerning the dead end attachments.


3 methods of securing the dead end of the wire rope.

a) The dead end is clopped to the load line

Fig.

b) The method is most popular. A short stub of rope is clipped to the dead end.
Fig.
c) This method is in many safety regulations but due to big loop, snags on
Projection in Confined Spaces:
Fig.
* Turn Buckles:

Should be of alloy steel and should not be welded.


SWL depends on the diameter of the thread position.
Fig.
BARRICADES & SIGNS.

Use of signs & tags to alert employees exposed to any type of hazard.

Barricade :
Means an obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicle (shall conform
to ANSI D6.1 -1971).
Signs:

Are the warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed or placed,


at locations where hazard exists.
Signals :

Are moving sings, provided by workers, such as flagmen, or devices such as


flashing lights to warn of possible or existing hazards.
Tags :

Are temporary sings, usually attached to a piece of equipment or part of a


structure, to warn of existing or immediate hazards.
Danger Signs:
* Use where an immediate hazard exists.
* Must have Red as the predominant color for the upper panel, black outline
on the boarders and a white lower panel for additional sign wording.
Fig.

Caution Sign:
* Use to warn against potential hazards or to caution against unsafe practices.

* Shall have Yellow as predominant color, black upper panel and borders,
Yellow lettering of Caution on the black panel, lower yellow panel
for additional sign wording. Black lettering shall be used for additional
wording.
* Standard background shall be Yellow, panel black with Yellow letters. Any
letters black against Yellow background.
o Fig.

Exit Signs:
* Letters Red not less than 6 high, on white field and the principle stroke of
the letters shall be at least in width.
fig.

*Safety Instruction Sings:


* White letters, Green upper panel.
* Additional wording black letters, white background.
*Directional Sings:
* Directional signs other than automotive traffic signs shall be white, with black
Panel and a white directional symbol.
*Additional wording on the sign shall be black letters on the white background.
*Traffic Sings:
* Construction areas shall be posted with legible traffic signs at points of hazard.
* All signs/devices used for protection of construction workers shall conform to
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) D6.1-1971.
Fig.
*Accident Prevention Tags:
* Used as a temporary means of warning employees of an existing hazard, such as
Defective tools, equipments etc.
* Specifications for accident prevention tags similar to those shown below shall
Apply.
*Signaling:
Flagmen:

When operations are such that signs, signals, and barricades do not provide the
necessary protection or adjacent to a highway or street, flagmen or other
appropriate traffic control shall be provided.
Signaling directions by flagmen shall conform to ANSI D6.1-1971, manual on
uniform traffic control devices for streets & highways.
Hand signaling by flagmen shall be use of Red flags at least 18 square or sign
paddles, and in periods of darkness, red lights.
Flagmen with Red/Orange warning garment while flagging.
Warning garment worn at night shall be of reflectorized materials.

Crane & Hoist Signals:

Applicable ANSI Standard.

MANUAL HANDLING

Manual Handling:
Moving or supporting a load by hand or bodily force.
Eg: Lifting, Lowering, Pulling, Pushing.

Manual Handling Injuries:

EXTERNAL
Cuts, bruises, crush injuries,
lacerations to finger, hand,
forearms, ankles, feet
(Not serious as internal Injuries).

INTERNAL
Muscle and ligament tears, hernias
(rupture) slipped discs knee, ankle
and shoulder injuries.
Most serious injury herniated
invertebrate disc (slipped disc).

Posture:
Poor posture in terms of back pain means, any posture that puts your spine under
unnecessary tension.
Anatomy of the Spine:
The spine or backbone is the principle supporting structure in the body. It
provides strength & stability to the body.
Three main functions are
* It is the scaffolding of the body supporting the skull and anchoring the ribs,
pelvis and shoulder bones.
* It provides points of attachment for the muscles, tendons and ligaments that
enable the body to move.

