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Copyright Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia 2016

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or transmitted


in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy,
recording, or in any information storage and retrieval system, without prior
permission in writing from the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB)
Malaysia.
Published by
Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia

All enquiries regarding this document should be forwarded to:


Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia
Sustainable Construction Division
Level 34, Menara Dato Onn
Pusat Dagangan Dunia Putra (PWTC)
No. 45, Jalan Tun Ismail
50480, Kuala Lumpur.
Tel
: 03 - 4047 7344
Fax
: 03 - 4047 7040
Website : www.cidb.gov.my

PRE DESIGN
Project Planning

PD1
Non-Calculator

Description and Outline of MyCREST


Sustainable and Carbon Reduction Targets in
a Project Brief or Needs Statement

DESIGN
PD

Ci

1 Point

Carbon Impact

Aim
To establish sustainable development and carbon reduction targets as
one of the fundamental goals of building design at the onset or initiation
of the design process.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Incorporate sustainable building and carbon reduction objectives in a
projects brief or design intent document such as the Owner Project
Requirement (OPR) document and/or project brief document. This
should cover and include statements on goals on the implementation of
sustainability and carbon reduction targets. The aim is to create a high
performance building with declared triple bottom line values in
sustainable development i.e. economic, environmental, and social.
Carbon Calculator
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Submittals
1. Document the inclusion of sustainable development in the needs
statement and targets in the project design intent document.
2. Develop the design intent document at an Integrated Design
Process (IDP) Charrette workshop early in the design or goalsetting process.

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3. Establish strategies and goals that are quantifiable and


performance-based. Examples are as follows:
a.

The project should reduce 30% of energy consumption


below the MyCREST baseline

b.

The project should reduce water consumption by 20%


below the MyCREST baseline

c.

The project should demonstrate a reduction of embodied


carbon by 10% through the specification of materials and
on-site practices during the construction phase ...

4. Use the project design intent document as a basis for consultant


and contractor team selection, design criteria and construction
document.

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PRE DESIGN
PD2

Project Planning

DESIGN
PD

Outline of Initial Target of MyCREST Level of


Certification (Star Rating) and Estimation
MyCREST Green Cost

1 Point

Aim
To clarify the level of sustainable implementation and quantify carbon
reduction targets as part of the project goals. To state targets with
respect to the MyCREST certification system including the level of
targeted star rating and the green building budget. This point also
assists projects in selecting and applying the best sustainable strategies
applicable to the project.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Produce documents that contain an estimated green budget that relate
to the level of

sustainable targets and rating levels.

Incorporate

MyCREST budget in the total construction cost independently. This can


be in the form of project minutes or project proposals.
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Submittals
1. Estimated green budget with breakdown of cost related to level
of rating and major criteria to be scored
2. Preliminary MyCREST Scorecard
3. MyCREST Certification Plan

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PRE DESIGN
PD3

Project Planning
Green Eco-Charrette

DESIGN
PD

1 Point

Aim
To undertake an Integrated Design Process (IDP) and achieve a shared
project vision throughout the project in order to build both individual and
group ownership of the project.
Requirement
1 POINT:
A charrette typically represents a form of an intensive design meeting.
This involves assembling multiple disciplines together as a group to
brainstorm initial ideas and strategies to achieve the sustainable and
carbon reduction goals. This session may range from half a day to several
days depending on the size of the project.
Conduct at least one day full eco-charrette workshop with the project
team that include the involvement of the client or client representative.
Justification
An integrated design process is central to the success of any green
building project. The initial eco-charrette, also known as the kick-off
meeting, provides the foundation and structure for a sustainable-based
collaborative process to occur.
MyCREST rewards team efforts for facilitating the initial eco-charrette. The
facilitator, normally the green or sustainability facilitator or consultant,
should lead the charrette and explore the synergies and cost benefits of

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various design strategies brainstormed for the project. There should be


an effort to get consultants and others on board this collaborative effort
- towards ensuring that MyCREST building realizes its fullest potential. At
the end of the charrette, not only the general direction and strategies of
a project are outlined, but there are also specific action items listed and
the responsible parties for all tasks required within each sub-criteria
attempted are identified.
As per MyCREST submittals, these will become the foundation of the kickoff sustainable MyCREST brief and checklist of the project. They will be
used by the project team to follow through with each task throughout
the duration of the project.
Approach & Strategy
As early as practicable and preferably before schematic design,
conduct at least one full-day integrative design workshop with the
project team.
The aim of the workshop is to initiate a project by engaging owners, staff,
contractors, user groups and community groups on the benefits of green
design and bringing them into the design process at key points in the
decision-making process.
Eco-charrettes are normally intensive sessions, ranging from a few hours
to an entire day, in which client representatives, architects, engineers,
other consultants, and often users gather to define sustainable principles
that will guide the design and identify potential synergies between
different disciplines. It is part of the sustainable integrated design
process, which aims to bring all the affected parties together to
collaboratively brainstorm green design and low carbon strategies.

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Ideally, the integrated design process should include contractors, cost


estimators, and facilities staff to ensure that high-performance building
systems and components are practical, durable, and cost effective. The
process of giving everyone a chance to speak and share ideas changes
the team dynamic in positive ways.
An eco-charrette provides a venue to navigate potential pitfalls and
better understanding of conflicting priorities. In the MyCREST, an ecocharrette should touch upon such conflicting requirements, amongst
others but not limited to:
1. The balance between strategies to increase daylight contribution
to energy savings yet reduce heat gain in a tropical climate
2. The confirmation of areas that must be air-conditioned and which
can be left with hybrid or natural ventilation and assisted by
mechanical ventilation
3. The target for energy efficiency and strategies that can combine
design and services in an effective manner
4. The issues in storm water management and rainwater harvesting
5. Whether renewable energy is implement or feasible for the
project
The eco-charrette should end with a preliminary scoring strategy and the
list of strategies. The duration of an eco-charrette and the level of
technical detail will vary significantly depending on the participants
familiarity with sustainable measures. It should begin and end with the
value of sustainable and low carbon design for the organizations and
then considered the potential for green measures for the project. By the
end, the goals articulated in the eco-charrette become the touchstones
of the project that can guide the design as it moves ahead.

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Submittals
1. Minutes of meeting of the eco-charrette, other than the
requirements above, must include the following:
a. Facilitator appointment as every charrette must have a
facilitator
b. List of attendees from multiple disciplines
c. Identification of goals, barriers and challenges with
potential solutions
2. Preliminary scorecard and potential strategies
3. Target level of certification
References, Standards and Codes
1. AIA, Eco-Charrettes Save Resources, Build Teams, February 2007:
http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/secure/documents/pdf/ai
ap016388.pdf
2. USGBC, High-Performance Workshop or Eco-Charrette:
http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Archive/General/Docs5496.pdf
3. Living Building Eco- Charrette Report:
http://oregonsustainabilitycenter.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/osc_charrett
e_report_final-rev060409.pdf
4. NCI Charrette System:
http://www.charretteinstitute.org/charrette.html
5. A Handbook for Planning and Conducting Charrettes for HighPerformance Projects:
http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/commercial_initia
tive/33425rep.pdf

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PRE-DESIGN

DESIGN

Project Planning

PD4

PD

1 Point

Implementation of an Integrated Design


Process

Aim
The aim is to establish and implement a multi-stakeholder collaborative
goal-setting

and design process

to maximize

opportunities for

integrative, cost-effective adoption of green and low-carbon design


and construction strategies.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Define

and

assemble

an

integrated

design

team

including

representation from all end user stakeholders, including (as applicable)


owner or owner representatives, facility manager, engineering/
maintenance

personnel,

architect,

interior

designer,

landscape

architect, construction manager or general contractor, structural


engineer, mechanical and electrical engineers. Individuals may perform
more than one role for the team and involve a minimum of five project
team members from different and multiple disciplines or can be from
disciplines listed in the list given in Figure 1. or as many as possible.
OR
The integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems in the
design process.
Utilization of BIM by at least three of the following project team members:
1.

Project Manager

2.

Architect and Interior Designer

3.

Mechanical and Electrical

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4.

Quantity Surveyor

5.

Facility manager

6.

Contractor

Justification
Integrated design leads to understanding the building as a set of
interrelated and interdependent systems where a single design decision
can trigger multiple systemic improvements. An integrated design
process, supported by guiding principles, is instrumental to develop
successfully and implement cost-effective green building strategies.
BIM or Building Integrated Modelling refers to the use of BIM software and
an integrated model to design, construct and manage a construction
project to completion. Today, an increasing number of construction firms
are relying on Building Information Modelling (BIM). Low carbon design
is best served by an integrated design process, with a holistic approach
to all design and construction disciplines. BIM adoption is in part, based
on its ability to facilitate an integrated design. In the MyCREST, design
and construction criteria and compliance rely on improving building
performance. Many of the tools of BIM, including the energy-use
modelling, provide better information on how design changes may
impact building performance than any traditional design tool.
Approach & Strategy
Project owners are encouraged to contractually apportion professional
fees to create specific line items for the Integrative Design Charette,
subsequent monitoring and follow-up meetings. Integrative Design may
benefit from re-apportioning the design fees to provide a higher
percentage early in the process, leading to a stronger integration and
streamlining in subsequent design stages.

