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The Basics

1 Microscope

2 Cell Anatomy

3 Transport through Cell


Membranes

4 The Cells Life Cycle

13

5 Epithelial Tissue

17

6 Connective Tissue

20

7 Muscle and Nerve Tissue

23

8 Organization of the Body

26

Support and Movement


9 The Skin

30

10 Overview of the Skeleton

32

11 The Skull

35

12 The Vertebral Column and


Thoracic Cage

37

13 The Appendicular Skeleton

42

14 Joints

46

15 Organization of the Muscular


System

48
2

Contents
16 Muscle Identification

50

Integration and Control

34 Enzymes and Digestion

110

35 Urinary Structures

113
117

18 Nerve and Reflexes

56

36 Urinalysis

19 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

61

Reproduction

20 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

63

37 The Male Reproductive System

21 The Eye and Vision

66

38 The Female Reproductive System 127

22 The Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium

70

39 Development

130

23 Endocrine Glands

75

40 Genetics and Heredity

133

24 Hormones

79

25 Blood

81

Bibliography

136

26 Structure Of the Heart

84

27 Electrical Activity of the Heart

90

28 The Pulse and Blood Pressure

94

29 The Circulatory Pathway

97

30 The Lymphatic System and

102

31 Respiratory Structures

104

33 Digestive Structures

107

124

The Microscope
Laboratory Report 1

I. Objectives

To identify each major part of a compound microscope


To determine the total magnification at different settings
To observe prepared slides in microscope
To prepare a wet-mount slide
To stain microscopic specimen

II. Materials

compound light microscope


prepared microscope slides
clean slide
coverslips
paper wipes
methylene blue stain
flat toothpicks
disposable gloves

III. Procedure
A. Newsprint
1. Obtain a microscope slide with a newsprint letter e mounted on it.
2. Carefully place your slide on the stage and secure it with stage clips or the
brackets of the mechanical stage. Move the slide so that e is cantered in the
stage hole.
3.While looking from the side, use the coarse-focus knob to move the objective
(still on low power) as close as possible to the slide.
4.Use the coarse-focus knob to slowly move the objective and slide apart.
When the image becomes clear, switch to fine focus knob to make the image
sharper.
B. Three Strand of colored threads
1. Prepare a three crossed strands of colored (blue, orange and yellow) thread in
a slide then cover it with coverslip.
2. Then focus the slide in scanner, low power objectives and high power
objectives.

C. Cheek Cells
1. Obtain some skin cells by scrapping the inner surface of your check with a
clean flat toothpick.
2. Wipe the scrapping on a clean microscope slide and put a small drop of
metylene blue stain directly on the smear.
3. Put one edge of coverslip on the next slide to the specimen, let it touch the
drop of liquid, then let it drop slowly on the specimen. This method avoids
forming air bubbles.
4. Absorb any excess fluid around the edge of coverslip.
5. Locate some cells with the low power objective, then shift to HPO.

IV. Results
A. Newsprint
Scanner

LPO

HPO

As we can observe newsprint e appeared in an inverted position. Then, as we increase the power of objective lens the field of view of the specimen also decreases.
B. Thread
Scanner

LPO

HPO

As we can observe the objective that magnification of the three threads becomes more bigger when we
increase the total magnifications of the objective lens.
5

C. Human Cheek Cells

HPO: 400 X
The darkly stained region is the nucleus and the outer covering
of the cell is the cell membrane.

V. Conclusion
In this experiment we learned on how to use the compound microscope. We had also viewed human
cheek cells and the three crossed strand thread. We also learned that a typical microscope has a three objective
lenses. First is the scanner that can magnifies the specimens up to 40X of its original size. Next is the low
power objectives that can magnifies an object up to 100X and the high power objective lens that can magnifies
the object up to 400X of its original size. At the end of the experiment we learned that a microscope is a very
powerful tool in our profession in the near future and we should handle it with proper care.
Below is a typical binocular compound microscope and its parts.

Cell Anatomy
Laboratory Report 2

I. Objectives

To be able to identify the different parts and functions of the cell


To have a deeper understanding about the cell anatomy
To know the importance of cell

II. Materials

Cell model
Compound light microscope
Clean slides
Coverslips
Paper wipes
Methylene blue stain
Colored pencils or pens
Prepared slides Instructors option
Gloves
Protective eyewear

III. Procedure
1. Place the prepared slide (Allium Cepa) under the compound microscope.
2. View the slide under a scanner then after finding the specimen, use low-power magnification. Lastly, use
high-power objective.
3. Take note of the different appearance of the specimen using different magnification.
4. Sketch and label your observations on your lab report.

IV. Results
Alium Cepa
Scanner

LPO

HPO

V. Conclusion
I therefore conclude that like humans, cells are also composed of functional organs called organelles.
Without the cells, the tissues and organs will not be formed which will make the existence of humans impossible. Hence, the cell is considered the basic unit of life.
Terms to Remember

Parts of the Cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) transports proteins ; rough ER and smooth ER


Ribosomes site for protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatus packaging site
Mitochondria site for ATP synthesis
Cristae folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Lysosomes digests foreign particles and worn cell parts
Microtubules form part of the supporting cell skeleton or cytoskeleton
Centrosome dense area of cell fluid near the nucleus
Centrioles cylinders formed by parallel microtubules
Microtubules network of microtubules
Microvilli increase the membranes surface area for more efficient absorption
Cilia short, hairlike organelles that propel material along a cells surface
Flagella single long, hairlike organelles found in sperm cells
Vesicles formed by the golgi apparatus and engulf external substances

Transport through cell membranes


Laboratory Report 3

I. Objectives

To understand the nature of diffusion and Osmosis.


To compare and contrast diffusion, osmosis and filtration.

II. Materials

India ink.
microscope.
microscope slides and cover-slips.
potassium permanganate crystals.
petri-dishes.
hot water and cold water.
forceps.
dialysis tubing.
string.
sucrose solution/
syringe
laboratory balance
jar or beaker
distilled water
filter paper
glass funnel
flask
copper sulfate
boiled starch solution.
charcoal.
lugol's reagent

III. Procedure
A. Diffusion
1. Prepare wet-mount slide with a drop of India ink.
2. Observe the slide under high-power magnification. You should be able to see the dye particles moving
short, irregular distances. This is Brownian motion.
3. Using forceps, place a small crystal of potassium permanganate in the center of a Petri dish of calm, hot water. Place a second crystal of the same size in dish of calm, cold water. Be careful not to disturb the dishes
by touching them or causing them to shake.

4. Observe the two dishes over a period of 30 minutes, carefully noting any changes in the crystals.

B. Osmosis
1. Obtain three 8 to 10 cm pieces of dialysis tubing. Tie one ended shut with string, forming a water tight bag.
2. Leave about 10 cm of string dangling freely.
with a syringe, carefully fill each of the three bags with 15% sucrose solution. Try to avoid spilling any solution on the outside of the bag. Tie off the open end of each tube with another piece of string.
3. Quickly measure a mass of each tube on a laboratory balance.
4. Place bag no.1 in a jar or beaker half-filled with distilled water with 15% sucrose solution. Place bag no.2
in a jar half-filled with 15% sucrose solution. Place bag no.3 in a jar half-filled with 40% sucrose solution.
Leave a piece of string on a tea bag.
5. After 45 to 60 minutes, remove the tubes from the beaker, drying and weighing each as you do. Record and
interpret the result in Lab report 3.

10

C. Filtration
1. Place a cone made of filter paper inside the glass.Position the funnel
over an empty flask.
2. Mix together with 3 ml of copper sulfate solution, 4 ml of boiled
starch solution, a pinch of charcoal powder, 5 to 8 ml of distilled water.
Note the physical characteristics of each as you mix them.
3. Pour the mixture of the funnel.
4. Observe the mixture being filtered by the paper. Note the speed of
the process if faster, slower or steady. Record and explain your result
5. Examine the filtrate. Test for the presence of each component of the
original mixture:
Charcoal- observe visually
copper sulfate- observe visually.
Starch- add a few drops of Lugol's reagent or Iodine solution. A color change to black indicated the
presents of starch.

IV. Results
Observation
1
2
3
4
Results

Elapsed Time

Extent of Diffusion in Cold Water.

0 minutes

No diffusion of dye particles.

Extent of Diffusion in Hot Water.


No diffusion of dye particles.

7.5 minutes
15 minutes
30 minutes

Little and slow diffusion


Little and slow diffusion
Moderate diffusion
Low diffusion

Small but fast diffusion


Great and fast diffusion
Great and moderate diffusion.
High diffusion rate.

The small crystals of the potassium permanganate in the center of Petri dish underwent diffusion and
we have observed that the color have occupied all the spaces in the Petra dish over a period of 30 minutes.
Moreover, we have observed that the potassium permanganate in a Petra-dish with calm, hot water in it moved
faster than the one with calm, cold water.
BAG
1

Predicted result
Shrink

Initial mass
49 g.

Final mass
48.7 g.

Same

48.5 g.

48.5 g.

Swell

49 g.

50 g.

Gain or loss of mass


Loss
No gain or lose

Gain

Explanation
Water went out
of the cell.
Equal movements of water
in and out of
the cell.
Water went inside the cell.
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The Bag no.1 placed in beaker with half-filled distilled water resulted hypotonic solution.
The Bag no.2 placed in beaker with 15% sucrose solution resulted isotonic solution.
The Bag no.3 placed in beaker with 40% sucrose solution resulted hypertonic solution

Substance
Charcoal
Copper Sulfate

Test Result
Absent
Present

Starch

Absent

Explanation
Black residue on filter
Blue color moisture was
passed through filter paper
If add Iodine, color change to
black

V. Conclusion:
After the experiment had been conducted, our group have observed that there's a variations in such as
speed of movement of particles between the Petra-dishes with cold and hot water. We concluded that temperature affects the diffusion because in our experiment the potassium permanganate crystals diffused easily in hot
water rather than cold water.
Osmosis allows water molecule to cross in semi-permeable membrane from higher concentration to
lower concentration. Therefore, we concluded that bag no.1 gained weight due to higher lower concentration
of water and water it's surrounding moved inside the test tube which resulted hypotonic. In bag no.2 there's an
equal concentration, consequently there's no gain or lose of volume inside the bag. The bag no.3 showed a hypotonic solution since there's much lower concentration of water outside the bag, consequently, the water came
out of the tube and shrunk.

12

The Cells Life Cycle


Laboratory Report 4

I. Objectives

To list the major phases of a cells life cycle


To describe the principal events of mitosis
To identify the cell parts involved in mitosis
To explain the importance of mitosis
To define the term cytokinesis

II. Materials

Chart or model: animal mitosis series


Colored pencils or pens
Microscope
Prepared microslide: whitefish blastula

III. Procedure
1. Obtain a prepared microscope (microslide) of whitefish blastula cross sections (c.s.)
2. Locate a group of cells using low-power magnification. There are usually several different cell groups from
which to choose on each slide.
3. Switch to high power and try to locate individual cells in each of the five phases of cell life cycle. You may
need to switch slides occasionally to find all the phases.

13

IV. Results
Interphase is not a phase of mitosis but is a period between cell division. Chromatin (DNA) replicates during
interphase. It forms two sister chromatids joined at a centromere.
Results

Reference Image

Prophase is the first phase of mitosis. During prophase, the nuclear membrane disappears, freeing the chromatin. Also, centriole pairs move to opposite poles of the cell as spindle fibers begin to project from them.

Result

Reference Image

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Metaphase is the period during which the chromosomes arrange themselves singly as a thin sheet along the
cells equator. Each chromosome now has a pair of spindle fibers attached to it.

Result

Reference Image

Anaphase is the phase during which the chromatids split at the centromere, each moving toward an opposite
pole along the path of a spindle fiber.

Result

Reference Image

15

Telophase is the time where chromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell, and new membranes form around the
daughter nuclei. The chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible under the light microscope. The spindle
fibers disperse, and cytokinesis or the partitioning of the cell may also begin during this stage.
Result

Reference Image

V. Conclusion
Cells in many parts of the human body divide to produce more cells of the same type. The hereditary
information contained within the nucleus of a resting parent cell must be first be replicated, then eventually
evenly distributed between two cells that result from division. This process is termed mitosis. Mitosis is divided into 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Meanwhile, the whole life cycle is composed
of interphase and mitosis. Lastly, the pinching in of the cell membrane, and eventual split of the membrane and
its contents into two daughter cells is termed cytokinesis.

