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# PROBLEM 14.

76
A jet airliner is cruising at a speed of 897.29 km/h with its engines scooping
in air at the rate of 326.58 kg/s and discharging it with a velocity of 567 m/s
relative to the plane when a control surface malfunction suddenly causes
a 20
percent increase in drag. Knowing that the pilot maintains level
20-percent
flight with the same mass flow rate and discharge relative velocity,
determine the new cruising speed. Assume that the drag due to air friction
is proportional to the square of the speed of the plane.

SOLUTION
Let

dm
= mass flow rate, u = discharge velocity relative to the airliner, v = speed of airliner, and
dt
F = thrust of the engines.
dm
(u v ) D = 0
dt

F D = 00,
Configuration before control surface malfunction:
dm
= 326.58 kg/s,
dt

u = 567 m/s,

## v1 = 897.29 km/h = 249.2 m/s

0
(326.58)(567 249.2) D1 = 0,
Drag force factor:

D1 = k1v12 ,

k1 =

D1 = 103787 N

D1
103787
=
= 167
. Ns 2 / m 2
2
2
v1
(249.2)
k2 = 1.2k1 = 2 Ns 2 / m 2

## After control surface malfunction:

When the new cruising speed is attained,

dm
(u v2 ) k2v22 = 0
dt

(326.58)(567 v2 ) 2 v22 = 0
Solving for v2,

v2 = 233.4 m/s

v2 = 233.4 m/s

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761

PROBLEM 14.77
In order to shorten the distance required for landing, a jet airplane is
equipped with moveable vanes which partially reverse the direction of the
air discharged by each of its engines. Each engine scoops in the air at a
rate of 120 kg/s and discharges it with a velocity of 600 m/s relative to
the engine. At an instant when the speed of the airplane is 270 km/h,
determine the reverse thrust provided by each of the engines.

SOLUTION
Apply
Apply the
the impulse-momentum
impulse - momentumprinciple
principletotothe
themoving
movingair.
air.Use
Useaaframe
frameofofreference
referencethat
thatisismoving
movingwith
withthe
the
airplane. Let F be the force on the air.
v = 270 km/h = 75 m/s
u = 600 m/s

( m ) v + F ( t ) = 2

( m ) u sin 20
2

dm
m
v + u sin 20) =
(
(v + u sin 20)
t
dt
F = (120 )(75 + 600sin 20) = 33.6 103 N
F =

Force on airplane is F.

F = 33.6 kN

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
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762

PROBLEM 14.78
A jetliner is cruising at a speed of 900 km/h with each of its three engines
discharging air with a velocity of 800 m/s relative to the plane.
Determine the speed of the airliner after it has lost the use of (a) one of its
engines, (b) two of its engines. Assume that the drag due to air friction is
proportional to the square of the speed and that the remaining engines
keep operating at the same rate.

SOLUTION
n = number engines operating

Symbols:

dm
= mass flow rate for one engine
dt
u = discharge velocity relative to jetliner = 800 m/s
v = speed of jetliner
F = thrust force = n

dm
(u v)
dt

D = drag force = kv 2
Force balance:
balance.
F D = 0,
0

dm
(u v) = kv 2
dt

v2
1 dm
=
n(u v) k dt
n = 3,

## v = 900 km/h = 250 m/s

(250)2
1 dm
=
= 37.879 m/s
3(800 250) k dt

engine
lost:
(a) 1One
engine
lost:

n=2

v2
= 37.8799,
2(800 v)

v 2 + 75.758v 60606 = 0

v = 211.2 m/s
(b) 2 engines lost:
2

v = 760 km/h

n=1

v
= 37.8799,
800 v

v 2 + 37.879v 30303 = 0

v = 156.16 m/s

v = 562 km/h

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
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763

PROBLEM 14.79
In a Pelton-wheel turbine, a stream of water is deflected by a series of
blades so that the rate at which water is deflected by the blades is equal to
the rate at which water issues from the nozzle (m/t = AvA). Using the
same notation as in Sample Prob. 14.7, (a) determine the velocity V of
the blades for which maximum power is developed, (b) derive an
expression for the maximum power, (c) derive an expression for the
mechanical efficiency.