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The utilization of BIM for green design/strategies/RAprocesses towards


green targets/ low carbon targets and objectives in MyCREST.
These can be defined as any of the following but not limited to:
1. Project Manager
To execute on the design, project management software in BIM
and can simplify tasks related to the construction phase. Project
workbenches give users the ability to monitor the number and
type of the MyCREST criteria planned for a particular project. From
this view, the team members can prioritize which criteria are
easiest to obtain, and which are the most difficult.
Create a database of best practices to help team members work
on similar projects or problems. This database helps the team
members to complete a project goal by preventing them from
going back to rework a problem that someone else has already
solved. It also aggregates best practices in a single database that
can help to improve the speed at which projects are completed
since all team members can easily look up for solutions without
having to go back to the drawing board.
2. Architect and Interior Designer
This includes creating and layering multiple levels of information
onto a 3-D building design. For instance, in addition to knowing
the location and size of something like a door frame, an architect
can add information about where the building materials made,
and what percent of the materials come from recycled content.

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3. Facility Manager
Using BIM for Building Performance Monitoring and Verification
has generated a high level of interest in monitoring and
performance verification by all practitioners, evidence of the
potential perceived in the value of BIM tools during the operations
and maintenance phase of a project. MyCREST promotes efforts
to capitalize on the data in the BIM model in order to monitor
building performance and verify how well the building performs
compared to the predictions during the design stage. This will not
only help improve energy efficiency, but it could also help
designers improve their use of models to achieve more reliable
outcomes in the future.
4. Contractors
BIM models can also provide more information to product
manufacturers,

including

allowing

for

greater

use

of

prefabrication, which can eliminate waste and makes the


construction process greener and faster. High profile, complex
projects normally involve a large number of customized products.
BIM can create a database of existing high-quality products that
meet these demands, enabling the team to add another layer of
savings to the whole process and the carbon footprint.

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Figure 1: Range of Project Team Members and Objectives of Projects

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Submittals
1. Project Organization chart
2. Role and responsibility matrix
3. Development of a regular meeting schedule for the integrated
design team to continue refining the projects sustainable design
strategies throughout the design process. Review strategies for
synergies between systems and processors, with the goal of linking
strategies into a larger design framework.

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4. Projects minutes of meeting


5. Softcopy of BIM modelling data
References, Standards and Codes
1. Integrated Design Process by Alex Zimmerman, A. Sc. T.:
http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/upload/Integrated_Desi
gn_GuideENG.pdf
2. The Integrated Design Process:
http://iisbe.org/down/gbc2005/Other_presentations/IDP_overvie
w.pdf

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PD5

PRE DESIGN

Project Planning

Potential Environmental Impact of


Development or Re-Development

DESIGN
PD

1 Point

Aim
To identify the potential environmental impact of the project and the
surrounding area that may be affected by the proposed development.
This generally covers an EIA assessment, which is typically part of the
feasibility studies of a project.
Requirement
1 POINT:
This is to comply with The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
requirements either the detailed EIA, Preliminary EIA or equivalent.
If the said project has been classified as a prescribed activity or
located within Environmental Sensitive Area (ESA), according to the
Environmental Quality Act (Prescribed Activities), Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) Order 1987 and Section 34A of the Environmental
Quality Act 1974 (Amendment 2000), an EIA study need to be carried out
and submitted to the Department of Environment for approval prior to
project implementation.
For projects that do not require an EIA, they must submit a Preliminary Site
Assessment based on Penilaian Awal Tapak (PAT) by Jabatan Kerja
Raya or equivalent.

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Justification
Any new development or redevelopment has potential impacts - either
negative or positive - on the surrounding area be it on social, physical or
economy. These potential impacts could be temporary or permanent
either in the short-term or long- term. The report will also provide/suggest
the mitigation efforts for all the potential impacts.
Approach & Strategy
The Environmental Quality Act has specified activities that are subject to
an EIA. Nineteen categories are defined in terms of project size (as area),
capacity (quantum) while other are not defined by any unit of measures.
Three checklists are prepared to guide whether the project subjected to
the EIA or otherwise:
1. Activities define by quantum (Table 1)
2. Activities defined by project size (Table 2)
3. Activities defined by unit of measure (Table 3)

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Table 1: Malaysia - Summary of Activities Subject to Environment Impact


Assessment (Activities Defined by Quantum)

Quantum
60,000

Unit
Barrel

5,000

Tonnes

4,500

Cubic
meters/
day

200

Tonnes/
day

100

Family

100

Tonnes/
day

100

Tonnes/
days

100

Tonnes/
day

50

Tonnes/
day
Tonnes/
day

50

Activity
Construction
of
product
depots for the storage of
petrol, gas or diesel.
Shipyards - Dead weight
tonnage greater than 5,000
tonnes.
Groundwater
development
for
industrial,
agricultural
urban water supply of greater
than 4,500 cubic meters per
day
Iron and steel industries using
scrap iron as raw materials for
production greater than 200
tonnes/day.
Agricultural
programmes
necessitating resettlement of
100 families or more.
Chemical - Where production
capacity of each product or
combined product is greater
than 100 tonnes/day.
Lime production industries 100 tonnes/ day and above
burnt lime rotary kiln.
Iron and steel industries using
iron ore as raw materials for
production greater than 100
tonnes/day.
Non-ferrous industries other
than aluminium and copper.
Lime production industries - 50
tonnes/ day and above
vertical kiln.

Number
12(e)

8(f)

19(b)

8(e)

1(b)

8(a)

8(d)

8(e)

8(c)
8(d)

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50

30

10

Tonnes/
day

Pulp and paper industry Production capacity greater


than 50 tonnes/day.
Tonnes/
Cement industries - for clinker
day
throughout of 30 tonnes/hour
and above.
Megawatts Construction
of
steam
generated power stations
burning fossil fuels and having
a capacity of more than 10
megawatts

8(g)

8(d)

13 (a)

Table 2: Malaysia - Summary of Activities Subject to Environment Impact


Assessment (Activities Define by Project Size)

Project
Size
5,000

Unit

Activity

Number

Hectare

3(c)

500

Hectare

500

Hectare

500

Hectare

400

Hectare

250

Hectare

Irrigation schemes covering an


area of 5,000 hectares or more.
Land development schemes
covering an area of 500 hectares
or more to bring forest land into
agricultural production.
Development
agricultural
estates covering an area of 500
hectares or more involving
changes in types of agricultural
use.
Logging covering an area of 500
hectares or more.
Construction of dams and
hydroelectric power scheme
reservoirs with a surface area
more than 400 hectares.
Mining of mineral in new areas
where the mining lease covers a
total area more than 250
hectares.

1(a)

1(c)

6(c)
13(b)ii

11(a)

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200

Hectare

200

Hectare

100

Family

100

Hectare

80

Room

Construction of dams and manmade


lakes
and
artificial
enlargement of lakes with
surface areas of 200 hectares or
more.
Construction
of
dams
or
impounding reservoirs with a
surface area of 200 hectares or
more.
Agricultural
programmes
necessitating resettlement of 100
families or more.
Drainage of wetland, wildlife
habitat or of virgin forest
covering an area of 100 hectares
or more.
Construction of coastal resort
facilities or hotels with more than
80 rooms.

3(a)

19(a)

1(b)

3(b)

17(a)

Table 2: Malaysia - Summary of Activities Subject to Environment Impact


Assessment (Activities Define by Project Size)(continuation)

Project
Size
50

Unit
Hectare

50

Hectare

50

Hectare

50

Hectare

Activity

Number

Coastal reclamation involving


an area of 50 hectares or more.
Land-based
aquaculture
projects
accompanied
by
clearing of mangrove swamp
forests covering an area of 50
hectares or more.
Conversion of hill forest land to
other land use covering an area
of 50 hectares or more.
Conversion
of
mangrove
swamps for industrial, housing or
agricultural use covering an
area of 50 hectares or more.

4
5(c)

6(a)

6(d)

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50

Hectare

50

Hectare

50

Hectare

50

Hectare

50

Kilometre

40

Hectare

2.5

Kilometre

Housing development covering


an area of 50 hectares or more.
Industrial estate development for
medium and heavy industries
covering an area of 50 hectares
or more.
Sand dredging involving an area
of 50 hectares or more.
Hill station resort or hotel
development covering an area
of 50 hectares or more.
Construction of offshore and onshore pipelines more than 50
kilometres in length.
Construction of dams and
hydroelectric power schemes
with dams over 15 metres high
and ancillary structures covering
a total area of 40 hectares.

Construction of airports (having


and airstrip of 2,500 metres or
longer).

7
9(b)

11(c)
17(b)

12(b)

13(b)i

2(a)

Table 3: Malaysia - Summary of Activities Subject to Environment Impact


Assessment (Activities Not Defined by Unit of Measure)

Prescribed Activity
AIRPORT
FISHERIES

FORESTRY

Activity
Airstrip development in state
and national parks.
Construction
of
fishing
harbours.
Harbour expansion involving
an increase of 50 per cent or
more in fish landing capacity
per annum.
Logging of conversion of forest
land to other land use within
the
catchment
area
of

Number
2(b)
5(a)
5(b)

6(b)

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INDUSTRY

INFRASTRUCTURE

reservoirs used for municipal


water supply, irrigation or
hydropower generation or in
areas adjacent to state and
national parks and national
marine parks.
Clearing of mangrove swamps
on islands adjacent to national
marine parks.
Petrochemicals industries all
sizes.
Primary smelting of aluminium
and copper - all sizes.
Construction of hospitals with
an outfall into beachfront used
for recreational purposes.
Construction of expressways.
Construction
of
national
highways.
Construction of new townships.

