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# Pump Theory of Operation:

## 1- what is the two pump stage component ?

- impeller

- diffuser

2- Which part of the pump stage is stationary and which part is the rotary one?
- the stationary part is the diffuser

## 3- what is the function of the of the pump stage component ?

-Diffuser redirects the fluid up into the next impeller and turns fluid energy into
-Impeller spins and gives energy to fluid which exits around the outside
4- Name the two types of the pump thrust loads?

## 5- name the impeller main parts ?

-Hub , Upper Shroud , Vanes , Lower Shroud , Skirt , Eye , Up thrust washers &
Down thrust washers.
6- what are the three measured values on the pump curve and which curve is
the calculated one?
-the three measured values are the flow rate , the head per stage & BHP.
-

## 7- what is the pump stage hydraulic designs ?

flow path is generally perpendicular (radial) with respect to the pump shaft
Mixed Flow
flow path has both axial and radial direction with respect to the pump shaft

## Variable Speed Operations:

1- how dose the flow rate , the head , BHP& motor HP changes by changing the
operating frequency . what is the name of the relation controlled this values ?

## New Motor HP = Old Motor HP (New Hz/Old Hz)

Affinity Laws

2- what is the pump curve name when using a variable speed drive ?

MOTORS:
1- what is the type of the centrilift ESP motors.
-

-

## Magnet Wire , Bearing with T-ring & Rotor.

3- how you can calculate the motor speed.
Motor speed = 120 x frequency / No. of Poles
4- what is the name of the speed difference between the calculated motor speed
and the actual rotor speed ? how much as a % of the calculated speed?
-the slip .

2 - 3.5 %

5- what is the minimum required fluid speed passing the motor surface ?
-

1 ft per sec .

## 6- what is the factors affecting the motor temp,?

Wellbore Temperature
Fluid Velocity Past Motor (flow rate vs. unit/casing diameter)
Cooling Properties of the Well Fluid (% gas, water cut, scaling tendencies, etc.)
Power Quality (3 phase voltage/current imbalance, wave form distortion, full
nameplate voltage available, etc.)

-SEAL Section.
1- what are the seal section functions ?
Isolation
Isolates the well fluid from the clean motor oil
Expansion
Provides space for motor oil expansion
Equalization
Equals pressure between the outside casing and inside the motor housing
Absorption
Absorbs the thrust of the pump
2- name the main seal component ?
Labyrinth Chamber(s) - provides expansion and isolation volume in vertical or
near vertical wells
Bag(s) or Bladder(s) - provides expansion volume and isolation for clean motor
oil
Mechanical Seals - prevents fluid migration down the seal shaft
Thrust Bearing - carries the thrust load of the pump shaft.
3- what is the max degree of deviation for the labyrinth seal section ?
-

30 degrees.

GAS SEP,:
1- what is the gas sep, function.?
-

Separates a portion of the free gas from the fluid entering the intake to
improve pump performance.

Reverse Flow
Rotary

## 3- at what gas % we will need to use a gas separators ?

- Free gas % is greater than 10% with radial flow stages
-

## Free gas % is greater than 15% with mixed flow stages

Cables:
1- what is the available cable profiles ?
-round

- flat

## 2- what are the cable major component ?

- Conductor (Copper)
- Insulation (Polypropylene or EPDM)
(Ethylene Propolyene Diene Monomer)
- Jacket (Nitrile or EPDM) & Tape
-

-30 volts

## -15% of the name plate voltage.

4-use the cable product key to find out the following two cables types
CPNF & CEBER ?
1: CPNF -

C
P
N
F

- Copper Conductor
- Polypropylene Insulation
- Nitrile Jacket
- Flat Profile

2: CEBER-

C
E
B
E
R

- Copper Conductor
- EPDM Insulation
- Extruded Barrier over Insulation
- EPDM Jacket
- Round Construction

MONITORING SYS,
1- which is the down hole monitoring tools signal type?
-Signals are either impressed (DC) on the power cable or sent via
separate instrument wire.
2- Available monitoring options ?

## Pump Intake Pressure

Motor Operating Temperature
Discharge Flow Rate
Discharge Pressure
Unit Vibration

SURFACE EQUIPMENT:
1- what are the major ESP surface equipment?
The Motor Controller
The Transformer(s)
The Junction or Vent Box
Surface Cable
2- what are the two motor controller types ?
- Switchboards (fixed speed)
- Variable Speed Controllers .
3- what are the motor controller functions?
-Monitors incoming voltage and current to the downhole system
-Can be set up to allow automatic restart under certain conditions
-Protects the motor from voltage and current fluctuations and imbalance
-Some models have RTU communication & data logging capability
-Has auxiliary inputs for the various monitoring signals
4- what is the main power transformer function ?
-

voltage

## 5- what is the transformation ratio (turns ratio ) ?

-it is the ratio between the output and the input values .
6- what is the major junction box function?
- Provides a point of separation to determine downhole or surface
electrical faults
- Vents gasses that escape through the cable insulation and jacket in

## RUN LIFE FACTORS :

1- what is the common ESP run life factors ?
- Proper Sizing of Equipment
- Well (BHT) Temperature
- Free Gas
- Viscosity
- Corrosion
- Sand / Foreign Material Production
- Deposition Tendencies
- Electrical Failures
-

Operational Problems

Amp Chart :
1- what are the Amp chart functions?
- Amp charts are a valuable troubleshooting tool
-Amp charts record the motor current over time
- Trends in motor loading can be analyzed along with other unit data
-

## 2- what are the available amp chart two types ?

- 24 hrs

-7 days

VISCOUS FLUIDS :
1- how dose the viscosity affecting the ESP system?
-

## Head Capacity (Hd) at best efficiency point (BEP) diminishes on a

moderate curve as viscosity increases.

