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# Chapter 5: Newtons Laws of Motion

1.

No, it is not possible for a stationary object to have one force acting on it. If it did, it would accelerate and no longer
remain stationary. However, it is possible for a stationary object to have two forces acting on it as long as the net force
is zero. Furthermore, an object with one force acting on it can momentarily be at rest, such as when a ball thrown
upward gets to the top of its flight.

2.

Picture the Problem: A shopping cart accelerates in the forward direction due to a pushing force.
Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the acceleration of the cart, then use the acceleration to find the distance
traveled in 2.50 s.

F (10.1 N )
Solution: 1. Find a using Newtons second law:
a= =
= 0.821 m/s 2
m 12.3 kg

x = 12 a t 2 =

1
2

## (0.821 m/s ) (2.50 s)

2

= 2.57 m

Insight: Doubling the applied force would double the acceleration and also double the distance traveled.
3.

Picture the Problem: This is a follow-up question to Guided Example 5.4. Moe, Larry, and Curly push on a 752-kg
boat that floats next to a dock. They each exert an 85.0-N force parallel to the dock, and the boat has an acceleration
of 0.530 m/s2.
Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the mass of the boat. The net force is the vector sum of the three forces.

F
3 (85.0 N )
Solution: Solve Newtons second law for mass:
m= =
= 481 kg
a
0.530 m/s 2

Insight: If Larry, Moe, and Curly were pushing in different directions, the net force on the boat would have been
smaller, and so would have been the acceleration.
4.

Picture the Problem: A force acts on a car of known mass and causes it to accelerate.
Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the force required to produce the given acceleration.

## F = m a = (1500 kg ) 3.8 m/s 2 = 5700 N = 5.7 kN

Solution: Solve Newtons second law for the force:

Insight: No information is given about the direction of the acceleration, but we know from Newtons second law that
the direction of the net force must be the same as the direction of the acceleration. The force is reported in kilonewtons
to emphasize there are only two significant figures in the answer.
5.

Picture the Problem: You exert a horizontal force that accelerates both your little sister and the sled.
Strategy: Apply Newtons second law to the sled plus sister combination, and solve for the mass of your sister.
F
120 N
=
= 48 kg
a 2.5 m/s 2

## Solution: 1. Use Newtons second law to find the

total mass of the sled plus sister combination:

mtotal =

## msister = mtotal msled = 48 kg 7.4 kg = 41 kg

Insight: A more massive sister would decrease the acceleration of the sled if the pulling force remained the same.

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51

6.

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

Picture the Problem: This is a follow-up question to Guided Example 5.5. Two groups of canoeists meet in the middle
of a lake. After a brief visit, a person in canoe 1 pushes on canoe 2 with a force of 46 N to separate the canoes. The
mass of canoe 1 and its occupants is m1 = 150 kg, and the initial mass of canoe 2 and its occupants is m2 = 250 kg.
Strategy: Use Newtons third law to determine the magnitude of the force on canoe 2, and Newtons second law to find
the acceleration of canoe 2 if its mass is increased to 25,000 kg.
Solution: 1. Newtons third law states that both canoe 1 and canoe 2 experience the same magnitude force, but in
opposite directions. If the mass of canoe 2 were increased, its acceleration would decrease according to Newtons
second law because the magnitude of the force would not change. We conclude that the acceleration of canoe 2 will
decrease if its mass is increased.
2. Use Newtons second law to find the acceleration
of a massive ship that replaces canoe 2:

a=

F =
m

46 N
= 0.0018 m/s 2
25, 000 kg

Insight: As predicted, the 0.0018 m/s2 acceleration we found when canoe 2 was replaced by a whip with a mass of
25,000 kg is much smaller than the 0.18 m/s2 acceleration experienced by the 250-kg canoe 2.
7.

(a) The two forces that act on a book at rest in your hand are the force of gravity and the upward force your hand exerts
on the book. (b) Yes, because the book is not accelerating we conclude there is no net force on the book, and the hand
force must be equal and opposite to the gravitational force. (c) No, the two forces are not an action-reaction pair because
both forces act upon the book. Action-reaction force pairs always work on two different objects.

8.

Picture the Problem: The parent and child push off each other while on ice skates. The child is pushed in the positive x
direction and the parent is pushed in the negative x direction.

Strategy: The situation is governed by Newtons third law, where the force Fparent exerted on the parent by the child is

equal and opposite to the force Fchild exerted on the child by the parent.
Solution: Set the magnitudes of the
forces equal to find the acceleration of
the parent using Newtons second law:

Fchild = -Fparent
mchild achild = mparent aparent
aparent =

19 kg
mchild
(2.6 m/s 2 ) = 0.70 m/s 2
achild =
mparent
71 kg

Insight: If the child had the same mass as the parent, they would each experience the same magnitude force and the
same magnitude acceleration, but in opposite directions.
9.

A resting object cannot move unless it accelerates, and it will not accelerate unless it is acted upon by a nonzero net
force. Neither will a moving object change its speed or direction unless it is acted upon by a nonzero net force.

10. When the net force acting on an object triples in magnitude, the acceleration will also triple in magnitude.
11. Suppose you push on a loaded railroad car and it does not move. You might be tempted to argue that it does not move
because the force you exert on the railroad car is equal and opposite to the force the railroad car exerts on you. While
this is true by Newtons third law, the two forces cannot cancel each other because they act on different objects; one
is a force on the railroad car and the other is a force on you. The railroad car does not move because the force of static
friction on the railroad car balances out the force you exert on the railroad car. The two forces cancel because they are
equal and opposite, but they are not an action-reaction pair.
12. (a) A shopping cart will remain at rest if you do not push it because there is no net force on it that can accelerate it. (b)
When you push on the cart, the vector sum of forces on the cart is no longer zero, and the cart will accelerate according
to Newtons second law. (c) According to Newtons second law, the more massive the cart, the smaller its acceleration,
so that the product of mass and acceleration always equals the magnitude of the net force. The acceleration is linearly
proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass.

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52

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

13. The astronaut should push the otherwise useless jet pack away from him, in the opposite direction from the spaceship.
As a result, the reaction force exerted on him by the pack will accelerate him toward the spaceship.
14. Yes, it is possible. While the acceleration of an object is always in the direction of the net force, the velocity of an
object does not need to be in the direction of the acceleration. For instance, when a soccer ball is kicked downfield
it follows a parabolic trajectory. The net force on the ball is due to gravity alone, and its acceleration is always
downward, but the ball moves along the parabolic path, not downward.
15. Picture the Problem: Two force vectors are depicted as acting on
the tire of a front wheel drive car.

## Strategy: The net force on the car is in the forward direction.

Therefore, the external force responsible for accelerating the car
(the force of friction) must exert a force in the forward direction.
Meanwhile, the engine tries to rotate the front tire clockwise,
which exerts a backward force on the ground.
Solution: 1. (a) Because the external force on the car is in the forward direction in order to accelerate it, and because

the engine rotates the front tire clockwise, which exerts a backward force on the ground, we conclude that F1 is the

force exerted by the car on the ground and F2 is the force exerted by the ground on the car.
2. (b) the force exerted by the car on the ground and the force exerted by the ground on the car are an action-reaction

pair of forces. Therefore, the expression (2) F2 = F1 is the correct relationship between the two forces.
Insight: Friction between the tires and the ground is the force responsible for propelling the car, not the engine force.
Without friction the tires spin due to the engine force but the car goes nowhere.
16. Picture the Problem: A baseball is accelerated by a net force.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the force required to accelerate a ball of known mass.
Solution: Apply Newtons second law:

## F = m a = (0.15 kg) (12 m/s ) = 1.8 N

2

Insight: This is a pretty small force, equivalent to 1.8 N 1 lb/4.45 N = 0.40 lb = 6.5 ounces of force.
17. Picture the Problem: An airplane is accelerated horizontally in the direction opposite its motion in order to slow it
down from its initial landing speed.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the acceleration of the airplane.

4.30 105 N

F
= 1.23 m/s 2
a= =
Solution: Solve Newtons second law for a :
m
3.50 105 kg

Insight: The typical landing speed of a Boeing 747-200 is 71.9 m/s (161 mi/h) and it has a specified landing roll
distance of 2,121 m, requiring an average landing acceleration of 1.22 m/s2.
18. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagram for the car and the trailer is
shown at right. The diagram assumes there is no friction.

F1

F1

F2

## Strategy: In order to determine the forces acting on an object, you must

consider only the forces acting on that object and the motion of that object

alone. For the trailer there is only one force F1 exerted on it by the car, and it has the same acceleration (1.85 m/s2) as

the car. For the car there are two forces acting on it, the engine F2 and the trailer F1 . Apply Newtons second and third
laws as appropriate to find the requested forces.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

53

## Solution: 1. (a) Write Newtons

second law for the trailer:

## 2. (b) Newtons third law states that the force the

trailer exerts on the car is equal and opposite to
the force the car exerts on the trailer:

## in the forward direction

Insight: The engine force F2 must be 3.6 kN because it must not only balance the 1.0-kN force from the trailer but also
accelerate the car in the forward direction, requiring an additional 2.6 kN of force.