6(e)

8(b)
8(c)
9(a)

9(c)
9(d)
9(e)

Table 3: Malaysia Summary of Activities Subject to Environment Impact


Assessment (Activities Not Defined by Unit of Measure) (continuation)

Prescribed Activity
PORTS

Activity
Construction of ports.
Port expansion involving an
increase of 50 per cent or
more in handling capacity
per annum
MINING
Ore
processing including
concentrating for aluminium,
copper, gold or tantalum.
PETROLEUM
Oil
and
gas
fields
development.
Construction of oil and gas
separation,
processing,
handling
and
storage
facilities.
Construction of oil refineries.
POWER
GENERATION Construction of combined
cycle power stations.
AND TRANSMISSIONS

Number
10(a)
10(b)

11(b)
12(a)
12(c)
12(d)

13(c)

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QUARRIES

RAILWAYS
TRANSPORTATION

Construction
of
nuclearfuelled power stations.
Proposed
quarrying
of
aggregate, limestone, silica,
quartzite, sandstone, marble
and decorative building stone
within 3 kilometres of any
existing
residential,
commercial
or
industrial
areas, or any area for which a
licence, permit or approval
has
been
granted
for
residential, commercial or
industrial development.
Construction of new routes.
Construction of branch lines.
Construction of Mass Rapid
Transport projects.

13(d)
14

15(a)
15(b)
16

Table 3: Malaysia - Summary of Activities Subject to Environment Impact


Assessment (Activities Not Defined by Unit of Measure) (continuation)

Activity
Prescribed Activity
RESORT AND
RECREATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT

Development of tourist or
recreational
facilities
in
national parks.
Development of tourist or
recreational facilities on islands
in surrounding waters which
are gazetted as national
marine parks.

Number
17(c)

17(d)

WASTE TREATMENT AND


DISPOSAL
Toxic and Hazardous Construction of incineration
plant.
Waste
Construction of recovery plant
(off-site).
Construction of wastewater
treatment plant (off-site).

18(a)i
18(a)ii
18(a)iii

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Municipal Solid Waste

Municipal Sewage

Construction of secure landfill


facility.
Construction of storage facility
(off-site).
Construction of incineration
plant.
Construction of composting
plant.
Construction of recovery/
recycling plant.
Construction of municipal solid
waste landfill facility.
Construction of wastewater
treatment plant.
Construction of marine outfall.

18(a)iv
18(a)v
18(b)i
18(b)ii
18(b)iii
18(b)iv

18(c)i
18(c)ii

Several steps are generally followed in the process of an EIA:


1. Definition of the scope of the Environmental Impact Assessment
by analyzing:
a. The size and nature of the development.
b. The location of the proposed development.
c. The character of the natural environment impacted.
d. The spill-over effects of environmental impacts.
2. Determining the impact, a proposed development that may
have on the communitys immediate environment;
3. Compiling and reviewing the existing community environmental
management standards and guidelines.
4. Assessing the extent and significance of environmental impacts
resulting from the proposed development.
5. Evaluating the potential cumulative impacts associated with the
proposed development.
*Any project that does not subject to EIA must go through the Preliminary
Site Assessment (Penilaian Awal Tapak, PAT).

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Submittals
1. EIA Report - A Preliminary or Detail Report based on the size and
type of project specified by the EQA 1974/ Environmental
Audit/Environmental Management Plan
OR
2. Penilaian Awal Tapak (PAT) Report and comments from the
Department of Environment
References, Standards & Codes
1. Environmental Quality Act 1974 and its amendment
2. Environmental

Impact

Assessment

(EIA):

Procedure

and

Requirement in Malaysia
3. Environmental Quality Act (Prescribed Activities), Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) Order 1987
4. Section 34A of the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Amendment
2000),
5. Borang As Pat 1-12:

Penilaian Awal Tapak Bagi Projek

Pembangunan
http://www.ssic.com.my/Appendix_2_AS_PAT_1_12_Form.pdf
6. EIA & PAT flowchart
http://www.mppp.gov.my/png_mpptheme/pdf/7templetJAS1088.pdf

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PRE DESIGN
PD6

Project Planning

DESIGN
PD

Appointment of a Facilities Manager in the


Design Team

1 Point

Aim
Facilities Management (FM) has become a significant factor in the goal
of achieving robust, sustainable buildings throughout its life cycle. FM has
a key role to play in the eventual achievement of major criteria and key
sustainability and environmental targets in both new and existing
buildings. The aim of this sub-criteria is to involve a Facility Manager as a
design team member at the onset and initiation of a project.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Appoint and include a Facility Manager or owner representative from
the owners/ clients facilities management department during the
development of the project brief.
Justification
Facility managers play an important role in sustainable practices
including the ability to link members from the strategic level to the
operational level, incorporating knowledge of FM and FM-related
experience into the design of the building.
The Facility Managers function in the design team is to represent the
owner by assisting the design team (i.e. Architect, Engineers and
Quantity Surveyor) at the early design stage so as to ensure:
1. a building/facility that is relatively easy to run, maintain, control
and manage throughout its lifecycle

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2. the design of a building/facility that is more suited to the needs of


the end users, and
3. a design that incorporates FM knowledge and experience
Approach & Strategy
The roles and functions of a Facility Manager should prolong to the
completion stage of a building. The appointed Facility Manager should
be from the in-house team of the clients organization OR outsourced
from a Facility management firm/company.
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Submittals
1. Letter of appointment of the Facility Manager/ Facility Company.
2. Minutes of meetings that verifies the involvement of the Facility
Manager.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Tatacara Pengurusan Aset Tak Teralih Kerajaan (TPATA)
2. Spesifikasi Teknikal Kontrak Pengurusan Fasiliti
3. Manual Pengurusan Aset Menyuluruh (MPAM)
4. Sistem Pengurusan Kualiti JKR

30 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

IS Req1

Site Inventory Analysis on Greenery

Site Inventory Analysis on Greenery

DESIGN
IS

Req1

Cr

Required

CALCULATOR PLANT INVENTORY

IS-INV01: DESIGN PLANT INVENTORY

Aim
To document the existing environment features and greenery including
the type of existing vegetation on site.
Requirements
REQUIRED:
Prepare a site inventory analysis and report on existing carbon
sequestration elements on the total existing greenery area and trees only
with a diameter of 10 cm (4 inches)or above at breast height. The
following information shall include in the report:
1. Total area of existing greenery
2. Scientific name/ family/number of tree
3. Trunk height
4. Age of the tree
5. Status and value(s) of the tree (endemic species, invasive
species, timber species, introduced species, native species,
endangered species and other related information)
6. Total number of trees with trunk diameter more than 28cm
(11inches) at breast height
7. Total number of trees with trunk diameter less than 28cm
(11inches) at breast height

31 | P a g e

Justification
Major elements of existing greenery on-site carbon absorption
capabilities of a site is related to the carbon storing characteristics of
existing trees (particularly old, large trees) and existing soil make-up of a
site. In many cases, disturbing the existing greenery (such as large trees)
will destroy the carbon-absorption or sequestration capabilities of a site
forever and cannot be replaced. For greenfield sites, a site inventory will
assist the project team in identifying potential trees and resources that
should not be disturbed and in evaluating the existing natural resources
including the extent of flora and fauna, the green area and targeting
sub-criteria in MyCREST related to sequestration.
Approach & Strategy
The

project

team

needs

to

produce a site inventory report


and

include

the

existing

site

photographic evidence. For green


field projects, a certified botanist,
horticulturist

or

landscape

architect

with

strong

horticulture

background is highly recommended. The objective is to prepare a


reasonable site inventory analysis that can document total existing
greenery areas and trees.
Measurement of Tree Diameter
The measure of tree diameter of standing trees is called Diameter Breast
High (DBH), which is the diameter of the tree trunk at 1.5 metre above
ground level. DBH is measured outside bark unless otherwise specified.

32 | P a g e

Plant Inventory
Refer: Inventory ID: IS-INV01:
Design Plant Inventory
Please input all sections that are relevant to the project.
Submittal
Report on site inventory analysis including plant inventory sheet including
existing tree photographic evidence.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Spesifikasi Bangunan JKR 2005
2. Garis Panduan Perancangan Pembangunan Di Kawasan Bukit &
Tanah Tinggi, Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa
Semenanjung Malaysia, Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan
Tempatan
3. Manual Saliran Mesra Alam 2011
4. FFA Forestry, Measurement of Tree Diameter, 2010:
http://www.nmsu.edu/~nmffa/Documents/CDEs/2010%20Foresty
%20Materials/Measurement_of_Tree_Diameter.pdf

33 | P a g e

Sample Plant Inventory


Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool
ISreq1 Site Inventory Analysis on Greenery
Project Details
Project Name
MyCREST Rating
Date

5/26/16
Table 1A

Natural Ecology and Landscape


Natural Ecology and Landscape Surface Area
Green Open Space
Forest reserves (including urban forestry)

Surface Area

m2
m2

Parks
Grassland (specify surface area and type of vegetation)
2
3

m2

Agricultural Land (specify surface area and type of vegetation)


Water bodies*
Lakes (specify surface area)

m2
TOTAL EXISTING GREEN AREA

Table 1B

m2

Type of tree

Requirements

Existing

Landscape
Specify type of vegetation
Native trees

Palm
Group of trees (To calculate Green
Grassland
area)
Shrubs
Turf

Water bodies

Type of Vegetation/Water bodies


m2

Bamboo
Water bodies
Area

Quantity/Area

Quantity/Area Protected1 & Preserved2

Quantity/Area Removed3

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2
m2
m2

m2
m2
m2

m2
m2
m2

m2

m2

m2

Diameter4 (cm)

Age (years)

m2

m2

m2

number

number

number

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number

number

number

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number

number

number

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number
number

number
number

number
number

0
0

number

number

number

Height (m)

Diameter greater than 28 cm


Native Trees

Palm

Individual trees

Diameter less than 28 cm


Native Trees

Palm

Total Existing Green Area (m2)


Total Existing Tree (number)
Total Protected and Preserved Area (m2)
Total Protected and Preserved Tree (number)
Total Removed Area (m2)

0
0

m2
number
0
0

Total Removed Tree (number)


1
2

m2
number
0
0

m2
number

Protected trees are those that are undisturbed during construction


Preserved trees are the one that are uprooted and preserved for replantated (within the project boundary) after the construction activity over

Removed trees are those that are uprooted for construction

The diameter of tree is measured at 1.5 meter above ground level

*Water body in green area considered as open space like golf course and parks and recreational areas considered as man-made will be included in the definition greenery. Natural body like river and drainage channel are not included.

