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TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF PANAMA

REGIONAL COLON CENTER


Faculty of Industrial Engineering

Presenter by:
Nicole Frazer
Industrial Engineering
5II-111
Subject:
Ingles
Topic:
The diseases
(Past, Present and Future)
Teacher:
Rosa Ramos
II-Semester

INDEX

1. DISEASES OF THE PAST


Malaria
Leprosy

Rocky mountain spotted fever


Trachoma
Cholera
Smallpox

Typhus

2. DISEASES OF THE PRESENT


Cancer
HIV/AIDS
Lupus
Diabetes
Microcephaly

Micropsy or Alice's Syndrome in Wonderland


Fibrous dysplasia
Henoch-Schnlein purpura
Chikungunya virus
Hepatitis
Anorexia

3. FUTURE DISEASES

MALARIA
Malaria is a parasitic disease that involves
high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like
symptoms, and anemia.
Causes
Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes.
After infection, the parasites (called sporozoites) travel through the bloodstream to the liver, where they
mature and release another form, called merozoites. The parasites enter the bloodstream and infect red
blood cells.
Malaria can also be transmitted from a mother to her unborn baby (congenitally) and by blood
transfusions. Malaria can be carried by mosquitoes in temperate climates, but the parasite disappears
over the winter.

Symptoms
Symptoms include:
Anemia
Bloody stools
Chills, fever, sweating
Coma
Convulsions
Headache
Jaundice
Muscle pain
Nausea and vomiting

Treatment
Malaria, especially falciparum malaria, is a medical emergency that requires a hospital stay.
Chloroquine is often used as an anti-malarial drug. But chloroquine-resistant infections are common
in some parts of the world.
Possible treatments for chloroquine-resistant infections include:
Artemisinin derivative combinations, including artemether and lumefantrine
Atovaquone-proguanil
Quinine-based regimen, in combination with doxycycline or clindamycin)
Mefloquine, in combination with artesunate or doxycycline
The choice of drug depends, in part, on where you got the infection.

LEPROSY

Leprosy is an infectious disease that has been known since biblical times. This disease causes skin
sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time.

Causes
Leprosy is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. It is not very contagious and has a long
incubation period (time before symptoms appear), which makes it hard to know where or when
someone caught the disease. Children are more likely than adults to get the disease.

Experts believe that the bacteria spread when a person breathes in tiny airborne droplets released
when someone with leprosy coughs or sneezes. The bacteria may also be passed on by coming into
contact with the nasal fluids of a person with leprosy. Leprosy has 2 common forms: tuberculoid and
lepromatous. Both forms produce sores on the skin. However, the lepromatous form is more severe.
It causes large lumps and bumps (nodules).

Drug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae and an increased numbers of cases worldwide have led to
global concern for this disease.

Symptoms
Symptoms include:
Skin lesions that are lighter than your
normal skin color
Lesions that have decreased sensation to
touch, heat, or pain
Lesions that do not heal after several
weeks to months
Muscle weakness
Numbness or lack of feeling in the hands,
arms, feet, and legs

Treatment
Several antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria
that cause the disease. These include dapsone, rifampin, clofazamine, fluoroquinolones, macrolides,
and minocycline. More than 1 antibiotic is often given together.
Aspirin, prednisone, or thalidomide is used to control inflammation.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks.

Causes
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii), which is
carried by ticks. The bacteria spread to humans through a tick bite.
In the western United States, the bacteria are carried by the wood tick, and in the eastern U.S. they
are carried by the dog tick. Other ticks spread the infection in the southern U.S. and in Central and
South America.
Contrary to the name "Rocky Mountain," most recent
cases have been reported in the eastern United States,
including North and South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland,
Georgia, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. Most cases occur in
the spring and summer and are found in children.
Risk factors include recent hiking or exposure to ticks in
an area where the disease is known to occur. The bacteria
are unlikely to be transmitted to a person by a tick that has
been attached for less than 20 hours. Only about 1 in 1,000
wood and dog ticks carry the bacteria. Bacteria can also
infect people who crush ticks they have removed from pets
with their bare fingers.
Symptoms
Symptoms usually develop about 2 to 14 days after the tick bite. They may include:
Chills and fever
Confusion
Headache
Muscle pain
Diarrhea
Light sensitivity
Hallucinations
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Thirst

Treatment
Treatment involves carefully removing the tick from the skin. To get rid of the infection, antibiotics
such as doxycycline or tetracycline need to be taken. Pregnant women are usually prescribed
chloramphenicol.