19. Picture the Problem: This is a follow-up question to Guided Example 5.7. The fire alarm goes off and a 97-kg
firefighter slides down a pole.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the acceleration of the firefighter.
Solution: Solve Newtons second law for a y :

ay =

Fpole mg
m

650 N
9.81 m s 2 = 3.11 m/s 2
97 kg

Insight: The negative sign indicates that the firefighter still accelerates downward, but at a much lower rate than the
9.81 m/s2 acceleration he would have in a free fall. It is also less than the 4.2 m/s2 he has when the pole force is only
540 N, as described in Guided Example 5.7.
20. Picture the Problem: A suitcase is accelerated straight upward by an applied force.

Strategy: There are two forces acting on the suitcase, the applied force F acting upward and the force of gravity W
acting downward. Use Newtons second law together with the known acceleration to determine the mass and weight of
the suitcase. Let upward be the positive direction.

## Solution: 1. (a) Write out Newtons second law:

m=

= F mg = ma

F = ma + mg = m ( a + g )

F
105 N
=
= 9.99 kg
a + g 0.705 m/s 2 + 9.81 m/s 2

## 2. (b) Now use the definition of the weight:

Insight: Note that mass and weight have different units. A 98.0-N suitcase weighs about 22 pounds.
21. Picture the Problem: A spring is stretched by an applied force.

F =kx

## Solution: Solve Hookes law for k:

k=

F
1.2 N
=
= 19 N/m
x 0.064 m

Insight: This is a fairly weak spring, where 19 N (about 4.2 lb) of force would stretch it an entire meter.
22. Picture the Problem: A spring is stretched by an applied force.

## Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the stretch distance.

Solution: Solve Hookes law for x:

F =kx

x=

F
2.3 N
=
= 0.12 m = 12 cm
k 19 N/m

Insight: Compare this answer with the previous question, where roughly half the force stretches the spring by about half
as much distance.

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54

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

23. The steps to drawing a free-body diagram are: (1) draw vectors to represent all of the forces that act on the object, (2)
choose a coordinate system, (3) resolve each force into components, and (4) apply Newtons second law to each
coordinate direction separately.
24. The weight of an object with mass m is calculated from the equation W = mg.
25. If an object is at rest, and remains at rest, it is not accelerating, and you can conclude that the vector sum of all the
forces that act on it are zero. If the object is only momentarily at rest, such as at the top of the flight of a baseball that is
thrown straight upward, there must be a net force on the object because it is accelerating.
26. Hookes law states that the distance a spring stretches is linearly proportional to the amount of force that is exerted on it.
The constant of proportionality is the spring constant k: F = kx.
27. In order to decrease the sag angle in a clothesline it is necessary to increase the tension. In every case there must be an
upward component to the tension force in order to balance the weight of the clothesline and the objects hanging from it.
That upward component can be provided by a force that is inclined at a small angle as long as the magnitude of the
force is very large.
28. Picture the Problem: A child sits on a chair and the chair sits on the floor.
The free-body diagrams of the child and the chair are shown at right.

Strategy: There are two forces acting on the child: the normal force N of the

chair acting upward and the force of gravity Wchild acting downward. There

are three forces acting on the chair: the normal force N of the floor acting
upward, the weight of the child acting downward, and the force of gravity

Wchair acting downward. Write Newtons second law in the vertical direction
for each case and then use the equations to find N.

## Solution: 1. (a) Write out Newtons

Second Law in the vertical direction
and solve for N:

(a) child

= N mg = 0

Wchild

= 91 N

## 2. (b) Write out Newtons

Second Law in the vertical direction
for the chair and solve for N:

(b) chair

Wchild + Wchair

= N mchild g mchair g = 0

N = ( mchild + mchair ) g

## = (9.3 + 3.7 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2

N = 130 N = 0.13 kN

Insight: The normal force is larger in case (b) because the floor must support the weight of the child plus the weight of
the chair, whereas the chair need only support the weight of the child.
29. Picture the Problem: A spring is stretched by an applied force.

## Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the required force.

Solution: Use Hookes law to find F:

F = k x = ( 62 N/m )( 0.19 m ) = 12 N

Insight: A 12 N force is equivalent to about 2.5 lb, so this spring is fairly easy to stretch.

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55

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

30. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagram for the satellite is shown at
right.

Strategy: The force F1 from one astronaut adds as a vector to the force F2

from the second astronaut to produce the net force F, whose angle from
the x axis is known. Use the addition of vectors together with the

## Solution: The angle is determined

by the tangent function:

tan =

F2
F1

F2 = F1 tan = ( 42 N ) tan15 = 11 N

Insight: Once the two astronaut forces are known, we can find the magnitude of the net force (the vector sum of the two
forces) by calculating F = F12 + F22 = 422 + 112 = 43 N .
31. Picture the Problem: This is a follow-up question to Guided Example 5.11. A salt shaker with a mass of 50.0 g slides
along a table, slowing down due to a coefficient of kinetic friction k = 0.120.

Strategy: There is only one force on the salt shaker that changes its horizontal motion: the friction force. Use the weight
of the salt shaker and the coefficient of friction to determine the magnitude of the friction force on the salt shaker. Then
use the force, together with Newtons second law, to find the acceleration.

## Solution: 1. Find the magnitude

of the friction force:

## f k = k mg = ( 0.120)( 0.0500 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 0.0589 N

2. Apply Newtons
second law to find a:

F = f

= ma

a=

fk
0.0589 N
=
= 1.18 m/s 2
m 0.0500 kg

Insight: A higher coefficient of kinetic friction in this follow-up question resulted in a higher acceleration when
compared with Guided Example 5.11. Note that a = f k m = k mg m = k g .
32. Picture the Problem: A baseball player slides in a straight line and comes to rest due to the frictional force.

Strategy: Find the acceleration of the player using Newtons second law, and insert the result into the velocity-distance

equation to find the slide distance. Let the initial velocity v i point in the positive direction.
Solution: 1. Find the acceleration of the
player using Newtons second law:

## 2. Use the velocity-distance equation

to find the slide distance:

= f k = ma

a=

mg
fk
= k
= k g
m
m

0 vi2
v 2 vi2
( 4.0 m/s)
=
=
= 1.8 m
2a
2 k g 2 ( 0.46) 9.81 m/s 2
2

x =

Insight: If the player were running faster, say, 8.0 m/s, a k of 0.46 would result in a slide distance of 7.1 m, a quarter
of the 27 m between the bases! He might very well overshoot the base and be tagged out.
33. Picture the Problem: This is a follow-up question to Guided Example 5.12. Sand poured slowly into a pail exerts
sufficient force (11 N) on a string to cause a jack-o-lantern to slide horizontally.

Strategy: The pumpkin will begin sliding when the weight of the sand matches the maximum static friction force.
Solution: 1. (a) If the coefficient of static friction is reduced from 0.61 to 0.55, the maximum static friction force
will decrease. We conclude that the weight of the pail and sand necessary to start the pumpkin moving in this case
is less than 11 N.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

56

## 2. (b) Set the weight of the pail equal

to the maximum static friction force:

## Wpail = s mg = ( 0.55)(1.8 kg ) 9.81 m s 2 = 9.7 N

Insight: Because the friction force scales linearly with s , a 10% reduction in s (from 0.61 to 0.55) resulted in a 10%
reduction in the required weight of the pail (from 11 N to 9.7 N).
34. Picture the Problem: A book slides in a straight line across the top of the tabletop. A larger force is needed to start the
book sliding, and a smaller force is needed to keep it sliding with constant speed.