MyCREST INVENTORY TEMPLATEIS-INV01 / FARIZA MAHMUDPage 1

34 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION


IS Req2

Carbon Sequestration Compliance


with Landscape Requirement from
Local Authority
Compliance with Landscape Requirement
from Local Authority

DESIGN
IS

Req2

Cr

Required

Aim
To increase carbon sequestration through greenery strategies through
the preservation of trees and to reduce intrusion on the natural
environment.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Comply with the local authority requirement on greenery area.
Justification
Trees have almost 350 million years experience in sequestering carbon.
Trees, like other green plants, use photosynthesis to convert carbon
dioxide (CO2) into sugar, cellulose and other carbon-containing
carbohydrates that they use for food and growth. Trees are unique in
their ability to lock up large amounts of carbon in their wood and
continue to add carbon as they grow.
Although forests do release some CO2 from natural processes such as
decay and respiration, a healthy forest typically stores carbon at a
greater rate than it releases carbon. Saving trees and planting additional
trees are vital for water resource management alone, but along with the
use of Smart Growth and green infrastructure for developments, could

35 | P a g e

ultimately lead to better communities where trees can make a much


greater contribution to improving the environment.
Carbon sequestration rate varies greatly according to tree species, the
age of the tree, the density of tree, location, type of soil and climate.
Because of the wide variation of trees and its species, MyCREST uses a
tool to estimate roughly the amount of CO2 sequestered in a given
tree/species. By the trees age (weight, diameter and height), a yearly
sequestration rate can be estimated regardless of the type of species,
age, location and composition. The critical parameter to estimate the
sequestration rate is the trunk diameter. The coefficient for a trunk
diameter less than 11 inches is 0.25 compared to a trunk diameter more
than 11 inch, which is 0.15. Hence, even though the coefficient for trunk
diameter more than 11 inch is lower than the other, the total amount of
carbon sequestration rate is greater.
Approach & Strategy
Identify local authority requirement on landscape legislation policy. The
project team can include strategies by demonstrating that they have
protected, restored, and replanted a portion of the site according to the
threshold on greenery preservation restoration and/or replanting that
must comply with the local authority requirement. The use of native or
adapted species in landscaping is a key aspect. If the site area is small
in comparison to the building footprint/ green roofs/ roof garden/ green
walls, then green terraces can be included to comply with local authority
requirement.
The green roof must provide a diversity of native or adaptive species that
provide ecological habitat. The project must undertake the following:
1. List, number and location of the soft cape elements as detailed in
landscape or building design

36 | P a g e

2. Calculation of carbon sequestration rate


3. Once established, the native/adapted plants should require
minimal or no irrigation; do not require active maintenance such
as mowing or chemical inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides or
herbicides; and provide habitat value and promote biodiversity
through avoidance of Monoculture plantings.
Carbon Calculator
All carbon sequestration calculation for this sub-criteria
contributes to:
Calculator ID: IS-CAL01 Design Carbon Accounting On Site

The input for this calculator is:


1. Diameter
2. Height
3. Age
Submittals
1. Landscape master plan showing the location of plants is within 5
meters from a building perimeter.
2. Calculation of carbon sequestration
References, Standards and Codes
1. Akta Perancang Bandar dan Desa 1976
2. Dasar Landskap Negara 2011, Jabatan Landskap Negara
3. Garis Panduan Landskap Negara 2008, Jabatan Landskap
Negara

37 | P a g e

IS1

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

Low Carbon City Characteristics and


Factors

1.1. Development within Defined Urban


Footprint

DESIGN
IS

1.1

Ci

3 Point

Aim
To avoid opening of new land and greenfield area.
Requirement
3 POINT:
Construct a new building or renovate a building on a previously
developed site with a minimum density of 5,500m2 per acre net within a
500m radius. The density calculation must include the area of the project
built.
Proximity determined by drawing a 500m radius around the building
entrance on a site map.
Calculation example:
500m radius = 785,000m2 or 194 acre
Min. Density = Total GFA of buildings within the radius

5500m2

1,067,000m2
Justification
A project within a defined urban footprint encourages a development
plan at an existing developed area and avoids new land development.
Approach & Strategy
During site selection process, give priority to developing buildings within
a previously developed area.

38 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
1. Density calculation.
2. Proximity is determined by drawing a 500m radius around the
main building entrance on a site map.
3. Land use plan from Local Authority (Pelan Guna Tanah Kawasan).
References, Standard and Codes
1. Garis Panduan Perancangan Kejiranan Hijau by: Jabatan
Perancangan

Bandar

dan

Desa

Semenanjung

Malaysia

Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan.


2. Akta Perancang Bandar dan Desa 1976

39 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION - TOWARDS


THE LOW CARBON CITY
IS1

Low Carbon City Characteristics and


Factors

1.2 Urban Connectivity

DESIGN
IS

1.2

Ci

2 Points

Aim
To decrease pollution and impacts of carbon emission by the
development of the transportation sector.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Locate building within 800 meters of 5 selections of basic services such
as, but not limited to, the following list below. These services should be
accessible via a pedestrian walkway, if necessary.
1. Place of Worship
2. Bank
3. Pharmacy
4. Convenience Grocery
5. Post Office
6. Laundry
7. Hardware
8. Supermarket
9. School
10. Library
11. Day Care Centre
12. Senior Care Facility
13. Beauty Salon
14. Hospital/ Clinics
15. Community Centre

40 | P a g e

16. Park
17. Night market
Justification
Developing the project within a walking distance to available basic
amenities will promote people to walk, thus, help in reducing the CO2
impact.
Approach & Strategy
During site selection process, give preference to sites that are within an
urban area with basic amenities readily available.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Submit the site plan showing a building location in connection
with the above basic services, indicating the covered walkways,
pedestrian access and other connections like link bridges.
Indicate the legend for all available services.
2. Proximity determined by drawing a 0.8 km radius around the main
building entrance on a site map.
References, Standard and Codes
1. Garis Panduan Perancangan Kejiranan Hijau by: Jabatan
Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia
Kementerian Perumahan Dan Kerajaan Tempatan.
2. Garis Panduan Landskap Negara 2008, Jabatan Landskap
Negara

41 | P a g e

3. Panduan Penanaman Pokok Teduhan, Jabatan Landskap


Negara.

Figure 1: Sample of Amenities within the Community Zone

RT

C
RF

RF

SU

FC

S
PS

RF

RB

CE

FC

SC

B
C

BT

RS

SH
SC
FC
CC

PS
CC

RS

PS

PO

PS
B
PC
C
SU
S
U

Figure 2: Example of Submittal which include a Distance-to-Project Analysis of


Each Amenity or Facility in order to Demonstrate the Proximity of Development
within Urban Amenities.

42 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION


Low Carbon City Characteristics and
Factors

IS1
Non-Calculator

1.3 Brownfield Development

DESIGN
IS
1.3
Ci
1 Point

Carbon Impact

Aim
To lessen the strain on greenfield land and promote the rehabilitation of
the previously damaged land.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Utilize previously contaminated sites and implement proper measures
such as neutralizing contaminated site and conducting soil condition test
to ensure the safety of the site.
Justification
Development on a previously contaminated site will reduce the opening
of virgin land.
Approach & Strategy
Related sites are mainly industrial areas such as landfills, mines and old
factories. By restoring damaged areas that previously polluted, the
disruption on greenfield and untouched lands will be lessened.
Carbon Calculator
None

43 | P a g e

Submittals
1. A report on previous nature of the land certified by an approved
testing laboratory.
2. An EIA report containing the level of contamination and the
proposed actions.
References Standards & Code
1. Garis Panduan Perancangan Kejiranan Hijau by: Jabatan
Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia
Kementerian Perumahan Dan Kerajaan Tempatan
2. Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa 1976
3. Spesifikasi Bangunan JKR 2009
4. Rancangan Fizikal Negara oleh Jabatan Perancangan Bandar
dan Desa, Semenanjung Malaysia, Kementerian Perumahan
dan Kerajaan Tempatan.
5. Rancangan Struktur Negeri.
6. Rancangan Tempatan.