TRACHOMA
Trachoma is an eye infection that attacks
the upper eyelid, causing inflammation that
causes the eyelashes to grow into the
cornea.
Causes
Trachoma is caused by infection with the
bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.
The condition occurs around the world. It is most often seen in rural areas of developing countries.
Children are often affected, but the scarring caused by the infection may not be noticed until later in
life. The condition is rare in the United States. However, It is more likely to occur in crowded or
unclean living conditions.
Trachoma is spread through direct contact with infected eye, nose, or throat fluids. It can also be
passed by contact with contaminated objects, such as towels or clothes. Certain flies can also spread
the bacteria.
Symptoms
Symptoms begin 5 to 12 days after being exposed to the bacteria. The condition begins slowly,
appearing as inflammation of the tissue lining the eyelids (conjunctivitis, or "pink eye"). Untreated,
this may lead to scarring.
Symptoms may include:
Cloudy cornea
Discharge from the eye

Swelling of lymph nodes just in front of the ears


Swollen eyelids
Turned-in eyelashes

Treatment
Antibiotics can prevent long-term complications if
used early in the infection. In certain cases, eyelid
surgery may be needed to prevent long-term scarring,
which can lead to blindness if not corrected.

CHOLERA
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea.
Causes
Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These bacteria release a toxin that causes an
increased amount of water to be released from cells that line the intestines. This increase in water
produces severe diarrhea.
People get the infection from eating or drinking food or water that contains the cholera germ. Living
in or traveling to areas where cholera is present raises the risk of getting it.
Symptoms
Symptoms of cholera can be mild to severe. They include:
Abdominal cramps
Dry mucous membranes or dry mouth
Dry skin
Excessive thirst
Glassy or sunken eyes
Lack of tears
Lethargy
Low urine output
Nausea
Rapid dehydration
Rapid pulse (heart rate)
Sunken "soft spots" (fontanelles) in infants
Unusual sleepiness or tiredness

Vomiting
Watery diarrhea that starts suddenly and has a "fishy" odor

Treatment
The goal of treatment is to replace fluid and
salts that are lost through diarrhea. Diarrhea
and fluid loss can be fast and extreme. It can be
hard to replace lost fluids.
Depending on your condition, you may be
given fluids by mouth or through a vein
(intravenous, or IV). Antibiotics may shorten
the time you feel ill.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has
developed packets of salts that are mixed with clean water to help restore fluids. These are cheaper
and easier to use than the typical IV fluid. These packets are now being used around the world.

SMALLPOX
Smallpox is a serious disease that is easily passed from person to person (contagious). It is caused by
a virus.
Causes
Smallpox spreads from one person to another from saliva droplets. It may also be spread from bed
sheets and clothing. It is most contagious during the first week of the infection. It may continue to be
contagious until the scabs from the rash fall off. The virus can stay alive between 6 and 24 hours.
People were once vaccinated against this disease. However, the disease has been mostly wiped out.
The United States stopped giving the smallpox vaccine in 1972. In 1980, the World Health
Organization (WHO) recommended that all countries stop vaccinating for smallpox.
There are two forms of smallpox:
Variola major is a serious illness that can be life threatening in people who have not been
vaccinated. It was responsible for a large number of deaths.
Variola minor is a milder infection that rarely causes death.

Symptoms
Symptoms usually occur about 12 to 14 days after you have been infected with the virus. They may
include:
Backache, Diarrhea
Delirium, Fatigue

Excessive bleeding, Malaise


High fever, Nausea and vomiting
Raised pink rash, turns into sores that become crusty on day 8 or 9
Severe headache

Treatment
The smallpox vaccine may prevent illness or lessen symptoms if it is given within 1 to 4 days after a
person is exposed to the disease. Once symptoms have started, treatment is limited.
There is no specific drug for treating smallpox. Antibiotics may be given for infections that occur in
people who have smallpox. Taking antibodies against a disease similar to smallpox (vaccinia immune
globulin) may help shorten the duration of the disease.
People who have been diagnosed with smallpox and people they have been in close contact with
need to be isolated right away. They will need to receive the vaccine and be watched closely.

TYPHUS

Typhus is a bacterial disease spread by lice or fleas.


Causes
Typhus is caused by 2 types of bacteria: Rickettsia typhi or Rickettsia prowazekii.
Rickettsia typhi causes endemic or murine typhus.
Endemic typhus is uncommon in the United States. It is usually seen in areas where hygiene
is poor and the temperature is cold. Endemic typhus is sometimes called "jail fever." The
bacteria that causes this type is usually spread from rats to fleas to humans.
Murine typhus occurs in the southern United States, particularly California and Texas. It is
often seen during the summer and fall. It is rarely deadly. You are more likely to get this type
of typhus if you are around rat feces or fleas, and other animals such as cats, possums,
raccoons, and skunks.
Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus. It is spread by lice.
Symptoms
Symptoms of murine or endemic typhus may include:
Abdominal pain
Backache
Dull red rash that begins on the middle of the body and spreads
Fever (can be extremely high 105F to 106F, 40.6C to 41.1C) that may last up to 2 weeks

Hacking, dry cough


Headache
Joint and muscle pain
Nausea
Vomiting
Chills
Confusion
Cough
Delirium
High fever
Joint pain

Treatment
Treatment includes the following antibiotics:
Doxycycline
Tetracycline
Chloramphenicol (less common)
Tetracycline taken by mouth can permanently stain teeth that are still forming. It is usually
not prescribed for children until after all of their permanent teeth have grown.
People with epidemic typhus may need
oxygen and intravenous (IV) fluids.