BHP.

## ESP Gas Handling:

1- what are the types of the gas interference ?
Lower Head - Free gas increases the bulk volume of fluid, driving the
performance point further out on the pump curve. The pressure that this head
represents is reduced due to the reduced density of the fluid
Cavitation - Implosion of gas bubble causing stage damage. This phenomenon
generally does not occur in an oil well
Gas Blocking - A collection of gas bubbles on the low pressure side of the
impeller vane, partially blocking the flow area
Gas Locking - A collection of gas in the impeller eye which completely stops fluid
flow
Surging or Slugging - Intermittent production of free gas and liquid causing
pump flow and motor amps to vary
2- what is the bubble point ?
- Above bubble point pressure (Pb) all gas is in solution (dissolved) in the oil
-As the pressure falls below Pb, the lighter gases come out of solution as free gas

## POWER CONTROLS ( GCS ) ;

1- what are the two o/p drive wave forms?
-PWM

- 6 step

## 2- what are the benefits of using a variable speed drives ?

-Allows fine tuning of unit performance to the well which can increase efficiency
& minimize unit cycling
- Soft starts the unit which reduces system mechanical and electrical stresses
- Protects the downhole equipment from under & over current as well as voltage
unbalance and transients
- Delays pull and resize of equipment to restore production rate due to wear
3- what is the GCS input voltage @60hz and @50 hz ?
- 480 v @ 60 hz

## - 380 v @50 hz.

ESP SIZING :
1- define the well productivity ?
The Wells Ability to Deliver the Flow
2- how to calculate the PI ?
PI = Flow Rate / Static PSI - Flowing PSI
3- what are the major TDH component ?
TDH = Hd + Ft + Pd
4- how you can find the required number of stages for a certain flow rate and head.?
-number of stages = TDH / the left per stage.
5- after finding the number of stages how you can calculate the total pump load?
-

## 6 -what is the load of the 513 series rotary gas separator ?

- 2.5 hp
7-how to calculate the KVA in a three phase power system?
- KVA = (1.732x V x I ) / 1000

## THE ESP TECHNOLOGY TEST :

1-what is the two pump stage component ?
- impeller

- diffuser

2-Which part of the pump stage is stationary and which part is the rotary one?
- the stationary part is the diffuser

## 3-what is the function of the of the pump stage component ?

-Diffuser redirects the fluid up into the next impeller and turns fluid energy into
-Impeller spins and gives energy to fluid which exits around the outside
4-what is the pump stage hydraulic designs ?
flow path is generally perpendicular (radial) with respect to the pump shaft
Mixed Flow
flow path has both axial and radial direction with respect to the pump shaft
5-how dose the flow rate , the head , BHP& motor HP changes by changing the
operating frequency . what is the name of the relation controlled this values ?

Affinity Laws

-

## Motor speed = 120 x frequency / No. of Poles

8- what is the name of the speed difference between the calculated motor speed
and the actual rotor speed ? how much as a % of the calculated speed?
-the slip .

2 - 3.5 %

9- what is the minimum required fluid speed passing the motor surface ?
-

1 ft per sec .

## 10-what are the seal section functions ?

Isolation
Isolates the well fluid from the clean motor oil
Expansion
Provides space for motor oil expansion
Equalization
Equals pressure between the outside casing and inside the motor housing
Absorption
Absorbs the thrust of the pump
11-name the main seal component ?
Labyrinth Chamber(s) - provides expansion and isolation volume in vertical or
near vertical wells
Bag(s) or Bladder(s) - provides expansion volume and isolation for clean motor
oil
Mechanical Seals - prevents fluid migration down the seal shaft
Thrust Bearing - carries the thrust load of the pump shaft.
12-what is the max degree of deviation for the labyrinth seal section ?
-

30 degrees.

## 13-at what gas % we will need to use a gas separators ?

- Free gas % is greater than 10% with radial flow stages

## -Free gas % is greater than 15% with mixed flow stages

14-what is the max voltage drop value & % ?
-30 volts

## 15-what are the two motor controller types ?

- Switchboards (fixed speed)
- Variable Speed Controllers .
16-what is the main power transformer function ?
-

voltage

## 17-what is the transformation ratio (turns ratio ) ?

-it is the ratio between the output and the input values
18-what are the available amp chart two types ?
- 24 hrs

-7 days

- 480 v @ 60 hz

## 20-how to calculate the KVA in a three phase power system?

- KVA = (1.732x V x I ) / 1000