44 | P a g e

IS2

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION


Carbon Accounting on Site (For
Greenfield or Graded Site)

2.1 Carbon Sequestration - Preservation (For


Mature Trees)

DESIGN
IS

2.1

Cr

2 Points

CALCULATOR

IS-CAL01: DESIGN CARBON


ACCOUNTING ON SITE

Aim
To increase carbon sequestration throughout the project lifecycle
through greenery strategies and the preservation of trees and to reduce
intrusion on the natural environment.
Requirement
Carbon sequestration preservation of tree 28cm (11 inch) by:
2 POINTS:
Preserve more than 80% of trees with trunk diameter larger than 28 cm
(11 inch)
*Urban infill project s with no existing tree s will not able to score for carbon
preservation

under this sub -criteria

Justification
Trees have almost 350 million years experience in sequestering carbon.
Trees, like other green plants, use photosynthesis to convert carbon
dioxide (CO2) into sugar, cellulose, and other carbon-containing
carbohydrates that they use for food and growth. Trees are unique in
their ability to lock up large amounts of carbon in their wood and
continue to add carbon as they grow.

45 | P a g e

Although existing greenery and forest continuously releases some CO2


from natural processes such as decay and respiration, a healthy forest
typically stores carbon at a greater rate than it releases carbon. Saving
trees and planting additional - particularly large trees are vital for this
purpose. Along with the use of Smart Growth and green infrastructure for
developments,

could

ultimately

lead

to

better,

low-carbon

development and communities where large and medium size trees


make multiple benefits - such as lowering storm water and urban heat
island impacts - to realise in multiple and great contribution to improving
the environment.
Carbon sequestration rate varies greatly according to tree species, the
age of a tree, density of tree, location, type of soil and climate. Due to
that, we can roughly estimate the amount of CO2 sequestered in a given
tree/species. By the trees age (weight, diameter, and height), we can
get a yearly sequestration rate regardless of the type of species, age,
location and composition. Therefore, the critical point to estimate the
sequestration rate is the trunk diameter. The coefficient for a trunk
diameter less than 11 inches is 0.25 compared to a trunk diameter more
than 11 inches, which is 0.15. Even though the coefficient for trees with a
trunk diameter of more than 11 inches is lower, the total amount of
carbon sequestration rate is greater.
Approach & Strategy
1. List, number and location of the trees with a trunk diameter at
breast height more than 11 inches to be preserved,
2. Integration of a shaded tree (height of tree 15 meter when
achieving maturity) within 5 metre from building perimeter help to
reduce the heat island effect on the building.

46 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
Refer: Calculator ID: IS-CAL01
Design Carbon Accounting On Site

The input for this calculator is:


1. Diameter
2. Height
3. Age
Submittals
1. Tree inventory
2. Earthwork plans
3. Measurement plans show the location of present trees
4. Tree-planting plan
References, Standards, and Codes
1. Total-Tree Weight, Stem Weight, and Volume Tables for
Hardwood Species in the Southeast, Alexander Clark III, Joseph
R. Saucier, and W. Henry McNab, Research Division, Georgia
Forestry Commission, January 1986.
2. Akta Perancang Bandar dan Desa 1976
3. Dasar Landskap Negara 2011, Jabatan Landskap Negara

47 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

Carbon Accounting on Site (For


Greenfield or Graded Land)

IS2

DESIGN
IS

2.2 Carbon sequestration (Preservation /


Restoration /New Planting)

2.2

Cr

6 Points

CALCULATOR

IS-CAL01: DESIGN CARBON


ACCOUNTING ON SITE

Aim
To increase carbon sequestration through greenery strategies on site
through the preservation of existing trees and flora.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Preserve and restore greenery on site including planting new vegetation
(native/ adaptive) on 20% of site area including building footprint, with
at least 10% from this percentage of planting consisting of the trees
measuring more than 28cm in diameter when fully mature.
3 POINTS:
Preserve and restore greenery including planting new vegetation
(native/ adaptive) on 25% of site area including building foot print, with
at least 10% from this percentage of planting consisting of the trees
measuring more than 28cm in diameter when fully mature.
4 POINTS:
Preserve and restore greenery including planting new vegetation
(native/ adaptive) on 30% of site area including building footprint, with
at least 10% from this percentage of planting consisting of the trees
measuring more than 28cm in diameter when fully mature.

48 | P a g e

1 POINT:
Integration of shaded trees (height of tree 15 meter when achieving
maturity) within 5 metres from the building perimeter.
1 POINT:
Produce carbon sequestration of not less than 0.5 tCO2e: 1 POINT
(Calculation excluded the existing preserve vegetation in ISReq2 and
IS2.1)
Justification
A social and environmental benefit of greenery is the extent to which it
contributes to the policy objective of reducing CO2 in the atmosphere
by locking up carbon through elements such as large trees with deep
roots or any other strategies related to carbon sequestration. Carbon
stored in the greenery have a long-term effect on the climate and
carbon accumulating in new plants create benefits by keeping that
carbon out of the atmosphere.
Approach & Strategy
The project team must demonstrate that the project has strategies to
ensure that large trees and greenery have protected, restored, and / or
replanted a portion of the site according to the threshold on greenery
preservation restoration and /or replanting that must comply the
percentages stated above. Emphasis MUST give to large trees with the
protected or restored area including greenery and vegetation, any
water bodies or other existing ecosystems. The use of native or adapted
species in landscaping is a key aspect. If the site area is small in
comparison to the building footprint/ green roofs/ roof garden/ green
walls, then green terraces can be included to achieve the threshold.

49 | P a g e

The green roof must provide a diversity of native or adaptive species that
provide ecological habitat. Extensive use of sedum monoculture and
common turf grass cannot be accepted. The project must show that if
they have no significant existing greenery on the site, then effort must be
made to add to the existing landscape and greenery through native
and adaptive vegetation. The project must undertake the following:
1. List, number and location of the soft cape elements as detailed in
landscape or building design
2. Calculation of carbon sequestration rate
3. Once established, the native/adapted plants should require
minimal or no irrigation; do not require active maintenance such
as mowing or chemical inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides or
herbicides; and provide habitat value and promote biodiversity
through avoidance of Monoculture plantings.
Where possible there must be efforts toward the following:
1. Integration of shaded trees (height of tree 15 metre when
achieving maturity) within 5 metres from the building perimeter to
help reduce heat island effect that occurs on the building. The
minimum distance of tree trunk shall be 5 metres and taking into
consideration the effect of landscape design and safety factor
i.e. creeping roots and possibility of ruined branches.
2. Integrate bio-sequestration strategies at new slope area.
Carbon Calculator
Refer: Calculator ID: IS-CAL01
Design Carbon Accounting On Site

50 | P a g e

The input for this calculator is:


1. Diameter
2. Height
3. Age
Submittals
1. Landscape master plan showing the location of plants is within 5
meters from building perimeter
2. Calculation of carbon sequestration.
References, Standards and Codes
Akta Perancang Bandar dan Desa 1976
1. Dasar Landskap Negara 2011, Jabatan Landskap Negara
2. Garis Panduan Landskap Negara 2008, Jabatan Landskap
Negara.

Figure 3: Natural Slope and Significant of Existing


Vegetation Diagram

51 | P a g e

Sample Calculator Input


Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool
Carbon Sequestration Calculator Template
Project Details
Project Name
MyCREST Rating

NEW CONSTRUCTION / MAJOR RENOVATION

Date

5/26/16

IS2.2: Carbon Sequestration - Preservation / Restoration / New Planting


Building and Site Area
Total site area within the project boundary (m2)

100

m2

40.0

m2

40.0

m2

Total grass paved carpark (m )

10.0

m2

Total other landscape area (m2)

10.0

m2

100.0

m2

100.0

New Planting Landscape Area


Total green roof area (m2)
Total green wall area (m2)
2

Total new planting landscape area, within project boundary (m )


New planting landscape area expressed as a percent of total site area
including building footprint:

Carbon Sequestration - Preservation / Restoration / New Planting


For Grass, Turf and Groundcovers
m2

Total Grass Area


Total Dry Weight (TDW)
Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

0.00

kg

0.00

kg

0.0000

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

tCO2e

For Water Bodies


m2

Total Water Bodies Area


0.0000

*Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

tCO2e

Trees with diameter LESS than 28 cm


Diameter1 (cm)

Height (m)

Age (years)

Number of Trees

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Dry Weight (TDW)
Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

0.00

kg

0.00

kg

0.0000

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

tCO2e

Trees with diameter GREATER OR EQUAL 28 cm


Diameter1 (cm)

Height (m)

Age (years)

Number of Trees

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Dry Weight (TDW)
Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e
1

0.00

kg

0.00

kg

0.0000

tCO2e

The diameter of the tree is measured at 1.5 meter above ground level.

SUMMARY
IS2.2 Carbon Sequestration for Preservation / Restoration/ New Planting points Documented:

5 POINT

Total Carbon Accounting on Site - Site Inventory for greenfield :

0.0000

Produce carbon sequestration of not less than 0.5 tCO2e


points Documented:

tCO2e

NO POINT

* The carbon sequestration impact for water bodies is subject to further research and to be reviewed later.

52 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION


Non-Calculator

DESIGN

Environmental Management Plan


Establish Environmental Management
Plan (EMP)

IS3

IS

Ci

1 Point

Carbon Impact

Aim
To establish a comprehensive environmental management plan.
Requirement
Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 to be implemented
if the site is located within an Environmental Sensitive Area (ESA).
1 POINT:
Prepare

an

Environmental

Management

Report,

prepare

and

implement a complete Erosion Sedimentation Control Plan (ESCP) and


adhere to the requirements of MSMA, as well as attain the approval from
the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, and from related agencies.
Justification
The EMP is crucial as it specifies how to reduce potential impacts created
by the proposed development or redevelopment.
Approach & Strategy
Identify the aspects of and impacts on the environment at the
planning stage for systematic preparation of mitigation steps.
Mitigation steps taken must monitor on its level of efficiency
through water, air and noise monitoring.
Periodic auditing by an environmental consultant to conduct
every 3 months.