* It contains the spinal cord, which carries message to the brain from all parts of
the body.
It consists of 24 bones known as vertebrate divided into 3 areas known as the
Cervical (7bones)
Thoracic (2 bones)
Lumbar (5 bones) and below them are the sacrum and the coccyx.
Qn: What are the steps of Risk Assessment of Manual Handling?
Ans: Consider the following (LITE).
1) The Load

2) Individual Capability 3) Task 4) Environment.

Consider the factors


LOAD:
Weight, Size, Shape, Rigidity, outside surfaces, Stability of contents,
other hazards hot, cold, sharp, etc.
INDIVIDUAL:
Sex, Physical strength, stature (height), state of health, level of training,
Hazards to pregnant women, persons perception of their own ability.
TASK:
Holding loads away from trunk, twisting, stooping (bending forwards and
down), reaching, large vertical movements, strenuous pulling or pushing.
ENVIRONMENT:
Lighting, ventilation, obstacles, height of work surfaces, temperature (cold/
Hot), floor conditions, space available.
Qn: What are the practical measures to avoid manual handling injuries?
Ans:
1) Avoid Manual Handling.

2) Risk Reduction

Eg:

Treatment can be taken to the


patient rather than the patient taken
to the treatment.

Immediate implementation of
control measures to reduce or
eliminate risk from manual

handling needs to be taken as soon


as the risk identified.
Planning, control & effective
supervision key elements in the
reduction and elimination of
injuries.

3) Automation & Mechanization.

4) Team Handling

Where loads are too heavy, properly


organize by team instead of one
person.

5) Trainings

To know manual handling risk


factors,
understand Risk Assessment
Know how to carry safely,
good handling techniques,

Replace manual handling by


mechanical handling.
Eg:
Powders or liquids can be transferred
from large containers and big bags by
gravity feed, avoiding bag or container
handling.

recognize the potentially hazardous


loads
Correct use of mechanical aids.

6) Smaller lighter loads

Replace 50kg bags by 25 kg bag.


Good package.
Centre of gravity, rough/sharp
objects, etc.

7) Selection

Select employees to carryout


manual handling with the recognize
and admit their own limitations.

8) Good environmental working


conditions.

Adequate space
Floors kept clear of obstructions.
Avoid variation in floor levels.
Controls introduced regarding
extremes of temperature.

Qn: What re the correct Kinetic handling Techniques?


Ans:
Assess the load.
Position feet as close as possible to the load.
Bend the knees and keep back straight.
Secure grip.
Lift using thigh muscles.
Avoid jerking, making a smooth movement avoid twisting.
Put down, side to desired position.
*Lifting Weights: (men)
Shoulder height
10 kg
5kg
20kg
10kg
Elbow height

25kg

15kg

Knuckle height

20kg

10kg

Midlower leg height

10kg

5kg

WORK EQUIPMENT
Work Equipment :

Any machinery, appliance, apparatus, tool or installation for use at work.

Suitability & Work Equipment:

Should be constructed or adapted to be suitable for the purpose for which it is


provided, taking into account the working conditions, properly designed, with
safety requirements.
Work equipment should be properly maintained.
Work equipment should be inspected after installation, before use, regular
intervals, exceptional circumstances.
Where there is a specific risk, the use of work equipment should be restricted to
specified people who should be adequately trained.

Factors to consider prior to install new machinery:

What are the hazards Eg: Are there heat/cold problems/Chemicals/Biological.


Is it suitably guarded?
The location of the equipment.

Is it capable of being isolated/locked off?


Is there safe access/egress.
Are personnel trained & competent?
Any other specific risks.

Safe operation of work equipment:

Equipment should have appropriate protection against risk to employees from


failure in work equipment, includes risk of ejection of parts or fire & explosion.
Measure to control people not to contact with materials/equipment.
Clear layout of controls Eg: for starting, making changes in operating conditions,
emergency stop.
Means of isolation from the source of energy.
Equipment stable to avoid risk to H&S.
Possible to carryout maintenance operations, while the work equipment is
stopped.
Appropriate marking for purposes of H&S, warning devices.
Stop or make a change in operating condition.