Strategy: The minimum force required to get the book moving is related to the maximum coefficient of static friction,
and the force required to keep the book sliding at constant speed is equal to the magnitude of the kinetic friction force,
from which k can be determined.
Solution: 1. When the book begins
sliding, the applied force equals the
maximum static friction force:

F = fs = s mg

## 2. When the book is sliding at

constant speed, the applied force
equals the kinetic friction force:

Fapp = f k = k mg

app

Fapp

s =

mg

k =

Fapp
mg

2.25 N

1.50 N

= 0.127

## (1.80 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 )

= 0.0849

Insight: The coefficient of kinetic friction is usually smaller than the coefficient of static friction. This is the basic idea
behind antilock brakes, which seek to keep the tire of a car rolling so that the friction between the tire and the road
remains in the static regime, where there is a greater force to stop the car, and improved handling during the stop.
35. Stacking a second book on top of the first book will double the normal force exerted by the tabletop, because that
normal force must now support the weight of two books. Doubling the normal force will double the force of kinetic
friction because kinetic friction varies linearly with the normal force.
36. Skidding to a stop actually requires a longer distance than does coming to a stop without skidding. This is because a
rolling wheel harnesses the coefficient of static friction (the point of contact is momentarily at rest) whereas a skidding
tire is affected by sliding friction. The coefficient of static friction is usually higher than the coefficient of sliding
friction. Therefore, a rolling wheel can stop the bicycle with a larger force and in a shorter distance.
37. Static friction involves surfaces that are not moving with respect to each other, and it tries to hold objects in place.
Sliding friction involves surfaces that slip past each other, and it describes the force on a moving object.
38. (a) Friction is undesirable for the rotation of a bicycle tire around its axle and for the motion of an ice skate across the
surface of a rink. (b) Friction is helpful for walking without slipping, and for the mechanism that grips paper while
feeding it through a printer or photocopier.
39. Picture the Problem: A book slides horizontally across a table at constant speed due to a pushing force.

Strategy: The pushing force must balance the sliding friction force.
Solution: Set the pushing force equal
to the sliding friction force:

F = F

push

fk = 0

## Fpush = f k = k N = k mg = ( 0.11)( 0.27 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2

= 0.29 N

Insight: This force is pretty small, equivalent to about 1.0 oz. A larger force would be needed to overcome the
maximum force of static friction and start the book sliding.

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57

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

40. Picture the Problem: A book slides horizontally across a table at constant speed due to a pushing force.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the required pushing force that will both balance the sliding friction force
and accelerate the book.
Solution: Use Newtons second law
to find the required pushing force:

F = F

push

fk = m a

Fpush = f k + m a = k N + m a = k mg + m a

## Fpush = 0.803 + 0.070 = 0.87 N

Insight: This force is pretty small, equivalent to about 3.1 oz. Note that the pushing force does two things: it balances
(or overcomes) friction and it accelerates the book.
41. Picture the Problem: A flowerpot begins sliding horizontally when a pushing force exceeds the maximum force of
static friction.

Strategy: Find the maximum static friction force from the given values of mass and coefficient of friction.
Solution: Set the pushing force equal
to the maximum static friction force:

F = F

push

fs, max = 0

## Fpush = fs, max = s N = s mg = ( 0.64)(14 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2

= 88 N

Insight: This sizeable force (equivalent to 20 lb) is a consequence of the large mass (the 14-kg flowerpot weighs 31 lb)
and the substantial coefficient of static friction.
42. Picture the Problem: A coin slides across a countertop with an initial speed, but friction gradually brings it to a stop.

Strategy: Use the velocity-position equation to determine the acceleration of the coin, and then use Newtons second
law to find the friction force and then the coefficient of kinetic friction.
Solution: 1. (a) Solve the velocityposition equation for acceleration:

vf2 = vi2 + 2 a x
vf2 vi2 0 (1.8 m/s )
=
= 1.9 m/s 2
2 x
2 ( 0.86 m )
2

a=

## 2. Write Newtons second

law in the x direction:

## 4. Substitute the normal force into the

expression from step 2 and solve for k:

= f k = ma

k N = ma

= N mg = 0

k =

N = mg
1.9 m/s 2
ma
ma
a
=
= =
= 0.19
N
mg
g
9.81 m/s 2

5. (b) The result of part (a) is independent of the mass of the coin. Although two coins would produce a normal force,
and thus a friction force, that is twice as large as one coin, they would also have twice the inertia. Their acceleration
would be the same, so the two coins would come to rest in the same distance as before.
Insight: The result of part (b) is similar to gravity: massive objects experience a greater gravitational force, but they
also have a larger inertia, and their acceleration is the same as less massive objects.
43. A force is a result of some physical interaction between two objects, but a net force is the vector sum of all forces acting
on a single object.
44. Inertia is the property of an object that resists any change in its motion.
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58

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

45. When you hit the brakes of your car, a force on the car changes its motion by slowing it down. Your bodys inertia
resists that change in motion, attempting to maintain its speed in the forward direction. It is this inertia that makes your
body move toward the front of the car while it is slowing down.
46. (a) According to Newtons second law, if the net force Fnet = m a doubles, while the mass remains the same, the
acceleration also doubles. (b) According to Newtons second law, if the mass m in Fnet = m a doubles, while the net
force remains the same, the acceleration will be cut in half.
47. If the tablecloth is pulled rapidly, it can exert a force on the place settings for only a very short time. In this brief time,
the objects on the table accelerate, but only slightly. Therefore, the objects may have barely moved by the time the
tablecloth is completely removed.
48. As the dog shakes its body, it starts water in its fur moving in one direction. When it then begins to shake
its body in the opposite direction, much of the water continues in the same direction because of the law
of inertia (Newtons First Law). As a result, water leaves the fur with each reversal in direction.
49. Picture the Problem: A small car collides with a large truck.

Strategy: Consider Newtons laws of motion when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: 1. (a) Newtons third law states that when the car exerts a force on the truck, the truck exerts an equal and
opposite force on the car. We conclude that the magnitude of the force experienced by the car is equal to the magnitude
of the force experienced by the truck.
2. (b) The best explanation is A. Action-reaction forces always have equal magnitude. Statements B and C are false.
Insight: The force has a larger effect (produces a larger acceleration) on the smaller car due to its smaller inertia.
50. Picture the Problem: A small car collides with a large truck.

Strategy: Consider Newtons Laws of motion when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: 1. (a) Newtons third law states that when the car exerts a force on the truck, the truck exerts an equal and
opposite force on the car. However, the cars mass is less than the trucks mass, so by Newtons second law an equal
magnitude force on a smaller mass will produce a larger acceleration. We conclude that the acceleration experienced by
the car is greater than the acceleration experienced by the truck
2. (b) The best explanation is B. Both vehicles experience the same magnitude of force, therefore the lightweight car
experiences the greater acceleration. Statements A and C are both false because the forces are of equal magnitude.
Insight: If the cars mass were half the mass of the truck, its acceleration would be twice that of the truck.
51. While you do exert an upward force on the Earth (of about 700 N), the mass of the Earth is so large that its acceleration
is indiscernible. During a 2.0 s freefall dive, you will fall almost 20 meters while the Earth rises up a distance of
y = 12 a t 2 =

1
2

(700 N 6.0 10

24

## kg ( 2.0 s ) = 2.3 10 22 m , a distance a million times smaller than the nucleus of a

2

single atom.
52. Picture the Problem: Three identical pucks with different initial velocities are each acted upon by the same force.

Strategy: Consider Newtons second law when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: Newtons second law states that the acceleration of an object must always point in the same direction as the
net force on it. Because the net forces on each puck are identical, so are their accelerations, regardless of the magnitude
or direction of the initial velocity. The ranking of the accelerations is therefore A = B = C.
Insight: The accelerations of pucks A and B are identical even though puck A is slowing down at first and puck B is
speeding up.

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59

## 53. Picture the Problem: A golf cart is accelerated by a net force.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the required net force that will accelerate the cart by the stated amount.
Solution: Use Newtons second law
to find the required net force:

## F = m a = (540 kg) (2.5 m/s ) = 1350 N = 1.4 kN

2

Insight: The largest (empty) golf cart available from one particular manufacturer weighs 798 lb, equivalent to a mass of
362 kg. This 540 kg golf cart must be weighed down by passengers and gear!
54. Picture the Problem: A backpack is accelerated by a net force.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the mass of a backpack that is accelerated by a net force.
Solution: Use Newtons second law
to find the mass:

F = ma

m=

F =
a

23 N
= 6.1 kg
3.8 m/s 2

## Insight: A 6.1-kg backpack would have a weight of 60 N or about 13.5 lb.

55. Picture the Problem: A rainbow trout is accelerated by a net force.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to find the acceleration of a rainbow trout due to the net force.
Solution: Use Newtons second law
to find the acceleration:

F = ma

a=

## F = 3.4 N = 2.6 m/s

m

1.3 kg

Insight: A 2.6-kg rainbow trout that experienced the same net force would accelerate at half this rate.

F1

56. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagrams for the truck and the trailer
is shown at right. The diagram assumes there is no friction.

F1

F2

## Strategy: In order to determine the forces acting on an object, you must

consider only the forces acting on that object and the motion of that object

alone. For the trailer there is only one force F1 exerted on it by the truck,
and the trailer has the same acceleration (1.16 m/s2) as the truck.

## F = F1 = m a = ( 620 kg ) 1.16 m/s 2 = 720 N

Solution: Write Newtons second law for the trailer:
in the forward direction

Insight: The engine force F2 must be 2.8 kN because it must not only balance the 0.72-kN force from the trailer but also

accelerate the truck in the forward direction, requiring an additional ma = (1800 kg ) 1.16 m/s 2 = 2.1 kg of force.