53 | P a g e

The ESCP prepared by the engineer before a project is initiated,


especially those involving on-site earthwork. It contains proposals
for temporary work and best management practices, which must
be performed to avoid erosion and sedimentation.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Project EMP Report
2. Project ESC plan and report
References, Standards & Codes
1. Environmental Management System, ISO 14001 guideline
2. Environmental Quality Act 1974 and its amendment
3. Manual Saliran Mesra Alam (MSMA), by Department of
Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia.

54 | P a g e

IS4

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

Factors in Stormwater Management

DESIGN
IS

4.1 Control of Storm Water Run-Off on Site

4.1

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To limit destruction to natural storm water capacities by reducing
hardscape and increasing on-site infiltration. Ensure that the postdevelopment run-off discharge rate and quantity is equal or less than the
pre-development run off discharge rate and quantity.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Implement target and strategies according to the Urban Storm Water
Management Manual for Malaysia or better known in Malaysia as the
Manual Saliran

Mesra Alam (MSMA). Implementation is based on project

case:
Case 1: Sites with Existing Imperviousness 50% or less
Implement a storm water management plan that prevents postdevelopment peak discharge rate and quantity from exceeding the
pre-development peak discharge rate and quantity for 1 and 2 years 24
hour design storm.
Case 2: Sites with Existing Imperviousness Greater Than 50%
Implement a storm water management plan that results in a 20%
decrease in the volume of storm water run-off.

55 | P a g e

IS4

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

Factors in Stormwater Management

DESIGN
IS

4.1 Control of Storm Water Run-Off on Site

4.1

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To limit destruction to natural storm water capacities by reducing
hardscape and increasing on-site infiltration. Ensure that the postdevelopment run-off discharge rate and quantity is equal or less than the
pre-development run off discharge rate and quantity.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Implement target and strategies according to the Urban Storm Water
Management Manual for Malaysia or better known in Malaysia as the
Manual Saliran

Mesra Alam (MSMA). Implementation is based on project

case:
Case 1: Sites with Existing Imperviousness 50% or less
Implement a storm water management plan that prevents postdevelopment peak discharge rate and quantity from exceeding the
pre-development peak discharge rate and quantity for 1 and 2 years 24
hour design storm.
Case 2: Sites with Existing Imperviousness Greater Than 50%
Implement a storm water management plan that results in a 20%
decrease in the volume of storm water run-off.

55 | P a g e

Justification
Uncontrolled storm water run-off can cause an overflow into the river
and lakes and contribute to flash flooding. Control of storm water run-off
minimizes and controls nuisance flooding and provides safe passage of
fewer frequent flood events.
Approach & Strategy
The Urban Storm Water Management Manual for Malaysia is prepared
by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia to replace the
old Manual Planning and Design Procedure No.1: Urban Drainage
Design Standard for Peninsular Malaysia, 1975.The main focus of the
Urban Storm Water Management Manual is to manage storm water
instead of draining it away as fast as possible to a more environmental
approach known as the control as source approach.
This approach utilizes detention/retention, infiltration and purification
processes. The quality and quantity of the run-off from the developing
area can be maintained to be the same as the pre-development
condition from the aspect.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. MSMA report on storm water
2. Drainage plan according to MSMA
References, Standards and Codes
1. Manual Saliran Mesra Alam (MSMA), by the Department of
Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia.

56 | P a g e

2. Manual Planning and Design Procedure No.1: Urban Drainage


Design Standard for Peninsular Malaysia, 1975.
3.

Keperluan Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan

Figure 4: The Impact on Natural Hydrology According to Land Cover Land Cover
In Roads, Buildings And Parking Lots.

Figure 5: Turf Grass Cover in a Watershed and the Impact on Biotic Integrity in
Associated Streams.

57 | P a g e

IS4

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

Factors in Storm Water Management


4.2 Storm Water Design-Quality

DESIGN
IS

4.2

Ci

1 Point

Aim
The ensure quality of run-off into receiving water bodies and streams
through efforts to implement the best management practices to ensure
reduced pollution impact to the storm water.
Requirement
I POINT:
Implement the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia:
Implement a stormwater management plan that reduces impervious
cover, promotes infiltration, captures and treats the storm water runoff
from 90% of the average annual rainfall using acceptable best
management practices (BMPs).
MyCREST requires that the BMPs used to treat the runoff must be capable
of removing 80% of the average annual post development of the total
suspended solids (TSS).
Justification
Rainfall in urbanized areas washes contaminants from the atmosphere
and the resultant runoff washes materials accumulated on surface into
a stormwater system. Stormwater management for quality minimizes the
environmental impact of urban runoff on water quality.

58 | P a g e

Approach & Strategy


This point can achieve with non-structural or structural stormwater
management measures (or both) to minimize the impervious area. Since
the impervious surfaces such as parking lots, roads, buildings and
compacted solid do not allow rain to infiltrate into the ground, more runoffs are generated than in an undeveloped condition.
This additional runoff can erode watercourses (streams and rivers) as well
as cause flooding and pollution after the stormwater collection systems
are overwhelmed by the additional flow.
Pollutants enter surface waters during precipitation events. Daily human
activities result in the deposition of pollutants on roads, gardens, roofs,
greenery, urban spaces and agricultural land, etc. When it rains or
irrigation occurs water runs off and ultimately makes its way into a river,
lake, or the ocean. While there is some attenuation of these pollutants
before entering the receiving waters, the quantity of human activity
results in large enough quantities of pollutants to impair these receiving
waters.
The Best Management Practices (BMPs) is used to refer to both structural
or engineered control devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) to
treat polluted storm water, as well as operational or procedural
practices. There are many forms of storm water management and BMPs,
including:
1. Manage storm water to control flooding and erosion.
2. Manage and control hazardous materials to prevent the release
of pollutants into the environment (source control).

59 | P a g e

3. Plan and construct storm water systems so contaminants are


removed before they pollute surface waters or groundwater
resources.
4. Acquire and protect natural waterways where they still exist or
can be rehabilitated.
Due to an emphasis on greenery and carbon capture mechanisms and
strategies, MyCREST encourages a strategic focus or inclusion on nonstructural or natural mechanisms including "soft" structures such as ponds,
swales or wetlands to work with existing or "hard" drainage structures,
such as pipes and concrete channels.
Traditional storm water management design has focused on collecting
storm water in piped networks and transporting it off-site as quickly as
possible, either directly to a stream or river, a large storm water
management facility (basin), or to a combined sewer system flowing to
a wastewater treatment plant.
Currently, in line with MASMA low impact development (LID) and wet
weather green infrastructure is encouraged through a variety of
techniques, including strategic site design, measures to control the
sources of runoff, and thoughtful landscape planning. This includes a
more green approach rather than the traditional storm water
management that dealt mainly with conveying the excess runoff
through a drainage system to the nearest waterway.
The current MASMA and sustainable storm water management
approach that is evolving essentially aims to integrate storm water
infrastructure planning with greener approaches to address impacts of
rainwater and storm water runoff. Therefore, this includes suitable

60 | P a g e

measures using BMPs such as bio-retention areas, grass swales, rainwater


harvesting, permeable pavements and green roof in storm water
management plan.
On a master-plan level, strategies such as wetlands and ponds or
vegetative strip are in line with this approach. Constructed wetland is a
man-made system that involves altering the existing terrain to simulate
wetland conditions. They primarily attempt to replicate the treatment
that has been observed to occur when polluted water enters the natural
wetland. This wetland has been seen to purify water by removing organic
compounds and oxidizing ammonia, reducing nitrates and removing
phosphorus. The mechanisms are complex and involve bacterial
oxidation, filtration, sedimentation and chemical precipitation.
Most constructed wetland attempt to imitate the ecosystem's
biochemical function as filtration and cleansing agents, followed closely
by the hydrological function that centred on flood mitigation. The use of
constructed wetland to treat urban surface runoff and remove nutrients
from diverse sources in rural catchments has received much attention
lately. Thus, wetland is essentially the filtering area, the 'kidneys' of the
catchment, intercepting water flow, trapping sediment and pollutants,
removing

toxic

substances

(pesticides,

herbicides,

metals)

and

assimilating nutrients and energy derived from the upstream catchment


area.
Structural Measures
Structural measures, such as rainwater collection system, manhole
treatment devices, and ponds, can be used to remove the pollutant in
runoff from impervious areas. In some cases, this water can be reused for
irrigation or building flush fixtures. Structural measures can be used on

61 | P a g e

urban or constrained sites and make it possible to clean effectively the


runoff with minimal space allocation and land use. For existing sites with
greater than 50% imperviousness, structural techniques may include
restoring and repairing deteriorated storm sewers or separating
combined sewers.
Storm Water Management Plan
The best way to minimize storm water runoff volume and treatment
requirements is to reduce the amount of impervious area and increase
infiltration. Strategies to minimize or mitigate impervious surfaces and
increase infiltration may include using pervious paving materials,
harvesting storm water for reuse in irrigation and indoor non-potable
water applications, designing infiltration swales and retention ponds,
planting vegetated filter strips, installing vegetated roofs, and clustering
development to reduce paved surfaces such as roads and sidewalks.
If the project uses structural controls, confirm that the equipment can
accommodate at least 90% of the annual rainfall volume.
If the project uses both structural and non-structural measures, each of
which is designed to handle less than 90% of the annual rainfall volume,
describe how the measures work together to satisfy the requirements of
this credit. Also, the Best Management Practices (BMPs) used on the
project must be capable of removing 80% of the average annual postdevelopment load of total suspended solids, based on existing
monitoring reports.