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Epithelial Tissue
Laboratory Report 5

I. Objectives

To define the term epithelium


To classify epithelial tissue types
To identify the major types of epithelia in different specimens

II. Materials

Microscope
Prepared microslides of different epithelial tissues

III. Procedure

17

IV. Results
Columnar Epithelium
Scanner

LPO

HPO

Frog Ciliated Epithelium

Scanner

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

LPO

HPO

Simple Cuboidal

18

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

Transitional Epithelium

V. Conclusion
Epithelial cells from skin are what protect us from harmful chemicals, invading bacteria, and excessive water loss. Without it, we would be sick all the time
and have to watch our back at every move. Without epithelial tissue, we would be
no longer be able to enjoy the taste of our food, for we would lose all the sensations. Epithelial tissue of the glands is responsible for secretion of specific chemicals. Some are responsible for absorbing nutrients and some help excrete waste
products from the body that may have the possibility of becoming toxic.

19

Connective Tissue
Laboratory Report 6

I. Objectives

To be able to describe the general pattern of structure in connective tissues


To be able to classify major connective tissue types
To be able to identify examples of connective tissue types in figures and specimens

II. Materials

Microscope
Dense fibrous (regular)
Loose fibrous (areolar
Dense fibrous (irregular)
Adipose
Hyaline cartilage
Fibrocartilage
Elastic cartilage
Blood smear

III. Procedure

20

IV. Results
Dense Fibrous (Regular)

Dense Fibrous (Irregular)

21

V. Conclusion
Ergo, the members were to describe the general pattern of structure in connective tissues by observing
specimens like adipose tissue, blood smear, loose fibrous (areolar) tissue, etc. Major connective tissue types
like adipose tissue, hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage and blood smear were classified. Examples of connective tissue types were identified through figures and specimens.

22

Muscle and Nerve Tissue


Laboratory Report 7

I. Objectives

Distinguish among the three basic types of muscle nerve tissue


Identify the primary components of nerve tissue
Recognize muscle and nerve tissue types in figures and specimens

II. Materials

Microscope
Prepared Microslides:
Cardiac Muscle sect.
Human Skeletal Muscle c.s
Smooth Muscle c.l.s.
Spinal cord c.s

III. Procedure

IV. Results

23

24

V. Conclusion
There are three basic types of muscle tissue namely, skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles. They differ
in structure, function and location. The structure of these three muscle tissues can be distinguished by the presence of striations and its number of nucleus per fiber.
Skeletal muscle cells appear striated and its cells are long and cylindrical, with many nuclei; it is also
responsible for the movement of the body and it is under voluntary control. It is usually attached to bones or
other connective tissue. Cardiac muscle cells are cylindrical and striated and have a single nucleus; they are
branched and connected to one another by intercalated disks, which contain gap junctions. It allows the pumping of the heart and it is under the involuntary control. It is only found in the heart. Smooth muscles cells are
tapered at each end, are not striated, and have a single nucleus. It regulated the size of organs, forces fluid
through tubes, control the amount of light entering the eye, and produces goose bumps in the skin; it is under
the involuntary control. It is usually found in hollow organs, such as the stomach and intestine.
A nerve tissue forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It is responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activities. It consists of neurons and support cells.

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Organization of the Body


Laboratory Report 8

I. Objectives

To be able to use anatomical terms correctly


To be able to appreciate the nature of an anatomical section
To be able to identify the major body cavities
To be able to understand the basic plan of the human body
To be able list the major systems of the body, their principal organs, and their primary functions

II. Materials

Dissectible human torso model or comparable charts


Models or figures showing different anatomical section

III. Procedure
A. Directional terms
1. To locate structures within the body, you must use directional terms. Actually, use these kinds of terms all the time:
left, right, up, down, north, south.
2. Review this list of directional terms and abbreviations:
A = Anterior
I = Inferior
L (opposite R) = Left
L (opposite M) = Lateral
M = Medial
P = Posterior
R = Right
S = Superior
B. Body Cavities and Regions
1. Using a dissectible torso model, find these cavities of the body ( and organs within):
Cranial cavity
Spinal Cavity
2. Using the torso model, find these divisions and organs of the cavities of the trunk:
Thoracic Cavity
-Pleural Cavities
-Mediastinum

Abdominopelvic Cavity
-Abdominal Cavity
-Pelvic Cavity

26

3. Identify the approximate locations of each of the nine regions on a model of the human torso.
Right hypochondriac region
Epigastric region
Left hypochondriac region
Right lumbar region
Umbilical region
Left lumber region
Right iliac region
Hypogastric region
Left iliac region
4. Locate the following surface regions on the anterior aspecf of a human model or figure:
Abdominal
Axillary
Brachial
Buccal
Cervical
Pubic

Antebrachial
Femoral
Orbital
Patellar
Thoracic
Tibia

5. Identify these regions on the posterior aspect of your subject:


Calf
Cervical
Gluteal
Lumbar
Occipital

Popliteal
Scapular
Thoracic

IV. Results

A. Directional Terms

27

B. Body Cavities

Abdominopelvic Cavity

28

Regional Terms

V. Conclusion
In order to describe body parts and positions correctly, the medical community has developed a set of
anatomical positions and directional terms widely used in the healthcare industry. Its important to understand
the anatomical position because most directional terms are based off it. Directional terms allow us to explain
where one body part is when compared to another.

29

The Skin
Laboratory Report 9

I. Objectives

To describe the major structure of the skin and identify their functions.
To identify the important structures in the prepared specimens
To compare and contrast the features of thick and thin skin.

II. Materials

Microscope
Human Brown Skin
Thin Skin c.s.

III. Procedure
Focus Human brown kin and thin skin c.s. under scanner, low power objective and high power objective.

IV. Results

Human Brown Skin

30

Human Thin Skin c.s.

V. Conclusion
At the end of the experiment we had able to identify the two major layer of the skin the epidermis
which is the superficial layer sheet of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is divided into distinct
histological regions or strata; stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum and stratum corneum. The layer of the skin deep to the epidermis is a sheet of irregular fibrous connective tissue
called dermis. And the deepest layer is the hypodermis or superficial fascia.
We also learned that thick skin has a thinner dermis than thin skin and does not contain hairs, sebaceous glands, or apocrine sweat glands. It is also found in areas where there are a lot of abrasion like fingertips, palms and the soles of our feet. While a thin skin has a thicker dermis than thick skin, which makes thin
skin easier to suture, if it gets damaged. Thin skin also has fewer eccrine/merocrine sweat glands.

31

Overview of the Skeleton


Laboratory Report 10

I. Objectives

To know the different types of bones


To identify the parts and functions of the human bone
To have a deeper understanding about the skeletal system

II. Materials

Human skeleton (disarticulated)


Human skeleton (articulated)
Long bone (fresh, whole)
Whole long bone (fresh, ls)

III. Procedure
1. Obtain fresh long bone specimens from a large animal. One should be whole (uncut) , the other cut along its
long axis (longitudinal section or l.s.).
2. Examine the external aspect of a whole bone and find its features.
3. Use the sectioned bone specimen to identify the structures.
4. Place the specimen under the microscope for viewing.

IV. Results
Bone Human
Scanner

LPO

HPO

32

Human Long Bone


Scanner

LPO

HPO

V. Conclusion
I therefore conclude that bones do not only provide shape to our body but also protects our organs
provide storage to some minerals in our blood like calcium and phosphorus.
Terms to Remember
Total number of bones 206
Axial Skeleton 80 bones
Skull (28)
Vertebral column (26)
Thoracic (25)
Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones
Upper extremity (64)
Lower extremity (62)

Categories of Bones
Long bones cylindrical bones that are longer than they
are wide
Short bones as long as they are wide
Flat bones usually curved, rather than absolutely flat
Irregular bones complex shape

33

Features of a Long Bone


Ligament holds bones together
Periosteum covers the shaft and part of the heads of a long bone
Articular cartilage found where the bone articulates with another bone
Joints connects me muscles to bones
Diaphysis whole central shaft of the long bone
Epiphysis heads of a long bone
Medullary cavity space within the center of the diaphysis; contains yellow bone marrow
Endosteum lines the medullary cavity
Cancellous bone - the inside of each epiphysis; contains red bone marrow

34

The Skull
Laboratory Report 12

I. Objectives

Distinguish between the cranial bones and facial bones of the skull.
Identify all the bones of the skull and their important markings in specimen on figure
Describe the important features of fetal skull

II. Materials

Human skull
Demonstration pointer

III. Procedure
Using the skull model locate and identify the different bones of the skull.

Brain case
ethmoid bone
rontal bone
occipital bone
parietal bones
sphenoid bone
temporal bones

Facial
mandible
maxilla
frontal bone
nasal bones
zygoma

IV. Results

35

V. Conclusion
The primary function of the skull is defensive in nature to the brain portion of the central nervous system. There are many other related functions. For example, focus of the eyes on a fixed point is determined
by rigid eye sockets of the cranium, and the proportional positioning of the ear drums is also determined by the
cranium. The sinus cavities are also part of the cranium, providing a particularly important function on animals lower in the food chain, since a sense of smell is an important defensive function. In this activity, we are
familiarized the bones that aids the said function.

36

The Vertebral Column and


Thoracic Cage
Laboratory Report 12

I. Objectives

To name the component bones of the vertebral column and thoracic cage
To identify the bones and markings of the vertebral column and thorax on a specimen and in figures

II. Materials

Human skeleton (disarticulated)


Human skeleton (articulated)
Human vertebrae set (optional)
Demonstration pointer

III. Procedure
A. The Vertebral Column
1. Find the 26 bones of the vertebral column and its important features on
both an articulated skeleton and among the separate bones of a disarticulated
skeleton or vertebrae set.

B. The Thoracic Cage


1. Locate the 25 bones of the rib cage, or thoracic cage.

37

IV. Results
A. The Vertebral Column

38

39

40

B. Thoracic Cage

V. Conclusion
The vertebral column is composed of 26 bones. These bones all together perform specific functions:
provide balance to the skeletal frame, absorb jolts and shocks, allow to move, bend and twist, and protect the
spinal cord and spinal nerves.
On the other hand, the thoracic cage is composed of 25 bones. These bones support one another to carry out the thoracic cages functions: protection, support and respiration. It encloses and protects the heart and
lungs. It provides a strong framework onto which the muscles of the shoulder girdle, chest, upper abdomen and
back can attach. It is flexible and can expand and contract by the action of the muscles of respiration.

41

The Appendicular Skeleton


Laboratory Report 13

I. Objectives

To name the bones of the appendicular skeleton


To identify appendicular bones and markings on a specimen

II. Materials

Human skeleton (disarticulated)


Human skeleton (articulated)
Demonstration pointer

III. Procedure
Locate and identify the following bones:

Scapula shoulder blade


Features of the scapula:
Axillary border
Vertebral border
Superior border
Acromion
Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity
Spine

The Upper Extremities

Clavicle collarbone, the other bone of shoulder girdle


Humerus large, long bone of the upper arm
Head
Anatomical neck
Surgical neck
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Intertubercular sulcus
Deltoid tuberosity
Coronoid fossa
Olecranon fossa
Radius one of two long bones of the lower arm, lateral to the other lower arm bone (when in the anatomical
position)
Head
Radial tuberosity
Styloid process
42

Ulna- the other long bone of the lower arm


Olecranon
Trochlear notch
Coronoid process
Head
Styloid process
Carpus wrist
Eight small bones:
Pisiform
Triquetrum (triangular)
Lunate
Scaphoid(navicular)
Hamate
Capitate
Trapezoid
Trapezium
Metacarpal bones numbered one through five (starting from the thumb side)

Phalanges finger bones, named proximal, middle, and distal and are numbered one through five, according to
their position, the first middle phalanx (of the thumb) is not present
The Lower Extremities
Left and right coxal boxal bones pelvic bones
Acetabulum
Iliac crest
Anterior superior spine
Ischial spine
Obtulator foramen
Symphysis pubis
Pubic arch
Sacroiliac joint
Femur long bone of the upper leg, or thigh bone
Head
Neck
Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter
Medial condyle
Lateral condyle
Patella large sesamoid bone forming the anterior bone of the knee joint

Tibia one of the two long bones of the lower leg, larger, medial lower leg bone
Lateral condyle
Medial condyle
Tibial tuberosity
Medial malleolus
Fibula narrower, lateral bone of the lower leg
Head
Lateral malleolus

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Seven tarsal bones form the ankle


Talus
Calcaneus
Cuboid
Navicular
Medial cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
Lateral cuneiform

IV. Results

The Upper Extremities

44

The Lower Extremities

V. Conclusion
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of upper limbs, lower limbs, and
their girdle bones. The bones of upper limbs consist of 3 parts; the humerus, fore
arm, and hand bones which are connected to shoulder bones that allow eating,
drinking, and holding things. The bones of lower limbs consist 3 parts; the femur,
shaft, and foot bones which are connected to pelvic bones that allow walking, running, standing, and carrying the rest of the body.