CANCER
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal
cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also
called malignant cells.
Causes
Cancer grows out of cells in the body. Normal cells multiply when the body needs them, and die
when they are damaged or the body doesn't need them.
Cancer appears to occur when the genetic material of a cell becomes changed. This results in cells
growing out of control. Cells divide too quickly and do not die in a normal way.
There are many kinds of cancer. Cancer can develop in almost any organ or tissue, such as the lung,
colon, breast, skin, bones, or nerve tissue.
There are many risk factors for cancer, including:
Benzene and other chemicals
Drinking too much alcohol

Environmental toxins, such as certain poisonous mushrooms and a type of poison that can
grow on peanut plants (aflatoxins)
Genetic problems
Obesity
Radiation exposure
Too much sunlight exposure
Viruses

In U.S. men, other than skin cancer the three most common cancers are:
Prostate cancer
Lung cancer
Colorectal cancer
In U.S. women, other than skin cancer the three most common cancers are:
Breast cancer
Lung cancer
Colorectal cncer
Some other types of cancer include:
Brain cancer
Cervical cancer
Hodgkin lymphoma
Kidney cancer
Leukemia
Liver cancer
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Ovarian cancer
Pancreatic cancer
Testicular cancer
Thyroid cancer

Uterine cancer

Symptoms
Symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the cancer. For example, lung cancer can
cause coughing, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Colon cancer often causes diarrhea, constipation,
and blood in the stool.
Some cancers may not have any symptoms. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms
often do not start until the disease has reached an advanced stage.
The following symptoms may occur with cancer:
Chills
Fatigue
Fever
Loss of appetite
Malaise
Night sweats
Weight loss

Treatment
Treatment varies based on the type of cancer and its stage. The stage of a cancer refers to how much
it has grown and whether the tumor has spread from its original location.
If the cancer is in one location and has not spread, the most common treatment approach
is surgery to cure the cancer. This is often the case with skin cancers, as well as cancers of
the lung, breast, and colon.
If the tumor has spread to local lymph nodes only, sometimes these can be removed.
If surgery cannot remove all of the cancer, the options for treatment may
include radiation, chemotherapy, targeted cancer therapies, or other types of treatment.
Some cancers require a combination of treatments. Lymphoma, or cancer of the lymph

glands, is rarely treated with surgery. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and other
nonsurgical therapies are often used.

If you have radiation treatment:


Treatment is usually scheduled every weekday.
You should allow 30 minutes for each treatment session, although the treatment itself usually
takes only a few minutes.
You should get plenty of rest and eat a well-balanced diet during the course of your radiation
therapy.
Skin in the treated area may become sensitive and easily irritated.
Some side effects of radiation treatment are temporary. They vary depending on the area of
the body that is being treated.
If you have chemotherapy:
Eat right.
Get plenty of rest, and don't feel like you have to accomplish tasks all at once.
Avoid people with colds or the flu. Chemotherapy can cause your immune system to weaken.

HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes
infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. As the immune system
weakens, the person is at risk of getting life-threatening infections and cancers. When that happens,
the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays inside the body for life.
Causes
The virus is spread (transmitted) person-to-person in any of the following ways:
Through sexual contact
blood -- by blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the United States) or more often by
needle sharing
From mother to child -- a pregnant woman can spread the virus to her fetus through their
shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can pass it to her baby through her breast milk
The virus is NOT spread by:
Casual contact, such as hugging
Mosquitoes
Participating in sports
Touching items that were touched by a person infected with the virus
HIV and blood or organ donation:
HIV is not spread to a person who donates blood or organs. People who donate organs are
never in direct contact with the people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates
blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all of these procedures, sterile
needles and instruments are used.
But HIV can be spread to a person receiving blood or organs from an infected donor. To
reduce this risk, blood banks and organ donor programs check (screen) donors, blood, and
tissues thoroughly.
Symptoms
Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) can be similar to the flu or
other viral illnesses. They include:
Fever and muscle pains
Headache
Sore throat

Night sweats
Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush)
Swollen lymph glands
Diarrhea
Many people have no symptoms
when they are first infected with
HIV.