62 | P a g e

Average TS
Proable Range Factors to
Removal
of TSS Removal Consider
Effectiveness of Management Practices for Total Suspended Solids
Removal from Runoff
Infiltration Basin

75%

50 - 100%

Infiltration
Trench

75%

50 - 100%

Vegetated Filter
Strip

65%

40 - 90%

Grass Swale

60%

20 - 40%

Porous
Pavement

90%

60 - 90%

Open Grid
Pavement
Sand Filter
Infiltration Basin

90%

60 - 90%

80%

60 - 90%

Water Quality
Inlet

35%

10 - 35%

Water Quality
Inlet with Sand
Filter

80%

70 - 90%

Oil/Grit
Separator

15%

10 - 25%

Extended
Detention Dry
Pond

45%

5 - 90%

Soil percolation
rates, trench
surface area,
storage volumes
Soil percolation
rates, trench
surface area,
storage volumes
Runoff volume,
slop, soil
infiltration rate
Runoff volume,
slop, soil
infiltration rate,
vegetative
cover, buffer
length
Percolation
rates, storage
volume
Percolation rates
Treatment
volume, filtration
media
Maintenance,
sedimentation
storage volume
Sedimentation
storage volume,
depth of filter
media
Sedimentation
storage volume,
outlet
configuration
Storage volume,
detention time,
pond shape

63 | P a g e

Wet Pond

60%

50 90%

Extended
Detention Wet
Pond
Constructed
Storm water
Wetlands

80%

50 90%

65%

50 90%

Pool volume,
pond shape
Pool volume,
pond shape,
detention time
Storage volume
detention time,
pool shape,
wetlands biota,
seasonal
variation

Table 4: Management Practices for Removing Total Suspended Solids from


Runoff

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Project report and calculation on storm water as per MSMA
requirement
2. Drainage plan according to MSMA
References, Standard and Codes
1. Manual Saliran Mesra Alam (MSMA), by Department of
Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia.

64 | P a g e

Figure 3 Gross Pollutant Trap

Swale

Figure
4 Swale
ADVANCES IN HYDRO
-SCIENCE
AND ENGINEERING, VOLUME VI
ADVANCES IN HYDRO-SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, VOLUME VI

Wet Pond

Figure 5 Wet Pond

9
9

Figure
Dry Ponds
Dry6 Pond
Figure 6 Dry Ponds

Figure 7 Wetland
Figure 7 Wetland

Figure 6: Example of Best Practices for Stormwater Management


6.
BIOECODS AS THE FIRST APPLICATION OF STORM WATER MANAGEMENT
IN MALAYSIA
6.CONCEPT
BIOECODS
AS THE FIRST APPLICATION OF STORM WATER MANAGEMENT
CONCEPT IN MALAYSIA
The implementation of various Best Management Practices is still at early stage. Realizing that
Universiti
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good
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The

IS4

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION

Factors in Storm Water Management

4.3 Integration of Carbon Sequester


Strategies

DESIGN
IS

4.3

Cr

1 Point

Aim
To enhance storm water strategies, which contribute to the urban
landscape or increase the greening of the environment by focusing on
natural non-structural practices rather than the structural BMPs.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Implement natural strategies such as bio-swales, the use of soil with
significant infiltration rate to promote natural infiltration, rain gardens,
increased wetlands and other related strategies in landscape and
greenery elements.
Justification
Apart from enhancing the storm water quality, integrating carbon
sequestration strategies into a storm water management plan helps to
capture the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Approach & Strategy
Reducing hardscape, designing a smaller design footprint, increasing
landscaping area using natural swales and preserving natural site
features are amongst the cost-effective method for promoting natural
infiltration and carbon sequestration. However, it must be noted that
these natural strategies require periodic and regular maintenance.
Include increased landscape area and incorporating more water
bodies and lake and wetland as storage and purifier of storm water.

66 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
All carbon sequestration calculation for this sub criteria contributes to:
Refer: Calculator ID: IS-CAL01
Design Carbon Accounting On Site
The input for this calculator is:
1. Diameter
2. Height
3. Age
OR/AND
4. Grass Area (in m2)
Submittal
Landscape/bio-swales/rain garden drawing
References, Standards and Codes
1. Manual Saliran Mesra Alam (MSMA), by Department of
Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia.
2. Akta Perancang Bandar dan Desa 1976
3. State of Oregon department of Environmental Quality, Biofilters
(Bioswales, Vegetative Buffers & Constructed Wetlands) for Storm
Water Discharge Pollution Removal, 2003.

67 | P a g e

Figure 7: Enhance Landscaping and Buffer Zone in Storm Water Strategies

68 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION


Non-Calculator

DESIGN

Low Carbon Transport Factors

IS5

IS

5.1

Ci

3 Points

5.1 Accessible Public Transport - Covered


Pedestrian Walkway

Carbon Impact

Aim
To encourage and promote walkability, a healthy lifestyle and ensure
comfort and ease of access to public transport elements, including
transit nodes and stations.
Requirement
3 POINTS:
Provide covered pedestrian walkways to encourage pedestrians to walk
from transit nodes such as bus stop or train stations to the entrance of a
building.
Justification
Providing facilities that will encourage more people to move from one
place to another by walking. In hot and wet conditions, it is better to
cover the pedestrian walkway.

1.50
(5kaki)
Rizab longkang

2.75
(9kaki)
Rizab landskap/
Laluan Pejalan
Kaki/Basikal

1.25
(4kaki)
Bahu Jalan

2.50
(8kaki)
Tempat
Letak Kereta

3.25
(11 kaki)
Lebar Rizab (Berturap)

1.25
(4kaki)
Bahu Jalan

2.75
(9kaki)
Rizab landskap/
Laluan Pejalan
Kaki/Basikal

1.50
(5kaki)
Rizab longkang

69 | P a g e

Approach & Strategy


Sheltered pedestrian walkway with structured shading, i.e. trellis or prearranged shaded trees or combinations of any sheltering at least 70% of
the walkway.

Figure 8: Example of Sheltered


Pedestrian Walkway

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Site plan showing the covered walkway line from bus stop to the building
entrance and details drawing of the covered walkway.
References, Standards &Codes
1. Garis Panduan Perancangan Kejiranan Hijau by: Jabatan
Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia
KementerianPerumahan Dan Kerajaan Tempatan.
2. Setareh Shojaei* and Mustafa Kamal M.S, PREFERENCES FOR
PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS IN TROPICAL URBAN NEIGHBOURHOODS
OF
3. KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA, Journal of Environmental Research
and Development Vol. 6 No. 3, Jan-March 2012
4. Scott D., Alexia K. S., Marc S., Stockard J., Active Community
Environments

70 | P a g e

and Health, The Relationship of Walkable and Safe Communities


to Individual Health, J. Am.Plan. Asso., 19-31, (2006)
5. Taylor, B.D., H. Iseki, M.A. Miller and M. Smart. 2009. Thinking
Outside the Bus: Understanding User Perceptions of Waiting and
Transferring in Order to Increase Transit Use. California PATH
research report, UCB-ITS-PRR-2009-8.
6. James Leather, Herbert Fabian, Sudhir Gota, and Alvin Mejia
Walkability and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities, No. 17 |
February 2011
7. ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series, Asian
Development Bank ISSN 2071-9450
8. Leyden K. M., Social Capital and the Built Environment: The
Importance of Walkable Neighbourhoods, J. Pub. Health.,15461551, (2003)
9. Galingan, Z. Pedestrian Friendly Streetscape in a Tropical Business
District. MUHON: A Journal of Architecture, Landscape
Architecture and the Designed Environment. University of the
Philippines College of Architecture. Issue No. 3.

71 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION - TOWARDS


THE LOW CARBON CITY
IS5

Low Carbon Transport Factors

5.2 Low Emission Vehicle Designated


Parking

DESIGN
IS

5.2

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To contribute to limiting greenhouse gas emission and environmental
impact from private car usage.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Designate 5% of the total parking bays provided in the project, as
designated parking lots for carpooling and low emission vehicles
(electric/hybrid). Signage (signboards, painted signs, etc.) provided and
placed clearly at the parking lots.
Justification
In MyCREST, this will help developers to provide such facilities. Using of
Hybrid/electric/biodiesel transport will reduce significantly the emission
of CO2.
Approach & Strategy
1. Designated parking location must be at the nearby building
entrance or staircase lobby.
2. Provide signage for the designated parking.
Carbon Calculator
None

72 | P a g e

Submittal
A detailed building plan with parking bays having marked specified bays
for low emission vehicles.
References, Standards &Codes
None

73 | P a g e

Figure 9: Promoting the Low Emission Vehicles by Providing Designated Parking


in Each Parking Bay

74 | P a g e

IS5

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION


Low Carbon Transport Factors

DESIGN
IS

5.3 Accessible Public Transport Bus line &


LRT Station

5.3

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To decrease pollution and impacts of development from the
transportation sector.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Locate building within 800 meters of a commuter rail/ light rail station.
OR
Locate building within 400 meters of public bus lines or bus stop
OR
Provide a shuttle link that permits access to transportation between the
building and public transport to meet the requirements above.
Justification
Develop the project within public transportation stops will encourage
people to use public transport available within the area for commuting
to work or leisure.
Approach & Strategy
1. Verify that public transportation is available and meet the
requirements.
2. Existing transportation networks are managed to minimize the
construction of new transportation lines. Sidewalks, paths, and
walkways are provided to access mass transit stops.