F1

57. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagrams for the car and the trailer is
shown at right. The diagram assumes there is no friction.

F1

F2

## Strategy: In order to determine the forces acting on an object, you must

consider only the forces acting on that object and the motion of that object

alone. For the truck there are two forces acting on it, the engine F2 and the

trailer F1 . Apply Newtons second law to find the net force on the truck.

## F = M a = (1800 kg ) 1.16 m/s 2 = 2.1 kN

Solution: Write Newtons second law for the truck:

## in the forward direction

Insight: The engine force F2 must be 2.8 kN in the forward direction because it must not only balance the 0.72-kN
force from the trailer but also accelerate the car in the forward direction, requiring an additional 2.1 kN of force.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 10

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

58. Picture the Problem: A parent and a child push off each other while on ice skates. The child is pushed in the positive x
direction and the parent is pushed in the negative x direction.

Strategy: By Newtons third law the force Fparent exerted on the parent by the child is equal and opposite to the force

Fchild exerted on the child by the parent. However, Newtons second law indicates that the accelerations of the parent
and the child are inversely proportional to their masses.

Solution: 1. (a) The magnitude of the force experienced by the child is the same as the magnitude of the force
experienced by the parent, but they point in opposite directions.
2. (b) The acceleration of the child is more than the acceleration of the parent. The child experiences the same force as
the parent but has less mass, so she experiences the larger acceleration.
Insight: If the child had the same mass as the parent, they would each experience the same magnitude force and the
same magnitude acceleration, but in opposite directions.
59. Picture the Problem: A parent and a child push off each other while on ice skates. The child is pushed in the positive x
direction and the parent is pushed in the negative x direction.

Strategy: By Newtons third law the force Fparent exerted on the parent by the child is equal and opposite to the force

Fchild exerted on the child by the parent. However, Newtons second law indicates that the accelerations of the parent
and the child are inversely proportional to their masses.

Fchild = -Fparent
Solution. Set the magnitudes of the forces
equal to find the acceleration of the parent
mchild achild = mparent aparent
using Newtons second law:
21 kg
m
(0.31 m/s 2 ) = 0.072 m/s 2
aparent = child achild =
91 kg
mparent

Insight: If the child were older and had the same mass as the parent, they would each experience the same magnitude
force and the same magnitude acceleration, but in opposite directions.
60. Picture the Problem: A jet is accelerated in a straight line by the force of a catapult.

Strategy: Use the change in velocity to find the acceleration of the jet, and then apply Newtons second law to find the
mass of the jet.
Solution: 1. Find the acceleration of the jet:

aav =

## 2. Apply Newtons second law to find the

mass of the jet:

m=

Dv 250 km/h 0
1000 m
1 h = 34.7 m/s 2
=

2.00 s km 3600 s
Dt

F 9.35 105 N
=
= 2.69 10 4 kg
a
34.7 m/s 2

Insight: This mass corresponds to a weight of about 30 English tons (27 metric tons), and is approximately correct for
the takeoff mass of the F-14 Tomcat fighter jet. A formidable weapon!
61. Picture the Problem: A car is accelerated horizontally in the direction
opposite its motion in order to slow it down from 16.0 m/s to 9.50 m/s.

## Strategy: Use Newtons second law and the definition of acceleration to

determine the net force on the car as it slows down. Then use the average
velocity equation to find the distance traveled by the car as it slows
down.

portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 11

## Solution: 1. (a) Use Newtons second

law and the definition of acceleration
to find the net force on the car:

## (9.50 16.0 m/s) = 5100 N

v
= (950 kg )
F = ma = m
t
1.20 s
= 5.1 kN opposite to the direction of motion

## 2. (b) Use the average velocity equation to find the

distance traveled by the car as it slows down:

x =

1
2

## (v0 + v ) t = 12 (16.0 + 9.50 m/s)(1.20 s) = 15.3 m

Insight: We must consider 950 kg as having only two significant figures because the zero is ambiguous. That limits
the net force to two significant figures, even though the acceleration a = (9.50 16.0 m/s ) 1.20 s = 5.42 m/s 2 has three
significant figures.
62. Picture the Problem: A firefighter slides down a pole, slowly accelerating until he lands at the floor below.
Strategy: There are two forces acting on the firefighter, gravity and the upward friction from the pole. Those two forces
add together to produce the acceleration of the firefighter. Find the acceleration of the firefighter using the velocityposition equation, and then use Newtons second law to find the force due to the friction from the pole. Let upward be
the positive direction.
v y2 vi,2 y

## Solution: 1. Find the acceleration of the firefighter

using the velocity-position equation:

ay =

W = mg

2y

2
4.2 m/s ) 02
(
=
2 ( 3.3 m )

m=

= 2.7 m/s 2

W
782 N
=
= 79.7 kg
g 9.81 m/s 2

= Fpole W = ma

## Fpole = ma + W = ( 79.7 kg ) 2.7 m/s 2 + 782 N

= 570 N = 0.57 kN

Insight: If the landing speed of the firefighter were 2.1 m/s instead of 4.2 m/s, the upward friction force would be
larger, but not twice as much. In fact, the acceleration would slow to 0.668 m/s2 and the pole force would increase to
729 N.
63. Picture the Problem: Two people push together in the same direction on an object and it accelerates at a rate given by
a1. The same two people push in opposite directions with the same amount of force each, and the object accelerates at a
rate given by a2.

Strategy: Use Newtons second law to write two equations representing each of the two cases described in the problem.
Solve the two equations for the two unknowns F1 and F2 . Let both people push in the positive direction in the first
case, but let person 2 push in the negative direction in the second case.
Solution: 1. Write Newtons second law
for each of the two cases:

F
F

= F1 + F2 = ma 1

= F1 F2 = ma2

F2 = F1 ma2

## 3. Substitute the result into the first equation:

F1 + ( F1 ma2 ) = ma 1

2 F1 = m a 1 + a2

## 4. Now use that result in the equation from step 2:

F2 = 12 m (a 1 + a2 ) - ma2 =

F1 =
1
2

1
2

m a 1 + a2

m (a 1 - a2 )

Insight: If it turns out that F2 was the larger of the two forces, then a2 would have a negative value.
64. Because force is equal to mass multiplied by acceleration, and because Earths gravity accelerates all masses near
its surface at the same rate (namely, g = 9.81 m/s2 downward), the gravitational force that Earth exerts on an object is
equal to mg. We call that force the weight of an object.
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5 12

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

65. A sketch that shows all the forces acting on an object is referred to as a free-body diagram. Once all of the forces are
drawn on a free-body diagram, a coordinate system is chosen and each force is resolved into components. At this point,
Newtons second law can be applied to each coordinate direction separately.
66. The normal force exerted by a horizontal road on a car must balance the cars weight to ensure the car does not
accelerate along the vertical direction. It must therefore be directed upward and have magnitude mg.
67. Your apparent weight in an elevator is related to your acceleration. While the elevator is moving at constant speed you
do not feel any of the effects of apparent weight. You only experience them when the elevator is either speeding up or
slowing down, in other words, when it is accelerating.
68. Hookes law indicates that the amount of stretch by a spring is linearly proportional to the stretching force. Therefore,
if the force exerted on a spring is doubled, the stretch increases by a factor of two.
69. Tension forces occur whenever a string, rope, or other object is stretched. Examples include a clothesline, a guitar
string, or the force along the rope that pulls a water skier.
70. An object is in equilibrium whenever its velocity (speed and direction) is constant, whether its speed be zero or
1000 m/s.
71. A clothesline has a finite mass, and so the tension in the line must have an upward component to oppose the downward
force of gravity. Therefore, even an empty clothesline sags in a manner similar to when a weight is hanging from it.
72. When the magnitude of the upward friction force exerted on the girl by the rope equals the magnitude of her weight,
her acceleration will be zero because the net force on her is zero. As a result, she moves with constant velocity.
73. The brick is at rest, which means that the net force on it is zero. There are two upward forces, the spring force and the
normal force, and one downward force, the weight of the brick. Because the two upward forces are balanced by the
weight, we conclude that the normal force acting on the brick is less than the bricks weight.
74. Picture the Problem: You jump out of an airplane and open your parachute after an extended period of free fall.

Strategy: Consider Newtons second law when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: 1. (a) In order to slow your descent you must accelerate in the upward direction and there must therefore be
an upward net force on your body. Considering the upward force of the parachute and the downward force of gravity
as vectors, we conclude that the parachute force must be greater than your weight to produce a net upward force.
2. (b) The best explanation is C. To decelerate a skydiver in free fall, the net force acting on the skydiver must be
upward. Statements A and B are both false.
Insight: An object will slow down whenever its velocity and acceleration vectors point in opposite directions.
75. Picture the Problem: The displayed free-body diagrams depict the forces exerted
on identical hockey pucks.