Treatment
HIV/AIDS is treated with medicines that
stop the virus from multiplying. This
treatment is called antiretroviral therapy
(ART).
In the past, people with HIV infection would start antiretroviral treatment after their CD4 count
dropped or they developed HIV complications. Today, HIV treatment is recommended for all people
with HIV infection, even if their CD4 count is still normal.
Regular blood tests are needed to make sure the virus level in the blood (viral load) is kept low, or
suppressed. The goal of treatment is to lower the HIV virus in the blood to a level that is so low that
the test can't detect it. This is called an undetectable viral load.
If the CD4 count already dropped before treatment was started, it will usually slowly go up. HIV
complications often disappear as the immune system recovers.

LUPUS
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. In this disease, the body's immune
system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other
organs.
Causes
The cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully known.
SLE is more common in women than men. It may occur at
any age. However, it appears most often in people between
the ages of 15 and 44. The disease affects African Americans
and Asians more often than people from other races.
Certain drugs may also cause SLE.
Symptoms
Symptoms vary from person to person, and may come and go.
Almost everyone with SLE has joint pain and swelling. Some
develop arthritis. SLE often affects the joints of the fingers,
hands, wrists, and knees.
Other common symptoms include:
Chest pain when taking a deep breath.
Fatigue.
Fever with no other cause.
General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise).
Hair loss.
Mouth sores.
Sensitivity to sunlight.
Skin rash: A "butterfly" rash in about half the people with SLE. The rash is most often seen
over the cheeks and bridge of the nose. It can be widespread. It gets worse in sunlight.
Swollen lymph nodes.
Brain and nervous system: Headaches, numbness, tingling, seizures, vision problems, and
personality changes
Digestive tract: Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
Heart: Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)

Lung: Coughing up blood and difficulty breathing


Skin: Patchy skin color and fingers that change color when cold (Raynaud phenomenon)
Kidney: Swelling in the legs, weight gain
Some people have only skin symptoms. This is called discoid lupus.

Treatment
There is no cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms. Severe symptoms that
involve the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs often need treatment from specialists.
Mild forms of the disease may be treated with:
NSAIDs for joint symptoms and pleurisy. Talk to your provider before taking these drugs.
Low doses of corticosteroids, such as prednisone, for skin and arthritis symptoms.
Corticosteroid creams for skin rashes.
Hydroxychloroquine, a drug also used to treat malaria.
Belimumab, a biologic drug, may be helpful in some people,
Treatments for more severe SLE may include:
High-dose corticosteroids.
Immunosuppressive drugs (drugs which dampen or suppress the immune system). These
medicines are used if you do not get better with corticosteroids, or if your symptoms get
worse when you stop taking them.
Blood thinners, such as Coumadin, for clotting disorders.
If you have SLE, it is also important to:
Wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen when in the sun.
Get preventive heart care.
Stay up-to-date with immunizations.
Have tests to screen for thinning of the bones (osteoporosis).
Avoid tobacco and drink minimal amounts of alcohol.

DIABETES
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.
Causes
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too
little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both.
To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal process by which food is broken
down and used by the body for energy. Several things happen when food is digested:
A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source of fuel for the body.
An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. The role of insulin is to move glucose from the
bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where it can be stored or used as fuel.
People with diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar from the blood
into muscle and fat cells to be burned or stored for energy, and because their liver makes too much
glucose and releases it into the blood. This is because either:
Their pancreas does not make enough insulin
Their cells do not respond to insulin normally
Both of the above
There are 2 major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type:
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or
young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. This is because the pancreas
cells that make insulin stop working. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause
is unknown.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common. It most often occurs in adulthood, but because of
high obesity rates, children and teens are now being diagnosed with this disease. Some people
with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. With type 2 diabetes, the body is resistant to
insulin and doesn't use insulin as well as it should.
There are other causes of diabetes, and some people cannot be classified as type 1 or type 2.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops at any time during pregnancy in a woman who
does not have diabetes.

If your parent, brother, or sister has diabetes, you may be more likely to develop the disease.

Symptoms
A high blood sugar level can cause several symptoms, including:

Blurry vision
Excess thirst
Fatigue
Frequent urination
Hunger
Weight loss

Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period. People may be very sick by the time they
are diagnosed.
After many years, diabetes can lead to other serious problems. These problems are known as diabetes
complications, and include:
Eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night), light sensitivity, and blindness
Sores and infections of the leg or foot, which if untreated, can lead to amputation of the leg or
foot
Damage to nerves in the body, causing pain, tingling, a loss of feeling, problems digesting
food, and erectile dysfunction
Kidney problems, which can lead to kidney failure
Weakened immune system, which can lead to more frequent infections
Increased chance of having a heart attack or stroke

Treatment
Type 2 diabetes may be reversed with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight with exercise and
by eating healthier foods. Some cases of type 2 diabetes can also be improved with weight-loss
surgery.
There is no cure for type 1 diabetes.