45

Joints
Laboratory Report 14

I. Objectives

To be able to distinguish among the three classes of joints


To be able to describe examples of each joint class
To be able to identify the different types of motion in joints

II. Materials

Joint movement chart

III. Procedure

IV. Results

46

V. Conclusion
Ergo, the members were able to distinguish the three classes of joints which are classified as fibrous,
cartilaginous and synovial. Examples of each joint class were also identified. For fibrous joints, sutures between skull bones, syndesmoses between certain long bones e.g. the tibia and fibula and gomphoses that attach
the roots of human teeth to the upper and lower and jaw bones. For cartilaginous joints, in synchondroses, sternocostal joint and epiphyseal plates. In symphyses, the sternum bone, sacrococcygeal joint and pubic symphysis. For synovial joints, planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket joints. Lastly, different
types of motion in joints were observed. Examples of motion in joints are abduction, adduction, flexion, extension and retraction.

47

Organization of the Muscular System


Laboratory Report 15

I. Objectives

Describe the structure of the skeletal muscle fiber


Identify and describe the principal structures of a skeletal muscle organ
Define the terms origin and insertion
Interpret the meaning of muscle names

II. Materials

Model or chart of a skeletal muscle cell

III. Procedure

IV. Results

48

V. Conclusion
Skeletal muscle, with its associated connective tissue, constitutes approximately 40% of the body.
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium. Each whole muscle is
subdivided by a loose connective tissue called the perimysium into numerous visible bundles called muscle
fasciculi. Each fascicle is then subdivided by a loose connective tissue called the endomysium into separate
muscle cells called muscle fibers.
Skeletal muscle fibers provide the basic functional capability of the muscle organ because they can
contract with great force. The skeletal muscle fiber is a single cylindrical fiber, with several nuclei located at
its periphery.
The skeletal muscle fiber has several features. It includes sarcolemma (outer membrane of the long,
cylindrical muscle fiber), T tubules (tube like invaginations along the surface of the sarcolemma), sarcoplasmic reticulum (number of membranous networks similar to ER), myofilament (composition of myofibril), and
sarcomere (repeating pattern arrangement of myofilaments).
Skeletal muscles are named based on their shape, points of attachments (origin and insertion), relative
size, direction of the fibers, actions produced and region.

49

Muscle Identification
Laboratory Report 16

I. Objectives

To be able to identify the following on a model and in figures:


Muscles of the head and neck
Muscles of the trunk
Muscles of the upper extremity
Muscles of the lower extremity
Muscles of the pelvic floor
To be able to name the origin and insertion of each major muscle of the body
To be able to demonstrate the action of each muscle studied

II. Materials

Models and charts of human musculature


Demonstration pointers

III. Procedure

Using models and charts of the human musculature, locate the skeletal muscles outlined in the succeeding pages. As you do, note the size and shape of each muscle.
Identify these muscles of the head and neck:
Occipitofrontalis
Orbicularis oris
Orbicularis oculi
Buccinators
Zygomaticus
Levator labii superioris
Depressor anguli oris
Temporalis
Masseter
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius

Identify these muscles of the trunk:


Erector spinae
Scalenes
External intercostals
Internal intercostals
Rectus abdominis
External abdominal oblique
Internal abdominal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Trapezius
50

Levator scapulae
Rhomboids
Serratus anterior
Pectoralis minor
Pectoralis major
Teres major
Latissimus dorsi
Infraspinatus
Supraspinatus
Teres minor
Deltoid
Identify these muscles of upper extremity:
Triceps brachii
Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Pronators
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor digitorum
Brachioradialis
Supinator
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Extensor carpi radialis
Extensor digitorum

IV. Results

Identify these muscles of lower extremity:


Iliopsoas
Tensor fasciae latae
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius
Quadriceps femoris group
Sartorius
Hamstring group
Adductor group
Tibialis anterior
Extensor digitorum longus
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Peroneus

Identify the muscle of the pelvic floor:


Levator ani
Ischiocavernosus
Bulbospongiosus
Gluteus maximus

Muscles of the head and neck


Lateral view

51

Anterior view

Muscles of the trunk


Anterior view

52

Posterior view

Muscles of the upper extremity


Anterior and posterior view

53

Muscles of the lower extremity


Anterior and posterior view

Muscles of the pelvic floor


Female inferior view

54

Male inferior view

V. Conclusion
Muscles have the ability to contract actively to provide the force for movements of body parts. Without
muscle, humans could not live. The primary job of muscle is to move the bones of the skeleton, but muscles
also enable the heart to beat and constitute the walls of other important hollow organs.

55

Nerves and Reflexes


Laboratory Report 18

I. Objectives

To be able to describe the structural components of a typical neuron and identify them on a model
or chart
To outline the features of a reflex arc and be able to apply this model to specific nerve pathways
To demonstrate nerve reflexes in a human object

II. Materials

Model or chart of a multipolar neuron


Prepared microslide: spinal cord smear
Microscope
Rubber reflex mallet
Penlight

III. Procedure
A. Spinal cord smear
1. Get the prepared microslide and view it under the microscope.
2. Examine the specimen.
3. View it using the scanner, LPO and HPO.

B. Patellar Reflex
1. Have the subject sit on a chair with the legs dangling above the
floor.
2. Sharply tap the knee with a reflex mallet at the ligament just
inferior to the patella (kneecap).
Observe.

56

C. Triceps Reflex
1. Have the subject lie on the table, with an arm across
the abdomen.
2. Supporting the subjects arm with the elbow flexed at a
90o angle, sharply tap the posterior surface of the upper
arm just proximal to the olecranon.
Observe.

D. Plantar Reflex
1. Position the subjects bare foot with the lateral surface resting on a table or chair.
2. Demonstrate this reflex by firmly sweeping the handle of the mallet along the lateral region of the sole.
3. Observe.

57

E. Pupillary Reflex
1. Have the subject stare straight ahead, with a hand held vertically between the eyes.
2. Shine the penlight in the subjects left eye (from 5 to 7 cm away) then afterwards do the same test using the
subjects right eye.
3. Determine if the pupils diameter increased or decreased.

IV. Results
A. Spinal cord smear

58

B. Patellar Reflex

The tap stretches a quadriceps muscle in the anterior


thigh, stimulating stretch receptors located in the muscle.
In response to the increased stretch, which normally
would occur only when the muscle load had suddenly
increased, the muscle contracts and extends the lower
leg.

C. Triceps Reflex

The lower arm extends as the triceps brachii muscle reflexively contracts.

D. Plantar Reflex

The toes flexed when the handle of the mallet was


swept along the lateral portion of the sole.

59

E. Pupillary Reflex

The left and right pupil constricted. Involving adjustments


in pupil size with changes in light levels.

V. Conclusion
I therefore conclude that neurons play an important role in reflexes since they conduct action potentials
which make use of our reflex. A reflex action, also known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus . When a person accidentally touches a hot object, they automatically
jerk their hand away without thinking. A reflex does not require any thought input.
Terms to Remember
Neuron conducts impulses or action potentials
Soma cell body
Axon hillock cone-shaped projection formed by the
soma
Axon conducts action potentials away from the cell
body
Schwann cells series of neuroglial cell that wraps
the axons (PNS)
Myelin inner layers of the Schwann cell that are
filled with fatty white substance
Myelin sheath a segmented series of Schwann cells
Nodes of Ranvier gap between the Schwann cells
Myelinated fiber or white fiber outer wrapping of
each Schwann cell
White matter group of white fibers
Oligodendrocytes wraps the myelinated axons
(CNS)
Telodendria distal ends of axons
Dendrites conducts action potentials towards the
cell body
Synapse an association formed by neurons
Gemmule bump on the dendrite

60

The Spinal Cord and Spinal


Nerves.
Laboratory Report 19

I. Objectives

To be able to name and describe the covering of spinal cord.


To be able to identify the principal structures of the spinal cord in figures and specimens.
To name the spinal nerves and locate them in model or figure.

II. Materials

Microscope.
Prepared micro-slide of mammalian spinal cord c.s.

III. Procedure

IV. Results

61

V. Conclusion
As we know, the spinal cord is one of the two principal organs of the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is the other. This exercise helps us understand the spinal cord and its accessory structures on the
gross level and the microscope level. This also introduced to us a peek into the peripheral nervous system by
means of introduction to spinal nerves
62

The Brain and Cranial Nerves


Laboratory Report 20

I. Objectives

List and describe the principal structures of the brain


Identify important parts of the sheep brain in a preserved specimen
Identify structures of the human brain in a chart, model or preserved specimen
List the 12 pairs of the cranial nerves and describe their general functions

II. Materials

Dissection tools and trays


Preserved specimen: sheep brain (whole)
Chart, model, or preserved specimen of a human brain

III. Procedure

A. The Sheep Brain: External


1. Examine the external features of the sheep brain as outlined in these steps:
2. Determine whether the meninges of your specimen
are still intact. If so find the following:
Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia mater
3. Identify the cerebrum and its structures:
Left and right hemispheres
Longitudinal fissure
Corpus callosum
Gyri (sing., gyrus)
Sulci (sing., sulcus)
Lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital and
temporal)
Insula
4. Locate the cerebellum.
5. Determine the diencephalon and its features:
Hypothalamus (includes the optic chiasma)
Mammillary bodies
Infundibulum
Pituitary gland or hypophysis
Thalamus (not visible in external examination)
6. Identify the brainstem and its structures:
Midbrain
Corpora quadrigemina
Superior colliculi
Inferior colliculi
63

Pons
Medulla
B. The Sheep Brain: Internal
1. Use a knife or long-bladed scalpel to cut the specimen along a median (midsagittal) plane. Use the longitudinal fissure as a cutting guide.

2. You can now locate the following structures:


Fornix
Lateral ventricles (right and left)
Septum pellucidum
Choroid plexus
Caudate nucleus
Third ventricle
Interventricular foramen (of Monro)
Thalamus

IV. Results
A. The Sheep Brain: External

64

B. The Sheep Brain: Internal

V. Conclusion
The sheep brain is remarkably similar to the human brain. There are only few differences such as proportion and orientation. The sheep brain is oriented anterior-to-posterior, whereas the human brain is oriented
superior-to-inferior. This dissection is helpful as a comparison on how the human brain works. Through this,
one could be familiarize to the parts of the brain and its function.