Statutory Examination:

By a competent person (usually an insurance company).

Equipment
Cranes, hoists, lifting
equipment.
Pressure Systems

Inspection of
All equipment used for
lifting people and lifting
accessories
Other lifting equipment
Steam plants (boilers)
Steam receive
Air receivers

Frequency
6 months
12 months
14 months
26-38 months
24-48months

Power Presses

Fixed Guards

12 months

Other Guards
Inspection of guards and
protective devices during
work.

6 months
4 hourly

Qn: What are Hierarchy of Controls for Machinery Guarding?


Ans:

Fixed enclosed guards.


Other guards or protection devices such as interlocked guards and pressure mats
(operator stand on machine, auto stop).
Protective appliances such as
Jigs (work piece can be fitted and takes it into the dangerous part of the
machine in the correct position).
Holders (Hand held device to remove objects, Eg: Tongs)
Push Stick (Eg: stick used to push wood into a circular saw).
Provision of information, instruction, training & supervision.

Qn: What are the main hazards of machines?


Ans:
MECHANICAL HAZARDS (ENTICE)
Entanglement:
Involves hair, clothing rings, limbs etc,
becoming entangled in revolving shaft
drilling etc.

Traps:
Including shearing drawing in, crushing.

Impact:
Struck by the moving part of a machine.

NON MECHANICAL HAZARDS


Electricity Shock, burns.
Hot surfaces/Fire.
Cold surfaces.
Dust & Fumes.
Fire/Explosion.
Noise
Vibration.
Biological.
Hazardous chemicals.
Radiation.
Access/Egress.
Obstructions and projections.
Manual Handling.
Splinters.

Contact:
Part o the body coming to contact with the
machine.
Eg:
Burns from exposed surfaces.
Laceration from sharp edges.
Puncture wounds from drills, sewing
machine, etc.
Ejection:
Struck by particles ejected from the
material being worked on a part of the
machine it self.
Eg: Abrasive wheel.

Qn: What is British Standard order of Guarding?


Ans: (FIAT)
Fixed

Prevents access to a dangerous part of a


machine.

Interlock

Connected to the machine.


Eg:
Microwave opening door stops machine.
Washing machine prevents access until the
drum has stopped spinning.

Automatic (push away)

Physically remove from the danger any part


of a person exposed to that danger.

Trip Guard

Real safety devices. These include suitably


located bars, telescope probes, trip wires,
pressure sensitive mats or pressure
sensitive cables which, if operated either
brake or stop the machine.

Qn: What precautions to be taken while using portable power tools?


Ans:

Never carry tools by cord/hose.


Never pull the cord to disconnect it.
Keep cords/hoses away from heat.
Disconnect tools when not in use.
Keep observers safe distance.
Secure work with clamps.
Avoid accidental starting.
Use RCDs etc, with electrical tools.
Ensure good footing.
PPE.
Maintain tools.
Regular inspection, defect reporting.
Remove damaged tools from use.

Qn: What are the Hazards & Control Measures of Machinery?


Ans:

HAZARDS
Unintentional starting of machinery.
Release of stored energy.
Eg: Pressure, Electricity.
Residual High/Low pressure.
Restricted Access/Egress.
Residues
Eg: Toxic/Flammable/Corrsive.
Heat/Cold.
Mechanical Hazards.(ENTICE)
Eg:
Entanglement/Trapping/Impact /
Contact / Ejection
Biological Hazards:
Eg: Animal borne Anthrax.
Human borne - Viral hepatitis.

CONTROL MEASURES
Isolate electrical power.
PTW.
Allow hot to cool of machinery.
Release loads.
Provide barriers.
Lighting, means of access.
PPE.
Ventilation.
Supervision.
Competent Staff.
Segregation.

MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE & MATERIALS


Qn: What factors contribute to Slip / Trip/ Fall?
Ans:
Floor Surface
Contamination
Obstructions
Task
Environment
Foot Wear
People

Slippery surfaces, holes, uneven surface,


etc.
Spillages, leaks,etc.
Rubbish, Trailing cables, rugs, etc.
Carrying loads, space to work
Lighting
Unsuitable foot wear
Unaware of dangers.

