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The Army War College is the senior inst it uti on in the Army cdUClltionul
system, At this College, selected office rs aI'e g iven instruction to prepare
them fO l' duties as commanders and staff officers in the highest pos itions
in the Army, and in join t commands.
The history of the College is especially significilnt because oC its close re
lntionshil) to the development of the modern US Army. During the first
hal f oC the twentieth ce ntury, the Army was called upon to enforce United
States national policy to a degree never before dreamed of. including par
ticipation in two World Wars.
The narrative that follows presents the most im portant points of the
Co llege's eventful hi story. Its activities, though covering only a short s pace
of years, have made the Army War College a t ruly National institution.
SECRETARY 07 WAR . 1899 1904



The need for a place where officers could should be invited and entitled to pre
study the broad problems of warfare was force sent. by written papers and re ports,
fully pointed out by events of the Spanish as a part of the r egular course, , ' the
resu lts of their investigations, ex
American War. That confl ict demonstrated plorati ons, refl ectio ns , and profes
that the War Department was not organized sionnl and scientific work, and upon
a nd ready for the sudden mobilization, training, such specinl subjects ns may be pre
and over sea deployment of its fighting forces. scribed by the college, . ,"
From the foregoing, it is clea r that Secr e
Profiting by the mistakes experienced in the tury Root visualized the College would h'lVe
Span ish-American War, the War Department, two major fun cti ons: 1. to provide an agency
under Sec retary Eli hu Root, began studying to perfol'm what were essentially general staff
ways to COI'r eet the situation.
duties; and 2. to pr ovid e instruction to officers
In 1899, the Secretary of War, in his annual in the higher fields of the military arts and
r eport, stressed t he need for improvement in sciences. Actually, it wus his wny of c reating
Army orgnnization to meet the new r esponsi an agency to perform the planning .wd admin
biliti es im posed upon t he War Department by ist r ative r equi rements of the War Department
the country's new position in international af until Congress enacted leg islation creating H
fair s. The a rmed ser vices had assumed im genern] staff-nn or ganizntion that had proved
portant du t ies in the Philippine Islands and ::10 necessa r y for the ndmini stration of the large
other parts of the Pncific, a nd in the Caribbean. a rm ies of foreign power s, '

To crente n more emcient Army, Elihu Root In February 1900, the War Department ap
recommended, among other measures, the es pointed a bon I'd to draw up regulations for a
tnb!ishment of a n Army War College war college, The bO'.\I'd cons isted of Brigadier
Genernl Ludlow as President, Colonel H, C.
" ... composed of the heads of the staff Hasbrouck, and Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Car
departments, properly so called, and a ter, Lieutenant Colonel J. p, Sanger was later
number of the ablest and most compe detailed as an additional member, On 26 1\'lay
tent omcers of high rank in the Army
. , , these officers to be detailed for of the same year, Congress appropriated
service in the college for limited pe $20,000 for
riods, so that while the college shall be "contingent expenses incident to the
continuous in records, character and establishment of the Al'my War Col
performance, it s hnll be constantly lege, hav ing as its object the direction
changing in its per sonal ~Iements. a nd coor dination of t he instruction
It shnll be the duty of this body in the va riou s ser vice schools, exten
of officers to direct t he instruc sion of the oPPo l'tunities for investi
tion a nd in tellectua l exercise of the gatio n and study in the Army and
Army, to acquire the information, de Militia of the Un ited States, nnd the
vi!;e the plans, nnd study the subjects coll ection and dissemination of mili
indicated, a nd to advise the Com tnry information,"
mander in Chief upon nil questions of
plans, armament, transportation, and Thu s, the Congress accepted Secretary Root's
military preparation and movement," ideas for a n institution wh ich would conduct
[In add ition. officers] ", , ' shou ld be instruction and perform planning and operat.
detailed for some fixed period during
[the officers'] service to receive in ing activ ities for the War Department concur
struction nt this college in the science re ntly , The Inst two were obviously the duties
of war, including the duties of the of a general staff.
staff, a nd in all matters pertaining to
the application of military science to In October 1900, the Ludlow Board submit
nationnl defense; that provision ted and recommended adoption of regulations
should be made for the continuance of for governing the ndministration and scope of
such instructi on by correspondence
after the expirat ion of the period of work for the War College, following the original
each officer's detai l. and all officers intent of the Secretary of War. However , its
I Ahern, George P., Lt. Col., USA. A ChI"ollic/e of th e Army IV(O' College, 189f)191!J.