Strategy: Add the forces as vectors to find the net force. The largest net force will
produce the largest acceleration according to Newtons second law.
Solution: The net force for case A is ( 7 5 N ) = 2 N. For case B its magnitude is
32 + 32 N 2 = 4.24 N. For case C we must add the components:
Cx = 3 N + (3 N ) cos 45 = 5.12 N

C y = (3 N ) sin 45 = 2.12 N

## C = 5.122 + 2.122 N 2 = 5.54 N

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5 13

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

Finally, the net force in case D is 3 N. Therefore, the ranking of the accelerations, from smallest to greatest, is:
A < D < B < C.

Insight: The question could be answered without any calculation. First we note that the net force in case A is 2 N,
which is less than the 3-N net force in case D. Second, both cases B and C have net forces larger than 3 N. Third, we
note that the two 3-N forces in case C are more nearly in the same direction, as compared with the two 3-N forces in
case B. It follows that the puck in case C has the larger acceleration.
76. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagram for this problem is shown at right.

## Strategy: Use the free-body diagram to determine the net force

F = Fastronaut + W on

Fastronaut

the rock, then apply Newtons second law to find the acceleration of the rock. Let
upward be the positive direction.

## F = ( 46.2 N ) + ( 40.0 N ) = 6.2 N upward

Solution: 1. Find the net force:

## second law to find a :

a=

F =
m

6.2 N
= 1.2 m/s 2 upward
5.00 kg

Insight: If the astronaut were to exert less than 40.0 N of upward force on the rock, it would accelerate downward.
77. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagram of the potatoes is shown at right:

Strategy: There are two forces acting on the potatoes: the normal force N of the shopping cart acting

## upward and the force of gravity W acting downward.

Solution: 1. (a) The free-body diagram for the potatoes is shown at right.
2. (b) The free-body diagram does not change. A constant velocity implies zero acceleration and
therefore zero net force on the potatoes.
Insight: Note that as far as Newtons second law is concerned, zero velocity is no different than
constant, nonzero velocity. This is the essence of Newtons First Law. Note also that for a real sack of
potatoes in a shopping cart, a very small static friction force (between the cart and the potatoes) in the
forward direction balances the air friction force in the backward direction. The net force is still zero,
but there are some small horizontal forces involved.
78. Picture the Problem: An elevator accelerates up and down, changing your apparent
weight Wa. A free-body diagram of the situation is depicted at right.

Strategy: There are two forces acting on you: the applied force F = Wa of the scale

acting upward and the force of gravity W acting downward. The force Wa
represents your apparent weight because it is both the force the scale exerts on you
and the force you exert on the scale. Use Newtons second law together with the
known force Wa to determine the acceleration a.
Solution: 1. (a) The direction of acceleration is upward. An upward acceleration
results in an apparent weight greater than the actual weight.
2. (b) Use Newtons second law
together with the known forces to
determine the acceleration a.

= Wa W = ma

a=

Wa W Wa W 730 610 N
=
=
9.81 m/s 2 = 1.9 m/s 2
m
W g
610 N

portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 14

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

3. (c) The only thing we can say about the velocity is that it is changing in the upward direction. That means
the elevator is either speeding up if it is traveling upward, or slowing down if it is traveling downward.
Insight: You feel the effects of apparent weight twice for each ride in an elevator, once as it accelerates from rest and
again when it slows down and comes to rest.
79. Picture the Problem: A spring is stretched by an applied force.
Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the required force.
F = k x = (55 N/m )( 0.12 m ) = 6.6 N

## Solution: Use Hookes law to find F:

Insight: A 6.6 N force is equivalent to about 1.5 lb, so this spring is fairly easy to stretch.
80. Picture the Problem: A spring is compressed by an applied force.
Strategy: Solve Hookes law to find the compression distance.
F =kx

## Solution: Solve Hookes law for x:

x=

F
4.3 N
=
= 0.061 m = 6.1 cm
k 71 N/m

Insight: A 4.3 N force is equivalent to about 1.0 lb. Note that Hookes law applies to both the stretching
(as in the previous question) and the compressing of a spring.
81. Picture the Problem: A spring is stretched by an applied force.
Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the spring constant.
F =kx

## Solution: Solve Hookes law for k:

k=

F
4.8 N
=
= 51 N/m
x 0.095 m

Insight: The 4.8 N force is equivalent to about 1.1 lb and it stretches the spring by 3.7 in.
82. Picture the Problem: A thread from a spider web acts like a spring and stretches from the weight of the spider.
Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the stretch distance, taking the force to be the spiders weight mg.
Solution: Solve Hookes law for x:
Insight: The spiders weight is very small, about

F =kx

2
F mg ( 0.00026 kg ) 9.81 m/s
x= =
=
= 0.36 mm
k
k
7.1 N/m

1
oz, but it still stretches the spider web thread by a tiny amount.
100

## 83. Picture the Problem: A steel wire is stretched by an applied force.

Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the spring constant.
Solution: Solve Hookes law for k:

F =kx

k=

F
360 N
=
= 3.3 105 N/m = 0.33 MN/m
x 0.0011 m

Insight: The tendency for materials like steel to stretch when subjected to a tension is often characterized
by a coefficient called Youngs modulus, but the behavior is very much like a spring constant, and the spring
constant model works just fine for the situation described in this problem.

portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 15

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

84. Picture the Problem: A child pulls a sled along an icy surface that is
slippery enough that friction can be ignored. The pulling force is inclined
above the direction of motion.
Strategy: Only the horizontal component of the force will accelerate the
sled. Write Newtons second law along the horizontal direction to find the
acceleration of the sled, and then use the acceleration to find the velocity.

## 2. Use Newtons second law together with the horizontal

force to determine the acceleration a.

## vf = vi + a t = 0 + 1.10 m/s 2 (1.15 s ) = 1.27 m/s

= Fx = ma

a=

Fx
5.08 N
=
= 1.10 m/s 2
m 4.60 kg

Insight: If there were substantial friction the problem would become much more difficult. The vertical component of
the pulling force reduces the normal force and thus changes the amount of friction f k = k N which, in turn, affects the
horizontal motion.
85. Picture the Problem: The two teenagers pull on the sled in the
directions indicated by the figure at right.
Strategy: Write Newtons second law in the x direction (parallel to

## a ) in order to find the acceleration of the sled.

Solution: Write
Newtons second law
in the x direction:

## = 2 F cos 35 57 N = ( msled + mchild ) ax

ax =

2 F cos 35 57 N
msled + mchild

ax =

2 (55 N ) cos 35 57 N
= 1.5 m/s 2
19 + 3.7 kg

Insight: Some of the force exerted by the teenagers is exerted in the y direction and cancels out. Only the x components
of the forces accelerate the sled.
86. Picture the Problem: A ship accelerates up and down as it is carried by the waves. Meanwhile, a crew member on the
ship stands on a bathroom scale. As the ship accelerates the apparent weight of the crew member changes.

Strategy: There are two forces acting on the crew member: the applied force F of the scale acting upward and the force

of gravity W acting downward. The force F represents the apparent weight of the crew member because that is both the
force the scale exerts on the crew member and the force the crew member exerts on the scale. Use Newtons second law
together with the known force F acceleration to determine the acceleration a. The maximum upward acceleration
corresponds to the largest apparent weight.
Solution: 1. (a) Use Newtons Second
Law together with the known forces to
determine the acceleration a.
2. (b) Repeat (a) for the
smallest apparent weight:

= F -W = ma

a=
a=

F -W
F W 910 N 750 N
2
2
=
=
(9.81 m/s ) = 2.1 m/s

750 N
m
W g

560 N 750 N
F -W
2
2
g =
(9.81 m/s ) = -2.5 m/s

W
750 N

Insight: A similar effect occurs when you stand in an elevator and are accelerated either upward or downward.
Apparent weight can be observed in any frame of reference that is accelerating.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 16

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

87. Picture the Problem: Two astronauts push on a satellite to accelerate it. The freebody diagram for the satellite is shown at right.

Strategy: The force F1 from one astronaut adds as a vector to the force F2 from the

second astronaut to produce the net force Fnet . Use a ruler and a protractor to add
the vectors head-to-tail, preserving their length and direction. Then use the

magnitude of Fnet to find the mass of the satellite by applying Newtons second
law.
Solution: 1. (a) Use a ruler and a protractor to construct a vector diagram similar to

the one shown at the right. Measure the length of Fnet to scale to find its magnitude
is around 100 N. Measure the angle to find it is about 35. The net force on the
satellite is thus 100 N at 35 above the positive x axis.
2. (b) Apply Newtons second law to
find the mass of the satellite:

F2

Fnet

= Fnet = ma

m=

Fnet
100 N
=
= 830 kg
a
0.12 m/s 2

F1

Insight: A careful addition of vector components along the x axis and y axis reveals
that the magnitude of the vector sum is 100.8 N at 33.5 above the x axis.
88. Picture the Problem: Three astronauts push on a 680-kg satellite to accelerate
it. The free-body diagram for the satellite is shown at right.

