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MDOF Systems

The governing equations of motion for a n-DOF linear

mechanical system with viscous damping are:

+ D U

+K U =F

MU

(t )

(t )

(1)

and U

are the vectors of generalized displacement,

where U, U,

velocity and acceleration, respectively; and F( t ) is the vector of

generalized (external forces) acting on the system.

M, D,K represent the matrices of inertia, viscous damping and

stiffness coefficients, respectively1.

The solution of Eq. (1) is uniquely determined once initial

conditions are specified. That is,

=U

at t = 0 U (0) = U o , U

(0)

o

(2)

T

T

matrices are SYMMETRIC, i.e. M = M , K = K . The kinetic

energy (T) and potential energy (V) in a conservative system are

1 T

, V = 1 UT K U

T= U

MU

2

2

(3)

The matrices are square with n-rows = n columns, while the vectors are nrows.

1

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

>0, then K is a positive definite matrix. V=0 denotes the existence

of a rigid body mode, and makes K a semi-positive matrix.

In MDOF systems, a natural state implies a certain

configuration of shape taken by the system during motion.

Moreover a MDOF system does not possess only ONE natural

state but a finite number of states known as natural modes of

vibration. Depending on the initial conditions or external forcing

excitation, the system can vibrate in any of these modes or a

combination of them. To each mode corresponds a unique

frequency knows as a natural frequency. There are as many

natural frequencies as natural modes.

The modeling of a n-DOF mechanical system leads to a set of ncoupled 2nd order ODEs, Hence the motion in the direction of one

DOF, say k, depends on or it is coupled to the motion in the other

degrees of freedom, j=1,2n.

In the analysis below, for a proper choice of generalized

coordinates, known as principal or natural coordinates, the

system of n-ODE describing the system motion is independent of

each other, i.e. uncoupled. The natural coordinates are linear

combinations of the (actual) physical coordinates, and conversely.

Hence, the motion in physical coordinates can be construed or

interpreted as the superposition or combination of the motions in

each natural coordinate.

Positive definite means that the determinant of the matrix is greater than

zero. More importantly, it also means that all the matrix eigenvalues will be

positive. A semi-positive matrix has a zero determinant, with at least an

eigenvalues equaling zero.

2

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

damping, D=0. Hence, Eq.(1) reduces to

+ K U = F

MU

(t )

(t )

(4)

=U

and at t = 0 U (0) = U o , U

(0)

o

Presently, set the external force F=0, and lets find the free

vibrations response of the system.

+ K U = 0

MU

(5)

U = cos( t )

(6)

From Eq. (6),

= 2 cos( t )

U

(7)

Note that Eq. (6) is a simplification of the more general solution

(8)

Substitution of Eqs. (6) and (7) into the EOM (5) gives:

+ K U = 0

MU

M 2 cos( t ) + K cos( t ) = 0

M 2 + K cos( t ) = 0

and since cos( t ) 0 for most times, then

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

or

M 2 + K = 0

(9)

2M = K

(10)

problem (mathematical jargon):

A =

where =M K and =

1

(11)

solution, 0 exists if and only if the determinant of the

system of equations is zero, i.e.

= M 2 + K =0

(12)

2

It is a polynomial in = , i.e.

= 0 = a0 + a1 2 + a2 4 + a3 6 + .... an n

n

= 0 = a0 + ( ai

i =1

(13)

set {k }k =1,2,....n or { k }k =1,2,....n since = .

The s are known as the natural frequencies of the system. In

the MATH jargon, the s are known as the eigenvalues (of matrix

A)

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

Knowledge summary

a)

b)

0 < 1 2 .......n 1 n .

c)

0 = 1 2 .......n 1 n , i.e. at least one natural frequency

is zero, i.e. motion with infinite period. This is known as

rigid body mode.

Hence, associated to each natural frequency (or eigenvalues)

there is a corresponding natural mode vector (eigenvector) such

that

[ M i + K ] (i )

= 0,

i =1,...n

(14)

undamped system), with all entries defined except for a constant.

The eigenvectors are unique in the sense that the ratio between two

elements is constant, i.e.

( k ) j

( k )i

arbitrary. Since Eq. (14) is homogenous, if is a solution, so it is

for any arbitrary constant . Hence, one can say that the

SHAPE of a natural mode is UNIQUE but not its amplitude.

For MDOF systems with a large number of degrees of freedom,

n>>3, the eigenvalue problem, Eq. (11), is solved numerically.

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

with a single (simple) command, the evaluation of all (or some)

eigenvalues and its corresponding eigenvectors in real time, even

for systems with thousands of DOFs.