A we. 1919, (fl'om which much of the data in thi~ narrative is taken.)
conclusion, urging the establishment of a gen District of Columbia was designated the perma
eral staff, was significant. nent home of the College.
On 27 November 1901, the Secretary of War The order of 27 November is noteworthy for
announced a progressive scheme of instruction another r eason. In it, t he Secr etary directed
for officers of the Army. A War College Board that officers who showed the greatest pro
was to be set up to admi nister the program, ficiency would be considered by the War De
with the presiding officer of the Board also partment for assignment to duties where U:.eir
des ignated the President of the Army War abilities could be most profitably used. This
College. In the same order . Wash ington Bar had a high morale value in that it gave new in
racks (now Fort Lesley J . McNair) in the centive to enterpris ing offi cers.
i\t.\J OIl GI::!"1::11A I. S. B. M. YOUNG

Frrt ST PIlI::Slm;;":T O ~ TilE AIl:-.lY W Ait COt.l.E(;E


The War College BOR1'd was not announced t he members of the Board were also designated
until 1 J uiy 1902. The ofilcel's named were as members of a board to draw up procedu re
Major General S. B. M. Young, Brigadier Gen for a general staff. The Board was, in fact, a
erals W. H . Ca r ter and T. H. Bliss, and Majors provisional gener al staff.
H. H. Greene and W. D. Beach. General Young
A gener.al staff fo r t he Army was fina lly
was designated as the first President of the
authorized by Congress on 14 February 1903.
Army Wur College.
On 15 August of t hat year, the effective date of
The Bonrd established itself in temporary the law, the War College Board was dissolved,
offices at 20 Jackson Place on the west side of and t he War Department General Staff took
Lafayette Square in Washington, D. C. In over most of the duties appropriate to its func
December 1902, it moved to 22 J ackson Place, tions.
where i t remained until t he Board was dis
solved on 15 August 1903, upon the creation After the format ion of the W.ar Department
of the Gener al Staff Co rps.~ General Staff, the mission of the War College
as an educational instituti on was more clearly
Shortly after the War College Boa rd COll
defined. New regulations were issued placing
vened in July 1902, Secretary Root trans
the College directly under the Chief of Staff.
mitted to t he Board a list of military subjects
for study. Those subjects cover ed practically With the establishment of the General Staff.
the ent ire field of Army administration and op General Young was relieved as President of the
eratioll. Thi s mission required of the Board so War College to become Chief of Staff of the
much research and phlnning that no time was Army. He was succeeded in his former position
left to concentrate on instruction. In addition, by General Bliss.

'The building at 22 Jackson Place became the oRice of the fin!. Wal Department
Genelal Staff and housed the Wal" College until it moved to its new home at Washington
Banacks in 1907.
FmST H o:>.u: m' Tin: AItMY W AR COI,I:m:




In the meantime, a pe r manent home fo r the dent Roosevelt; the Gn llld Lodge, F.A.A.l\'I. of
War College was under constr uction. In 1902, the District of Columbia; and high dig nitaries
Congress a ppropr iated $400.000 for a bu ild ing of t he govern ment pa r ticipa ted. Addresses
a nd facil ities at Washinb..-ton BalTacks in t he wer e made by the President, Sec l'etary Root.
District of Col umbia. and General Young. T he building was com
pleted in 1907, a nd t he Wa.- College moved
On 21 Febr uary 1903. tl:e cornel'stone Wl;lS
from 22 Jackson Place in June of t hat yea]',
laid with impressive ceremonies in which P resi


15 AUGUST 1903-24 JUl':': 1905

On 1 November 1903. the War College began General Bliss, like Secretary Root, visualiz.ed
its operation under the new War Depa rtment the College in the sense of the Lat in derivation
General Staff. The personnel consisted of of the word_ua body of persons having com
seven officer s who comprised the entire Third mon interest or corporate functi ons"! No
Divi sion of the General Staff. Thi s division where in the original records appears t he idea
later became known as the W'I" College Div'i of the War College as an academic institution
sian. Shortly after beginning work, General solely for the purpose of theoretical instruction
Bliss submitted to the Chief of Staff a report in the military arts and sciences.
which outlined his concept of the new Army
During the 1903-4 session, there were no
War College. In su bstance, he recommended
"students" assigned to the College. The perma
that a small group of carefully selected officers
from the General Staff assist the Chief of Staff nent personnel's work included problems for
in making plans (01' the national defense. In solution by the commanders of the territorial
divi sions; preparation of plans for the dispatch
addition, he recommended that other selected
Army officer s be detai led from time to t ime to of expeditionary forces; and arrangements,
work with the President and the two Directors with the Naval War College, for joint Army
of the College, and under their direction . and Navy maneuvers for the following year.