Strategy: The force F1 from one astronaut adds as a vector to the forces F2

and F3 from the second and third astronauts, respectively, to produce the net

force Fnet . Use a ruler and a protractor to add the vectors head-to-tail,

preserving their length and direction. Then use the magnitude of Fnet to find
the acceleration of the satellite by applying Newtons second law.
Solution: 1. (a) Use a ruler and a protractor to construct a vector diagram

similar to the one shown at the right. Measure the length of Fnet to scale to find
its magnitude is around 90 N. Measure the angle to find it is around 20. The
net force on the satellite is thus 90 N at 20 above the positive x axis.
2. (b) Apply Newtons second law to find
the acceleration of the satellite:

F3

Fnet

63

F1

F2

= Fnet = ma

a=

Fnet
90 N
=
= 0.13 m/s 2
m
680 kg

Insight: A careful addition of vector components along the x axis and y axis reveals that the magnitude of the vector
sum is 91.0 N at 19.9 above the x axis.
89. Picture the Problem: The figure at right depicts the normal force on a
suitcase as a function of the angle that the pulling force makes with the
horizontal.
Strategy: The curves in the figure provide specific angles at which the
normal force is either zero or mg 2 . Use Newtons second law and the

## given information to determine the magnitude of the applied force F in

each case.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 17

## Solution: 1. (a) Write out Newtons second law

in the vertical direction and solve for F:

F=

mg mg 2
=
sin 90

F=

mg 0
= mg
sin 90

## 4. (c) Substitute N = 0 for the case = 30:

F=

mg 0
= 2mg
sin 30

= F sin + N mg = 0
1
2

mg N
sin

mg

Insight: As the applied force F becomes larger, the normal force becomes smaller because the applied force supports
more of the weight of the suitcase. If an applied force F = 2mg is exerted at an angle greater than 30, the suitcase will
accelerate upward.
90. (a) Kinetic and static friction are both forces that are proportional to the normal force between the two surfaces
involved. The two forces both oppose the direction of motion (or the direction of the pulling force in the case of static
friction). (b) Kinetic and static friction are different because kinetic friction has a constant value, but the static friction
force ranges from zero to a maximum value. When the maximum value is exceeded the object begins to slide.
91. A stuck car needs friction between the tires and the icy road in order to get unstuck. One way to accomplish this is to
increase the normal force between the tires and the road. Because the normal force depends upon the amount of weight
on the cars axle, sitting on the trunk of the car will increase the weight on the rear axle and therefore the normal force
and the friction force will each increase.
92. If the parking brake is applied while the car is in motion, the rear wheels begin to skid across the pavement. This
means that the friction acting on the rear wheels is kinetic friction, which is smaller in magnitude than the static
friction experienced by the front wheels. As a result, the rear wheels will overtake the front wheels, causing the car to
spin around and begin moving rear wheels first. This is standard procedure for stunt drivers wishing to spin a car around
in a chase scene.
93. Picture the Problem: A box remains at rest in each situation depicted in
the figure.
Strategy: The magnitude of the static friction force is equal and opposite
to the magnitude of the horizontal component of the net force exerted upon
the box. This is due to Newtons second law and the fact that the box is not
accelerating; the net force on the box must be zero.
Solution: Box 1 has the largest horizontal component of force acting upon it, so the static friction must be largest in that
case. Box 3 has the smallest horizontal component of force, so static friction must be smallest in that case. We conclude
that the ranking of the static friction forces is box 3 < box 2 < box 1.
Insight: The maximum static friction force depends upon the coefficient of static friction and the magnitude of the
normal force. If we were to rank the maximum static friction forces we would note that box 2 has the largest magnitude

normal force (due to F1 and its weight) and boxes 1 and 3 have similar normal forces, so box 1 = box 3 < box 2.
94. Picture the Problem: Two bricks are pushed across a rough surface. In case 1 they are placed end-to-end and in case 2
they are stacked one on top of the other.
Strategy: Use the mathematical relationship between the force of kinetic friction and the normal force to answer the
conceptual question.
Solution: 1. (a) The force of kinetic friction is proportional to the normal force between the bricks and the tabletop. In
case 2 the normal force will be twice the normal force of a single brick, but in case 1 there are two bricks and therefore
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5 18

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

two friction forces. Another way to view the situation is to say there are two bricks of the same mass but different
shapes. However, the friction force does not depend upon shape, only upon the magnitude of the normal force.
We conclude that the force of kinetic friction in case 1 is equal to the force of kinetic friction in case 2.
2. (b) The best explanation is B. The normal force is the same in the two cases, and friction is independent of surface
area. Statements A and C are both false.
Insight: If we were to stand the bricks up on their small ends, the friction forces would still remain the same.
95. Picture the Problem: Two drivers stop suddenly to avoid a deer. Driver 1 stops by locking up his brakes and
screeching to a halt; driver 2 stops by applying her brakes just to the verge of locking, so that the wheels continue to
turn until her car comes to a complete stop.
Strategy: Use Newtons second law together with the difference between kinetic and static friction to answer the
conceptual question.
Solution: 1. (a) Driver 1 stops his car using kinetic friction as the car tires skid, but driver 2 uses static friction because
the point of contact between a rolling tire and the road is instantaneously at rest. The maximum magnitude of the static
friction force is larger than the magnitude of the kinetic friction force, so driver 2 has a larger braking force to utilize
and experiences a larger braking acceleration. We conclude that the stopping distance of driver 1 is greater than the
stopping distance of driver 2
2. (b) The best explanation is C. Locked-up brakes result in sliding (kinetic) friction, which is less than rolling (static)
friction. Statements A and B are both false.
Insight: Race cars have specialized tires with very high coefficients of friction to increase the amount of force they can
generate for rounding turns at high speeds. They also greatly decrease the braking distance.
96. Picture the Problem: A baseball player slides in a straight line and comes to rest due to the frictional force.
Strategy: Find the acceleration of the player using Newtons second law.
Solution: Find the acceleration of the
player using Newtons second law:

= f k = ma

a=

fk
mg
= k
= k g = ( 0.46) 9.81 m/s 2 = 4.5 m/s 2
m
m

Insight: Note that the acceleration is independent of the baseball players mass and his initial speed. It depends only on
the coefficient of kinetic friction and the acceleration of gravity. The negative sign indicates the acceleration is opposite
the direction of motion.
97. Picture the Problem: A baseball player slides in a straight line and comes to rest due to the frictional force.
Strategy: Find the acceleration of the player using Newtons second law.
Solution: 1. (a) The acceleration of the player, as found in the previous question, is independent of the players mass.
We conclude that if the mass of the player is doubled, the players acceleration while sliding will stay the same.
2. (b) Find the acceleration of the
player using Newtons second law:

= f k = ma

a=

mg
fk
= k
= k g = ( 0.46) 9.81 m/s 2 = 4.5 m/s 2
m
m

Insight: Note that the acceleration is independent of both the baseball players mass and his initial speed. It depends
only on the coefficient of kinetic friction and the acceleration of gravity.
98. Picture the Problem: A baseball player slides in a straight line and comes to rest due to the frictional force.
Strategy: Find the acceleration of the player using Newtons second law.
Solution: 1. (a) The acceleration of the player, as found in the previous question, is independent of the players initial
velocity. We conclude that if the speed of the player is doubled, the acceleration while sliding will stay the same.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 19

## 2. (b) Find the acceleration of the

player using Newtons second law:

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

= f k = ma

a=

mg
fk
= k
= k g = ( 0.46) 9.81 m/s 2 = 4.5 m/s 2
m
m

Insight: Note that the acceleration is independent of both the baseball players mass and his initial speed. It depends
only on the coefficient of kinetic friction and the acceleration of gravity.
99. Picture the Problem: A car accelerates in a straight line due to the static friction between the tires and the road.
Strategy: The static friction between the tires and the road provides the forward force on the car needed to accelerate it
at 12 m/s2. Use Newtons second law to find the minimum coefficient of static friction.
Solution: 1. Write Newtons second law for the car:

= fs = s mg = ma

## 2. Solve the equation for s:

s =

a
12 m/s 2
=
= 1.2
g 9.81 m/s 2

Insight: There is no physical reason why the coefficient of friction cannot be greater than one. In fact, tires designed for
Formula One racing cars have coefficients of friction of 1.6 or better to obtain superior cornering and acceleration.
100. Picture the Problem: A sprinter accelerates in a straight line due to the static friction between her shoes and the track.
Strategy: The static friction between her shoes and the track provides the forward force needed to accelerate the
sprinter. First find her acceleration from the velocity-position equation, and then use Newtons second law to find the
minimum coefficient of static friction.
Solution: 1. (a) Find the sprinters acceleration
from the velocity-position equation:

a=
=
=
= 3.8 m/s 2
2 x
2 x
2 ( 22 m )