Qn: What are the Hazards & Preventions of Stairs?


Ans:
HAZARDS OF STAIRS

Inadequate design
(dimensions/treads/no hand rails).

PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS ON
STAIRS
Adequate width of walkways/stairs,
hand rails fitted.

Poor House keeping (obstructions,


trailing cables).
Poor lighting.
Slippery surfaces (oil/water/ice) or
unsuitable foot wear.
Damaged flooring or coverings.
Manual Handling.
Hurrying on Stairs.

Remove obstructions/trailing
cables.
Improve lighting levels, emergency
lighting.
Non-Slip surfaces/spillage
procedures/covered walkways.
Maintain/report & repair defects.
Mechanical handling/use lifts for
loads.
Site rules.

Qn: What is Hierarchy of control of working at height?


Ans:

Avoid working at height wherever possible.


Use work equipment/other measures to prevent falls where working at height
cannot be avoid.
Where the risk of falls cannot be eliminated, use work equipment/other measures
to minimize the distance and consequences of a fall should one occur.

Qn: What the effects of poor house keeping?


Ans:
Someone to slip/fall.
Increased risk of fire.
Fire exits could be blocked.
Risk of infection where chemicals are being used.
Infestation (large piling to cause disease).
Vehicles collisions if traffic routes blocked.
Falling materials.
Qn: How to plan Traffic Routes?
Ans:
Keep pedestrians & vehicles apart.
Separate routes, designated parking places suitable barriers at recognized danger
sports.
High visibility clothing if necessary.
Clearly marked, signed traffic routes.
Roads, gangways and aisles should have sufficient width and overhead clearance
for the largest vehicle.
Speed limits are established and enforced.

Adequate lighting.
Good all round visibility.
Clear direction signs and marking of doors.
Sharp/blind bends & overhead obstructions should be avoided.
Floor surface in good condition.
Any gradient (degree of slope) should be kept as gentle as possible.
Sufficient & suitable parking areas.
Avoid reverse if possible.
Make people aware of the movement of vehicles.

Qn: How to do Reversing of vehicles?


Ans:
One-way systems.
Drive-through system.
Turning circles.
Separation of vehicles & pedestrians.
Suitable design of workplace.
Audible reversing alarms.
Mirrors on blind corners.
Adequate lighting.
Use of banks men (when reversing)
High-visible clothing.
Site rules.
Training.
Qn: How to do Driver Selection?
Ans:
Reliable & mature.
Subject to pre-medical check (employment).
Physically fit.
Routine medicals (every 5 years or if suffering from limited limb movement, heart
problems, vision difficulties, hearing problems).
Licensed.
Trained & Competent.
Supervised & Monitored.
Giving Refresher Training.
Qn: What should cover in Trainings for Drivers?
Ans:
Personal responsibilities.
SWL estimation.
Pre-Use vehicle inspection and maintenance.

Safe parking and security of vehicle.


Speed restrictions.
Safety rules & signs sound horn/no passengers etc.
Floor conditions pot holes/house keeping etc.
Vehicle reversing audible warning/banks men etc.

Qn: What are the Hazards & Precautions while charging Batteries?
Ans:
HAZARDS
Release of H2 gas during charging
(Fire & Explosion).
Electrical short circuits.
Corrosive & burning effect of
battery acid.
Manual handling of batteries.

PRECAUTIONS FOR CHARGING


Ventilation to prevent build up of
H2.
No source of ignition near
fueling/recharging points.
PPE (Acid resistant gloves, eye
protection).
Lighting Equipment for removing
batteries.

Qn: What are the Hazards of Fork Trucks?


Ans:
Overturning.
Overloading.
Loss of load.
Collision with other vehicles/pedestrians.
Explosive & Fire.
Qn: Why Trucks Overturn?
Ans:

Traveling on gradients that are too steep (rising/falling sharply).