\Vebstc r'~ Collegiate Dictionary, Fifth ~:dition , Page H17.


The first an nual session of the Army War "learned by doing." The type and scope of the
College opened 1 November 1904.' The pe rma problems was much the same as for the rrE:ced
nent Army personnel consisted of foul' officers ing year.
of the General Staff, including General Tasker
The first year s of the \Val' College have been
H. Bliss, the President. A commander was
discussed in some detai l because of thei r in
a8signed to represent the US Navy. Nine of
flu ence in setting the pattern of succeeding
ficers were detailed as students. Among them
year s. As each yea r passed, the College took
was Captain John J . Per sh ing, who was later
on, more and more, an academic complexion.
to become the most illustrious member of the
Among the innovati ons were lectures on topics
of current interest pertaining to international
There was no actual classroom work under and national affairs as well as purely military
instructors. The students were assigned to subjects.
committees for the solution of problems and
An event of inte rnational interest occurred on 14 November 1904. when the German
Ambassador unveiled a s tatue of Frederick the G reat at the new War College building.
The s tatue was a gift rrom the German Government. During World War I, it was
taken down. After hostilities, it was replaced on its pedestal. only to be 1'I1moved again
in World Wal' H.- For t Les/ey J. McNui l'- A BI'ief H i8t.ory of the POllt . Wa~ hington;
Government Printing Office, 1950.


In the 1906-7 course, a series of problems in zations, wh ich quite naturally !":ad its effect on
strategy and tactics was introduced, with a the Army War College. Prior to this time, the
field reconnaissance of the battlefields of t he General Staff consisted of three divisions. The
Antietam Campaign. Thereafter, fie ld trips, or First Division dealt with the mobile forces. llnd
staff rides, to the Civil Wa r battlefields were was actually the executive agency of the Chief
made annually. of Staff. The Second Divis ion dell it with in
formation (Intelligence). The Third Division
Tn June 1908, the War Department General
was charged with preparation of wa r plans and
Staff underwent one of its numerous reorgani
matters relatmg to mobilization . As has been effectively ca rryon its du ties of war planni ng
explained, the Third Divi sion w"as closely as without close contact with the Second Divi sion.
sociated with the War Co llege. T hough the change was originally op posed by
its Chief, the Second Divi sion was eventually
The reor ga nization clearly demonstnltes how moved to the Army War College. This move in
a change in physical arrangement brings about
turn precipitated the r eorganization of t he
~\ change in organization. It emphasizes a les
Gener al Staff into two sections. T he F irst Sec
son in staff coordination worth recor ding fo r
tion's duties remained essent ially the same as
the benefit of all military personneL
t hose of tl:e First Di vision and t he Second Sec
When the War College moved to its new tion took on those of the old Second and Thi r d
building at Wa shington Barracks, its personnel Divisions. Under the Second Section, as newly
f r om the Third Division was sepa r ated by organized, there was created a Mil ita ry in
about four miles from th e Second Divis ion , forma tion Comm ittee and the Ar my War Col
which rema ined at Jack son Place. It became lege Committee, both permanently located at
appa r ent that the Third Di vision, whose major the Army War College.
wo]k was done at t he War Co!\ege, could not



(No w F ORT LtiSLEY J . i\lc NAm)

This building was const r ucted as the

petmanent home of the Atmy Wal" College.

While there were som~ minor changes in the students under a president, a dir ector and a
organization and operations of the College in ::!uitable body of instructors selected from the
the intervening years, no major change oc Army at large, omitting the Gener al Staff .'"
curred until the passing of the Nationa l De
The 1916-17 course opened 28 October 1916,
fense Act of 1916. Under that law, it was
with eight instructors and twenty-one students
mandatory that the Pres ident of tee Army War
assigned. Because of the declaration of war on
College be a member of the Genera l Staff. How
6 Apri11917. the clags was graduated 25 May,
ever, it specifically prohibited the detail of any
and c:asses suspended until after the wa r. Dur
other officers on General Staff duty as instr uc
ing hostilities, however, the College carried on
t.ors or students at the War College.
the study of doctrine and techniques dealing
The intent of t he law was to r estrict the with the current probl ems of the war.
College's activity "to that of instruction of
Aheln. 0/1. cit. Page 262.