Treating either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control
blood sugar level.
Everyone with diabetes should receive proper education and support about the best ways to manage
their diabetes. Ask your provider about seeing a diabetes nurse educator.
Getting better control over your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels helps reduce the
risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system disease, heart attack, and stroke.
To prevent diabetes complications, visit your provider at least 2 to 4 times a year. Talk about any
problems you are having. Follow your provider's instructions on managing your diabetes.

MICROCEPHALY

Microcephaly is a condition in
which a person's head size is much smaller than that of others of the same age and sex. Head size is
measured as the distance around the top of the head. A smaller than normal size is determined using
standardized charts.

Causes
Microcephaly most often occurs because the brain does not grow at a normal rate. The growth of the
skull is determined by brain growth. Brain growth takes place while a baby is in the womb and
during infancy.
Conditions that affect brain growth can cause smaller than normal head size. These include
infections, genetic disorders, and severe malnutrition.

Genetic conditions that cause microcephaly include:

Cornelia de Lange syndrome


Cri du chat syndrome
Down syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
Seckel syndrome
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
Trisomy 18
Trisomy 21
Uncontrolled phenylketonuria (PKU) in the mother
Methylmercury poisoning
Congenital rubella
Congenital toxoplasmosis
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Use of certain drugs during pregnancy, especially alcohol and phenytoin

Becoming infected with the Zika virus while pregnant can also cause microcephaly. The Zika virus is
present in Brazil and other parts of South America, along with Mexico, Central America, and the
Caribbean.

MICROPSY OR ALICE'S SYNDROME IN WONDERLAND

The Alice's Wonderland (AIWS) micropsy or syndrome is a neurological disorder that affects visual
perception.
Causes
The syndrome may be associated with migraine. Occasionally the syndrome is the first symptom of
an infectious mononucleosis.
Other causes of this disorder are the use of hallucinogenic substances or psychoactive drugs like LSD
or psilocybin fungi or amanita muscaria.
Treatment
The treatment is the same as for other migraine prophylaxis: anticonvulsants, antidepressants, betablockers and calcium antagonists, along with strict adherence to the migraine diet. The syndrome is
incurable, and treatment must be performed. Rest is the main treatment, but another effective therapy
is to join the support groups to share
experiences and know that you are not
alone.

FIBROUS DYSPLASIA

Fibrous dysplasia is a bone disease that destroys and replaces normal bone with fibrous bone tissue.
One or more bones can be affected.

Causes
Fibrous dysplasia occurs in childhood, usually between ages 3 and 15. The condition is linked to a
problem with genes (gene mutation) that control bone-producing cells. The mutation occurs when a
baby is developing in the womb. The condition is not passed from parent to child.

Symptoms
Symptoms may include any of the following:

Bone pain
Bone sores (lesions)
Difficulty walking
Endocrine (hormone) gland problems
Fractures or bone deformities (rare)
Unusual skin color (pigmentation), which occurs with McCune-Albright syndrome

The bone lesions may stop when the child reaches puberty.

Treatment
There is no cure for fibrous dysplasia. Bone fractures or deformities are treated as needed. Hormone
problems will need to be treated.

HENOCH-SCHNLEIN PURPURA

Henoch-Schnlein purpura is a disease that involves purple spots on the skin, joint pain,
gastrointestinal problems, and glomerulonephritis (a type of kidney disorder).

Causes

Henoch-Schnlein is caused by an abnormal response of the immune system. The result is


inflammation in the microscopic blood vessels in the skin. Blood vessels in the joints, kidneys, or the
intestines may also be affected. It is unclear why this occurs.
The syndrome is mostly seen in children, but it may affect people of any age. It is more common in
boys than in girls. Many people who develop this disease had an upper respiratory infection in the
weeks before.
Symptoms
Symptoms may include:

Abdominal pain
Joint pain
Purple spots on the skin (purpura), usually over the buttocks, lower legs, and elbows
Bloody diarrhea
Hives or angioedema
Nausea
Diarrhea
Painful menstruation
Vomiting

Treatment
There is no specific treatment. Most cases go away on their
own. If symptoms do not go away, you need to take
corticosteroid medicine such as prednisone.

CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

Chikungunya is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Symptoms include
fever and severe joint pain. The name chikungunya (pronounced "chik-en-gun-ye") is an African
word meaning "bent over in pain."

