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Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,2000

Figure 3-1 (top) Vertical compression (strain) in a medium transforms an imaginary circle into an ellipse with

decreases in circumference and area.

(bottom) Now if a flexible ring is inserted in place of the imaginary ellipse and then is allowed to expand such

that its circumference remains the same as the original imaginary circle, the medium in contact with the ring

is compressed as shown by infinitesimal cubes at the spring lines, crown and invert.

Deformation of the pipe ring occurs under any load.

For most buried pipe analyses, this deformation is

small enough that it can be neglected. For a few

analyses, however, deformation of the ring must be

considered. This is particularly true in the case of

instability of the ring, as, for example, the hydrostatic

collapse of a pipe due to internal vacuum or external

pressure. Collapse may occur even though stress

has not reached yield strength. But collapse can

occur only if the ring deforms. Analysis of failures

requires a knowledge of the shape of the deformed

ring.

For small ring deflection of a buried circular pipe, the

basic deflected cross section is an ellipse. Consider

the infinite medium with an imaginary circle shown

in Figure 3-1 (top). If the medium is compressed

(strained) uniformly in one direction, the circle

becomes an ellipse. This is easily demonstrated

mathematic ally. Now suppose the imaginary circle

is a flexible ring. When the medium is compressed,

the ring deflects into an approximate ellipse with

slight deviations. If the circumference of the ring

remains constant, the ellipse must expand out into

the medium, increasing compressive stresses

between ring and medium. See Figure 3-1 (bottom).

The ring becomes a hard spot in the medium. On

the other hand, if circumference of the ring is

reduced, the ring becomes a soft spot and pressure

is relieved between ring and medium. In either case,

the basic deformation of a buried ring is an ellipse

slightly modified by the relative decreases in areas

within the ring and without the ring. The shape is

also affected by non-uniformity of the medium. For

example, if a concentrated reaction develops on the

bottom of the ring, the ellipse is modified by a flat

spot. Nevertheless, for small soil strains, the basic

ring deflection of a flexible buried pipe is an ellipse.

Following are some pertinent approximate

geometrical properties of the ellipse that are

sufficiently accurate for most buried pipe analyses.

Greater accuracy would require solutions of infinite

series.

The equation of an ellipse in cartesian coordinates,

x and y, is:

a2x2 + b2y2 = a2b2

where (See Figure 3-2):

a = minor semi-diameter (altitude)

b = major semi-diameter (base)

r = radius of a circle of equal circumference

The circumference of an ellipse is p(a+b) which

reduces to 2pr for a circle of equal circumference.

In this text a and b are not used because the pipe

industry is more familiar with ring deflection, d.

Ring deflection can be written in terms of semidiameters a and b as follows:

d = D/D = RING DEFLECTION

. . . . . (3.1)

where:

D

= decrease in vertical diameter of ellipse from

a circle of equal circumference,

= 2r = mean diameter of the circle

diameter to the centroid of wall crosssectional areas,

a = r(1-d) for small ring deflections (<10%),

b = r(1+d) for small ring deflections (<10%).

Assuming that circumferences are the same for

circle and ellipse, and that the vertical ring deflection

is equal to the horizontal ring deflection, area within

the ellipse is Ae = Bab; and

Ae = pr2 (1 - d2)

The ratio of areas within ellipse and circle is:

A r = A e / A o = ratio of areas.

See Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-2 Some approximate properties of an ellipse that are pertinent to ring analyses of pipes where d is

the ring deflection and ry and rx are the maximum and minimum radii of curvature, respectively.

(Ae within an ellipse and Ao within a

circle of equal circumference) shown

plotted as a function of ring deflection.

vertical ring deflections are equal if the

circumferences are equal for circle and ellipse? For

the circle, circumference is 2pr. For the ellipse,

circumference is (b+a)(64-3R4)/(64-16R2), where R

is approximately R = (b-a)/(b+a). Only the first

terms of an infinite series are included in this

approximate ellipse circumference. See texts on

analytical geometry. Equating circumferences of the

circle and the ellipse, and transforming the values of

a and b into vertical and horizontal values of ring

deflection, dy and dx, a few values of d y and the

corresponding dx are shown below for comparison.

dy (%)

______

0.

