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The Skeletal System

Parts of the skeletal system


Bones (skeleton)

Joints
Cartilages
Ligaments

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Functions of Bones

Support of the body


Protection of soft organs
Movement due to attached skeletal
muscles
Storage of minerals and fats
Blood cell formation
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The adult skeleton has 206 bones


Two basic types of bone tissue
Compact bone
Homogeneous

Spongy bone
Small needle-like
pieces of bone
Many open spaces
Figure 5.2b
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Classification of Bones on the Basis of


Shape

Figure 5.1
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Classification of Bones
Long bones
Typically longer than
wide
Have a shaft with heads
at both ends
Contain mostly
compact bone

Examples: Femur,
humerus

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Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone


Diaphysis
Shaft
Composed of
compact bone

Epiphysis
Ends of the bone
Composed mostly of
spongy bone
Figure 5.2a
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Structures of a Long Bone


Periosteum
Outside covering of
the diaphysis
Fibrous connective
tissue membrane

Sharpeys fibers
Secure periosteum to
underlying bone
Arteries
Supply bone cells
with nutrients
Figure 5.2c
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Structures of a Long Bone


Medullary cavity
Cavity of the shaft
Contains yellow
marrow (mostly fat)
in adults
Contains red marrow
(for blood cell
formation) in infants

Figure 5.2a
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Classification of Bones
Short bones
Generally cubeshape
Contain mostly
spongy bone
Examples:
Carpals, tarsals

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Classification of Bones
Flat bones
Thin and flattened

Usually curved
Thin layers of
compact bone
around a layer of
spongy bone

Examples:
Skull, ribs,
sternum
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Classification of Bones
Irregular bones
Irregular shape
Do not fit into
other bone
classification
categories

Example:
Vertebrae and
hip
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone


Osteon (Haversian System)
A unit of bone

Central (Haversian) canal


Opening in the center of an osteon
Carries blood vessels and nerves
Perforating (Volkmans) canal
Canal perpendicular to the central canal
Carries blood vessels and nerves
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone

Figure 5.3
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone


Lacunae
Cavities containing
bone cells (osteocytes)
Arranged in concentric
rings
Lamellae
Rings around the
central canal
Sites of lacunae
Detail of Figure 5.3
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Microscopic Anatomy of Bone


Canaliculi
Tiny canals
Radiate from the
central canal to
lacunae

Detail of Figure 5.3


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Types of Bone Cells


Osteocytes
Mature bone cells

Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells

Osteoclasts
Break down bone matrix for remodeling and
release of calcium

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BONE MARKINGS PROJECTIONS


Tuberosity
- large rounded
projection;
maybe roughened
ex. Radial tuberosity

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Crest
- narrow ridge of bone,
usually prominent

ex. Iliac crest

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Line
- narrow ridge of bone
less prominent than a

crest
ex. Intertrochanteric
line

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Trochanter
- very large, blunt,

irregularly shaped
process

ex. Greater trochanter

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Tubercle
- small rounded
projection or process
ex. Greater and lesser
tubercle of the

humerus

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Epicondyle
- raised area on or
above a condyle

ex. Medial epicondyle


of radius

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Spine
- sharp, slender, often

pointed projection
ex. Spinous process

of the vertebrae

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Head
- bony expansion
carried on a narrow
neck
ex. Head of femur

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Facet
- smooth, nearly flat
articular surface

ex. Facet of
vertebrae

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Ramus
- arm like bar of bone
ex. Ramus of mandible

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BONE MARKINGS- DEPRESSIONS AND


OPENINGS
Meatus
- canal-like passageway
ex. External acoustic
meatus

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Sinus
- cavity within a bone
- filled with air and lined with mucous
membrane

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Fossa
- Shallow basin-like
depression serving as
articular surface
ex. Iliac fossa

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Fissure
- Narrow slit-like
opening
ex. Orbital fissure

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Foramen
-Round or oval opening
ex. Foramen magnum

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Groove
- Furrow
ex. Radial groove
Intertubercular
groove

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Divided into two divisions


Axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

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The Axial Skeleton (80 Bones)


Forms the longitudinal part of the body
Skull
Vertebral column
Bony thorax
Auditory Ossicles

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The Axial Skeleton

Figure 5.6
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The Skull
Two sets of bones
Cranium

- encloses and protects the brain


Facial bones

- hold the eyes in an anterior position


- allow facial muscles to show our feelings

Bones are joined by sutures


Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

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CRANIAL BONES
8 Large Flatbones
- 1 Frontal

- 2 Parietal
- 2 Temporal

- 1 Occipital
- 1 Ethmoid

- 1 Sphenoid

Figure 5.7
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Frontal bone
Forehead, bony
projection of
the eyebrows,
and superior
part of the orbit

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Parietal
Bone
Superior and
lateral walls of the
cranium
Sagittal sutures