Long gone are the days when the graduate student or practicing

engineer had to develop his/her own efficient computational

routines to calculate eigenvalues. Handout # 9 discusses briefly

some of the most popular numerical methods to solve the

eigenvalue problem.

A this time, however, lets assume the set of eigenpairs

is known.

i , ( i )

i =1,2...n

The natural modes (or eigenvectors) satisfy important

orthogonality properties. Recall that each eigenpair

satisfies the equation

i , ( i )

i =1,2...n

M i2 + K ( i ) = 0, i =1,...n .

(15)

satisfying

2j M ( j ) = K ( j ) and k2 M ( k ) = K ( k )

T

(16)

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

2j T( k ) M ( j ) = T( k ) K ( j )

and

(17)

k2 T( j ) M ( k ) = T( j ) K ( k )

Now, perform some matrix manipulations. The products

M and TK are scalars, i.e. not a matrix nor a vector. The

transpose of a scalar is the number itself. Hence,

T

( T( j )K ( k ) ) = ( K ( k ) ) ( T( j ) )

T

= T( k ) K T ( j )

= T( k ) K ( j ) since K = K T

and

T

( j)

M ( k ) ) = T( k ) M ( j ) since M = MT

T

2j T( j ) M ( k ) = T( j ) K ( k ) (a )

and

(18)

k2 T( j ) M ( k ) = T( j ) K ( k ) (b)

Subtract (b) from (a) above to obtain

2

j

k2 ) T( j ) M ( k ) = 0

(19)

follows that

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

for j k

T( j ) M ( k ) = 0 and T( j ) K ( k ) = 0

(20)

where Kj and Mj are known as the j-modal stiffness and j-modal

mass, respectively.

Define a modal matrix has as its columns each of the

eigenvectors, i.e.

= [1 2 .. n ]

(21)

T M = [ M ] ; T K = [ K ]

(22)

where [M] and [K] are diagonal matrices containing the modal

mass and stiffnesses, respectively.

The eigenvector set

combination of the natural modes, i.e.

n

v = a j ( j ) = a

j =1

v = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + .. + n an = [1 2

(23)

a1

a

.. n ] 2 = a

..

an

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

The orthogonality property of the natural modes (eigenvectors)

permits the simplification of the analysis for prediction of system

response. Recall that the equations of motion for the undamped

system are

+ K U = F

MU

(4)

(t )

(t )

=U

and at t = 0 U (0) = U 0 , U

(0)

0

Consider the modal transformation

U(t ) = q(t )

(24)3

= q

( t ) , then EOM (4) becomes:

And with U

(t )

+ K q = F( t )

M q

which offers no advantage in the analysis. However, premultiply

T

the equation above by to obtain

( M ) q + ( K ) q = F

T

(t )

(25)

T M = [ M ]; T K = [ K ] , then Eq. (25) becomes

T

M

q

+

K

q

=

Q

=

F( t )

[ ] [ ]

(26)

modal coordinates q. This transformation merely uses the property

of linear independence of the natural modes.

3

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

And since [M] and [K] are diagonal matrices. Eq. (26) is just a set

of n-uncoupled ODEs. That is,

M 1 q1 + K1 q1 = Q1

M 2 q2 + K 2 q2 = Q2

(27)

.....

M n qn + K n qn = Qn

Or

M j qj + K j q j = Q j with n j =

Kj

Mj

j =1,2...n

(28)

coordinates (canonical or principal, too). The vector

Thus, the major advantage of the modal transformation (24)

is that in modal space the EOMS are uncoupled. Each equation

describes a mode as a SDOF system.

The unique solution of Eqs. (28) needs of initial

specified in modal space, i.e. {q o , q o } .

Using the modal transformation,

follows

conditions

= q

U o = q o ; U

o

o

q o = 1U o ; q o = 1 U

o

, it

(28)

1

i.e. = I . For systems with a large number of DOF, n>> 1,

1

finding the matrix is computationally expensive.

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

10

coordinates follows. Start with the fundamental transformation,

to

obtain,

T M U o = T M q o

= [ M ]qo ,

since [ M ] = M , hence

T

q o = [ M ] T M U o ,

1

q o = [ M ]

(29a)

MU

o

T

or

qok =

1 T

1 T

)

( k ) ( M U o ) , qok =

( k ) ( M U

o

Mk

Mk

(29b)

large. Note that finding the inverse of the modal mass matrix [M]-1

is trivial, since this matrix is diagonal.