Traveling forward when descending slopes.
Overloaded or unevenly loaded.
Traveling over soft/uneven ground.
Traveling too fast.
Striking kerbs(stone edging to a pavement) or other edges.
Not suitable for the task.
Carrying loads at a dangerous height.

Qn: What is Pre-Check list of Fork Trucks?


Ans:

Condition and pressure of tyres.

Functioning of lights, horns, brakes.


Warning devices working.
Suitable mirrors.
Engine for oil leaks.
Radiator for Water leaks.
Seat securely fixed and suitable restraints where fitted.
Signs of damage to bodywork and lifting mechanism.
Security of equipment fitted ie. LPG Tank.

Qn: How to do parking of Fork Trucks?


Ans:

Put in neutral.
Put on handbrake.
Switch off engine.
Remove key.
Give key to appropriate persons.
Forks on floor.
Mast slightly forward.
Parked in suitable location.
No blocking of exits.

Qn: What are the types of Fork Trucks and Dumper Trucks?
Ans:
Counter balance Fork Lift Truck.
Mostly used in the work place is
counter balance fork lift truck.
It carries the load in front which is
counter balanced by a weight at the
rear.
The load can be raised / lowered the
mast tilts forwards or backwards.
Used in warehouses, workshops,
etc.
Rough Terrain Fork Lift Truck
Same as the counter balance truck
but has large pneumatic (air filled)
tyres which give a greater ground

Industrial Reach Fork Lift Truck

Pedestrian controlled Trucks

clearance and is designed to work


on soft, uneven ground.
Operates by the mast moving away
from the body of the truck to pick
up the load.
Good for narrow spaces such as
warehouses.
Operated by an individual walking
with the truck rather than riding on
it.
Pedestrian operated lift truck
usually has a limited reach height of
around 2m.

Qn: When to inspect Fork Trucks?


Ans:
Before first use.
Daily by the driver.
At 12 monthly intervals (or 6 months if lifting persons) by a competent person.
Complying with examination schedule in national legislation.
Following any circumstances that may comprise safety of the truck.
Qn: What is the Checklist for visual inspection of Fork Trucks?
Ans:
Floor clear of objects that could cause an accident.
No obstruction overhead.
Fire extinguisher present & charged.
Engine oil level, Fuel level, Radiator water level.
Battery plug connections not lose, worn or dirty.
Vent caps not clogged (blocked).
Electrolyte levels in cells(a liquid or gel that an electric current can pass through )
Bolts, nuts, guards, chains, hydraulic hose reels not damaged, missing or loose.
Forks not bent or cracked.
Chain anchor pins not worn, loose or bent.
No damp spots or drips that may indicate a leak.
Qn: Checklist for Operational Pre-Use Inspection of Fork Trucks?
Ans:
Horn Working
Floor brake
Parking brake

Loud enough, other warning devices


operational.
Pedal holds, unit stops smoothly
Holds against slight acceleration.

Dead man Seat brake


Clutch and gear shift
Dash control panel
Steering
Lift Mechanism
Tilt Mechanism
Cylinders & Hoses
No unusual sounds.

Holds when operator rises from seat.


Shifts smoothly with no jumping or jerking.
All lights and gauges operational
Moves smoothly
Operates smoothly (check by raising forks
to max. height then lowering completely)
Moves smoothly, hold (check by tilting
mast all the way forward and backward).
Not leaking after above checks.

Qn: What are the guidelines on Fork Lift Safety?


Ans:
Traveling

Traveling on an Incline (Slope)

Steering

Keep your hands arms, head, feet,


legs inside the Forklift.
Travel with Forks as low as possible
from the floor, and tilted back.
Obey posted traffic sings.
Decrease speed at corners, sound
horn, watch the swing of both the
rear of the lift truck and the load.
Avoid sudden stops.
If the load blocks your vision, travel
slowly in reverse.
Always look in the direction of
travel.
Keep an eye out for oil spots, wet
spots, loose objects, holes, rough
surfaces, people, vehicles on the
floor or road way.
Know the blind spots, when anyone
crosses the route being traveled,
stop the fork lift truck, lower the
load to the floor, wait until passage
is clear.
Keep the forks pointed downhill
without a load, and pointed uphill
with a load.
Dont attempt to turn the lift truck
until it is on level ground.
Support the load by the front wheels
and turn with the rear wheels.
Dont turn the steering wheel

Loading

Raising the Load

sharply when traveling fast.