65

The Eye and Vision


Laboratory Report 21

I. Objectives

To describe the major features of the eye and identify them in specimen, and models
To explain the basic function of the eye and its structures
To demonstrate visual function by means of standard tests and demonstrations

II. Materials

Chart model of the eye


Meter stick
Wall chart: astigmatism test
Wall chart: Snellen eye test
Pack of assorted brightly colored papers
Color-blindness test plates

III. Procedure
The Human Eye
Using charts of human eye and its accessories, locate each parts listed
Features of lacrimal apparatus:
Lacrimal gland exocrine tear gland in the superior lateral corner of the orbit
Nasolacrimal duct inferior medial corner of the orbit
Lacrimal canaliculi drains tears from here toward the nasal cavity
Extrinsic eye muscles - skeletal muscles that control eye movement
Rectus muscles (four) superior, inferior, medial, lateral
Oblique muscles (two) superior, inferior

Additional accessory structures:


Eyelids
Conjunctiva
Eyebrows

Three tunics, or coats, of the eyeball


Fibrous tunic outer coat of the eye
Vascular tunic the middle coat of the eye
Nervous tunic inner coat of the eye

Compartments of the eye


Anterior compartment anterior cavity
Posterior compartment posterior cavity

66

Locate these structures on the external aspect:


Optic nerve nerve bundle projecting from the posterior of the eyeball
Extrinsic eye muscles (six)
Sclera white portion of the fibrous tunic
Cornea clear, anterior portion of fibrous tunic
Iris pigmented region under cornea
Pupil iris hole
Conjunctiva thin mucous membrane over the nterior portion of the eye, extending to line the inner eyelid

Identify these features:


Vitreous humor thick fluid of the posterior compartment
Aqueous humor watery liquid in the anterior compartment
Lens plasticlike ball of translucent tissue
Ciliary body ring of ridges around the outside of the iris margin
Retina thin film of gray matter loosely associated with the inside posterior wall of the eyeball
Choroid pigmented region of the eyeballs wall

Visual Function
Acuity sharpness of the visual image and is often tested in clinics with the Snellen eye test.
Place Snellen chart on the wall and have the subject stand 20 feet away, facing the chart.
Have the subject cover one eye and read the letters on the chart as you point to them.
Note the lowest row that can be read accurately. That number is the farthest distance that a person with
normal acuity can see the letters in that row.
Astigmatism abnormal curvature of the cornea
Face the subject toward an astigmatism test chart 20 meters away
Cover one eye and ask to stare at the circle in the center of the chart.
If all the lines are radiating from the center appear to be straight and equal darkness, no astigmatism is present. If the lines appear wavy, curved, or unequal darkness, astigmatism is suspected. Test the other eye.
Accommodation ability to adjust the focusing apparatus to account for changes to account for changes in distance from the viewed object. Your lens changes shape to accommodate near vision. The pupil change diameter to help accommodation.
Position the subjects chin on the lab table and put a meter stick on the table perpendicular to the subjects
face (with 0 cm at the chin)
Have the subject cover one eye and to focus on the word TEST as you hold it 1 meter from the face.
Slowly move the figure closer and record the nearest point at which the subject can focus. Repeat with the
other eye.
Blind spot optic disc,
Cover one eye and looking at figure. Stare at the object (square or circle) medial to the other object in the
figure. Starting at about 35 cm, slowly bring the figure closer to the eye. At one point, the lateral object
will seem to disappear because its image has fallen on the blind spot
While the subject stares forward, slowly bring a brightly colored sheet of paper into the visual field from
the subjects head.
Stop when the subject indicates that the object has entered the visual field.
Ask what color the object is. The color is difficult or impossible to determine
Color blindness color vision deficiency
Hold the book of plates about 75 cm from the subject in bright, natural light, avoiding glare.
Without touching the figures, ask the subject to name the numeral seen in each mosaic.
If more than one numeral can be seen, ask for the one that appears more distinct.
Add the marks in the two columns of the forms first section. Using the formula given there, determine
whether the subject is normal or color deficient.
If the subject is color deficient, complete the second section of the form. Determine whether the subject has
protanopia or deuteranopia.
67

IV. Results

Lacrimal Apparatus

Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye

Eye

Astigmatism Chart

68

Snellen Eye Test Chart

V. Conclusion
Eyes are small compared with most organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. They work together to perceive
depth, enabling us to judge distance and the size of objects to help us move around them. They also work with brain,
muscles, and nerves to produce complicated visual images and messages. Vision is the process by which images captured by the eye are interpreted by the brain, and the visible part of the eye is where the process of sight begins. Vision is
a fine-tuned process. All the parts of the eye and the brain need to work together so a person can see correctly. Because
the eyes structure is so complex, though, a lot of things can go wrong.

69

The Ear, Hearing, and Equilibrium


Laboratory Report 22

I. Objectives

To be able to distinguish the three main divisions of the ear


To be able to identify the principal structures of the human ear in models and figures
To be able to explain how ear structures sense sound and equilibrium stimuli
To be able to demonstrate some clinical screening tests for hearing and equilibrium

II. Materials

Model or chart of the human ear


Microscope
Microslide: chochlea c.s.
Tuning fork (256 Hz)
Chalkboard and chalk
Bright desk lamp
Metric ruler (30 to 100 cm)
Watch or clock

III. Procedure
A. Weber Test
Ring tuning fork and place on center of head. Ask the subject
where they hear the sound.
Interpreting the test:
Normally, the sound is heard in the center of the head or equally in
both ears.
Sound localizes toward the poor ear with a conductive loss
Sound localizes toward the good ear with a sensorineural hearing
loss.
B. Rinne Test
Place the vibrating tuning fork on the base of the mastoid bone.
Ask patient to tell you when the sound is no longer heard.
Immediately move the tuning fork to the front of the ear
Ask the patient to tell you when the sound is no longer heard.
Repeat the process putting the tuning fork in front of the ear first
Bing Test
Similar to the Rinne Test
Strike the tuning fork and place it on the mastoid process.
With your other hand close off the auditory canal with pad of
finger.
70

A person with normal hearing or one with sensorineurial hearing loss will hear the sound better
when ear canal is closed.
A person with conductive hearing loss will not notice a change in sound.

C. Bing Test

Similar to the Rinne Test

Strike the tuning fork and place it on the mastoid process.

With your other hand close off the auditory canal with pad of finger.

A person with normal hearing or one with sensorineurial hearing loss will hear the sound better
when ear canal is closed.

A person with conductive hearing loss will not notice a change in sound.

D. Sound Location

Have lab partner sit with eyes closed.

Strike the tuning fork with a rubber reflex hammer above head.

Have partner describe to you where the sound is located.

Try the following locations: behind head, right side, left side, in front of head, below chin

71

IV. Results
Cochlea c.s.

The anatomy of the ear can be a little confusing, especially since the ear is responsible not only for hearing,
but also for balance.

Mechanoreception: because the ear receives mechanical vibrations and translates them into nerve impulses

Static equilibrium: able to determine nonmoving position

Dynamic equilibrium: motion is detected

There are three components to the ear: the outer ear, the middle earand the inner ear. All three are involved in
hearing but only the inner ear is responsible for balance.
The outer ear
Composed of the pinna, or ear lobe, and the external auditory canal. Both structures funnel sound waves
towards the ear drum or tympanic membrane allowing it to vibrate. The pinna is also responsible for protecting
the ear drum from damage. Modified sweat glands in the ear canal form ear wax.

The middle ear


An air filled space located in the temporal bone of the skull. Air pressure is equalized in this space via the
Eustachian tube which drains into the nasopharynx or the back of the throat and nose. There are three small
bones, or ossicles, that are located adjacent to the tympanic membrane. The malleus, incus, and stapes are attached like a chain to the tympanic membrane and convert sound waves that vibrate the membrane into mechanical vibrations of the three bones. The stapes fills the oval window which is the connection to the inner
ear.
The inner has two functions
The first is hearing and the second is balance. It is a warren of tubes filled with fluid encased within the
temporal bone of the skull. The bony tubes also contain a set of cell membrane lined tubes. The bony tubes are
called the bony labyrinth filled with perilymph fluid, which the membranous labyrinth tubes are filed with endolymph. This is where the cells responsible for hearing are located (the hairy cells of Corti).
72

Ampulla of the semicircular canals

Inside are clusters of hair cells and supports cells (crista ampullaris)

These cells have stereocilia and a kinocilium enclosed in a gelatinous material called the cupula.

As the head is rotated, the endolymph pushes pushes against the


stereocilia.

V. Conclusion
Ergo, the members distinguished the three main divisions of the ear. These are the outer ear, middle ear and
inner ear. Principal structures of the human were also shown in models and figures. The members were also
able to explain how ear structures sound as shown in the results. Some clinical screening tests were also performed for hearing and equilibrium.

73

The bony labyrinth itself has three sections.


1) The cochlea is responsible for hearing,
2) the semicircular canals have function associated with balance.
3) the vestibule which connects the two and contains two more
balance and equilibrium related structures, the saccule and
utricle.
The final structures of the inner ear are the round window and
the eighth cranial nerve (cranial nerve VIII) which is composed of the vestibular nerve (balance) and the cochlear
(hearing) nerve.
Hearing

We hear by funneling sound from the environment into


the outer ear and causing the tympanic membrane to vibrate.
Those sound waves vibrations are transferred into mechanical
vibrations of the ossicles. Those mechanical vibrations cause
the oval window to move back and forth causing the perilymph of the inner ear to begin wave-like motions. The perilymph fluid motion is transferred to the endolymph and the
wave motion is transformed into electrical impulses picked up
by the hairy cells of Corti and sent to the brain via the cochlear
nerve. The round window is responsible for absorbing the fluid wave vibrations and releasing any increased pressure in the
inner ear caused by the wave motion.
Equilibrium
Balance is a choreographed arrangement that takes sensory information from a variety of organs and
integrates it to tell the body where it is in related to gravity and the earth.
Vestibule

Consists of the utricle and saccule


Involved in the interpretation of static equilibrium and linear acceleration
Regions known as maculae, which consist of hair
with stereocilia and a kinocilium grouped together in a
inous mass called otolithic membrane and weighted with
um caronate stones called otoliths.

cells
gelatcalci-

As the head is accelerated or tipped by gravity,


otoliths cause the cilia to bend, indicating that the posiof the head has changed.

the
tion

Visual cues play a part in this also


When visual and vestibular cues are not synchronized, a sense of imbalance or nausea can occur

74

Endocrine Glands
Laboratory Report 23

I. Objectives

Describe the principal endocrine glands and locate each in a model and in figures
Identify histological features of some of the important endocrine glands

II. Materials

Microscope
Prepared Microslides
Pituitary gland sect.
Human Thyroid Gland sect.
Parathyroid glands c.s
Human Adrenal Gland sect.
Human Pancreas sect.
Human Thymus Gland sect.
Procedures

III. Procedure

75

IV. Results
Pituitary Gland
Scanner

LPO

HPO

Thyroid Gland
Scanner

LPO

HPO

76

Parathyroid Gland
Scanner

LPO

HPO

Adrenal Gland
Scanner

LPO

HPO

Pancreas

Scanner

LPO

HPO

77

Thymus Gland
Scanner

LPO

HPO

Pineal Gland

V. Conclusion

The endocrine system includes a number of glands that secrete regulatory chemicals called hormones
into the blood for distribution throughout the body. This includes:
Pituitary Gland secretes hormone that control the functions of many other glands in the body, such
as the ovaries, the testes, the thyroid gland, and the adrenal cortex.
Thyroid Gland secretes thyroid hormones which bind to nuclear receptors in the cells and regulate
the rate of metabolism in the body.
Parathyroid Gland secretes a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is essential for the
regulation of the blood calcium levels.
Adrenal Gland is composed of an inner part called adrenal medulla and an outer part called adrenal
cortex.
Pancreas consists of pancreatic islets that secrete three hormones - insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin- which help regulate the blood levels of nutrients, especially glucose.
Thymus Gland secretes a hormone called thymosin which aids the development of white blood
cells called T cells.
Pineal produces a hormone called melatonin, which is thought to decrease the secretion of LH and
FSH by decreasing the release of hypothalamic releasing hormones.
Testes of the male and ovaries of the female secrete sex hormones, in addition to producing sperm
cells or oocytes, respectively.

78

Hormones
Laboratory Report 24

I. Objectives

To be able to name the major hormones of the endocrine system and identify their sources, their
targets, and their principal actions
To be able to appreciate the non-continuous pattern of secretion in hormones
To be able to explain the hormonal basis of pregnancy testing
To be able to explain how hormone testing can predict ovulation in fertile women

II. Materials

Textbook
Pregnancy test kit
Ovulation test kit
Watch or timer
Paper wipes
Urine collection cups

III. Procedure
A. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
1. Obtain two urine samples from a biological house: one from pregnant woman (first trimester) and one from
a nonpregnant woman.
2. Arrange the test kit components
3. Use the urine dropper to remove urine from the urine collection cup
4. Without touching the test disk, drop three drops only of the urine into the sample well. There may be a
bluish color moving across the windows of the test disk-if it occurs, this is normal.
5. Exactly 3 minutes after dropping your sample into the sample well, read your results. Results may be read
earlier if a red line appears in the control window. If a red line has not appeared in the control window after 3
minutes, the test is invalid and must be repeated. Do not read a result after 10 minutes have passed.
6. Record your results and dispose the materials as directed by your laboratory supervisor.
B. Luteinizing Hormone
1. For each 5 days on which the test will be performed, used the following procedure. For the best results, collect urine at the same time each day.
2. Remove the cap from the test device and with the tip pointing downward, immerse the absorbent sampler
for 20 seconds in the fresh urine collected in a clean, dry urine collection cup or hold the absorbent sampler in
the urine stream for 5 seconds only.
3. Still keeping the tip pointing downward, remove the absorbent sampler from the urine and replace the cap.
4. After 3 minutes, read the results of the test in the result window of the test device.
5. Record your results over a span of 5 days and dispose the materials as directed by your laboratory supervisor or in the test kit.