I n the midst of the war, the General Staff witnessed a substa ntial advance in tt:e
was again reorganized. Under War Depart character and scope of military in
ment Orders of 9 Febr uary 1918, the Military structi on in our Army. The great war
recently terminated has furnished a
Intelligence Branch of the War College Divi testing ground where every phase of
sion was moved to the Executive Division of t he ar t and science of war has tried
the General Staff. The "War College Division" out our military leaders and awarded
was dissolved, its functions being taken over them a creditable share in the victory.
by the War P lans Di vision. The new Wa r Plans No little share in the r esults achieved
is due our system of higher military
Division was. located at the Army War College instruction-a system that left much
and the Director of the War Plans Division be to be des ired, but nevertheless, with
came the President of t he Army War College. atl the disadvantages of novelty and
lack of a pr operly trained personnel,
Upon r ecommendation of its Director, the contri buted in a large measure to
War Plans Divis ion, was moved to t he War De wards oUI' success in the test of a great
partment Building in June 1919, where it cou lcl wa r.
be in closer contact with the other sections of An important period now begins,
the General Staff. The College, however, con where stock will be taken of the les
tinued under the supe rvision of the War Plans sons learned, mistakes noted, doubt
Division, but its name was changed to the Gen ful questions di scussed, and military
pr eparedness provided as far as our
eral Staff College. Major Gener al James W. people will furnish the authority.'"
McAndrew was assigned as Commandant t he
same year. A new er a in the arts and science of warfare
was recognized in 1919. Few persons, however,
At this point, a chronicler, who at the time dreamed that the cha r acter of warfa r e in 19]4
assembled many of t he facts which form the lS would be magnified beyond all comprehen.
basis of th is narrative, breaks out of hi s cus sion in scope and destructi veness in another
tomary impersonal recitation of memoranda, Wo l"id War just twenty yea rs later.
orders, and schedules to summarize past
achievements and anticipate developments yet The mlme, Army War College, was I"estored
to come. Some of his words are prophetic and in August 1921. From that t ime until 1940, in_
have a peculiar application to t he postwar pe struction in the College followed a well-devel
riod today-thirty-one yea rs after t hey were oped pattern as an integl'al part of the Army
written . He said, school system. Under this system, the Com~
"The new r egime is now replacing mand and Gener al Staff School Ht F ort Leaven
the old . . . The J)eri od 1899-1919 has worth, Kansas, conducted instruction in the ad
Ahern. oI'. cit. Page 285.
mmistrative and tactical operation's' of the Di The course was designed to serve as a vehicle
vision and Corps, while the Army War College for what would constitute graduate r esea rch
concerned itself with the broad operations of work in a civilian university. Committee work
field armies and the study of the higher eche was the chief method of instruction. Lectures
Ions of the War Department. The latter em supplemented research. The College policy of
bl'aced studies of the political, economic, and encouraging a free interchange of ideas, and
social matters which influence the conduct of the philosophy of "learning by doing" was con_
war.' tinued :
During this period, the faculty of the War When the Army began its mobilization in
College averaged sixteen Army and two Navy 1940, classes were suspended at the College in
officers and the students averaged about ninety order to release more officers for important
officers, including representatives of the Navy command and staff assignments with the ex
and Marine Corps. panding forces.
' Saunders, Oswald H., Major, Inf., Th e AI'Iny Wal' Col/ cg e, The Mili!a ry E l! g i1ltwr.
March-April 1934, Vol. 26, Page 102.
' Saunders, op. cit. Page 103.