Comparing eqs. (28) and (29a) it follows that

1= [ M ] T M

1

M j qj + K j q j = Q j

(30)

with initial

solution of the SDOF response. That is, each modal response adds

the homogeneous solution and the particular solution. The

particular solution clearly depends on the time form of the modal

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

11

arbitrary time form.

Without modal forces, Q=0, the modal equations are

M j q H j + K j qH j = 0 = Q j

with solutions, for

an elastic mode

( )

qH j = qo j cos n j t +

; and for a rigid

(31a)

qo j

( )

sin n j t

if n j 0

(31b)

body mode

qH j = qo j + qo j t

if n j = 0

(31c)

j=1,2,.n

For step-loads, QS j , the modal equations are

M j qj + K j q j = QS j

and; for an

(32a)

elastic mode, n 0 ,

j

( )

q j = qo j cos n j t +

qo j

( )

sin n j t +

QS j

( )

1 cos t

nj

Kj

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

(32a)

12

1 QS j 2

t

2Mj

q j = qo j + qo j t +

(32c)

j=1,2,.n

M j qj + K j q j = QPj cos(t )

with solutions

for an elastic

mode, n 0 , and n

j

QPj

1

q j = C j cos n j t + S j sin n j t +

K j 1

nj

( )

( )

(33a)

cos ( t )

2

(33b)

Note that if = n j , a resonance appears that will lead to system

destruction.

For a rigid body mode, n j = 0 ,

QPj

q j = qo j + qo j t

M j2

For arbitrary-loads Q j

qj = qjo cos(nj t) +

(34)

for an

q jo

sin(nj t) +

cos(t )

(33c)

1

M jnj

Q

0

j( )

sin nj (t ) d

elastic mode, n 0 .

j

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

13

Once the response in modal coordinates is fully determined, the

system response in physical coordinates follows using the modal

transformation

U(t ) = q(t )

U ( t ) = [1 2

q1( t )

q

.. n ] 2 = 1 q1 + 2 q2 + .. + n qn

..

qn

n

U ( t ) = j q j( t )

j =1

(35)

obtain the response in physical coordinates? If not,

savings in computation time are evident. Hence, the physical

response becomes

m

U ( t ) j q j( t ) , m < n

j =1

(36)

physical response is accurate? That is, which modes are important

and which others are not?

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

14

n j and acting for very long times. The EOMs in physical

space are

+ K U = F cos ( t )

MU

P

periodic response in modal coordinates is (see eq. (33b)):

QPj

1

qj

K j 1

nj

cos ( t )

2

(37a)

And thus,

QPj

U = U P cos(t ) = q = j

Kj

j =1

1

nj

cos ( t )

2

(38)

The physical response is also periodic with same frequency as the

force excitation.

Recall that K j = n j M j = ( j ) K ( j ) and QPj = ( j ) FP

2

problem into a super computer; and for U = U P cos(t ) , finds the

solution

1

U P = K M FP

2

(39)

and elegance, time savings in lieu of understanding!

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

15

ORIGIN := 1

mode shapes of UNDAMPED system.

Given EOMs for a 2DOF - undamped- system:

2K2 X2

M2 0 d2 X2 2 K2

=

+

0 M1 dt2 X1 2 K2 2 K2 + K1 X1

where M2 =mo, M1 =5 m o , K2=k o; K1 =5 ko

mo

0

2 ko

X

d2 2 +

5 mo dt2 X1 2 ko

0

K Z

1

2ko

X2

=

2 ko + 5 ko X1

(1)

0

K Z

1

(a) PROCEDURE TO FIND NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND NATURAL MODES: Assume the

motions are periodic with frequency , ie

X2 = a1 cos ( t)

X1 = a2 cos ( t)

(2)

Set the RHS of Eq. (1) equal to 0. Substitution of (2) into (1) gives

2 ko mo 2

2 ko

a1

cos ( t) = 0

2 a

0

2

7 ko 5 mo

2ko

is NOT zero for all times

2 ko mo 2

2 ko

a1

= 0

2 a

2 0

7 ko 5 mo

2ko

(3)

has a non-trivial solution if the determinant of the system of equations equals zero, i.e. if

)(

( ) = 7 ko 5 mo 2 ko mo

Let

=

2

) 4 ko

=0

0 = 5mo 7 ko mo + 10 ko mo + 14 ko 4 ko

Let

mo

=

ko

Leads to:

( ) 2 + b

+ c

0 = a

with:

a := 5

b := 17

(4)

c := 10

b b2 4 a c

1 :=

2 a

) 0.5

b + b2 4 a c

2 :=

2 a

) 0.5

ko

m

o

0.757

=

2.643

1 := ( 1)