79

IV. Results

A. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

Two red lines (C Line and T line) indicate positive result which means a woman is in the early stage of
pregnancy.
One red line (T line) indicates negative result which means a woman is not pregnant or no sign of
pregnancy.
If there is no red line in the control window (C line) meaning the test did not work and the result is invalid
therefore the test must be repeated.
If there is one red line in the T control meaning the test did not work properly.

B. Luteinizing Hormone

A red surge line (light or dark) is a positive result meaning LH is present in the sample.
If the result is negative, a surge line is as dark as the reference line and no surge line. LH was not detected
in the subjects urine and therefore the person is not close to the time of ovulation.
If the dark reference line does not appear, then the test did not work and the result is invalid.

V. Conclusion

Hormone balance is essential to good health for women of all ages. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the
tests used to determine hormone levels varies widely. LH test and hcG test are one of the common test used by
women.

80

Blood
Laboratory Report 25

I. Objectives

At the end of the experiment, we must identify the component of human blood tissue.
To identify our own blood type.

II. Materials

blood sample
sterile lancet
70 % isopropyl alcohol
Wright stain
heparinized capillary tube
toothpicks
blood typing sera: anti-A, anti-B, anti-D

III. Procedure
A. Sampling Blood
1. Clean your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Prepare the skin of the puncture site by applying a cotton with an isopropyl alcohol.
2. In using the Autolet kit, first insert the lancet into the device then you can
choose from nine depth settings which control how deep the needle enters your
skin, allowing you to obtain the blood sample required for blood sampling.
3. Holding the arm down, wipe away the first drop of blood with a lab wipe. Immediately begin the collecting drops of blood with a lab wipe. Immediately begin
collecting drops of blood required for each test. Do not squeeze the finger to draw
more blood because that will slow circulation through the finger. If the blood
stops flowing, you may have to puncture another finger.
4. Do not reuse the lancet and dispose all remnants of the blood collection in the
labeled BIOHAZARD container.
B. Blood Smear
1. Place a drop of blood from a finger on a clean
microscope slide
2. Hold the end of another clean slide at a 500 angle
against the first slide and push the blood drop away
from the middle to the first slide. Now push the second slide toward the middle of the first slide. Now
push the second slide toward the middle of the first
slide. This makes an even smear across the first slide. Stop before reaching the end of the slide. Put the spreader slide directly into the BIOHAZARD container.
3. When the blood has dried, draw two lines on the sample slide with a wax pencil. Mark on a clean glass, not
trough the smear. Drop a few drops of Wright stain on the smear.
81

4. Scan the slide under low power on your microscope until you find an area where the cells are thinly spread.
Switch to high power and observe the blood cells on the slide.
C. Blood Typing
1. Place a clean microscope slide on a paper towel. Use a wax pencil pencil to
make three circles and put a drop of fresh blood in each circle.
2. Put a drop of fresh blood in each circle.
3. To the drop of blood in the left circle, add a drop of Anti-A serum without
touching the dropper to the blood. Similarly, add a drop of Anti-B serum to the
middle blood drop. Then add a drop of Anti-D serum in the right most blood
drop.
4. Using a different toothpick for each circle, mix the serum and the blood.
5. Check each mixture for a clumping (agglutination) reaction: the mixture changes from a uniform reddish
color to distinct, dark clumps in a transparent medium. If a reaction occurred in the left circle (anti-A), then the
A antigen is present. If no reaction occurred, then the antigen is not present.

IV. Results
Blood Smear Under the Microscope
LPO

HPO

82

Name

ABO
Type

Rh Type

Interpretation

Diloy, N.

+ (Positive)

She has a antigen B and anti-A antibodies

Hernandez, K.

+ (Positive)

She has an antigen A and anti-B antibodies

Dela Rosa, L.

+ (Positive)

He has an antigen A and anti-B antibodies

Santos, A.

+ (Positive)

She has neither type A or B surface antigen


but both anti-A and anti-B plasma antibodies.

Gatlabayan, M

+ (Positive)

She has neither type A or B surface antigen


but both anti-A and anti-B plasma antibodies.

Santiago, L.

+ (Positive)

She has a antigen B and anti-A antibodies.

V. Conclusion
In this experiment we have extracted blood through capillary function. Then we prepared blood for microscopic examination. We also identify the erythrocytes or red blood cells which is about 95% of the volume
of the formed elements. Red blood cells primary function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the various
tissues of the body and to help transport carbon dioxide from the tissue to the lungs. We have also saw some
White blood cells that protects our body against invading microorganisms and other pathogens. And WBC
also removes dead cells and debris from the tissues by phagocytosis.
In this experiment we also identify our own blood type by using anti-A, anti-B and anti D sera, in
which we have identified the ABO blood type and the Rh system of a person. This procedure is useful for
blood transfusion because if there is a mismatch on blood transfusion reaction it can lead to death of a person.

83

Structure of the Heart


Laboratory Report 26

I. Objectives

To be able to describe the structure of the heart


To locate anatomical features of the heart in models and in preserved mammalian specimens
To explain the function of major heart structures

II. Materials

Preserved pigs heart


Dissection tools and trays
Wooden dowels (1 cm diameter x 12 cm), pencils or dull probes

III. Procedure
1. Place a heart in a dissecting pan & rinse off the excess preservative with tap water. Pat the heart dry.
2. Examine the heart and locate the thin membrane or pericardium that still covers the heart.
3. After examining the pericardium, carefully remove this tissue. Located below the pericardium is the muscle
of your heart called the myocardium. Most of the myocardium is located in the lower two chambers of the
heart called ventricles.
4. Locate the tip of the heart or the apex. Only the left ventricle extends all the way to the apex.
5. Place the heart in the dissecting pan so that the front or ventral side is towards you (the major blood vessels
are on the top and the apex is down). The front of the heart is recognized by a groove that extends from the
right side of the broad end of the heart diagonally to a point above & to your left of the apex.
Front or Ventral Side of the Heart
6. The heart is now in the pan in the position it would be in a body as you face the body. Locate the chambers
of the heart.
7. While the heart is still in this position in the dissecting pan, locate the blood vessels at the broad end of the
heart
Procedure - Internal Anatomy
8 Use scissors to cut through the side of the pulmonary artery and continue cutting down into the wall of the
right ventricle. Be careful to just cut deep enough to go through the wall of the heart chamber. (Your cutting
line should be above & parallel to the groove of the coronary artery.)
9. With your fingers, push open the heart at the cut to examine the internal structure. If there is dried blood inside the chambers, rinse out the heart.
10. Locate the right atrium. Notice the thinner muscular wall of this receiving chamber.
11. Find where the inferior & superior vena cava enter this chamber & notice the lack of valves.
12. Locate the valve that between the right atrium and right ventricle. This is called the tricuspid valve. The
valve consists of three leaflets & has long fibers of connective tissue called chordae tendinae

84

Tricuspid Valve
13. Use your fingers to feel the thickness of the right ventricle and its smooth lining. Also note the network of irregular muscular cords on the inner wall of this chamber.
14. Find the septum on the right side of the right ventricle.
This thick muscular wall separates the right & left pumping
ventricles from each other.
15. Inside the right ventricle, locate the pulmonary artery
that carries blood away from this chamber. Find the oneway valve called the pulmonary valve.
16. Using your scissors, continue to cut open the
heart. Start a cut on the outside of the left atrium downward into the left ventricle cutting toward the apex to the
septum at the center groove. Push open the heart at this cut
with your fingers & rinse out any dried blood with water.
17. Examine the left atrium. Find the openings of the pulmonary veins form the lungs. Observe the one-way,
semi-lunar valves at the entrance to these veins.
18. Inside this chamber, look for the valve that controls blood flow between the upper left atrium and lower
left ventricle. This valve is called the bicuspid or mitral valve. This valve consists of two leaflets & blood
flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle during diastole
Bicuspid or Mitral Valve
Examine the left ventricle. Notice the thickness of the ventricular wall. This heart chamber is responsible for
pumping blood throughout the body.
Using your scissors, cut across the left ventricle toward the aorta & continue cutting to expose the valve.
Count the three flaps or leaflets on this valve leading from the left ventricle into the aorta and note their halfmoon shape.
Using scissors, cut through the aorta and examine the inside. Find the hole or coronary sinus in the wall of this
major artery. This leads into the coronary artery which carries blood to and nourishes the heart muscle itself.

85

IV. Results
Features of the heart on the external aspect, dorsal surface:

86

Features of the heart on the external aspect, ventral surface:

Features visible on the internal aspect:

87

88

V. Conclusion
I therefore conclude that the human heart plays an important role in our body since it pumps blood
throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing
carbon dioxide and other wastes. Without the heart, the different organs in our body will malfunction and can
even cause ones life to an end.

89

The Electrical Activity of the Heart


Laboratory Report 28

I. Objectives

To describe the conduction system of the heart.


Demonstrate electrocardiography.
Identify the features of a typical electrocardiogram and explain their significance.

II. Materials

electrocardiograph apparatus or computer system with ECG recording kit.


alcohol swabs
table or cot
metric ruler

III. Procedure
How to demonstrate the resting ECG
Set up an electrocardiograph apparatus as directed by the instruction that accompany it. Set paper speed
or trace velocity to 25 mm/sec, the standard rate for ECG recording. Calibrate the sensitivity or
gain to 1 cm = 1 mV.

Have the (rested) subject lie on a cot or table or sit comfortably in a chair. Expose both ankle and wrists
and clean a small area on each with alcohol pads. Put and place on a different limb. Gently rub each
electrode around to evenly distribute the gel; then anchor it with perforated rubber electrode tape pulled
just tight enough to hold it in place.

90

Attach the limb wires to appropriate electrode:


LA to the left arm electrode
RA to the right arm electrode
LL to the right arm electrode
Record Lead I for about 20 cardiac cycles; then do likewise for lead II and III. Be sure to mark the part of the
strip chart where you switched leads. If possible, record an ECG of every student in your group.
Using your lead II results, label a P wave, QRS complex, and T wave. If the P wave is absent and the
heart
rate is low. SA node block may be indicated. This should result from ischemia (reduced myocardial circulation) or infraction (myocardial damage).
Using lead II result, measure these values:
Remember that heart rate ( in beats per minutes ) - note that the paper rate is 25 mm/sec. Tachycardia is
the condition of lowered heart rate which is below 60 beats per minute. It is high stroke volume, it is
result from too much vagal stimulation.
PQ (PR) Interval- if greater than 0.2 sec. a first degree heart block may persist. This is due to damage
of AV node or too much vagal stimulation. If P wave seems independent of the QRS complex, with a P
rate of about 100 per minute and QRS of less than 40 per minute, it is a complete heart block.
Deviation from the normal ECG:
Set up the ECG demonstration as described in activity A. Set the device to record lead II.
Once a normal ECG pattern is observed, have the subject breathe deeply in and out several times and make an
observation.

91

Have the subject tense the muscles if the upper arm and see what happen.

Remove ECG cables, leaving electrodes in place. Have the subject do some exercise for 2 to 5 minutes,
then immediately reconnect the ECG cables. With the subjects again in resting position, record 15 or
20 cardiac cycles. Continue to sample. Explain your results.

As a group discuss your hypothesis and under the supervision of your professor.

IV. Results

92

V. Conclusion
As the SA node fires, each electrical impulse travels through the right and left atrium. This electrical
activity causes the two upper chambers of the heart to contract. This electrical activity and can be recorded
from the surface of the body as a "P" wave" on the patient's EKG or ECG (electrocardiogram).