Parietal bones
meet at the center

Coronal sutures

Parietal bone
meets the frontal
bone

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Temporal Bone

Inferior to
parietal bone
Squamous suture

Temporal bone
joins parietal
bone

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Temporal Bone

Inferior to
parietal bone
Squamous suture

Temporal bone
joins parietal
bone

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Bone Markings

External auditory meatus

Leads to eardrum and


middle ear
Styloid process

Attachment of neck
muscles
Zygomatic process/arch

Bridge of bone that


joins the cheekbones
Mastoid process

Mastoid sinuses,
attachment of neck
muscles
Jugular foramen

Passage of jugular
vein, junction of
occipital and temporal
bones

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Human Skull, Inferior View


Occipital Bone
Floor and back wall
of skull
Lambdoid suture

Foramen magnum

Occipital bone
meets parietal bones
allows spinal cord to
connect with brain

Occipital condyles

rest on the first


vertebra

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Figure 5.9

Human Skull, Inferior View


Occipital Bone
Floor and back wall
of skull
Lambdoid suture

Foramen magnum

Occipital bone
meets parietal bones
allows spinal cord to
connect with brain

Occipital condyles

rest on the first


vertebra

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Figure 5.9

Sphenoid Bone
Part of the floor and
lateral portion of the
cranium, and part of the
eye orbit
Extends at the center of
the skull, wings extend
to the sides of the skull
Sella turcica or Turks
saddle
Pituitary gland

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Ethmoid Bone
Roof of the nasal cavity, and
medial wall of the orbit

Crista galli or cocks comb


attachment of covering of
the brain
Cribriform plates
allows fibers carrying
impulses from the
olfactory receptors

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FACIAL BONES
14 facial bones
6 paired

Mandible and vomer


(single)
Maxillae
Palatine Bones
Zygomatic bones
Lacrimal Bones
Nasal Bones
Inferior Conchae Figure 5.11

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Maxillae/Maxillary
bones

Upper jaw
Keystone
Join all facial
bones except
mandible
Palatine process
Anterior part of
hard palate
Cleft palate

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Palatine Bone

Posterior part of
hard palate

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Zygomatic Bones

Lateral walls of the


orbit
cheekbones

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Lacrimal Bones
forms the medial wall
of the orbit

Fingernail-sized
bone
Lacrimal groove

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Nasal Bones

Rectangular bones
forming the bridge
of the nose

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Vomer

Single bone in
the median line
of the nasal
cavity
Nasal septum

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Inferior Nasal
Conchae

Thin curved bones


projecting from the
lateral walls of
nasal cavity

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Mandible

Largest and strongest


bone of the face
Forms the only
movable joint in the
face with temporal
bone
Horizontal part forms
chin
Upright bars called
rami connect with
temporal bone

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Hyoid Bone
Only bone not directly
articulated with another bone
Suspended in the midneck
region
Anchored by ligaments to the
styloid process of temporal
bone
1.Movable base of the tongue
2.Attachment point for neck
muscles
Horseshoe-shaped
Body
Horns or cornua

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Auditory Ossicles
Malleus

or hammer
Incus or anvil
Stapes or stirrup

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The Vertebral Column


Axial

support
Extends from skull to pelvis
Vertebrae

Cervical vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae
Sacrum (5 fused bones)
Coccyx (4 fused bones)

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26
7
12
5
1
1

The Vertebral Column or Spine


Vertebrae separated
by intervertebral discs
The spine has a
normal curvature
Each vertebrae is
given a name
according to its
location

Figure 5.14
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Primary curvatures
Thoracic
Sacral
Secondary curvatures
Cervical
Lumbar

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Thoracic and Sacral curves


- termed Primary Curvatures
- present during fetal life
Cervical and Lumbar curves
- termed Compensatory or Secondary
Curvatures
- developed after birth
Cervical curve
- formed when the child is able to hold up its head
(at 3 or 4 months) and to sit upright (at 9 mos.)
Lumbar Curve
- formed at 12 or 18 mos. when the child begins
to walk

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Common Features of Vertebrae


1. Body or centrum
- disc like, weight
bearing part
2. Vertebral foramen
- canal through which
the spinal cord passes
3. Transverse processes
- two lateral projections

Figure 5.16
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4. Spinous process
- single projection
- arises from posterior aspect of vertebral arch
5. Superior and inferior articular processes
- paired projections
- allow vertebra to form joints with adjacent vertebrae

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Cervical Vertebrae C7
C1-Atlas
- superior surface of
transverse processes with
depression
- no body , no spinous process
C2-Axis
- Odontoid process/dens
- Joint formed bet. C1 and C2
allows head to rotate

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C3 C7
- Branched spinous
process
- Transverse processes
contain opening
(transverse foramen)

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Thoracic Vertebrae T12


- with 2 demifacets (articulating surfaces) on each side
- spinous process are long and hooks sharply
downward

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Lumbar Vertebrae L5

L1 L5
Massive block-like body
Hatchet-shaped spinous process
Sturdiest of the vertebrae

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Sacrum S1

formed by fusion of
5 vertebrae
Wing-like alae
Posterior wall of
pelvis
Sacroiliac joint
Sacrum meets
the iliac bone
of the pelvis