SOLUTION
Let u be the velocity of the stream relative to the velocity of the blade.

u = (v V )

m
= Av A
t

Mass ow
flow rate:
Principle
Principle of
of impulse and momentum:
momentum.

## (m) u Ft (t ) = (m) u cos

Ft =

m
u (1 cos ) = Av A (v A V ) (1 cos )
t

## where Ft is the tangential force on the fluid.

The force Ft on the fluid is directed to the left as shown. By Newtons law of action and reaction, the
tangential force on the blade is Ft to the right.
Output power:

Pout = FV
t = Av A (v A V ) V (1 cos )

output:
(a) V for maximum power output.
dPout
= A (v A 2V ) (1 cos ) = 0
dV

11
V
v A== vVA
22
Maximumpower.
power:
(b) Maximum
1 1

## ( Pout )max = Av A v A v A v A (1 cos )

2 2

( Pout )max =

1
Av3A (1 cos )
4

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
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764

## PROBLEM 14.79 CONTINUED

Input power = rate of supply of kinetic energy of the stream
Pin =

1 1
1 m 2 1
(m)v A2 =
v A = Av3A

2
t 2
2 t

(c) Efficiency:
Efficiency.

pout
pin

Av A (v A V )V (1 cos )
1
Av3A
2

V V
= 2 1 (1 cos )
vA vA

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
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765

PROBLEM 14.80
cruising in
in level
levelight
flightatata aspeed
speedofof913.3
570 km/h,
mi/h, aa jet
While cruising
jet airplane scoops
air atataarate
rateofof
240 lb/s
witha avelocity
velocity
2200 m/s
ft/s
in air
108.86
kg/sand
and discharges ititwith
ofof670.56
relative to the airplane. Determine (a) the power actually used to propel
the airplane, (b) the total power developed by the engine, (c) the
mechanical efficiency of the airplane.

SOLUTION
Data:

240
dm
= 108.86
=
7.4534 kg/s,
slugs/s,
dt
32.2
F =

m/s,
u = 670.56
2200 ft/s,

km/h
= 253.7
v = 913.3
570 mi/h
ft/s m/s
= 836

dm
= 10166
253.7
= 45379
u v ) = (108.86
7.4534 )(670.56
2200 836
lb N
(
)
dt

(a) Power
Power used
used to
to propel
propel airplane:
airplane:

6 6
253.7
11.51
lb/s
P1 = Fv = (45379
10166 )(836
1010
ft W
) = =8.499

propulsion
powerpower
= 11.51
10 W
propulsion
hp
= 15450

Power
Power of
of kinetic
kinetic energy of exhaust:
P2 ( t ) =
P2 =

1
2
m )(u v )
(
2

1 dm
1
2
2 2
66
= 6.934
7.4534 )(670.56
2200 836
ftW lb/s
u v ) = (108.86
253.7
= 9.461010
(
)
2 dt
2

## (b) Total power:

power:

P = P1 + P2 = 20.97
15.43310
106Wft lb/s

totaltotal
power
= 20.97
10 hp
W
power
= 28060
8.499 10
P1
11.51
106
=
0.551
6 = 0.55
P 15.433
20.97 10
106
6

Mechanical efficiency:
(c) Mechanical
efficiency:

## mechanical efficiency = 0.55

0.551

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
766

PROBLEM 14.81
The wind-turbine-generator shown operates at a wind speed of 30 km/h
with an efficiency of 0.4. Knowing that the area swept out by the blades
is a circle of diameter d = 6.5 m and that = 1.2 kg/m3, determine
(a) the kinetic energy of the air particles entering the 6.5-m-diameter
circle per second, (b) the output power.