2 := ( 2)

0.5

0.5

ko

=

1.626 mo

0.87

0.5

The two equations in (3) are linearly dependent. Thus, one cannot solve for a1 and a2. Set

1 := 1

for 1

2 ko mo 1 )

(

(2 ko 0.757 ko)

=

=

2

2 ko

2 :=

2 ko

( 2 0.757)

2

2 = 0.621

1 :=

0.621

1 =

(b)

Explanation: DOF1 (X2) and DOF2 (X1) move in phase, with X2>X1

for

2

2

2 :=

(b)

1 := 1

2 ko mo 2 )

(

(2 ko 2.643 ko)

=

=

2

2 ko

0.321

2 =

2 :=

2 ko

( 2 2.643)

2

Explanation:DOF1 (X2) and DOF2 (X1) move 180 deg OUT of phase, with |X2|>|X1|

Since

0.87 ko

:=

1.626 mo

mo :=

0.5

170.947 rad

319.495 sec

=

fn :=

27.207 Hz

fn =

50.849

1000lb

ko := 105

lb

in

0

Note that mass must be

expressed in physical units

consistent with the problem, i.e.

lb sec2

mo = 2.59

in

1

0

M :=

Let

mo

Z := M

:= sort ( eigenvals ( Z) )

natural modes:

2 2 k

o

2 7

K :=

Not much learning

1 := ( 1)

.5

2 := ( 2)

.5

1 := eigenvec ( Z , 1)

2 := eigenvec ( Z , 2)

2.921 104 1

=

2

5

1.021

10

sec

170.914 rad

319.495 sec

0.849

0.528

1 =

0.952

0.306

2 =

27.202 Hz

50.849

( 1) 2

= 0.622

( 1) 1

( 2) 2

= 0.322

( 2) 1

the vectors found earlier

mo :=

1000lb

5 lb

k o := 10

Equations of motion:

n :=

sec

M :=

mo 0

0 5 mo

K :=

2 ko 2k o

2 ko 7 k o

170.95 rad

319.5 sec

F :=

3

7.584

8.534 10 lb sec2

in

3

3.925

8.534 10

:=

ORIGIN := 1

1

1

0.621 0.321

Fo := k o Zo

provides a

0 lb

F

o

Zo := 0.01 in

given:

Define matrices:

MM =

in

natural frequencies,

mo 0 d 2 X2 2 ko 2k o X2 0

=

0 5 mo dt2 X1 2 ko 7 k o X1 k o Z

ft

g = 32.174

constant force

system is at REST

T

KM := K

roundoff in numerical calculator

Mode 1

M m := M M

1

1, 1

Mode 2

M m := M M

2

2, 2

Km := n M M

1

1, 1

1

2

Km := n M M

2

2, 2

2

2.216 105 lb

Km =

5 in

4.006 10

(b) Find initial moddal displacements and velocities and modal force vector (Q)

2

7.584 lb sec

Mm =

3.925 in

At time t=0s, the system is at REST at its static equilibrium position, hence the initial conditions are null

displacements and null velocities. Of course, the same applies to modal space, i.e. null initial displacements

and velocities

X1

0

0 ft

for generality, define:

Calculate inverse of A matrix

1

Xo := ft

Vo :=

X

2

inv :=

0

0 sec

q o := inv Xo

(disp & velocities)

qo =

Define modal force

q o_dot := inv Vo

0 ft

0

q o_dot =

Q := F

(c)

Q=

621 lb

321

where

m =

2.802 10 3

in

4

8.013 10

Q

m :=

1

- a knowledge statement suffices

Mm

are null, the response in modal coordinates are

0 ft

0 sec

d2

q + Km q = Q

i

2 i

i

i i

dt

and equal to

q 1 ( t) := m 1 cos n t

1

1

velocity

m :=

Km

1

q 2 ( t) := m 1 cos n t

2

2

i = 1,2

Km

2

where:

n =

modal response is MORE important

170.95 rad

319.5 sec

(d) The response in physical coordinates, X1 and X2, equals (from transformation x=Aq)

with

X1 ( t) := q 1 ( t) + q 2 ( t)

X1 ( t) = m 1 cos n t + m 1 cos n t

1

1

2

2

X2 ( t) := 0.621 q 1 ( t) 0.321 q 2 ( t)

2

Tlarge := 10

n1

1

1

2

2

m 0.621 = 1.74 10

1

1

1

0.621 0.321

m ( 0.321 ) = 2.572 10

in

in

Explanation: Since q1 and q2 are non-zero, then physical motion, X1 &X2, shows excitation of the

TWO fundamental modes of vibration - BUT response for second mode is much less

GRAPHs not needed for exam:

attenuation of motions.