After Wor ld War II, the Army again made a dustrial College concentrates on problems of
study of its entire school system to take ad mobilizing the nation's resources.
vantage of experience gained during that con
The gap left by the suspension of the activi
flict. The board which conducted the study is
ties of the Army War College was partially
generally called the Gerow Board, after its
solved by the establishment of specialized
President, Lieutenant General Leonard T.
courses in the latter part of the Reg ular Cou rse
at the Command and General Staff College at
Drawing upon the experiences of the war, Fort Leavenworth. Some of the instruction
this board emphasized the interdependence of formerly conducted at the War College was pre
land, sea, and air power in modern wa rfare, sented in these specialized courses.
and the necessity for joint (Army, Navy, and The passage of the National Security Act of
Air Force) instruction in ou r se rvice schools. 1947 and the experiences gained from three
This r equirement for joint participation was years of postwar operation of Army schools
especially urgent in the fields of mobilization made desirable a re-appraisal of the entire
of national resources, over-all intelligence, and Army school system to bring it within the new
strategy. World War II had demonstrated the structure of the Department of Defense. Ac
fact that in modern military planning and op cordingly, the Department of the Army created
erations each service is only a member of the a board to study and make recommendations on
fighting team. the educational system for officers. Lieutenant
A major contribution of the Army to this General Manton S. Eddy, USA, was appointed
unification of the land, naval, and air forces President of the Board.
was placing the facilities of the Army War After intensive study, the Board submitted
College in Washington at the disposal of the recommendations concerning the entire subject
Joint Chiefs of Staff for a National War Col of Army education. Among its recommenda
lege and an Industrial College of the Armed t ions was t he r esumption of a War College
Forces. course to replace the specialized courses at
Fort Leavenworth."
Both schools are now in operation. The Na
tional War College deals with problems of stra The Department of the Army, on 11 October
tegic nature on the national level, while the t n 1U49, approved the findings of the Eddy Board,
He-port 01 the DepaJ'tment 01 th e A I'my BoaI'd 071 Educational Syst.e/U lor Officers ,
15 June 1949 (Eddy Board), Pages 3, 4, and 3642.



The Army Wllr College occupies Grant and Sheridan Halls, the right portion

of the building. The Command and General Staff College occupies the left

with some minor modifications, and directed duty, will attend the Army War Col
the re-establishment of the Army War College. lege. This Course will be approxi
Major General Joseph M. Swing was des mately ten (10) months in duration.
The scope of this Course will in
ignated Commandant of the War College, and clude instruction in the duties of the
assumed his duties on 1 April 1950. Brigadier commanders and staffs of the higher
General Arthur G. Trudeau was designated Army echelons not included in schools
Deputy Commandant. The Department of the previously attended, such as the army
grou p ; theatre army headquarters;
Army directed that the 1950-51 course be held zone of interior; and Headquarters,
at Fort Leavenworth. The fo llowing is quoted Department of the Army, with empha
from the Department of the Army Directive of sis on the Department of the Army.
11 October 1949: This Course will be designed to em
phasize Army technique necessa ry to
"Selected graduates of the Regular carry out the Army's mi ssion as a part
Cou rse at the Command and General of the Department of Defense . . ."
Staff College after another period of

, Showing L to R Sherman, Grant, and Sheridan Halls.



t APRIl. 1950

The Army War CoHege is the highest insti t ures, committee work, indivi dual resea rch,
tution in the Army school syst em. It functions seminars, and field trips.
under the supervision of the Chief, Army Field Guest lecturers provide basic information on
all subjects under study. The analyses and con
Army students are selected from officers who elusions presented by these speakers afford im
are graduates of the Command and General portant source material for the students in
Staff College, or whose experiences have given their committee studies.
them equivalent training. They must have 13 The ma jor part of the students' work is done
to 21 years' commissioned service. Students
in com mittees. The committee normally con
f rom the Departments of State, Navy, and Air
sists of six to eight students. The chairman
Force are selected according to the require
and members Clf each committee are selected by
ments presc ribed by the respective depart
the College.
In addition to the research performed by
The Course is divided into three phases, with
students engaged in committee studies, each
obj ectives as follows:
student prepares an individual study on a se
lected topic.
Phase I-The Army and National Security.
Seminars on selected subjects are held dur
1. To broaden the background of t he stu
ing the year. A member of t he faculty acts as
dents with respect to the organization of t he monitor.
United States for national security and par
ticularly with respect to the organization of the The students and faculty make scheduled
Department of the Army. field trips to various US and oversea areas. The
2. To develop a wider knowledge of t he purpose of these trips is to enable students to
national policies, plans, and objectives of the gain first-hand info rmation on places and in
United States, with particular reference to the stallations of military interest. To permit maxi
international aspects thereof. mum coverage, the class is divided into groups
3. To increase the students' ability to cope each of which visits one of the selected areas.
with the problems involving national policy. The Faculty, headed by the Commandant and
Assistant Commandant, is composed of selected
Phase ll-Cur,.ent Army P1oblems.
officer s who are qualified in various aspects of
1. To familiarize the students with cur the military arts and sciences, either from
rent Army problems, . polic ies, programs, and broad study or war experiences, or both. Three
operations. off,cers, one from each of t~e Departments of
State, Navy, and Air Force, are assigned to the
2. To analyze and eva luate the role of the
staff as advisers.
Army in futUre war.
The primary duties of t he Faculty are to de
:l. To develop and recommend Army doc
termine the nature and scope of the problems,
trine in the areas of the military arts and
assist the stu dents in selecti on of reference rna
sciences where new doctrine is required.
terial, and give the students general guidance
in their studies and deliberations. The Faculty
Phase Ill- War Planning.
neither formulates nor suggests categorical so
1. To increase the students' familiarity iut ions to problems assigned for student study.
with the techniques of war planning. Though it no longer performs planning and
operating functions of the General Staff, it is
2. To develop the students' ability to solve
apparent th~t the War College is continuing the
the military problems inherent to war planning.
salient features of Secretary Elihu Root's orig.
Instructi on is conducted by means of lec inal aims.