## 3. Solve the equation for s:

s =

= fs = s mg = ma

a 3.8 m/s 2
=
= 0.39
g 9.81 m/s 2

Insight: A larger coefficient of friction could produce a larger acceleration, although the sprinter will likely find the
limitations of the human body exceed the limitations of the shoes! 13 m/s is a very fast pace, as world class sprinters
average about 10 m/s over a 100 m distance (though they must start from rest, so their final speed is faster than 10 m/s).
101. Picture the Problem: The coffee cup is accelerated in a straight line due to the static friction between it and the roof of
the car.
Strategy: The static friction between the coffee cup and the roof of the car provides the forward force needed to
accelerate the coffee cup. First write Newtons second law to find the maximum acceleration of the car, and then
use the velocity-time equation to find the smallest amount of time in which the car can accelerate to 15 m/s.
Solution: 1. (a) Write Newtons
second law for the coffee cup:

## a = s g = ( 0.24) 9.81 m/s 2 = 2.35 m/s 2 = 2.4 m/s 2

= fs = s mg = ma

v v0 15 m/s 0
=
= 6.4 s
a
2.35 m/s 2
Insight: If the person owned a Ferrari 575M Maranello capable of going from zero to 60 mi/h in 4.2 seconds (6.4 m/s2),
she would need a coefficient of friction of 0.65 to prevent the cup from slipping. Not likely, given the smooth
aerodynamic finish of the sports car!

## 3. (b) Use the velocity-time equation

to find the minimum time:

t=

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5 20

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

102. Picture the Problem: The free-body diagram of the block is shown at right.
Strategy: Choose coordinate axes with x pointing parallel to the incline and down, and y

pointing parallel to N . Write Newtons second law in the y and x directions and combine the
equations to solve for .
Solution: 1. Write Newtons second law
in the y direction:

= N mg cos = 0

## 2. Write Newtons second law in the x direction:

= mg sin f s = ma

N = mg cos

ma = mg sin s N

## 3. Substitute the expression for N from step 1

and solve for :

0 = mg sin s ( mg cos )

s cos = sin
= tan 1 ( s ) = tan 1 ( 0.25) = 14

Insight: This approach can also be inverted to find the coefficient of friction s = tan ; simply vary the incline angle
and record the minimum angle required to overcome static friction and get the block sliding.
103. Picture the Problem: A book slides in a straight line across a tabletop.
Strategy: The minimum force required to get the book moving is related to the maximum coefficient of static friction,
and the force required to keep the book sliding at constant speed is equal to the magnitude of the kinetic friction force,
from which k can be determined.
Solution: 1. When the book begins
sliding, the applied force equals the
maximum static friction force:

Fapp = fs = s mg

## 2. When the book is sliding at

constant speed, the applied force
equals the kinetic friction force:

Fapp = f k = k mg

s =

k =

Fapp
mg

Fapp
mg

2.05 N

1.03 N

## (1.92 kg ) (9.81 m/s 2 )

= 0.109

= 0.0547

Insight: The coefficient of kinetic friction is usually smaller than the coefficient of static friction. This is the basic idea
behind antilock brakes, which seek to keep the tire of a car rolling so that the friction between the tire and the road
remains in the static regime, where there is a greater force to stop the car and improved handling during the stop.
104. It is true that if Mr. Ed pulls on the wagon, the wagon pulls back on him with an equal and opposite force (Newtons
third law). However, these two forces do not cancel because they act on different objects; one is a force on the horse, the
other is a force on the cart. If you want to know about the motion of the cart, you must consider the forces on the cart
only, and ignore all other forces.
105. The whole brick has twice the inertia (it is harder to accelerate) but it also experiences twice the force due to gravity. As
a result, these two effects (more inertia, more force) exactly cancel, and the free fall acceleration is independent of mass.
106. The whole brick has twice the force of gravity on it, but it also has twice the inertia (it is harder to accelerate). As a
result, these two effects (more force, more inertia) exactly cancel, and the free fall acceleration is independent of mass.
107. Although all objects have zero weight in orbit, they still retain their inertia, or the resistance to change in motion, due to
their mass. If an astronaut pushes on two objects with the same amount of force, the more massive object will have a
smaller acceleration.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 21

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

108. Picture the Problem: An elevator accelerates up and down, changing your apparent
weight Wa. A free-body diagram of the situation is depicted at right.

Strategy: There are two forces acting on you: the applied force F = Wa of the scale

acting upward and the force of gravity W acting downward. The force Wa
represents your apparent weight because it is both the force the scale exerts on you
and the force you exert on the scale. Use Newtons second law together with the
known force Wa acceleration to determine the acceleration a.
Solution: 1. The direction of acceleration is downward. A downward acceleration
results in an apparent weight less than the actual weight.
2. Use Newtons second law together
with the known forces to determine the
magnitude of the acceleration a.

= Wa W = ma

a =

Wa W
W W
480 540 N
= a
=
(9.81 m/s2 ) = 1.1 m/s2
540 N
m
W g

Insight: You feel the effects of apparent weight twice for each ride in an elevator, once as it accelerates from rest and
again when it slows down and comes to rest.

109. Picture the Problem: Various objects either accelerate or move with constant velocity.
Strategy: Consider Newtons second law as a vector equation when answering the conceptual questions.
Solution: 1. (a) A car accelerating northward from a stoplight. The acceleration vector points northward and therefore
the net force points northward, due to the vector nature of Newtons second law.
2. (b) A car traveling southward and slowing down. In this case the acceleration points opposite to the direction of
motion, and so the acceleration and the net force point northward.
3. (c) A car traveling westward with constant speed. In this case the acceleration and the net force are zero.
4. (d) A skydiver parachuting downward with constant speed. In this case the acceleration and the net force are zero.
5. (e) A baseball during its flight from pitcher to catcher (ignoring air resistance). In this case the acceleration points
downward (due to gravity) and therefore the net force points downward.
Insight: The acceleration of an object must always point in the same direction as the net force on it.

110. Picture the Problem: A spring in a cushion of a chair compresses from the force applied to it.
Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the compression distance.
Solution: Solve Hookes law for x:

F =kx

x=

F
51 N
=
= 0.088 m = 8.8 cm
k 580 N/m

Insight: This is a pretty weak spring, as it compresses a distance equivalent to 3.5 in when subjected to a relatively
small force (51 N is the same as 11 lb).

## 111. Picture the Problem: A branch is bent by the weight of a chimpanzee.

Strategy: Use Hookes law to find the spring constant.
Solution: Solve Hookes law for k:

F =kx

k=

2
F mg (22 kg ) 9.81 m/s
=
=
= 1660 N/m = 1.7 kN/m
x
x
0.13 m

Insight: The 216 N force is equivalent to about 49 lb and it bends the branch by 5.1 inches.

portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 22

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

112. Each time an astronaut exerts a force on a baseball, the baseball exerts an equal and opposite force on the astronaut
because of Newtons third law. Without any friction to inhibit motion, the astronaut will move backward as the baseball
goes forward toward the other astronaut. When the second astronaut catches the ball, she exerts a force on the baseball,
but the ball exerts an equal and opposite force on her, accelerating her backward (in the original direction of the balls
motion). As the game of catch progresses, the astronauts will move farther and farther apart and with increasing speed.
113. Picture the Problem: A parachutist is moving straight downward at 3.85 m/s, slowing down and coming to rest over a
distance of 0.750 m as she lands on the ground.
Strategy: Use velocity-position equation to determine the acceleration of the parachutist, and then use Newtons second
law to find the net force on her.
v y2 = v02y + 2a y

## Solution: 1. (a) Use the velocity-position

equation to find the acceleration of the
parachutist:

2
2
v y v0 y 0 ( 3.85 m/s )
a=
=
= 9.88 m/s 2 upward
2 y
2(0 0.750 m)

Fground mg = ma
F = Fground + W = ma
2

## 2. Use Newtons second law to find

the force exerted by the ground:

## Fground = ma + mg = (42.0 kg) (9.88 m/s 2 + 9.81 m/s 2 )

= 827 N upward

3. (b) If the parachutist comes to rest in a shorter distance, the acceleration a will be greater than 9.88 m/s2 and the force
exerted by the ground will therefore be greater than that in part (a).
Insight: There solution assumes the parachute lines are slack, so that the parachute exerts no force during the landing.

114. The force the road exerts on the wheels of the drag-racing car is a reaction to the force the wheels exert on the road.
The engine turns the wheels and provides the necessary force on the road.
115. Picture the Problem: A samara (the fruit of a maple tree) falls from a tree at constant speed.
Strategy: Because the samara is falling with constant speed, we conclude that the net force on it is zero. Use Newtons
second law to determine the force the air exerts on the fruit.