93

The Pulse and Blood Pressure


Laboratory Report 28

I. Objectives

Explain the concept of pressure wave, or pulse


Demonstrate detection of the pulse in a human subject
Use a sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure
List some factors that affect pulse and blood pressure

II. Materials

Sphygmomanometer
Stethoscope
Watch or timer

III. Procedure

A. The Pulse
1. Determine the pulse rate of a resting subject by placing your second and third fingers on the anterior surface
of the wrist, over the point where the radial artery passes over the distal end of the radius. (Dont use your
thumb, or you may feel your own pulse waves.)
2. Using a watch, count the the number of waves in 15 seconds.
3. Multiply your result by 4 to determine the pulse rate in waves per second.
4. Then, determine the pulse strength (pressure) that can be assessed by the receptors in your fingers.
The strength of the pulse can also be reported:
0 = Absent
1 = Barely palpable
2 = Easily palpable
3 = Full
4 = Aneurysmal or bounding pulse
B. Blood Pressure
1. Use a sphygmomanometer to measure the blood pressure on a resting subject. Then wrap the sphygmomanometer air cuff around the
subjects left upper arm, just above the elbow.
2. Place the stethoscope sensor just below the air cuff and listen to the
pulse in the brachial artery. Close the valve of the sphygmomanometers air bulb, and pump the cuff to a pressure of about 175 mmHg
(millimeters of mercury).
3. Still listening to the artery and watching the mercury column, open
valve slightly and slowly release air.
The point at which the sounds are first heard is the systolic
pressure. The sounds disappear when the diastolic pressure
is reached. Blood pressure is expressed as systolic pressure
over diastolic pressure.
94

C. Variations in Pulse and Pressure


1. Determine the pulse rate and blood pressure in the situations described.
2. Test a variety of body positions: lying down (immediately, then after 5 minutes) and standing (immediately,
then after 5 minutes).
3. Test a subject after exercise: immediately after 2 to 5 minutes of exercise, then once per minute for the next
10 minutes of recovery.

IV. Results

Several subjects were used since one could only check blood pressure twice or thrice a day.

Test Con- Pulse Rate Pulse


dition
(bpm
or Strength
beats per
minute)

Systolic
Blood
Pressure

Diastolic
Blood
Pressure

70 bpm

120 mmHg

80 mmHg

Pulse
Pressure
(Systolic
Minus Diastolic)
40

Reading:
radial
Resting:
radial
Resting:
brachial
Lying
down:
0
min.
5 min.
Standing:
0 min.
5 min.
After exercise:
0 min.
1 min.
2 min.
3 min.

70 bpm

120 mmHg

80 mmHg

40

68 bpm

120 mmHg

80 mmHg

40

63 bpm

120 mmHg

70 mmHg

50

81 bpm
87 bpm

1
1

120 mmHg
120 mmHg

70 mmHg
80 mmHg

50
40

105 bpm
81 bpm

1
2

120 mmHg
120 mmHg

80 mmHg
70 mmHg

40
50

127 bpm
105 bpm
116 bpm

2
2
2

120 mmHg
120 mmHg
120 mmHg

70 mmHg
80 mmHg
80 mmHg

50
40
40
95

4 min.
5 min.
6 min.
7 min.
8 min.
9 min.
10 min.

120 bpm
124 bpm
129 bpm
137 bpm
140 bpm
143 bpm
145 bpm

2
3
3
3
3
3
3

120 mmHg
120 mmHg
120 mmHg
120 mmHg
120 mmHg
120 mmHg
120 mmHg

80 mmHg
80 mmHg
80 mmHg
70 mmHg
80 mmHg
80 mmHg
80 mmHg

40
40
40
50
40
40
40

Interpretation:
The pulse rate and strength are increasing because of the physical activity. Blood pressure rises
with each heartbeat and falls when your heart relaxes between beats. While blood pressure can change
from minute to minute with changes in posture, exercise, stress or sleep, it should be normally be less
than 120/80 mmHg for an adult age 20 or over.

V. Conclusion
A normal pulse rate is about 60-100 bmp when at rest. There are certain factors that affect your pulse
rate such as physical activity, fitness, age, and stress. Meanwhile, a normal blood pressure is about 120/80
mmHg. A single high reading of blood pressure does not necessarily mean that one has high blood pressure.
However, if readings stay at 140/90 mmHg or above overtime, your doctor will likely want you to begin a
treatment program. Such a program includes lifestyle changes and often prescription medication. Even if your
blood pressure is normal, you should consider making lifestyle modifications to prevent the development of
HBP and improve your heart health.

96

The Circulatory Pathway


Laboratory Report 30

I. Objectives

To locate major veins and arteries in models and charts


To describe the circulatory pathways to and from major body regions

II. Materials

Model of human body (showing major vessels)


Charts of human circulatory routes

III. Procedure
Arteries

Find these portions of Aorta:


Ascending aorta first portion, before the aorta bends inferiorly
Aortic arch the bend of the aorta, just superior to the heart
Descending aorta the remainder of the aorta
Thoracic aorta portion of the descending aorta that is within the thorax
Abdominal aorta portion of the descending aorta that is within the abdomen
Locate these arteries of the head and neck:
Brachiocephalic first branch from the aorta
Right common carotid the medial branch of the brachiocephalic artery
Right subclavian lateral branch of the brachiocephalic artery
Left common carotid, left subclavian second and third branches of the aorta
Internal carotid, external carotid branches of the common carotid arteries
Vertebral branches of subclavians
Basilar artery formed by fusion of vertebral arteries
Circle of Willis circular system of arteries around the brains case, formed by branches of basilar
artery and internal carotids
Identify these arteries of the upper limb
Axillary artery continuation of subclavian artery inferior to the clavicle
Brachial continuation of the axillary artery in the upper arm
Ulnar medial branch of the brachial artery
Radial lateral branch of the brachial artery
Identify these branches of descending aorta:
Intercostal branch from aorta to intercostal muscles

97

Phrenic branch from aorta to diaphragm


Celiac branch from aorta to stomach, pancreas, and liver
Superior mesenteric branch of aorta to the small intestine and proximal large intestine
Inferior mesenteric branch of aorta to distal regions of large intestine
Renal branch from aorta to kidneys
Suprarenal branch from aorta to the adrenal glands
Testicular, ovarian branch from aorta to gonads
Common iliac branch from the inferior end of descending aorta toward a leg
Identify these arteries of the pelvis and the lower limbs:
Internal iliac medial branch of the common iliac
External iliac lateral branch of the common iliac
Femoral continuation of external iliac artery in the thigh
Popliteal continuation of the femoral artery in the popliteal area
Anterior tibial anterior branch of popliteal artery
Posterior tibial posterior branch of popliteal artery

Veins
Identify these veins of the head and neck:
Brachiocephalic medial branch into the superior vena cava
Subclavian lateral branch into the brachiocephalic vein
Internal jugular medial branch into the brachiocephalic vein
External jugular the external vein of the neck that returns blood to the subclavian vein
Identify the veins of the upper limb and thorax
Axillary medial branch into the subclavian vein
Basilica vein superficial vein that empties into the axillary vein
Brachial upper arm vein that continues into the axillary region as the axillary vein
Cephalic lateral, superficial branch into the subclavian vein
Azygos unpaired branch into the posterior aspect of the superior vena cava
Hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos two sets of multiple veins that empty into the azygos
Intercostal veins that empty into the azygos vein (reight) and hemiazygos or accessory hemiazygos vein (left)

Identify these tributaries of the inferior vena cava:


Hepatic vein from liver to the inferior vena cava
Renal vein from the kidney to the inferior vena cava
Testicular, ovarian vein from the gonad to the inferior vena cava
Common iliac two branches that fuse to become the inferior vena cava
Internal iliac the medial branch of the common iliac (in the pelvis)
Identify these hepatic portal vessels:
Hepatic portal from the veins of abdominal organs to the liver
Superior mesenteric from small intestine to the hepatic portal veinn
Inferior mesenteric from large intestine, joining the splenic vein to the hepatic portal vein
Splenic from the spleen to the hepatic portal vein
Gastroepiploic from the stomach, joining the splenic vein to the hepatic portal vein
Identify these veins of the lower limbs:
External iliac lateral branch into common iliac vein (in the pelvis)
Femoral major lateral branch into the external iliac vein
Great saphenous major medial, superficial branch into the external iliac vein
Popliteal posterior branch into the femoral vein, on the posterior of knee
Small saphenous lateral, superficial branch into the popliteal vein, lateral to the tibia
Anterior tibial branch into the popliteal vein, on the anterior aspect of the tibia
Posterior tibial posterior to the tibia draining into the popliteal vein
98

IV. Results
Arteries

99

Veins

100

Hepatic Portal System

V. Conclusion
The blood vessels of the body are functionally divided into two distinctive circuits: the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. The pump for the pulmonary circulation, which circulates blood through the
lungs, is the right ventricle. The left ventricle is the pump for the systemic circulation, which provides the
blood supply for the tissue cells of the body.

101

Lymphatic Structures and Immunity


Laboratory Report 31

I. Objectives

To be able to describe the major organs of the lymphatic system and find them in a
chart
To be able to identify the features of a lymph node
To be able to briefly state the function of lymph nodes

II. Materials

Charts or models of the lymphatic system

III. Procedure
Identify the lymphatic structures and its function through a chart.

IV. Results

102

V. Conclusion
Ergo, the members were able to describe the major organs of the lymphatic system. Examples of major
organs are lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, right lymphatic duct, thoracic duct, lymph node, palatine
tonsils, pharyngeal tonsils, lingual tonsils, spleen and thymus. Functions of every organ of the lymph node
were identified and put in a chart for easy reference.

103

Respiratory Structures
Laboratory Report 31

I. Objectives

Describe the major organs of the respiratory system


Locate respiratory structures on a chart or model
Demonstrate the structure of respiratory organs in a preserved specimen
Trace the movement of air through the respiratory tract
Locate structural features of the trachea in a microscopic specimen
Locate structural features of lung tissue in a microscopic specimen

II. Materials

Chart or model of the human respiratory system


Microscope
Human trachea
Frog lung

III. Procedure

104

IV. Results

Trachea
Scanner

LPO

HPO

Lung
Scanner

LPO

HPO

105

V. Conclusion
The respiratory system performs different functions such as regulation of blood pH, voice production,
olfaction and innate immunity. It is divided into the upper respiratory tract, which includes the external nose,
the nasal cavity, and the pharynx, and the lower respiratory tract, which includes the larynx, trachea, the bronchi, and the lungs.
The movement of the air starts from the nasal cavity through the nares. Air from the nasal cavity passed
through the pharynx which then passes through the larynx. After the air pass through the larynx, it will resume
to the trachea then will go to the lungs through the main bronchi.

106

Digestive Structures
Laboratory Report 33

I. Objectives

To describe the structure of digestive organs and locate them in models and charts
To identify the principal function of each major digestive organs
To describe the basic histology of the gastrointestinal wall

II. Materials

model of human torso


microscope
prepared micro slides: stomach wall c.s.
ileum c.s.

III. Procedure

1. Obtain a prepared slide of a sectioned stomach wall and examine it with your microscope.
2. Obtain a prepared slide of an ileum and examine it with your microscope.

107

IV. Results
Human Fundio-Stomach sect.

Scanner

LPO

HPO

Ileum c.s.

Scanner

LPO

HPO

V. Conclusion

Diagram of the
Oral Cavity

108

In this activity, we learned the structures of a digestive system. In which it is a series of hollow organs
through which food passes from the mouth or oral cavity which include the teeth, that is made of a bone-like
substance called dentin and covered in a layer of enamel Teeth are living organs and contain blood vessels and
nerves under the dentin in a soft region known as the pulp. The teeth are designed for cutting and grinding
food into smaller pieces. Then the food will enter the pharynx that is responsible for the passing of masses of
chewed food from the mouth to the esophagus. Then an oesophagus that is a muscular tube connecting the
pharynx and the stomach.
Food will enter the stomach that is the major organ that acts as a storage tank for food so that the body
has time to digest large meals properly. The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes
that continue the digestion of food that began in the mouth. Then after the stomach the food will enter a long
narrow tube called the small intestine and the inside surface is full of many ridges and folds. These folds are
used to maximize the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. And finally the large intestine that is a
long, thick tube about 2 inches in diameter and about 5 feet long. It is located just inferior to the stomach
and wraps around the superior and lateral border of the small intestine. The large intestine absorbs water and
contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of
nutrients. Feces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal.

Diagram of the Digestive System

109

Enzymes and Digestion


Laboratory Report 34

I. Objectives

To describe the action of pancreatic enzymes on carbohydrates and lipids


To explain the effects of temperature on enzyme activity
To perform tests to determine the presence of starch and sugars
To demonstrate the action of bile on lipids

II. Materials

Distilled water
Pancreatin powder (with spatula)
1% starch solution
1% maltose solution
Benedicts reagent
Ice water bath (with test tube rack)
Warm water bath (37oC, with test tube rack)
Hot plate
Lugols reagent
Disposable 1 mL measuring droppers
Test tubes (approx. 10 mL) tube caps
Test tube racks and tongs
Wax pencils
Beakers (500 mL)
Bile salt powder (and spatula)
Litmus cream

III. Procedure
A. Lugols Test
1. Mark a test tube 1a, and put in 2
mL (two full droppers) of starch
solution.
2. Add a few drops of Lugols reagent.
3. Notice the color change. Anytime
you see this result for Lugols test,
you have a positive result (meaning
starch is present).
4. Mark another test tube 1b and put
in 2 mL distilled water and few
drops of Lugols reagent.