SOLUTION
Kinetic energy of fluid in slipstream passing in time t.:

T =

1
1
mass speed 2 = density volume speed 2
2
2

1
density area length speed 2
2

1
1
A ( l ) v 2 = Av ( t ) v 2
2
2
1
T
= Av3
2
t
Input power =

Data:

1
dT
= Av3
2
dt

= 1.2 kg/m3
A=

d2 =

2
6.5 )
(
4

= 33.183 m 2

## v = 30 km/h = 8.333 m/s

(a)

1
dT
3
= (1.2 )(33.183)(8.333) = 11.521 103 N m/s
dt
2
11.52 kJ/s
Input power =

(b)

dT
= 11.521 kW
dt

## Output power = (0.4 )(11.521) = 4.61 kW

output power = 4.61 kW

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or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
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767

PROBLEM 14.82
The wind-turbine-generator shown has an output-power rating of 3.5 kW
for a wind speed of 36 km/h and operates at an efficiency of 0.35.
Knowing that = 1.2 kg/m3, determine (a) the diameter d of the circular
area swept out by the blades, (b) the kinetic energy of the air particles
entering the circular area per second.

SOLUTION
Kinetic energy of fluid in slipstream passing in time t.:

T =

1
1
mass speed 2 =
density volume speed 2
2
2

1
density area length speed 2
2

1
1
A ( l ) v 2 = Av ( t ) v 2
2
2

T
1
= Av3
2
t

(1)

## output power = 3.5 kW = 3500 W

Output

Data:

3500
= 10000 W
0.35

input power =
Input

dT
= input power = 10, 000 W,
dt
A=

Using (1),

(a)

v = 36 km/h = 10 m/s

( 2 )(10000 ) = 16.667 m 2
2 dT
=
3
v dt
(1.2 )(10 )3

d2 = A

d =

4A

( 4 )(16.667 )

d = 4.61 m
dT
= 10.00 kJ/s
dt

## (b) From above,

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
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768

PROBLEM 14.83
The depth of water flowing in a rectangular channel of width b at a speed
v1 and a depth d1 increases to a depth d 2 at a hydraulic jump. Express
the rate of flow Q in terms of b, d1, and d 2.

SOLUTION
Mass flow rate:
mass = density volume

## = density area length

m = bd ( l ) = bdv ( t )
dm m
=
= bdv
dt
t
1 dm
= bdv
dt

Q=

Q1 = Q2 = Q

Continuity of flow:

v1 =

Q
,
bd1

v2

Q
bd 2

p1 = d1

p2 = d 2

F1 =

1
1
p1bd1 = bd12
2
2

F2 =

1
1
p2bd 2 = bd 22
2
2

## Apply impulse-momentum principle to water between

sections 1 and 2.

continued
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769

## PROBLEM 14.83 CONTINUED

(m ) v1 + F1 ( t ) F2 (t ) = ( m ) v2
Q
Q 1
2
2
Q

= b d 2 d1
2
bd
bd
2
1

m
(v1 v2 ) = F2 F1 ,
t

Q 2 ( d 2 d1 )
bd1d 2

1
b ( d1 + d 2 )( d 2 d1 )
2

Noting that = g ,
Q=b

1
gd1d 2 ( d1 + d 2 )
2

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770

PROBLEM 14.84
Determine the rate of flow in the channel of Prob. 14.83, knowing that
b = 3 m, d1 = 1.25 m, and d 2 = 1.5 m.
Problem 14.83: The depth of water flowing in a rectangular channel of
width b at a speed v1 and a depth d1 increases to a depth d 2 at a
hydraulic jump. Express the rate of flow Q in terms of b, d1, and d 2.

SOLUTION
Mass flow rate:
mass = density volume

## = density area length

m = bd ( l ) = bdv ( t )
dm m
=
= bdv
t
dt
Q=

1 dm

dt

= bdv
Q1 = Q2 = Q

Continuity of flow:

v1 =

Q
,
bd1

v2

Q
bd 2

p1 = d1 ,

p2 = d 2

F1 =

1
1
p1bd1 = bd12
2
2

F2 =

1
1
p2bd 2 = bd 22
2
2

## Apply impulse-momentum principle to water between

sections 1 and 2.

continued

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771

## PROBLEM 14.84 CONTINUED

(m ) v1 + F1 ( t ) F2 (t ) = ( m ) v2
Q
Q 1
2
2
Q

= b d 2 d1
bd1 bd 2 2

m
(v1 v2 ) = F2 F1 ,
t

Q 2 ( d 2 d1 )
bd1d 2

1
b ( d1 + d 2 )( d 2 d1 )
2

Noting that = g ,
Q=b
Data:

1
gd1d 2 ( d1 + d 2 )
2

g = 9.81 m/s,
Q=3

b = 3 m,

d1 = 1.25 m,

d 2 = 1.5 m

1
(9.81)(1.25)(1.5)(1.25 + 1.5 ) = 15.09 m3/s
2

Q = 15.09 m3/s

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772

PROBLEM 14.85
A circular reentrant orifice (also called Bordas mouthpiece) of diameter
D is placed at a depth h below the surface of a tank. Knowing that the
speed of the issuing stream is v = 2 gh and assuming that the speed of
approach v1 is zero, show that the diameter of the stream is d = D / 2.
(Hint. Consider the section of water indicated, and note that P is equal to
the pressure at a depth h multiplied by the area of the orifice).

SOLUTION
From hydrostatics, the pressure at section 1 is p1 = rh = gh.
The pressure at section 2 is p2 = 0.
Calculate the mass flow rate using section 2.
mass = density volume = density area length

m = A 2 ( l ) = A 2v ( t )
dm
m
=
= A 2v
t
dt
Apply the impulse-momentum principle to fluid between sections 1 and 2.

(m ) v1 + p1 A1 (t ) = (m ) v
dm
dm
v1 + p1 A1 =
v
dt
dt
p1 A1 =
But v1 is negligible,

dm
(v v1 ) = A2v (v v1 )
dt

p1 = gh,

v=

and

ghA1 = A2 ( 2 gh )

D2 = 2 d 2
4
4

or

2 gh
A1 = 2 A2
d =

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773

PROBLEM 14.86
A garden sprinkler has four rotating arms, each of which consists of two
horizontal straight sections of pipe forming an angle of 120. Each arm
3
gal/minmwith
of 60 ft/sofrelative
to
discharges water at
at aarate
rateofof50.0189
/mina velocity
with a velocity
18.3 m/s
movingthe
and
stationary
the arm.toKnowing
the friction
between
relative
the arm.that
Knowing
that the
frictionthe
between
moving
and
parts of the
is equivalent
to ato acouple
magnitude
stationary
part sprinkler
of the sprinkler
is equivalent
coupleof
of magnitude
. m, determine
0.275 lbN ft,
M == 0.0374
determine the
the constant
constant rate
rate at
at which
which the sprinkler
M
rotates ( 1 ft 3 = 7.48 gal).
rotates.

SOLUTION
gal/min.m3/min = 78.75 106 m3/s.
The flow
through
each
arm
is 1.25
ow Q
through
each
arm
is 0.004725
gal 1 ft 3 1 min
3 3
Q = 5

= 11.1408 10 ft /s
min 7.48 gal 60 s

)(

62.4 lb/ft 3

dm
103 ft 3/s
Q = kg/m
= Q = 1,000
11.1408
106 m3/s
3 78.75
2

dt
g
32.2 ft/s

33
21.590 1010
lb s/ft
= 78.75
kg/s

Consider the moment about O exerted on the fluid stream of one arm.
Apply the impulse-momentum principle. Compute moments about O.
of
First, consider the geometry of triangle OAB. Using first the Law
law of
cosines,
Cosines,

(OA)2

( )(

2
o
62 2++40.152
( 22 )(
4 ) cos120
= 0.1
62)(0.1
0.152 cos120

76 m
in. = 0.72648 ft
OA = 0.22
sin
sin120o
=
0.22
4
0.1
76
0.22

sines.
Law of Sines:

23.413o , a = 60
= 60o b =36.8
= 36.587o
= 23.2,

## ( m) ( vO ) ( 0) + M O ( t ) = ( OA)( m) vs sin ( OA)( m)( OA)

MO =

m
(OA) vs sin (OA)2

))

33

= 78.75
21.590 1010
60 ) sin 36.587
(0.72648
(0.72648
)2
(0.22
)(18.3)()sin36.8
(0.22)2w

0.56093
0.011395
= ((0.19
0.0038
w) N.m ) lb ft

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
774

## PROBLEM 14.86 CONTINUED

Moment that the stream exerts on the arm is M O .
Friction couple for one arm:
MF =

1
0.275 ) ==0.06875
0.0374
0.00935lbN.ftm
(
4

## Balance of moments on one arm:

M F M O = 0,
0

M F = MO

0.00935
0.0038w
0.06875 = 0.19
0.56093
0.011395
w == 47.54

412rpm
rpm
412rpm
rpm

w == 454

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
775

PROBLEM 14.87
A railroad car of length L and mass m0 when empty is moving freely on
a horizontal track while being loaded with sand from a stationary chute at
a rate dm/dt = q. Knowing that the car was approaching the chute at a
speed v0 , determine (a) the mass of the car and its load after the car has
cleared the chute, (b) the speed of the car at that time.