If the truck is overloaded, steering
will be difficult.
Dont exceed load limits, Dont add
counter weight as an attempt to
improve steering.
Important to know the
recommended load limit of the Fork
Lift (shown on the data plate) and
the capacity of the fork, and never
exceed these limits.
Position the load according to the
recommended load centre. Dont
add extra weight to the
counterbalance an overload.
Keep the load close to the front
wheels to keep the lift truck stable.
When inserting the forks, keep the
mast in straight position before
inserting the fork into a pallet.
Level the fork before inserting it.
Spread the forks as widely as
possible for even distribution.
Drive under the load until it slightly
touches the carriage.
Tilt the forks back to shift the
weight of the load back, making it
more stable.
If the load unbalanced keep the
heavier end closer to you. Tilt the
mast back.
Keep the forks 4 to 8 above to
ground to avoid potential ground
hazards.
Dont raise/lower the fork unless
the lift truck is stopped and braked.
Avoid lifting a load that extends
above the load backrest if there is
any risk of the load, or part of it,
sliding back towards the operator.
Check for adequate overhead
clearance and maintain safe
distance from overhead power lines.
Lift the load straight up, then tilt

Handling Pallets: (portable platform on


which goods can be moved or stacked).
(Arrange in order).

Unloading

Parking

back slightly.
Dont back up until forks are free.
The operator must not leave the
truck, under the load (Truck less
stable under load).
Dont allow anyone to stand on the
forklift or walk under the elevated
part of the forklift, whether it is
loaded or unloaded.
Ensure that forks are level, high
enough to go into the pallet.
Forks must be proper width to
provide even weight distribution.
Avoid trying to move or adjust any
part of the load, the forklift or the
surroundings when on the forklift.
Dont use pallets elevated by
forklifts as an improvised working
platform.
Turn the forklift slowly into
position.
If unloading into a truck,
Before driving straight in, make
sure the rear wheels (back wheels)
of the truck are chocked (a wedge
or block placed against a wheel to
prevent it from moving) the brake
are locked, and the dock plate is
secure and wont move. Then drive
in, position the load, tilt if forward
and release it.

Park in an approved location.


When leaving the truck un attend,
secure it by setting the brakes,
Lowering the forks/load to the floor,
Neutralize the controls,
Turning off the motor switch
& remove key.
Forklift will be considered
unattended if the driver away by
more than 25 ft.
Dont block aisles, doors, exits,
electrical panels, fire extinguishers.

Refueling

Refueling area should have


appropriate fire warnings and
emergency equipment available.
Turn off forklift and set brake and
never smoke around the forklift.
Start fueling & clean up spills
quickly.

*Forklift Balance & Stability:

Fig.
(A+B) x C = Inch pounds.
C = Trucks capacity in pounds.
Eg:
You operate a lift truck that is rated at 5000 lbs at 24 LC.
You must lift a load with an LC of 36.
The distance from the centre of the front wheels to the face of the forks is 18.
What is the Max.weight you can lift?
Solution:
Step one:

You must first determine the max. inch pound capacity of the truck.
(18 + 24) x 5000 = 210.000 Inch pounds.

Using the equation where A=18,B=36 and Inch Pound = 210,000 Inch pounds.
(18+36) x ? = 210,000. lbs = 210,000/54 = 3888lbs.
Process safety
Process safety is a blend of engineering and management skills focused on
preventing catastrophic accidents and near misses, particularly structural collapse,
explosions, fires and toxic releases associated with loss of containment of energy or
dangerous substances such as chemicals and petroleum products.

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