110

5. The solution should be a shade of orange, which is a negative result (meaning starch is not present.

B. Benedicts Test
1. Mark a test tube 2a and add 2 mL and add 2 mL maltose solution.
2. Add 2 mL of Benedicts reagent.
3. In a tube marked 2b, put 2 mL distilled water and add
mL Benedicts reagent.
4. Place each tube in a beaker of boiling water on a hot
plate for 3 minutes.
5. At the end of 3 minutes, remove the tubes and place
them in your rack.
6. Observe the change in color.

IV. Results
A. Lugols Test

In tube 1a the solution should change its color from orange to deep blue
-black which means that starch is present. Instead of having deep blueblack solution, the solution stayed the same.
In tube 1b the color of the solution didn't change which means it is negative and starch is not present.

B. Benedicts test
Tube 2a should show a positive result, or a
change from blue to another color, meaning sugar is present but instead the solution didn't change its color.

Tube 2b is an example of a negative result,


with the contents remaining blue. This indicates that there is no presence of sugar
in the solution.

111

V. Conclusion
I therefore conclude that enzymes plays an important role in digestion. Without the help of enzymes,
digestion will not occur. This means that complex nutrients will not be broken down into smaller pieces. Enzymes break down the substances we eat. That means enzymes break down proteins, cellulose, starches and
other foodstuffs. This makes it possible for the intestines to absorb nutrients.
Terms to Remember:
Digestion breaking down of simpler complex nutrients into simpler ones
Bile salts secreted by the liver to break apart lipid droplets; acts as an emulsifying agents in the human digestive tract
Pancreatic enzymes to chemically break apart complex carbohydrate and lipid molecules
Saccharides carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in
chemical units
Polysaccharides complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, composed of many saccharide
units
Disaccharides sucrose, maltose and lactose, are types of complex sugar composed of twi saccharide
units
Monosaccharides simple sugars glucose (dextrose), galactose and fructose, are single saccharide units
Amylase enzymes that break some of the bonds holding polysaccharides together and found in the
saliva and pancreatic secretions
Disaccharidase yield monosaccharides that can be absorbed into the blood
Pancreatin extract of pancreatic secretions; contains pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase and pancreatic proteolytic enzymes
Lugols test test for the presence of starch; uses Lugols reagent (iodine solution)
Benedicts test test for the presence of sugar; uses Benedicts reagent
Emulsification breaks up large fat droplets into small fat droplets
Lipase catalyzes the breakdown of complex lipid molecules

112

Urinary Structures
Laboratory Report 35

I. Objectives

To identify the major organs of the Urinary system and find them in models and Charts.
to describe the gross anatomical features of kidney and identify them in figures, models and specimens.
describe features of nephron and locate them in figures and models.
Identify the renal corpuscle in a prepared microscopic specimen.

II. Materials

model of human torso


model of the kidney
preserved sheep kidney
dissection tools and trays
model of nephron and associated structure
microscope
micro-slide: kidney cortex c.s.

III. Procedure
Part 1: identify the organs of Urinary system
Locate the two kidneys in the abdominal cavity, then find the adrenal glands: small, white bands of tissue on the top, inside edge of each kidney. Be aware that the peritoneum holds the adrenal gland
against the kidney; because you have removed the peritoneum, the adrenal will no longer be resting on
the kidney but will instead be near the spinal column. Also, although there are left and right adrenal
glands, often the left adrenal is missing due to the removal of tissue during the dissection of the posterior blood vessels earlier in the semester. moreover, Within the kidney, find the interlobar arteries and/or
veins, which are the
large blood vessels extending up through the
renal pelvis.

113

Remove one kidney from the fetal pig by severing the


ureter. Make a longitudinal incision through the kidney, so that you cut it into two equal halves. Note the
tubes that go from each kidney to the bladder, the
muscular structure located between the two umbilical
arteries. These tubes are the ureters.
The arcuate arteries and veins are the vessels that
connect one interlobar artery or vein to another.
The interlobular arteries and veins are the very small
blood vessels that extend from the interlobars into the
renal cortex.
Part 2: Dissection of Kidney

Examine the external aspect of your specimen. Identify as many parts of the kidney as you can. You
may have to remove some of the renal fat pad.
Obtain a sheep kidney from those provided. Make a
longitudinal incision through this kidney, just as you
did in the fetal pig kidney. You only need one half
of the sheep kidney to work with, so give your other
half to someone else.

covering of the kidney.

Observe the renal capsule, the thin membranous

The renal pelvis is the large sac at the base of the kidney. It may be filled with white adipose tissue.
The pyramids are the smooth, discolored structures located in the inner core of the kidney, above the
pelvis. Note that you will need to remove some of the pyramids to see the remaining structures, which
lie underneath. Be sure that in doing this you do not remove all of the pyramids, but just a portion on
one side.
The calyces are the tube-like extensions from the renal pelvis. The openings at the ends of the calyces
are the papillae. The columns are the tissue between each calyx.

114

The renal medulla is the region of the kidney containing the calyces, pyramids, columns, and papillae.
The renal cortex is the outer layer of tissue beyond the papillae.

Use a long knife or scalpel to cut the section, dividing the kidney into roughly equal dorsal and ventral
portions.

IV. Results
Features of nephron

115

Viewing renal cortex and on microscope.


Renal cortex (left)

Bowman's capsule (left)

V. Conclusion
The human urinary system has many different organs and each does different functions. It consists of
two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, two sphincter muscles, and a urethra. These organs, tubes, and
muscles filter out waste products from the bloodstream which are then expelled as urine.

116

Urinalysis
Laboratory Report 36

I. Objectives

State the normal characteristics of freshly voided urine


Demonstrate the use of dip-and-read clinical test strips for urinalysis
Explain the significance of common urine tests
Prepare and examine a stained urine sediment slide
Evaluate urinalysis results

II. Materials

Fresh urine specimen (your own or a packaged substitute) in a disposable container


Dip-and-read multiple test strips (Multistix 10SG are preferred)
Urine centrifuge and tapered tubes
Disposable 1 mL droppers
Sedistain urine sediment stain
Paper towels and wipes
Microscope slides and coverslips
Microscope
Full-color urine additives (optional)
Biohazard container
Unknown urine additives (optional)

III. Procedure

1. Examine these physical characteristics of urine after placing some of the sample in a transparent container:
Transparency
Color
Odor
117

2. Dip the papered end of one test strip into your sample. Read the results by looking at the color of each pad in order, comparing the test
papers with standard charts. A 10-test strip tests for these urine components:
Leukocytes
Nitrite
Urobilinogen
Protein
pH
Occult blood
Specific gravity
Ketone
Bilirubin
Glucose
3. Observe the components of urine sediment by performing this procedure:
Shake or stir the urine sample to suspend any sediment that has settled.

Transfer some of the urine to tapered centrifuge tube.

After balancing and securing the centrifuge as your instructor demonstrates, spin the sample for 5 minutes.

Quickly place a drop of the sample on a clean microslide. Add 1 drop of Sedistain and cover it with a cover
slip.

Examine the specimen under both low and high power.


Identify the urine sediments by referring to a chart of sediments types.

118

IV. Results

A. 10-strip tests

119

Subject: Gatlabayan, Mikee


Characteristics

Normal Value

Observed Value

Notes

Transparency

Clear to slightly
cloudy

Clear

Color

Amber, straw or
transparent yellow

Transparent yellow

Odor

Faint smell

Coffee

Leukocytes

Nitrite

Present in trace
amounts
Negative

Trace
15
Negative

Urobilinogen

0.2-1.0 mg/dL

3.2 umol/L
(0.19 mg/dL)

Protein

Absent or present
in trace amounts

Trace

pH

4.6 to 8

6.5

Occult blood

Not present

Not present

Cloudy urine may


contain fat globules,
epithelial cells, mucus, microbes, or
chemicals
Yellow-brown to
greenish color
may occur when
high concentration of bile pigments is present.
Red to dark brown
color may indicate the presence of blood.
The human body
does not digest
caffeine and release caffeine in
form of urine.
Dehydration, menopause and STDs
increase the ammonia smell.
Diabetes causes
sweet or fruity
odor.
Values increase in
urinary infections
A positive result indicates an urinary
tract infection.
High levels of urobilinogen may indicate excessive RBC
destruction or liver
disease.
Higher levels may
indicate hypertension or kidney disease
pH is higher in urinary infections and
alkalosis.
If present, it may
indicate kidney infection or the presence of stones in the
kidney, ureter, or
bladder.
120

Specific gravity

1.001 to 1.030

1.015

Ketone

Not present or
present in trace
amounts

Not present

Bilirubin

Not present

Not present

Glucose

Negative

Negative

Lower values may


indicate kidney
disease.
Higher value may
indicate dehydration or diabetes mellitus.
It may be present
during fasting, diabetes mellitus or a
low-carbohydrate
diet.
If present, it may
indicate liver disease or bile tract
obstruction.
Continued high
levels in the urine
may indicate diabetes mellitus or
pituitary problems.

B. Urine sediment
Subject: Hernandez, Kate

After centrifugation

121

Urine Specimen Under the Microscope


Scanner

LPO

Type of Sediment

Present Sediments

Cells
RBC
WBC
Epithelial cells
Bacteria, yeast and parasites

Artifacts
Fabric fibers
Glove powder
Hair

Epithelial cells

None

HPO

Notes
The presence of RBCs indicates hematuria which is
an sign of a possible disease.
An increased number of WBCs
may indicate an infection
or inflammation somewhere in the urinary tract.
Normally, in men and women,
a few epithelial cells can
be found in the urine sediment.
Bacteria from the surrounding
skin can cause a urinary
tract infection (UTI).
Yeast are most often present in
women who have a vaginal
yeast infection.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a
parasite that may be found
in the urine of women
These are materials that have accidentally gotten into samples.

122

Crystals
Amorphous urates
Crystalline uric acid
Calcium oxalates
Amorphous phosphates
Calcium carbonate
Cystine
Tyrosine
Leucine

Casts
Hyaline casts
Red cell casts
Granular casts
Waxy casts
Fatty casts

Normal amount of uric


acid crystals

None

Amorphous urates, crystalline


uric acid, calcium oxalate
and, amorphous phosphates are usually found in
a urine of healthy individuals.
Calcium carbonate, cysteine,
tyrosine and leucine are
abnormal crystals that may
indicate an abnormal metabolic process
Hyaline casts can be seen in
even the mildest renal disease.
Red cell casts indicate renal
hematuria.
Granular casts almost always
indicate significant renal
disease.
Waxy casts have been found in
patients with severe chronic renal failure, malignant
hypertension, and diabetic
disease of the kidney.
Fatty casts result from lupus
and toxic renal poisoning.

V. Conclusion
Urinalysis is an important diagnostic since urine reflect the overall status of extracellular fluid. Urine is
derived from blood, and its contents have been adjusted to some extent on the basis of homeostatic balance. It
is used to detect a urinary tract infection (UTI), protein in the urine (proteinuria), or blood in the urine
(hematuria), and to diagnose pregnancy. Toxicology screening can be used as part of urinalysis to detect illegal
drug use. Additionally, the health of kidney and urinary tract in particular affects the characteristics of urine.