0.006

displacements (inch)

0.005

shows dominance of first mode (lowest

natural freq or largest period)

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0.001

0.002

= 0.037 sec

2

0

0.046

0.092

0.14

0.18

0.23

time (sec)

0.28

0.32

0.37

= 0.02 sec

X1

X2

terminal value

Terminal condition:

If damping is present and since the applied force is a constant, the system will achieve a new steady state

condition.

In the limit as t approaches very, very large values

X1 0

=

2

dt X2 0

d

; hence ===>

2 ko 2k o X1end 0

=

2 ko 7 k o X2end Fo

Fo 2 k o

2 k o Fo

X1end :=

X2end :=

:= 14 k o 4 k o

3

X1end = 2 10

in

Fo = 1 10 lb

X2end = 2 10

Note that the graph of undamped periodic motions Z(t) and X(t)

shows oscillatory motions abut these terminal or end values.

OR

X1end

=F

X2end

in

recall

2 10 3

in

K F =

3

2 10

1

Zo = 0.01 in

Zo

X1end

=5

0.006

displacements (inch)

COMPARE actual

response with a

response

neglecting q2.

Indeed mode 2 does

not afffect the physical

response, except for

motion X2 sligthly

0.005

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0

0.001

0.002

0.12

0.25

time (sec)

X1

X2

terminal

0.37

ARBITRARY but for a multiplicative constant. If one of the

elements of the eigenvector is assigned a certain value, then this

vector becomes unique, since then n-1 remaining elements are

automatically adjusted to keep constant the ratio between any two

elements in the vector.

In practice, the eigenvectors are normalized. The resulting

vectors are called NORMAL MODES.

Some typical NORMS are

( )

(39a)

2

(39b)

[M]=I, i.e.

hence

T( j ) M ( j ) = M j = 1

(39c)

T( j )K ( j ) = K j = 2j M j = n 2j

(39d)

the number of operations when conducting the modal analysis.

However, the physical significance of the modal equations is lost.

Note that the modal Eqs. (26) become:

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

16

qj + n2j q j = Q j

Your lecturer recommends this normalization procedure be

conducted only for systems with large number of degrees of

freedom, n>>>1.

Note that the normalization process is a mere convenience,

devoid of any physical significance.

The method is a procedure to determine an approximate value

(from above) for the fundamental natural frequency of a MDOF

system. At times, the full solution of the eigenvalue problem is of

NO particular interest and an estimate of the system lowest natural

frequency suffices.

i =1,2...n

satisfy K ( i ) = i2M ( i )

with properties T M = [ M ] ; T K = [ K ]

i.e. with modal stiffness and masses calculated from:

K i = T( i ) K ( i ) ; M i = T( i ) M ( i ) , and i2 =

That is,

i2 =

Ki

Mi

1

1

Ki

Mi

T( i ) K ( i )

T

2 ( i ) M ( i )

(41)

(42)

the system for the i-mode, and the denominator to the kinetic

energy for the same mode.

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

17

quotient R(u) as

T

u

Ku

R (u) = 2 T

1 u Mu

2

1

(43)

& K, but also on the choice of the vector u.

Clearly, if the arbitrary vector u coincides with (or is a multiple

of) one of the natural mode vectors, then Rayleighs quotient will

deliver the exact natural frequency for that particular mode. It can

also be shown that the quotient has a stationary value, i.e. a

minimum, in the neighborhood of the system natural modes

(eigenvectors). To show this, since u is an arbitrary vector and the

natural modes are a set of linearly independent vectors, then one

can represent

n

u = j c j = c

(44)

j =1

expansion. Substitution of the expression above into Rayleighs

quotient gives

T

R (u) =

cT ( T K ) c

2 ( c ) K ( c )

= T T

T

1 c

) M ( c ) c ( M ) c

2(

1

cT [ K ] c

R (u) = T

c [ M ]c

(45)

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

18

mass matrix, i.e.

n

c c

=

R (u) =

cT Ic

2

n

c

2

i

i =1

2

ni

(46a)

c

i =1

2

i

Next, consider that the arbitrary vector u (which at this time can be

regarded as an assumed mode vector) differs very little from the

natural mode (eigenvector) ( r ) . This means that in the expansion

Or

n

c +c

2

r

2

nr

R (u) =

2

r

cr2 + cr2

R (u) =

{ }

i =1, i r

n

1+

i =1, i r

+

2

nr

i =1, i r

n

2

i

i =1, i r

2

i

2

ni

2

i

2

ni

2

i

1+

=

2

nr

i =1, i r

1+

ini

i =1, i r

nr

(46b)

2

i

2

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

19

modal vector ( r ) .