Causes
Mosquitoes spread the virus from person to person. Mosquitoes pick up the virus when they feed on
infected people. They spread the virus when they bite other people.
The mosquitoes that spread chikungunya are the same type that spread dengue fever, which has
similar symptoms. These mosquitoes usually feed during the day.

Symptoms
Symptoms develop 3 to 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The disease is easily
spread. Most people who become infected have symptoms.
The most common symptoms are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms include:

Headache
Joint swelling
Muscle pain
Nausea
Rash
Symptoms are similar to the flu and can be severe, but usually not deadly. Most people recover in a
week. Some have joint pain for months or longer. The disease can lead to death in frail older adults.

Treatment
There is no treatment for chikungunya. Like the flu virus, it has to run its course. You can take steps
to help relieve symptoms:
Drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated.
Get plenty of rest.
Take ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), or acetaminophen (Tylenol) to
relieve pain and fever.

HEPATITIS

Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver.

Causes
Hepatitis can be caused by:

Immune cells in the body attacking the liver


Infections from viruses (such as hepatitis A,
hepatitis B, or hepatitis C), bacteria, or parasites
Liver damage from alcohol or poison
Medicines, such as an overdose of acetaminophen
Fatty liver

Liver disease can also be caused by inherited disorders such as cystic fibrosis or hemochromatosis, a
condition that involves having too much iron in your body.
Other causes include Wilson's disease, a disorder in which the body retains too much copper.

Symptoms
Hepatitis may start and get better quickly. It may also become a long-term condition. In some cases,
hepatitis may lead to liver damage, liver failure, or even liver cancer.
There are several factors that can affect how severe the condition is. . These may include the cause of
the liver damage and any illnesses you have. Hepatitis A, for example, is most often short-term and
does not lead to chronic liver problems.
The symptoms of hepatitis include:

Pain or bloating in the belly area


Dark urine and pale or clay-colored stools
Fatigue
Low fever
Itching
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Weight loss

You may not have symptoms when first


infected with hepatitis B or C. You can still
develop liver failure later. If you have any risk
factors for either type of hepatitis, you should
be tested often.

Treatment
Your health care provider will talk to you about treatment options. Treatments will vary, depending
on the cause of your liver disease. You may need to eat a high-calorie diet if you are losing weight.

ANOREXIA

Anorexia is an eating disorder that causes people lose more weight than is considered healthy for
their age and height.
People with this disorder may have an intense fear of weight gain, even when they are underweight.
They may diet or exercise too much or use other ways to lose weight.
Causes
The exact causes of anorexia are not known. Many factors may be involved. Genes and hormones
may play a role. Social attitudes that promote very thin body types may also be involved.
Risk factors for anorexia include:
Being more worried about, or paying more attention to, weight and shape
Having an anxiety disorder as a child
Having a negative self-image
Having eating problems during infancy or early childhood
Having certain social or cultural ideas about health and beauty
Trying to be perfect or overly focused on rules
Anorexia often begins during the pre-teen or teen years or young adulthood. It is more
common in females, but may also be seen in males.
Symptoms
A person with anorexia usually:
Has an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even when underweight.
Refuses to keep weight at what is considered normal for their age and height (15% or more
below the normal weight).
Has a body image that is very distorted, be very focused on body weight or shape, and refuse
to admit the danger of weight loss
Other symptoms of anorexia may include:

Blotchy or yellow skin that is dry and covered with fine hair
Confused or slow thinking, along with poor memory or judgment
Depression
Dry mouth
Extreme sensitivity to cold (wearing several layers of clothing to stay warm)
Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis)
Wasting away of muscle and loss of body fat

Treatment
The biggest challenge in treating anorexia nervosa is helping the person recognize that they have an
illness. Most people with anorexia deny that they have an eating disorder. They often seek treatment
only when their condition is serious.
Goals of treatment are to restore normal body weight and eating habits. A weight gain of 1 to 3
pounds (lb) per week is considered a safe goal.
Different programs have been designed to treat anorexia. These may include any of the following
measures:

Increasing social activity


Reducing the amount of physical activity
Using schedules for eating
To start, a short hospital stay may be recommended. This is followed by a day treatment
program.