123

The Male Reproductive System


Laboratory Report 37

I. Objectives

To describe the plan of the male reproductive tract


To describe the organs of the male reproductive system and their principal functions
To locate male reproductive organs in charts and models
To identify major features in a microscopic specimen of the testis
To identify the features of mature sperm in figures and in a prepared sperm smear

II. Materials

Models and charts of the male reproductive system


Microscope
Prepared microslides: human testis c.s., human sperm smear

III. Procedure
Human Model
Find the major features of the male reproductive system in models and charts
Primary sex organs: two testes (located within the scrotum, a sac of skin and other tissues on the outer wall
of the anterior trunk
Dartos muscle thin layer of smooth muscle that forms part of scrotums wall
Capsule connective tissue outer wall, the capsule has inward extensions that divide each testis into lobules
Seminiferous tubules long, coiled tubules in which sperm cells are produced
Interstitial cells (of Leydig) tissues between tubules that secrete testosterone
Rete testis network of tubules into which the seminiferous tubules empty, it empties 15 to 20 efferent
ductules that leave the testis
Epididymis set of coiled tubules on the outside of the testis
Ductus deferens or vas deferens conducts sperm cell from epididymis out of the scrotum and into the pelvic cavity
Ampulla an enlarged section of each ductus deferens
Joining the ductus deferens at the ampulla is a duct from a seminal vesicle.
Semen fluid medium containing sperm that is ejaculated
Ejaculatory duct
Prostate gland surrounds the urethra and ejaculatory ducts balow the bladder
Sperm containing semen is conducted through the urethra during the male sexual response. Near the base
of the penis, ducts from the bulbourethral glands join the urethra and contribute a small amount of fluid to
the semen
Penis erectile structure through which the urethra conducts semen out of the body during ejaculation.
Three vascular bodies, the left and right corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum
Glans penis tip of the corpus spongiosum forms the head of the penis
124

Microscopic Structure of the Testis


Identify or locate:
Seminiferous tubules
Basement membrane, lumen, and walls of seminiferous tubule
Interstitial cells
Examine the cells forming the wall of seminiferous tubule.
Nurse (Sertoli) cells, or sustenacular cells
Spermatogonia
Spermatocytes
Spermatids
Spermatozoan
Sperm Cells
Examine a prepared microscopic specimen of a sperm (semen) under high power. Notice that each normal
sperm has a pear-shaped head containing a nucleus. A midpiece containing mitochondria is at the base of the
tail, or flagellum.

IV. Results

Testis (400x)

The Male Reproductive System

Sperm cell

125

Human sperm smear

V. Conclusion
The male reproductive system consists of penis, scrotum, and testicles, as well as various internal accessory organs, such as the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles, which produce most of the fluid that makes up
ejaculate. This system consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual or to accomplish
reproduction.

126

The Female Reproductive System


Laboratory Report 38

I. Objectives

Describe the plan of the female reproductive tract


Describe the organs of the female reproductive systems and their principal functions
Locate female reproductive organs in charts and models
Identify major features in a microscopic specimen of a mammalian ovary

II. Materials

Models and charts of the female reproductive system and the breasts
Microscope
Microslide: mammalian ovary c.s.

III. Procedure
1. Identify the parts of the female reproductive system and its function through a chart or model.
2. View the mammalian ovary c.s. under a microscope.

IV. Results
The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary
glands and breasts. These organs are involved in the production and transportation of gametes and the production of sex hormones. The female reproductive system also facilitates the fertilization of ova by sperm and
supports the development of offspring during pregnancy and infancy.
Anatomy of Female Reproductive System

127

Ovaries
The ovaries are a pair of small glands about the size and shape of almonds, located on the left and right
sides of the pelvic body cavity lateral to the superior portion of the uterus. Ovaries produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone as well as ova (commonly called "eggs"), the female gametes.
Fallopian Tube
The fallopian tubes are a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right superior corners of the
uterus to the edge of the ovaries. The inside of each fallopian tube is covered in cilia that work with the smooth
muscle of the tube to carry the ovum to the uterus.
Uterus
The uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located posterior and superior to the urinary bladder.
Connected to the two fallopian tubes on its superior end and to the vagina (via the cervix) on its inferior end,
the uterus is also known as the womb, as it surrounds and supports the developing fetus during pregnancy.
Vagina
The vagina functions as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes. It also serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow delivery of the fetus during childbirth. During menstruation, the menstrual flow exits the body via the vagina.
Vulva
The vulva is the collective name for the external female genitalia located in the pubic region of the body.
The vulva surrounds the external ends of the urethral opening and the vagina and includes the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris. The mons pubis, or pubic mound, is a raised layer of adipose tissue between the skin and the pubic bone that provides cushioning to the vulva. The inferior portion of the mons pubis
splits into left and right halves called the labia majora. The mons pubis and labia majora are covered with pubic hairs. Inside of the labia majora are smaller, hairless folds of skin called the labia minora that surround the
vaginal and urethral openings. On the superior end of the labia minora is a small mass of erectile tissue known
as the clitoris that contains many nerve endings for sensing sexual pleasure.

Breasts and Mammary Glands


The breasts are specialized organs of the female body that contain mammary glands, milk ducts, and adipose tissue. The two breasts are located on the left and right sides of the thoracic region of the body. In the
center of each breast is a highly pigmented nipple that releases milk when stimulated. The areola, a thickened,
highly pigmented band of skin that surrounds the nipple, protects the underlying tissues during breastfeeding.
The mammary glands are a special type of sudoriferous glands that have been modified to produce milk to
feed infants.
The Reproductive Cycle
The female reproductive cycle is the process of producing an ovum and readying the uterus to receive a
fertilized ovum to begin pregnancy If an ovum is produced but not fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall,
the reproductive cycle resets itself through menstruation. The entire reproductive cycle takes about 28 days on
average, but may be as short as 24 days or as long as 36 days for some women.
Oogenesis and Ovulation
Under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), the ovaries produce a mature ovum in a process known as ovulation. By about 14 days into the reproductive cycle, an oocyte
reaches maturity and is released as an ovum. Although the ovaries begin to mature many oocytes each month,
usually only one ovum per cycle is released.

128

Fertilization
Once the mature ovum is released from the ovary, the fimbriae catch the egg and direct it down the fallopian tube to the uterus. It takes about a week for the ovum to travel to the uterus. If sperm are able to reach and
penetrate the ovum, the ovum becomes a fertilized zygote containing a full complement of DNA. After a twoweek period of rapid cell division known as the germinal period of development, the zygote forms an embryo.
The embryo will then implant itself into the uterine wall and develop there during pregnancy.
Menstruation
While the ovum matures and travels through the fallopian tube, the endometrium grows and develops in
preparation for the embryo. If the ovum is not fertilized in time or if it fails to implant into the endometrium,
the arteries of the uterus constrict to cut off blood flow to the endometrium. The lack of blood flow causes cell
death in the endometrium and the eventual shedding of tissue in a process known as menstruation. In a normal
menstrual cycle, this shedding begins around day 28 and continues into the first few days of the new reproductive cycle.
Pregnancy
If the ovum is fertilized by a sperm cell, the fertilized embryo will implant itself into the endometrium and
begin to form an amniotic cavity, umbilical cord, and placenta. For the first 8 weeks, the embryo will develop
almost all of the tissues and organs present in the adult before entering the fetal period of development during
weeks 9 through 38. During the fetal period, the fetus grows larger and more complex until it is ready to be
born.
Lactation
Lactation is the production and release of milk to feed an infant. The production of milk begins prior to
birth under the control of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is produced in response to the suckling of an infant
on the nipple, so milk is produced as long as active breastfeeding occurs. As soon as an infant is weaned, prolactin and milk production end soon after. The release of milk by the nipples is known as the milk-letdown
reflex and is controlled by the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin is also produced in response to infant suckling so
that milk is only released when an infant is actively feeding.
Mammalian Ovary c.s.

V. Conclusion
Ergo, the members were able to identify the plan of the female reproductive tract and were able to describe
the organs of the female reproductive systems and their principal functions. The members were also able to
identify the major features in a microscopic specimen of a mammalian ovary and the structures of the mammary glands.
129

Development
Laboratory Report 39

I. Objectives

Describe the basic plan of prenatal development


Identify major features of successive developmental stages in models or charts
Describe the fetal circulatory plan and the changes in circulation that occur around the time of birth

II. Materials

Models or charts of early human development


Model or chart of human fetal circulation

III. Procedure

130

IV. Results

131

V. Conclusion
Prenatal development is an important part of an individuals life. The developing human is called an
embryo during the first eight weeks of the prenatal period and a fetus from eight weeks until birth. Under the
prenatal development are different prenatal periods. These include fertilization, early cell division, blastocysts
and implantation of the blastocyst and development of the placenta, maternal hormonal changes, formation of
the germ layers, neural tube and neural crest formation, formation of the general body structure, development
of the organ systems and growth of the fetus.
In the circulation of blood in the fetus, the blood bypasses the lungs by flowing from the pulmonary
trunk through the ductus arteriosus of the aorta. Blood also bypasses the lungs by flowing from the right to the
left atrium through the foramen ovale. Blood bypasses the liver sinusoids by flowing through the ductus venosus. Oxygenated blood from the placenta is passed to the fetus by the umbilical vein while deoxygenated blood
is carried from the fetus to the placenta through the umbilical arteries.
The circulation of the blood changes in newborn. When air enters the lungs, blood is forced through the
pulmonary arteries to the lungs. The ductus arteriosus closes. The foramen ovale closes and becomes the fossa
ovalis. Blood can no longer flow from the right to the left atrium. The ductus venosus degenerates and becomes the ligamentum venosum. The umbilical arteries and vein are cut. The umbilical vein becomes the
round ligament of the liver and the umbilical arteries also degenerates.

132

Genetics and Heredity


Laboratory Report 40

I. Objectives

To be able to identify the phenotype and possible genotypes of selected human characteristics
Distinguish between the concepts of dominant and recessive as applied to inherited traits
Predict probabilities of phenotypes and genotypes in offspring, given the parents genotypes and
phenotypes

II. Materials

Taste papers: control, sodium benzoate, PTC, thirourea


Biohazard container
Blood typing materials

III. Procedure
A. Human phenotypes and genotypes
1. You will taste a paper that have each been impregnated with a different compound. Before starting, put a
piece of control test paper on your tongue and chew it. if you taste something, you must be sensitive to a compound in the paper itself. Ignore that taste in the tests that remain, or try to sense differences taste.
Sodium benzoate test taste sweet, salty or bitter in the paper is dominant
PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) test- sense bitter taste is dominant
Thiourea test- taste bitter is dominant
2. The next set of determinations involves anatomical characteristics of your hand
Bent little finger- place your relaxed hand flat on the lab table. If the distal phalanx of the little
finger bends toward the fourth finger, you have the dominant trait
Middigital hair- dorsal hair on the skin over the middle phalanges of the hand is dominant
Hitchhikers thumb- if you can hyperextend the distal joint of the thumb noticeably, you have the
recessive trait.
3. Determine the phenotype for these facial features:
Pigmented anterior of the iris- if you have pigment on the anterior and posterior of the iris, your
eyes are green, brown, black, or hazel. If you lack pigment on the anterior aspect of the iris, your
eyes are blue or gray. Anterior pigmentation is dominant.
Attached earlobes- if the inferior, fatty lobe of the ear is attached rather than free, you have the
recessive trait.
Widows peak- assuming you have a hairline, if it is straight across the forehead, you have the
recessive trait. If it forms a downward point near the midline, you have the dominant widows peak
Tongue roll- try to curl your tongue as you extend it from your mouth. If you cant curl it, you have
recessive trait.
Freckles- if your face has scattering of freckles, you have the dominant form of this characteristics.
If your face is free of freckles, you have the recessive condition.

133

B. Probabilities of Inheritance
In this exercise, you will use a simple method developed by the English geneticist Punnett. He advised
a simple grid, or Punnett square, with which one can easily predict simple ratios of genetic probability.

IV. Results

Widows Peak
Also known as mid-digital, hairline is a result of expression of the hairline gene. The gene contains 2
alleles: one for straight hairline, which is recessive and the other for widows peak, which is dominant. If the 2
widows alleles are present, the individual will have a peak. The peak will also be expressed if one of the alleles is widows peak. However, if an individual has 2 recessive genes, he will have a straight hair line.
Bent Pinkie
If you are able to bend your 5th finger (pinkie) inwards towards the 4th finger, it means you have the
dominant version of the gene responsible for the distal segment of the finger to bend.

Earlobe Attachment
People have their ear lobes either attached to the sides of their heads or hanging free. Those with unattached earlobes have the unattached earlobe gene as the dominant gene and the attached earlobe as the recessive gene.
Tongue Rolling
If you are able to raise the sides of your tongue together, then you have
inherited the dominant gene. Those who are unable to do this have the recessive
tongue rolling gene.

134

Dimples
The tiny, natural indentations seen on the cheeks are mostly heritable. This means people with dimples
normally have children with dimples. Therefore, people who have dimples express a dominant gene for dimples and those without dimples have a recessive dimple gene.

Freckles
People with freckles have inherited at least a pair of freckles dominant gene and those without have
inherited 2 freckles recessive genes.

V. Conclusion
Genes are the tiny pieces of molecular information that determine who we are. They are responsible for
everything, from your curly or straight hair to whether or not you will develop certain health conditions later in
life.All of us are unique individuals. God created us on our own special way. We shouldnt compare ourselves
to anyone because we are all beautiful no matter what.

135

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