The most important property of Rayleighs quotient is that it

shows a minimum value in the neighborhood of the

fundamental mode, i.e. when r=1.

n

R (u) = =

2

2

n1

1+

i =2

ini

n

1 +

i=2

n1

, since

2

i

( ) > 1 (47)

ni

n1

one in the denominator. Hence, it follows that

R(u) = 2 n21

(48)

(lowest) natural frequency of the undamped MDOF system.

Clearly, the equality holds above if one selects u = c1 (1) ; c1 0 .

Closure

Rayleighs energy method is generally used when one is

interested in a quick (but particularly accurate) estimate of the

fundamental natural frequency of a continuous system, and for

which a solution to the whole eigenvalue problem cannot be

readily obtained. The method is based on the fact that the natural

frequencies have stationary values in the neighborhood of the

natural modes.

In addition, Rayleighs quotient provides an upper bound to the

first (lowest) natural frequency. The engineering value of this

approximation can hardly be overstated. Rayleighs energy

method is the basis for the numerical computing of eigenvectors

and eigenvalues as will be seen later.

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

20

N 5

number of DOFS

mass 1

ORIGIN 1

stiff 10

M identity ( N) mass

2

1

K stiff 0

0

2 1

dt

0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1

0 0 1 2

Prepared by

Lecturer Luis San

Andres for ME617

course

U1

K

K

M

U3

U2

U K U = 0

U4

K

U5

K

K

M

ASSUME

u ( .5 .75 1 .75 .5 ) 1

uT K u1 1

R ( u)

uT Mu1 1

n_ap

R ( u)

n_ap 16.903

Actual n 16.369

1

% difference =

Estimate

rad/s

n

1.5

0.5

0

0

M1

u (approx)

ASSUME

u ( .5 .5 0 .5 .5 ) 1

uT K u1 1

R ( u)

uT Mu1 1

n_ap

R ( u)

n_ap 31.623

Actual n 31.623

2

% difference =

Estimate

rad/s

n

1.5

0

0

M2

u (approx)

N 5

number of DOFS

ORIGIN 1

mass 1

stiff 10

M identity ( N) mass

2

1

K stiff 0

0

2 1

dt

0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1

0 0 1 1

U1

K

K

M

U3

U2

U4

K

U K U = 0

U5

K

ASSUME

u ( .1 .3 .5 .7 1 ) 1

uT K u1 1

R ( u)

uT Mu1 1

n_ap

R ( u)

n_ap 10.935

Actual n 9.001

1

% difference =

Estimate

rad/s

n

1.5

0.5

0

0

M1

u (approx)

Recall that the response in physical coordinates is

m

U ( t ) j q j( t ) , m < n

j =1

(36)

method.

This method, however, fails to give an accurate solution even

when a static load is applied (See Structural Dynamics, by R.

Craig, J. Wiley Pubs, NY, 1981.).

The difficulty is overcome by using the procedure detailed

below. Recall that the system motion is governed by the set of

equations

+ K U = F

MU

(t )

(t )

(4)

And, if there are no rigid body modes, i.e. all natural frequencies

are greater than zero, then

)

U ( t ) = K 1 ( F( t ) M U

where K

(51)

m

qj , m < n

U

( j ) (t )

j =1

(52)

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

21

U ( t ) K 1F( t ) K 1M ( j ) qj( t )

j =1

(53)

K ( i ) = i2 M ( i )

=

K

M ( i )

(i )

2

( j )

U ( t ) K F( t ) 2 qj( t )

j =1 j

m

Note that

U S = K 1F( t )

(54)

(55)

F(t), i.e. without the system inertia accounted for. Hence write Eq.

(54), as

( j )

U ( t ) U s ( t ) 2 qj( t )

j =1 j

m

; m<n

(56)

response.

n j and acting for very long times. The EOMs in physical

space are:

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

22

+ K U = F cos ( t )

MU

P

With a little damping, the steady state periodic response in modal

coordinates is

QPj

1

qj

K j 1

nj

cos ( t )

2

(37a)

response in physical coordinates is:

QPj

U j

Kj

j =1

1

nj

cos ( t )

2

(38)

cos ( t ) ;

qj

)

(

2

Kj

1 ( )

j

QPj

QPj 2

1

cos ( t )

2

2

2

j

K j j 1 ( )

j

qj

(57)

2

response is

m

QPj

U U SP + j

Kj

j =1

2

1

cos ( t ) (58

2

2

j 1 ( j )

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

23

limit, as the excitation frequency decreases, i.e., as 0 , the

second term in Eq. (58) above disappears, and hence the physical

response becomes:

U = USP = K 1 FP

(59)

chosen. Hence, the mode acceleration method is more accurate

than the mode displacement method. Known disadvantages

include more operations.