The Department of the Army has selected way to modify facilities and obtain housing
Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, as the f uture for personnel at that location in preparation for
home of the Wat' College. Plans are now under the 1961-52 course.

Name Rank From . To
YOUNG, SAMUEL S. B. M. Major General Jul.l0,1902 Aug. 15, 1903
(Army War College Board)
BLISS, TASKER H. Brig. General Aug. 15, 1903 Apr. 15, 1905
WOTHERSPOON, W. W. Lt. Colonel (Acting) Jun. 25,1905 Dec. 3, 1905
BARRY, THOMAS H. Brig. General Dec. 4, 1905 Feb.21,1907
WOTHERSPOON, W. W. Lt. Colonel (Acting) Feb. 21, 1907 Oct. 8, 1907
WOTHERSPOON, W. W. Brig. General Oct.9,1907 Jun. 19, 1909
BLISS, TASKER H. Brig. General Jun: 21, 1909 Dec. 1, 1909
WOTHERSPOON, W. W. Brig. General Dec. 1, 1909 Feb. 1,1912
MILLS, ALBERT L. Brig. General Feb.2,1912 Aug. 31, 1912
CROZIER. WILLIAM Brig. General Sep.l,1912 Jul. 1, 1913
LIGGETT, HUNTER Brig. General Jul. 1, 1913 Apr. 22, 1914
MACOMB, M. M. Brig. General Apr. 22. 1914 Oct. 12, 1916
KUHN, JOSEPH E. Brig. General Feb. 1,1917 Aug. 25. 1917
Classes Suspended in World War I (19171919)
McANDREW, JAMES W. Major General Jun. 15, 1919 Jul. 6,1921
McGLACHLIN, E. F., JR. Major General Jul. 14,1921 Jun. 30, 1923
ELY, HANSON E. Major General Jul. 1, 1923 Nov. 30, 1927
CONNOR, WILLIAM D. Major General Dec. 20. 1927 Apr. 30, 1932
SIMONDS, GEORGE S. Major General May I, 1932 Jan. 31, 1935
CRAIG, MALIN Major General Feb. 4,1935 Oct. 1, 1935
GRANT, WALTERS. Brig. General Oct. 3,1935 Jun. 29. 1937
DEWITT, JOH N L. Major General Jun. 30, 1937 Nov. 30, 1939
PEYTON. PHILIP B. Brig. General Dec. 1,1939 Jun. 30, 1940
Classes Suspended in World War II (19401950)
SWING. JOSEPH M. Major General Apr. 1, 1950

During the World War the graduates of Leavenworth and

the War College held the most responsible positions in our
armies. And I should like to make it of record that, in my
opinion, had it not b ..n for the able and loyal assistance of
the ofRcers trained at these schools, the tremendous problems
of combat, supply, and transportation could not have been
solved . . . i~ all essential respects, the directive genius,
almost without exception, was the educated soldier.
-John J. Pershing, Genm'al, USA

Army- A WC- PI-0963- 15 Jan 51- 350

l'hcto b,'
In1truction31 .\id ~ '1'\;" .i

Com"'"d & ( , .: SlaJf Co~e~

F't. Leav"D\\ t>rt.l, Kan,s.l'S