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

dx (%)

______

0.

4.88

9.522

13.95

18.116

Deviation

(dy - dx)/dy

__________

0.

0.024

0.048

0.070

0.094

corresponding dx is less than 10% by only

4.8%(10%) = 0.48%. This is too small to be

significant in most calculations such as areas within

the ellipse and ratios of radii.

radii rr = ry/rx, which is:

rr = (1 + d)3 / (1 - d)3

. . . . . (3.2)

where:

rr = ratio of the maximum to minimum radii of

curvature of the ellipse. See graph of Figure 3-4.

In practice it is often necessary to measure the

radius of curvature of a deformed pipe. This can be

done from either inside or outside of the pipe. See

Figure 3-5. Inside, a straightedge of known length L

is laid as a cord. The offset e is measured to the

curved wall at the center of the cord. Outside, e can

be found by laying a tangent of known length L and

by measuring the offsets e to the pipe wall at each

end of the tangent. The average of these two

offsets is the value for e. Knowing the length of the

cord, L, and the offset, e, the radius of curvature of

the pipe wall can be calculated from the following

equation:

r = (4e2 + L2)/8e

. . . . . (3.3)

top and bottom (crown and invert) of the ellipse are:

within cord length L. The calculated radius is to the

surface from which e measurements are made.

Example

metal pipe culvert appears to be flattened somewhat

on top. From inside the pipe, a straightedge (cord)

12 inches long is placed against the top, and the midordinate offset is measured and found to be 11/32

inch. What is the radius of curvature of the pipe ring

at the top?

higher orders of d,

rx = r (1 - 3d), and ry = r (1 + 3d).

However, more precise, and almost as easy to use,

are the approximate values:

rx = a2 / b = r (1 - d)2 / (1 + d)

ry = b2 / a = r (1 + d)2 / (1 - d)

2000 CRC Press LLC

values and solving, ry = 52.5 inches which is the

average radius within the 12-inch cord on the inside

of the corrugated pipe. On the outside, the radius is

greater by the depth of the corrugations.

d (%)

rr

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

10

12

15

20

1.000

1.062

1.128

1.197

1.271

1.350

1.434

1.618

1.826

2.062

2.476

3.375

rr = ry/rx = (1+d)3/(1-d)3,

(ry and rx are maximum and

minimum radii, respectively,

for ellipse) shown plotted

as a function of ring deflection d.

Figure 3-5 Procedure for calculating the radius of curvature of a ring from measurements of a cord of length

L and the middle ordinate e.

pipe expands. The radius increases. Ring deflection

is equal to percent increase in radius;

deformation of a pipe ring due to any external

loading. Analysis is based on the energy method of

virtual work according to Castigliano. Analysis

provides a component of deflection of some point B

on a structure with respect to a fixed point A. It is

convenient to select point A as the origin of fixed

coordinate axes the axes are neither translated

nor rotated. See Appendix A.

where:

d = ring deflection (percent),

Dr and DD are increases due to internal pressure,

r = mean radius,

D = mean diameter,

e = circumferential strain,

E = modulus of elasticity = s/e.

s = circumferential stress = Ee = Ed.

But s = P'(ID)/2A, from Equation 2.1,

where:

P' = uniform internal pressure,

ID = inside diameter,

A = cross sectional area of wall per unit length.

Equating the two values for s , and solving for d,

d = P'(ID)/2AE

. . . . . (3.4)

the crown A-A-A with Q-load at the spring line, BB-B, showing a slice isolated for analysis.