Finding the flexibility matrix is, in actuality, desirable. In

particular, if derived from measurements, the flexibility matrix is

easier to determine than the stiffness matrix.

MEEN 617 HD#7 Undamped Modal Analysis of MDOF systems. L. San Andrs 2008

24

mechanical system

ORIGIN := 1

Dr. Luis San Andres (c) MEEN 363, 617 February 2008

d2

dt 2

(1)

X + K X = Fo

where M,K are matrices of inertia and stiffness coefficients, and X, V=dX/dt, d2X/dt2 are the

vectors of physical displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively.

The FORCED undamped response to the initial conditions, at t=0, Xo,Vo=dX/dt, follows:

========================================================================

M11 M12 d2 x1

2

M

M

22 dt x2

21

=

K

K

21 22 x2 F2o

(2)

100

M :=

0

M

Note

and

kg K :=

50

0

2 10 6 1 10 6 N

m

6

6

2 10

1 10

n := 2 # of

DOF

0

0

Xo := m

initial conditions

0.0 m

0 sec

Vo :=

10000 N

5000

Fo :=

Set determinant of system of eqns = 0

= K11 M11

4

) (K

22

2

M22

) (K

12

M12

= a + b + c = a + b + c = 0with =

where the

coefficients

are:

) (K

21

M21

) = (2a)

0

(2b)

a := M1 , 1 M2 , 2 M1 , 2 M2 , 1

b := K1 , 2 M2 , 1 K1 , 1 M2 , 2 K2 , 2 M1 , 1 + K2 , 1 M1 , 2

c := K1 , 1 K2 , 2 K1 , 2 K2 , 1

(2c)

b ( b 2 4 a c) .5 b + ( b 2 4 a c) .5

1 :=

2 :=

2a

(3)

2a

j := 1 .. n

( ) .5

j := j

( )

f :=

112.6 rad

217.53 sec

17.92 Hz

f=

34.62

( )

Note that: 1 = 2 = 0

(4)

j := 1 .. n

1

a j := K1 , 1 M1 , 1 j

( K1 , 2 M1 , 2 j)

1 a = 1

2

0.73

2.73

a1 =

MODAL matrix

j

A := a j

1

modal matrix): each column corresponds to an A =

0.73

eigenvector

Aj ,

Aj ,

0.37

2.73

j

DOF

mode 1

mode 2

(5)

2.73

1

(6)

X = Aq

Using transformation:

Mm

d2

dt 2

(7)

q + K m q = Qm

(8)

Qm = A Fo

qo = Mm

A M Xo

so = Mm

A M Vo

(9)

qk = qo cos k t +

k

so

k=1....n

Qm

sin k t +

Km

k

k,

))

1 cos k t 0

k

(10a)

k

for an elastic mode

OR

qk = qo + so t +

k

Qm

2 Mm

for k = 0

(10b)

k, k

by the superposition of the modal responses, i.e.

X ( t) = A q ( t)

(5)

Verify the orthogonality properties of the natural mode shapes

Mm := A M A

T

Km := A K A

126.79

2.24 10 14

Mm =

kg

14

473.21

1.58 10

1.61 10 6

Km =

10

3.51 10

3.18 10 10 N

2.24 10 7

112.6 s -1

217.53

=========================================================================================

4. Find Modal and Physical Response for given initial condition and

Constant Force vector

0

0

0 m

Vo =

0 s

Xo = m

Fo =

m m

3

5 10

Set inverse of modal mass matrix

qo := Ainv Xo

Ainv := Mm

A M

so := Ainv Vo

0

0

0

0

qo = m

so = m s

-1

T

6.34 10 3

Qm =

N

4

2.37 10

Qm := A Fo

q1 ( t) := qo cos ( 1 t) +

1

q2 ( t) := qo cos ( 2 t) +

2

so

1

so

sin ( 1 t) +

sin ( 2 t) +

Qm

Km

( 1 cos ( 1 t) )

1 , 1

Qm

Km

( 1 cos ( 2 t) )

2 , 2

for plots:

X ( t) := a1 q1 ( t) + a2 q2 ( t)