1. Jack the Ripper


It was never found. Possibly the most popular killer due to his brutality of assassinations. The
cynicism expressed in letters sent to the police made him a hated and feared being, the most feared of
London in 1888. The most certain is that he will never be able to know his identity, he will only be
remembered as the murderer who sadistically assassinated the Prostitutes and mocked the police
through letters.
2. John Wayne Gacy "Clown Pogo"
In 1978 the neighbors of Wayne Gacy wondered why the garden of the amiable and amusing Pogo
clown smelled so bad. The reason, Pogo was no more than a repressed man who murdered childrenteenagers. It was scary when the police found the 33 corpses buried in the garden. He was sentenced
to death in the electric chair. His last words: Kiss my ass!
3. Luis Alfredo Garavito
Considered one of the worst serial killers. He is accused of killing 140 children. He looked for them
in parks and recreation centers where he offered them money and then kidnapped them to mutilate
them.
His sentence: The sentences total 1,853 years and nine days.
4. Ed Gein
One of the worst and most murderous psychopaths in American history. Ed Gein was not only
content to murder his victims, he also had sex with their corpses, and also unearth other dead people
to have sex, AND FURTHER! Towards articles and clothing with these corpses.
It goes without saying that this sick necrophilus got its world-wide fame, in fact, the personage of
Bufalo Bill of the Silence of the Lambs is inspired by this person.
5. Andrei Chikatilo
He hid behind a friendly face with children, gaining his confidence before his brutal attacks on
isolated forests. He is involved with at least 53 murders and is one of the worst mass murderers ever.
On the basis of lies he took the children to the forest where he murdered them in a masochistic way,
castrating several of his victims. "I am an error of nature, an angry beast" was the phrase that
Chikatilo used to confess his crimes. It was executed in 1994 considered the worst assassin of the
Soviet Union.
6. Albert Fish
This harmless old man was the author of masochists and violent homicides. His madness advanced to
the point of naming Jesus Christ as the one who "incited him to commit acts of sacrifice." Accused in
addition to cannibalism and mutilation.
He never showed any regret. He was condemned to die in the electric chair and upon learning of this
exclaimed:
"What a joy to die in the electric chair.It will be the last chill.The only one I have not yet experienced
..."
7. Charles Manson
Leader of the Manson sect that took to its passage dozens of victims. Sadistic murderer who was
linked to Satanism.
The most famous victim was undoubtedly Sharon Tate, wife of Roman Polanski.
8. Ted Bundy

They estimate about 100 women killed, although only 36 were verified.
His charges made him one of the worst murderers in history: murder, rape and kidnapping. He was
electrocuted on January 24, 1989 and declared dead at 07:16 in the morning.
9. Paul Bernardo and Karla Homolka
Apparently they seemed to be a perfect match, yet both concealed their sick sexual desires. Paul
Bernardo dreamed of taking his virginity from Karla's sister Tammy. With the help of this, they
planned to drug her with anesthetics and did not choose more than a special date: Christmas of 1990.
Karla wanted to give her sister's virginity to Bernardo as a Christmas gift. The anesthesiologist was
so strong that Tammy died. Nobody checked them out.
Unsatisfied they raped and killed two more teenagers until they were captured.
10. Alexander Pichushkin "The Assassin of Chess"
A cynical man accused of 49 murders that corrected the data saying: they were 61 !.
His assassinations in Russia made him the famous "Chess Assassin" nickname obtained after
counting his victims with the help of the board of the famous game.
Its objective: To overcome the number of victims of Andrei Chikatilo. Since 2007, life imprisonment
in Russia is under maximum penalty. "A life without homicides for me is like a life without food for
you" has been one of the few phrases you have been hated to say.
11. The Assassin of the Zodiac
Characterized by the cryptograms that sent to the police and that never could be deciphered. He is
linked to 7 victims, although the police have not found his whereabouts.
12. Dean Corll "The Man of the Sweets"
"The Candy Assassin" earned his nickname by pretending to be friends with Texas teenage boys
(only males) in Texas to kidnap them, rape them and torture them into something he called "The
House of Torture."
He always felt rejected by the society and grew with traumas created by the humiliations of his father
when confessing to him that he was homosexual. He was finally murdered by his complicity Elmer
Wayne Henley who helped him kidnap the children until he discovered the horrors that Dean had
with them in his Chamber of Torture.
He is also suspected of 4 other victims. In popular culture, director David Fincher premiered in 2007,
Zodiac, based on the killer.
13. Juana Barraza "La Mataviejitas"
Hidden in a social worker who helped collect pensions from the elderly, Barraza murdered elderly
women because of a trauma from the past in which her grandmother humiliated her and her mother
offered it to 3 men in exchange for a bottle.
14. Jos Luis Calva Zepeda "The Cannibal of the Warrior"
A poet who dedicated himself to selling his poems in public transports of Mexico. After the
disappearance of his girlfriend was investigated. The police shuddered to find the disappeared
woman in the department of Zepeda in her apartment. One arm was fried in the frying pan next to a
lemon. Zepeda had eaten.
Traumas and homosexuality: After investigations, it was concluded that the reason why Zepeda had
killed his girlfriend was for a hatred of women to suppress their homosexuality, even a man was
designated as his partner and pleaded guilty to helping Zepeda To detach a prostitute. Zepeda was
imprisoned and killed by the others.