Example

Consider the quadrant of a circular cylinder shown

in Figure 3-6. It is fixed along edge A-A-A, and is

loaded with vertical line load Q along free edge B-BB. What is the horizontal deflection of free edge B

with respect to fixed edge A? This is a twodimensional problem for which a slice of unit width

can be isolated for analysis. Because A is fixed,

the horizontal deflection of B with respect to A is xB

for which, according to Castigliano:

xB = f (M/EI)(dM/dp)ds

. . . . . (3.5)

where:

xB = displacement of point B in the x-direction,

EI = wall stiffness,

E = modulus of elasticity,

I = centroidal moment of inertia of the cross

section of the wall per unit length of cylinder,

M = moment of force about the neutral axis at C,

p = differential load (dummy load) applied at

point B in the direction assumed for deflection,

ds = differential length along the slice, = rdq

r = mean radius of the circular cylinder.

It is assumed that deflection is so small that radius r

remains constant. It is also assumed that the

deflection is due to moment M, flexure not to

shear or axial loads. In Figure 3-6, consider arc CB

as a free-body-diagram. Apply the dummy load p at

B acting to the right assuming that deflection xB will

be in the x-direction. If the solution turns out to be

negative, then the deflection is reversed. From the

free-body-diagram CB,

M = Qr(1-cosq) + pr(sinq)

M/ p = r(sinq)

PROBLEMS

3-1 A plain polyethylene pipe of 16-inch outside

diameter and DR = 15 is subjected to internal

pressure of 50 psi. The surfaces are smooth and

cylindrical (not ribbed or corrugated).

DR

(dimension ratio) = (OD)/t where t = wall thickness.

Modulus of elasticity is 115 ksi. What is the ring

deflection? DR is dimension ratio = (OD)/t.

(d = 0.28%)

pipe cross section is an ellipse, what is the percent

error in finding the ratio of maximum to minimum

radii of curvature by means of approximate

Equation 3.2,

rr = (1+d)3 / (1-d)3?

(0.066%)

one location. The top of the pipe appears to be

flattened. A straight edge 200 mm long is laid

horizontally across the top and the vertical distances

down to the pipe surface at each end of the straight

edge are measured and found to be 9.2 and 9.4 mm.

What is the radius of curvature of the outside

surface of the pipe at the crown?

Ry = 542 mm = 21.35 inches)

M = Qr(1-cosq)

ds = rdq

deflected into an ellipse, approximately what is the

ring deflection? Maximum ring deflection is usually

limited to 5% according to specifications.

(d = 5.74%)

xB = (Qr/EI) (1-cosq) r(sinq) rdq

Integrating and substituting in limits of q from 0 to

p/2,

area inside the deflected pipe of problem 3-4 if the

ring deflection is d = 5.74%?

(0.33%)

xB = Qr3/2EI

This is one of a number of the most useful

deflections of rings recorded in Table A-1.

minimum radii, rr, for an ellipse?

(rr = 1.8)

beam loaded by a uniform vertical pressure, P, and

supported (fixed) along one edge. What is the

vertical deflection of the opposite edge? The

thickness of the plate is t, the length measured from

the fixed edge is L, and the modulus of elasticity is

E. Elastic limit is not exceeded. Use the Castigliano

equation.

(y = 3PL4 / 2Et 3)

3-8 A half of a circular ring is loaded at the crown

by an F-load (load per unit length of the cylinder).

The reactions are rollers at the spring lines B, as

shown. If the wall stiffness is EI, what is the

vertical deflection of point A?

(yA = 0.1781 Fr3/EI)

arch of problem 3-8 if it is loaded with a uniform

vertical pressure P instead of the F-load?

cylinder of problem 3-8 are symmetrical. If the

spring lines of the two halves are hinged together,

what is the ring deflection due to the F-load and an

equal and opposite reaction at the bottom?

(d = 0.1781 Fr2/EI)

3-11 Sections of pipe are tested by applying an Fload. For flexible rings, the F-load test is called a

parallel plate test. What is the ring deflection if

elastic limit is not exceeded?

[d = 0.0186F/(EI/D3)D]

and loaded by force, Q.

(EI = 3p Qr/x)

introduced between pipe and casing. Find the

moment, thrust and shear at crown and invert.

(See Table A-1)

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