Response in modal coordinates

0.01

Tplot :=

f1

0.005

0.056

0.11

0.17

0.22

0.28

0.33

time (s)

q1

q2

0.01

0.005

0

0.005

0.01

0.056

0.11

0.17

0.22

0.28

0.33

time (s)

x1

x2

S-S displacement

K

Recall natural frequencies & periods

17.92 Hz

34.62

f=

112.6 s -1

217.53

0.056

=

s

f 0.029

5 10 3

Fo =

m

0

1

1

0.73 2.73

A=

mechanical system

ORIGIN := 1

Dr. Luis San Andres (c) MEEN 363, 617 February 2008

d2

dt 2

(1)

X + K X = Fo

where M,K are matrices of inertia and stiffness coefficients, and X, V=dX/dt, d2X/dt2 are the

vectors of physical displacement, velocity and acceleration, respectively.

The FORCED undamped response to the initial conditions, at t=0, Xo,Vo=dX/dt, follows:

========================================================================

MODE

M11 M12 d2 x1

2

M

M

22 dt x2

21

=

K

K

21 22 x2 F2o

(2)

100

M :=

0

M

Note

and

kg K :=

50

0

1 10 6 1 10 6 N

m

6

6

1 10

1 10

n := 2 # of

DOF

0

0

Xo := m

initial conditions

0.0 m

0 sec

Vo :=

1000 N

980

Fo :=

Set determinant of system of eqns = 0

= K11 M11

4

) (K

22

2

M22

) (K

12

M12

= a + b + c = a + b + c = 0with =

where the

coefficients

are:

) (K

21

M21

) = (2a)

0

(2b)

a := M1 , 1 M2 , 2 M1 , 2 M2 , 1

b := K1 , 2 M2 , 1 K1 , 1 M2 , 2 K2 , 2 M1 , 1 + K2 , 1 M1 , 2

c := K1 , 1 K2 , 2 K1 , 2 K2 , 1

(2c)

b ( b 2 4 a c) .5 b + ( b 2 4 a c) .5

1 :=

2 :=

2a

(3)

2a

j := 1 .. n

( ) .5

j := j

( )

f :=

rad

173.21 sec

0

f =

Hz

27.57

( )

Note that: 1 = 2 = 0

(4)

j := 1 .. n

1

a j := K1 , 1 M1 , 1 j

( K1 , 2 M1 , 2 j)

MODAL matrix

A j := a j

1

a1 =

a2 =

2

1

modal matrix): each column corresponds to an

eigenvector

(5)

A =

2

1

2

Aj ,

Aj ,

j

DOF

mode 1

mode 2

3. Modal transformation of physical equations to (natural) modal coordinates

Using transformation:

(6)

(6)

X = Aq

Using transformation:

Mm

d2

dt

(7)

q + K m q = Qm

(8)

Qm = A Fo

qo = Mm 1 A M Xo

T

so = Mm 1 A M Vo

T

(9)

qk = qo cos k t +

k

so

k=1....n

sin k t +

Qm

Km

k, k

))

1 cos k t 0

k

(10a)

OR

Qm

qk = qo + so t +

2 Mm

k

k

for k = 0

t2

(10b)

k, k

by the superposition of the modal responses, i.e.

X ( t) = A q ( t)

(5)

Verify the orthogonality properties of the natural mode shapes

Mm =

Mm := A M A

Km := A K A

Km =

150

0

kg

300

0

9 10 6 m

0

-1

s

173.21

0

=========================================================================================

4. Find Modal and Physical Response for given initial condition and

Constant Force vector

Recall the vectors of initial conditions

0

Xo = m

dC

tf

0 m

Vo =

0 s

1 10 3 N

Fo =

m m

980

Ainv := Mm 1 A M

)

0.67 0.33

0.33 0.33

Ainv =

qo := Ainv Xo

so := Ainv Vo

0

qo = m

0

so = m s -1

T

Qm := A Fo

3

2.96

10

Qm =

20

q1 ( t) := qo + so t +

1

Qm

Mm

1 , 1

q2 ( t) := qo cos ( 2 t) +

2

so

t2

sin ( 2 t) +

Qm

Km

( 1 cos ( 2 t) )

2 , 2

for plots:

X ( t) := a1 q1 ( t) + a2 q2 ( t)

Tplot :=

Response in modal coordinates

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0

time (s)

0.13

0.15

0.17

0.2

0.22

f2

time (s)

q1

q2

0.002

0.002

0.13

0.15

0.17

0.2

time (s)

x1

x2

S-S displacement - NONE

f =

Hz

27.57

0

A =

2

1

s -1

173.21

0

0.22

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