15. Jesse Pomeroy "El Nio Psicta"


From 1871 the American police alerted and began the search of a child-adolescent who deceived the
young children to take them to a cabin where he tortured them and used them to vent their
masochistic complexes.
It has never been proven a concrete murder, but there are doubts about at least one dead. He was
recognized by one of his victims and arrested. He died in 1929.
16. Jerry Brudos
He began with traumas of his childhood, because his mother wanted a girl, reason why was rejected.
One afternoon Brudos found some high-heeled shoes and attracted by them he used them until his
mother discovered him and forced him to take them off. At that moment he developed a strange idea
that women's shoes were a strange forbidden nature that later developed an obessive fetishism.
His victims were women and he used to dress the bodies with a dress, even one of them liked it so
much that he kept a leg as a souvenir. He was discovered and arrested. He died in prison in 2006 at
the age of 69.
17. Aileen Carol Wuornos
Despite the countless victims who were accused, prostitute Aileen pleaded guilty to 6 homicides
alleging that they attempted to rape her while hiring. His form of killing consisted of shots with a .22
caliber.
Difficulty of capture: The police considered their capture very complicated. It was difficult to find
the suspects who pointed out, for prostitutes changed names. Aileen was also known as Tyria Moore
and Lee Blahovec. In spite of this, she was captured and sentenced to death. His sentence was
fulfilled in 2002.
18. Joel Rifkin
Considered the worst serial killer in New York history. His life as a murderer began after his father's
suicide. His idea was to murder prostitutes so that they could reach their "other world" with their
father and not be alone.
His arrest: On June 28, 1993 the police located a car without plates so he made the signal to stop.
The driver avoided the signals, so the police cornered him and threatened with a gun. Upon entering
the vehicle, they discovered bitterly the corpse of a prostitute that Rifkin was about to go to throw
near the airport.
19. John George Haigh
"The Vampire of London". He earned the nickname by accepting that he killed and drank the blood
of his victim Olivia.
His background: As a child he was tormented by his comrades because his "vampiric" dreams and
transformations were a motive of constant mockery. It was precisely vampirism that made him
hanged on August 6, 1949.
20. Martha Beck and Raymond Fernndez
His starting weapon was neither more nor less than the newspaper ads in which Raymond pretended
to be single and seek couples by means of this. The loneliness that Beck and Raymond felt made
them act.
Old Janet Fey was brutally murdered by Martha. The murder was mysterious for the police as it had
no evidence to determine the culprit. But it was the case of Delphine and her daughter Rainelle who

condemned them. They both killed them without regard to the fact that their neighbors had already
alerted the police. Finally they died in the electric chair the 8 of March of 1951.
21. Juan Vallejo Corona
A California contractor who looked forward to help. He took advantage of the Mexicans' desire to
emigrate to California in search of work. But on the other hand he was a total despot who hated
homosexuals.
His peach orchard was the place where he buried the corpses of those homosexuals he did not
tolerate.
22. The Killed Grandfather
Under a picture of sadism, masochism, castration, self-castration, pedophilia, coprophagy, fetishism,
cannibalism carried out all kinds of perversions to over 100 children, eventually killing 15 of them.
He kidnapped a child and after scourging him cut off his ears, nose, eyes, opened his belly and drank
his blood being also known as "The Vampire of Brooklyn." He was condemned to the electric chair,
something that excited him.
23. Jack The Ripper"
Unidentified serial killer who committed several crimes in 1888, mainly in the Whitechapel district,
London.
Jack the Ripper is described as an intelligent, effective, mocking, cunning, cold and murderous killer.
The attacks attributed to her involved female prostitutes in poor neighborhoods and had a distinctive
modus operandi, which consisted of strangulation, slitting and abdominal mutilation.
He was never caught; Killed five women but is attributed more victims. Despite this, Whitechapel
police believe that it was not just one person who committed the heinous murders.
He is attributed 14 murders.
Jack is not the one that has more murders but besides that they did not catch him committed one of
the but ugly murders.
24. Isabel Bathory
Belonging to one of the most powerful families in his country. She has gone down in history for
being accused and convicted of being responsible for a series of crimes motivated by her obsession
for beauty that have earned her the nickname of "The Bloody Countess." Erzsbet has the Guinness
record of the woman who has killed the most in the history of mankind with 630 deaths. According
to some opinions, the crimes attributed to the Countess could be inventions of their enemies in a very
complex political context to look for their doom and death.
25. Garavito
Luis Alfredo Garavito Cubillos is one of the biggest serial killers in the world. This Colombian man
is still being investigated for 176 murders of children between 6 and 16 years old, of whom he has
confessed.