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Median

sacral

crest
Fused spinous
processes
Sacral canal
Continuous
with vertebral
canal

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Coccyx C1

Human
tailbone
Fusion of 4
bones or 3-5
bones

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The Bony Thorax


Made-up of
three parts
Sternum
Ribs

Thoracic
vertebrae

Figure 5.19a
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Bony Thorax/Thoracic Cavity

Sternum (breastbone)
1
Manubrium
Body of the sternum
Xiphoid process
Attached to the first 7 pairs of ribs
Ribs
24
True ribs
first 7 pairs

attached to the sternum by costal cartilage


False ribs
next 5 pairs
Attached indirectly to the sternum
Last two are floating ribs (lack sternal attachments)
Thoracic vertebrae

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The Appendicular Skeleton


Limbs (appendages)
Pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle

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The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle


Composed of two bones
Clavicle collarbone
Scapula shoulder blade
These bones allow the upper limb to have
exceptionally free movement

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PECTORAL GIRDLE

Clavicle or collarbone
Slender, doubly
curved bone
Articulates with
manubrium of
sternum medially
o

Sternoclavicular
joint

Articulates with
acromion of
scapula laterally

Acromioclavicular
joint

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Scapula/ Shoulder Blades


Triangular, wing-like bone
Spine
Acromion articulates with clavicle laterally
Coracoid process anchors muscles
Borders
Superior, vertebral (medial), and axillary
(lateral)
Fossae
Supraspinous ,Infraspinous and Subscapular
Glenoid cavity or fossa receives head of

humerus

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Bones of the Upper Limb


The upper arm is
formed by a single
bone
Humerus

Head received by
glenoid cavity
Greater and lesser
tubercle muscle
attachment
Deltoid tuberosity
midpoint of shaft

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Bones of the Upper Limb

Trochlea distal,
medial end
Capitulum distal,
lateral end (round)
Coronoid fossa
anterior
Olecranon fossa
posterior
Medial and lateral
epicondyle

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Bones of the Upper Limb


The forearm has two
bones Limb
Upper
Ulna
Radius

Radius
Lateral bone
Head disk-shaped
Radial tuberosity
attachment of tendon of
biceps brachii
Styloid process

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Bones of the Upper Limb

Ulna

Medial bone
Coronoid process
anterior
Olecranon process
posterior
Trochlear notch
separates coronoid
and olecranon
processes

Articulates with
trochlea pliers-like
manner
Figure 5.21ab

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Bones of the Upper Limb


The hand
Carpals wrist
Metacarpals
palm

Phalanges
fingers

Figure 5.22
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Carpals wrist

Scaphoid or
navicular
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform
Trapezium or
Greater multiangular
Trapezoid or Lesser
multiangular
Capitate
Hamate

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Metacarpals
Bones of the palm
Phalanges
Proximal
Middle absent in
thumb
Distal

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Bones of the Pelvic Girdle


Hip bones (Coxal Bone/
Ossa Coxae)
Composed of three bones
fused bones
Ilium

Ischium
Pubic bone
The total weight of the

upper body rests on the pelvis


Protects several organs
Reproductive organs

Urinary bladder
Part of the large intestine
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The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone

Ilium
Large flaring
bones
Connects with
sacrum
sacroiliac joint
Iliac crest
Anterior superior
spine
Posterior superior
spine
Figure 5.23b

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Ischium
Sitdown bone
Ischial tuberosity
Ischial spine
Superior to ischial
tuberosity
Narrows the outlet
of pelvis thru
which the baby
must pass
Greater sciatic
notch

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Pubis
Most

anterior
Obturator
foramen
- serves as
passageway of b.v
and nerves
Pubic symphysis
Acetabulum
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Differences of Male and Female Pelvis

Female
Larger and more circular
Shallower, lighter and thinner
Flares more laterally
Sacrum is shorter and less curved
Ischial spines are shorter and farther
apart

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Bones of the Lower Limbs


Femur thigh bone
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals

Metatarsals
Phalanges
Figure 5.24ab
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Femur or thigh bone


Head
Greater and lesser
trochanter
Intertrochanteric
crest
Gluteal tuberosity
Lateral and medial
condyles

Articulate with tibia


and patellar surface
Intercondylar fossa

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Bones of the Lower Limbs


The leg has two bones
Tibia
Fibula

Figure 5.24c
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Tibia
Larger and more medial

shinbone

Medial and
Lateral Condlyles

Tibial Tuberosity
Articulate with distal end of femur
Kneejoint
Medial Malleolus
Process forming inner bulge
of the ankle

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Fibula
Thin and sticklike

no part in forming the


kneejoint
Lateral Malleolus
Process forming outer
bulge of the ankle

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Bones of the Lower Limbs


The foot
Tarsus ankle
Metatarsals sole
Phalanges toes

Figure 5.25
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Bones of the Lower Limbs


Tarsal bones
Composed of 7
bones

Talus and calcaneus


are the largest tarsals

Figure 5.25
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Bones of the Lower Limbs

Metatarsals
Bones of the sole of the foot
Phalanges
Proximal
Middle absent in
great toe
Distal
14 bones

Figure 5.25
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