F = Fair + W = 0

## to find the force of air resistance:

Fair = W = ( mg ) = (0.00121 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 0.0119 N

2. (b) If the constant speed of descent is greater than 1.1 m/s, the acceleration still remains zero, so that the force of air
friction remains the same as in part (a).
Insight: The force of air friction depends upon speed and the shape of the object that is passing through the air. A fruit

with a more streamlined shape will fall at a greater and greater speed until Fair increases to 0.0119 N and the net force
becomes zero once again. At that point the fruit is said to have achieved its terminal velocity.

116. Picture the Problem: The tension in a helicopter cable lifts two men straight upward.
Strategy: Write Newtons second law in the vertical direction for the men and solve for the cable tension.
Solution: 1. (a) The tension in the cable is greater than the combined weight of the men because it must not only
support the weight of the men but also accelerate them upward.
2. (b) Write Newtons second law
in the y direction and solve for T:

= T mg = ma

## T = m (a + g ) = (172 kg ) 1.10 + 9.81 m/s 2 = 1880 N = 1.88 kN

Insight: The tension is larger than the 1.69 kN weight of the men. To accelerate them at 9.81 m/s2 upward, the cable
must exert a force equal to twice the weight of the men, or about 3.37 kN.
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 23

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

117. Picture the Problem: The force of the geckos foot pad acts straight upward in order to support the animals weight.
Strategy: Use the definition of weight to find the number of geckos that could be suspended by a single foot. Then use
an estimate of 700 N for a persons weight and a foot size of 25 cm 8 cm to find an estimate of the force per square
centimeter the human body exerts on the soles of the feet.
F = nW = nmg
Solution: 1. (a) Use the definition of
weight to find the number of geckos that
F
11 N
n=
=
= 4.5 geckos or 4 geckos
could be suspended from one gecko foot:
mg ( 0.250 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2

## 2. (b) Find the force per square centimeter exerted

on the soles of a 700-N persons two feet:

F
700 N
=
= 1.8 N/cm 2
A 2 ( 25 cm 8 cm )

Insight: If humans had feet like geckos, they could walk on ceilings, too, and even hang by one foot! In fact, a single
human-sized gecko foot could support the weight of three humans that each weigh 700 N.

118. Picture the Problem: The two workers pull on a raft in the directions
indicated by the figure at the right.
Strategy: Place the x-axis along the forward direction of the boat. Use the
vector sum of the forces to find the force F such that the net force in the
y-direction is zero.
Solution: Set the sum of
the forces in the y direction
equal to zero:

## = (130 N ) sin 34 + F sin 45 = 0

F = (130 N )

sin 34
= 100 N = 0.10 kN
sin 45

Insight: The second worker doesnt have to pull as hard as the first because a larger component of that force is pulling
in the y direction. However, the second workers force in the forward direction (73 N) is not as large as the first
workers force (110 N).

119. Picture the Problem: A hot air balloon is floating a few feet above the ground with zero net force on it. Then a late
arrival climbs in and the balloon accelerates downward.
Strategy: Apply Newtons second law to find the mass of the late arrival. Since the balloon was initially neutrally
buoyant, we know that the buoyant force upward equals the mass of the balloon and other occupants, and those forces
cancel. Therefore the weight of the late arrival is the only unbalanced force that produces the acceleration of the
balloon. Let downward be the positive direction.
Solution: Write Newtons second
law in the vertical direction for the
balloon, and solve for the mass of
the late arrival mLA :

## = Wlate arrival = mLA g = (M + mLA ) a

mLA ( g a ) = M a
mLA =

2
M a (1220 kg ) 0.56 m/s
=
= 74 kg
g a
9.81 0.56 m/s 2

Insight: Because the mass of the basket and occupants has changed by 74/1220 = 6.1%, the buoyant force created by
the hot air of the balloon must be increased by more than 6.1% in order to accelerate the balloon upward.

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5 24

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

120. Picture the Problem: You push a box horizontally across a rough surface.
Strategy: Write Newtons second law in the horizontal direction for the box in each of the two cases. There will be two
equations and two unknowns, the mass and k . Subtract the two equations to solve for the unknowns.
Solution: 1. (a) Write Newtons second law
for each case specified. The friction force is
f = k N = k mg . Subtract the first equation
from the second, and solve for the mass:

F
F

x
x

(
)
= mg + 81 N = m (0.75 m/s )
0 + (81 75 N ) = m (0.75 0.50 m/s )
= k mg + 75 N = m 0.50 m/s 2
2

6N
= m = 24 kg
0.25 m/s 2

## 2. (b) Now solve the first equation for k :

75 N m 0.50 m/s 2
mg

)=

75 N ( 24 kg ) 0.50 m/s 2

( 24 kg ) (9.81 m/s

= 0.27

Insight: We bent the rules for significant figures a bit in step one, where the subtraction of 81 75 N = 6 N leaves us
with only one significant figure, but we kept two in order to avoid rounding error in step 2.

121. Answers will vary. Students should research friction and prepare a report that explores the advantages and
disadvantages of friction. Friction is useful when you do not want two surfaces to slide relative to each other, such as
when a tire helps a car navigate a turn, or when you want a child to stay in a snow sled when you pull it. Friction should
be minimized when you want to surfaces to slide freely, such as when a snow sled travels down a hill or when a hockey
puck slides across an ice rink.
122. Answers will vary. Students should research static and kinetic friction and prepare a report that evaluates the
coefficients for a variety of different surfaces. You will find that there are not any cases where the coefficient
of static friction is less than the coefficient of kinetic friction, but there are some cases where they equal.
123. According to Newtons second law, the net force on an object determines its acceleration, not its speed. Acceleration is
the rate of change of speed, and is independent of speed. When you push on a heavy box, the box pushes back on you
with an equal and opposite force, consistent with Newtons third law.

124. Picture the Problem: The driver moves forward with the initial speed of the car and then comes to rest when acted
upon by the force of the seat belt.
Strategy: Find the acceleration of the driver using the velocity-position equation and then use Newtons second law to

find the net force on the driver. If we take the initial velocity v i to be in the positive direction, the acceleration and force
will each be negative. The approximate value can also simply be read from the provided graph.
Solution: 1. Use the velocity-position equation
to find the acceleration of the driver:

v2
v 2 vi2 02 vi2
a=
=
= i
2 x
2 x
2 x

## 2. Apply Newtons second law to find the net force.

The calculated answer is choice C.

## 65.0 kg )(18.0 m/s )

mvi2
(

= 1.05 104 N
F = ma = 2 x =
2 (1.00 m )

Insight: The negative sign means that the force and the acceleration act in the backward direction. The stopping force
for this 18.0 m/s (40.3 mi/h) crash is 1.2 tons distributed over the contact area between the seat belt and the drivers
body. Car crashes are dangerous!

portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

5 25

## Pearson Physics by James S. Walker

125. Picture the Problem: The driver moves forward with the initial speed of the car and then comes to rest when acted
upon by the force of the hard steering wheel.
Strategy: Find the acceleration of the driver using the velocity-position equation and then use Newtons second law to

find the net force on the driver. If we take the initial velocity v i to be in the positive direction, the acceleration and force
will each be negative. The approximate value can also simply be read from the provided graph.
Solution: 1. Use the velocity-position equation
to find the acceleration of the driver:

v2
v 2 vi2 02 vi2
=
= i
a=
2 x
2 x
2 x

## 2. Apply Newtons second law to find the net force.

The calculated answer is choice C.

mvi2
(65.0 kg )(18.0 m/s)2 = 2.11 105 N

=
m
=

F
a

2 x
2 (0.0500 m )

Insight: The negative sign means that the force and the acceleration act in the backward direction. The safety devices in
the previous problem cut the stopping force (and the injury risk) by a factor of 20.
126. Picture the Problem: The driver moves forward with the initial speed of the car and then comes to rest when acted
upon by the force of the seat belt.
Strategy: Find the acceleration of the driver using the velocity-position equation and then use Newtons second law to

find the net force on the driver. If we take the initial velocity v i to be in the positive direction, the acceleration and force
will each be negative. The approximate value can also simply be read from the provided graph.
Solution: 1. Use the velocity-position equation
to find the acceleration of the driver:

v2
v 2 vi2 02 vi2
=
= i
a=
2 x
2 x
2 x

## 2. Apply Newtons second law to find the net force.

The calculated answer is choice D.

## 65.0 kg )(36.0 m/s )

mvi2
(

= 4.21 104 N
F = ma = 2 x =
2 (1.00 m )

Insight: The stopping force for this 36.0 m/s (80.5 mi/h) crash is 4.7 tons distributed over the contact area between the
seat belt and the drivers body. This is four times more force than endured in the 18.0-m/s crash of the first problem
presented in this series.