SOLUTION
Consider the conservation of the horizontal component of momentum of the railroad car of mass m0 and the
sand mass qt.

m0v0 = ( m0 + qt ) v ,

v =

m0v0
m0 + qt

(1)

dx
m0v0
=v=
dt
m0 + qt
x0 = 0

Integrating, using

x = L when t = t L ,

and
t

L = 0L vdt = 0L
=

ln

m0v0
mv
dt = 0 0 ln ( m0 + qtL ) ln m0
m0 + qt
q

m0v0 m0 + qt L
ln
q
m0
m0 + qtL
= eqL/m0v0
m0

m0 + qt L
qL
=
,
m0
m0v0

m0 + qt L = m0e qL/m0v0

## (a) Final mass of railroad car and sand:

sand
(b) Using (1),

vL =

m0v0
mv
= 0 0 eqL/m0v0
m0 + qtL
m0
vL = v0e qL/m0v0

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or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
776

PROBLEM 14.88
The final component of a conveyor system receives sand at a rate of
100 kg/s at A and discharges it at B. The sand is moving horizontally at A
and B with a velocity of magnitude v A = vB = 4.5 m/s. Knowing that the
combined weight of the component and of the sand it supports is
W = 4 kN, determine the reactions at C and D.

SOLUTION
Apply the impulse-momentum principle.

D=

1.8
1 m
W +
(0.9vA 1.65vB )
3
3 t

## (1.8)( 4000 ) + 1 (100 ) (0.9 )( 4.5) (1.65)( 4.5) = 2287.5 N

3

D = 2.29 kN

x-component:
x components:

(m )vA + Cx (t ) = (m ) vB
m
Cx =
(vB v A ) = (100 )( 4.5 4.5 ) = 0
t

y components:
y-component:

0 + C y ( t ) + D ( t ) W ( t ) = 0
C y = W D = 4000 2287.5 = 1712.5 N
C = 1.712 kN

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
777

PROBLEM 14.89
A chain of length l and mass m lies in a pile on the floor. If its end A is
raised vertically at a constant speed v, express in terms of the length y of
chain which is off the floor at any given instant (a) the magnitude of the
force P applied at A, (b) the reaction of the floor.

SOLUTION
Let be the mass per unit length of chain. Apply the impulse
- momentumto
to the
the entire
entire chain.
chain.Assume
Assume that
that
impulse-momentum
the reaction from the floor is
it equal to the weight of chain still in contact with the floor.
Calculate the floor reaction.
y

R = mg 1
l

R = g (l y ) ,

## Apply the impulse-momentum principle.

yv + P ( t ) + R ( t ) gl ( t ) = ( y + y ) v
Pt = ( y ) v + gl ( t ) R ( t )
(a)

P=

y
v + gl (l y ) g
t

Let

P = v 2 + gy

y dy
=
=v
dt
t
P=

m 2
v + gy
l

R = mg 1
l

## (b) From above,

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
778

PROBLEM 14.90
Solve Prob. 14.89, assuming that the chain is being lowered to the floor at
a constant speed v.

SOLUTION
(a) Let be the mass per unit length of chain. The force P supports the weight of chain still off the floor.
P = gy

P=

mgy

## (b) Apply the impulse-momentum principle to the entire chain.

yv + P ( t ) + R ( t ) gl ( t ) = g ( y + y ) v
R ( t ) = gl ( t ) P ( t ) g ( y ) v
R = gl gy
Let t 0. Then,

y
v
t

y dy
=
= v
t
dt
R = g (l y ) + v 2

R =

m
g (l y ) + v 2
l

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
779