75 | P a g e

3. Public transportation link service providers are engaged within the


communities.
4. Transit nodes are defined as public transportation services (rail
station or bus station), which are located within 400 to 800 meters
of the transit stops for public use. This development aims to
encourage public use, increase ridership, and promote mixed-use
development and pedestrian systems. It also reduces the need for
private vehicle use and indirectly reduces carbon emissions in the
long-term. In a sustainable light, transit nodes improve social
interaction

and

highlight

pedestrian

and

transit-oriented

development.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Site plan displaying building location and distance in connection to the
public transportation services.
References, Standards &Codes
1. Low Carbon Cities Framework and Assessment System (LCCF)
2. Garis Panduan Perancangan Kejiranan Hijau by: Jabatan
Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia
Kementerian Perumahan Dan Kerajaan Tempatan.

76 | P a g e

INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION - TOWARDS


THE LOW CARBON CITY
Urban Heat Island Mitigation

IS6

DESIGN
IS

6.1 Heat Island Mitigation-Roof

6.1

Cr

2 Points

CALCULATOR

IS-CAL02: DESIGN URBAN Heat ISLAND


MITIGATION

Aim
To reduce the long-term effect on urban heat island (UHI) by reducing
heat absorption through roof surfaces
Requirement
Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) for Roof
1 POINT:
At least 80% of the roof area uses materials with 29 SRI for roofs that are
>23, and materials with 78 SRI for flat roofs that are >4.
Use roofing materials with a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) equal to or
greater than the values in the figure below for a minimum of 75% of the
roof surface.
Green Roof/Wall
1 POINT:
At least 50% of flat roof area is prepared for shady tree or non-intensive
landscaping that is grassy area or shrubs.
OR
At least 20% of total facade area must be designed as a landscaped
wall.

77 | P a g e

Justification
Absorption and retention of solar energy are increased by low SRI (solar
reflectance index) surfaces. When ambient temperature gets cooler, the
retained solar energy is radiated to the atmosphere, giving rise to warmer
temperatures

under

urban

conditions

and

landscapes.

These

landscapes have large areas of constrained surfaces of low reflectance.


This phenomenon is called the heat island effect. This effect can be
minimized by using shading or reflective surfaces of increased
temperature in the urban landscape and through evaporatetranspiration by fauna. This is achieved by further planting trees, low-level
greenery or through a strategically planned landscaping.
Approach & Strategy
SRI for Roof
During the material selection process, catalogue and technical
information should be presented along with the SRI table as evidence
that the air pocket system used has met the stated specifications.
Green Roof/Wall
For green roof and walls design, installation cost should be considered
during the planning and designing stage. Consultation with expert
landscape architects or horticulture experts is needed if the designer is
less experienced with the suitable plant materials and technique.
Choosing a plant material from native plants is encouraged in order to
reduce maintenance costs. A landscape maintenance manual should
be prepared as a guide to building owners or supervisors to maintain the
green roof and walls

78 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
Green Roof/Wall
Refer: Calculator ID: IS-CAL02:
Design Urban Heat Island Mitigation
The input for this calculator is:
1. Diameter
2. Height
3. Age
OR/AND
4. Grass Area (in m2)

Figure 10: Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) for Some Materials

79 | P a g e

Figure 11: Vegetated Roof for at Least 30% of Roof Area

Submittals
SRI for Roof
1. Catalogue with SRI table for roof material
2. Roof area calculation
Green Roof/Wall
3. Roof conceptual design
4. Detail drawing of the landscape approach
References, Standards and Codes
1. Rossi, Federico, Franco Cotana, Mirko Filipponi, Andrea Nicolini,
Surabi Menon, and Arthur H Rosenfeld. Cool Roofs as a Strategy
to Tackle Global Warming: Economical and Technical
Opportunities. Advances in Building Energy Research 7, no. 2.
Advances in Building Energy Research (2013): 254 - 268

80 | P a g e

2. Akbari, Hashem, and Leanna S Rose. Urban Surfaces and Heat


Island Mitigation Potentials. Journal of the HumanEnvironmental System 11, no. 2. (2008): 85-101
3. US Department of Energy, Guidelines for Selecting
4. Cool Roof, July 2010 V. 1.2, Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center
for Sustainable Energy Systems (Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.
D)

81 | P a g e

Sample Calculator

Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool


Urban Heat Island Mitigation Calculator Template
Project Details
Project Name
MyCREST Rating

NEW CONSTRUCTION / MAJOR RANOVATION

Date

5/26/16

IS6.1: Heat Island Mitigation - Roof/Wall


Option
At least 30% of flat roof area is prepared for shady trees or non-intensive
landscaping that is grassy area or shrubs
At least 30% of faade area must be designed as a landscaped wall

Carbon Sequestration for Green Roof/Wall


Option 1: Vegetated Roof
Total roof area (excluding mechanical equipment, photovoltaic panels and

m2

skylights)(m2)
2

m2

Total vegetated roof area (m )


Vegetated roof area, as percentage of total roof area

The vegetated roof area must be at least 50% of the total roof area to earn 1 point.

Type of Planting
Grass, Shrubs and Groundcovers
Shady Trees

For Grass, Shrubs and Groundcovers


m2

Total Grass Area


Total Dry Weight (TDW)
Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

0.00

kg

0.00

kg

0.0000

tCO2e

Shady Trees
Diameter (cm)

Height (m)

Age (years)

Number of Trees

Total Dry Weight (TDW)

0.00

kg

Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

0.00

kg

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

0.0000

tCO2e

Option 2: Landscaped Wall


Total facade area

m2

Total vegetated facade area (m2)

m2

Vegetated facade area, as percentage of total facade area

The vegetated wall area must be at least 20% of the total roof area to earn 1 point.

For Grass, Shrubs and Groundcovers


m2

Total Grass Area


Total Dry Weight (TDW)
Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

0.00

kg

0.00

kg

0.0000

tCO2e

SUMMARY
IS6.1 Heat Island Mitigation Roof/Wall point Documented:

Total Carbon Sequestration for Green Roof/Wall :

NO POINT
0.0000

tCO2e/year

82 | P a g e

Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool


Urban Heat Island Mitigation Calculator Template
Project Details
Project Name
MyCREST Rating

NEW CONSTRUCTION / MAJOR RANOVATION

Date

5/27/16

IS6.2: Heat Island Mitigation - Non-Roof


Open-Grid Paving (Grass Paver)
Total carpark area (m2)

m2

Area covered by open-grid pavement system (m2)

m2

(at least 50% pervious)

Qualifying open-grid pavement as a percentage of total surface carpark area


(must be at least 50%)

0.0

Carbon Sequestration for Open-Grid Pavement System (Grass Paver)


For Grass, Shrubs and Groundcovers
0

m2

Total Dry Weight (TDW)

0.00

kg

Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

0.00

kg

Total Grass Area

0.0000

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

tCO2e

SUMMARY
IS6.2 Heat Island Mitigation - Non-Roof points Documented:

0 POINT

Total Carbon Sequestration for Non-Roof (Grass Paver) :

0.0000

tCO2e/year

Figure 12: Example of Green Wall

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INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION - TOWARDS


THE LOW CARBON CITY
Urban Heat Island Mitigation

IS6

DESIGN
IS

6.2

Cr

2 Points

6.2 Heat Island Mitigation Non-Roof

CALCULATOR

IS-CAL02: DESIGN URBAN HEAT


ISLAND MITIGATION

Aim
To decrease heat absorption in order to reduce
impact on atmosphere for occupants as well as
from the surrounding flora and fauna.
Requirement
Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) for Non-Roof
1 POINT:
Implement

one

or

more

strategies

for

55%

of

site

roads/sidewalks/courtyards/parking lots from the list below:


1. Light coloured or non-asphalt surfaces surrounding the building
2. Shade (within five years of residence)
3. Walkway materials with a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of at least
29
4. Grass paved area
Provision of Grass Paved Car Park
1 POINT:
Incorporating a grassy paved system that covers 60% of the car park
area.

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Justification
Absorption and retention of the solar energy are increased due to dark
coloured paved area and constructed surfaces. When the ambient
temperature gets cooler, the retained solar energy is radiated to the
atmosphere, giving rise to warmer temperatures in the urban
landscapes. These landscapes have large areas of constrained surfaces
of low reflectance. This phenomenon is called the heat island effect.
Approach & Strategy
1. Shade constructed surfaces of site with landscape features
2. Utilize high reflective materials for roads or pavement
3. Consider replacing constructed surfaces (roof, roads, and
sidewalks) with vegetated surfaces such as grass pavers
4. Open grid paving
5. Specify high albedo materials to reduce heat absorption
Carbon Calculator
Provision of Grass Paved Carpark
Refer: Calculator ID: IS-CAL02:
Design Urban Heat Island Mitigation
The input for this calculator is:
Grass Area (in m2)
Submittals
1. A site plan and a roof plan showing the proposed pavement and
greenery (To scale).
2. Grass paved area at car park.
3. Calculation showing the compliance with the requirement.

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References, Standards and Codes


1. Rosenfeld, A.H., J.J. Romm, H. Akbari, and M. Pomerantz. 1998.
Cool Communities: Strategies for Heat Islands Mitigation and
Smog Reduction. Energy and Buildings. 28:51-62;
2. Aseda, T., V.T. Ca, and A. Wake. 1996. Heat Storage of
Pavement and its Effect on the Lower Atmosphere. Atmospheric
Environment. Vol. 30(3): 413427

Figure 13: Shade within 5 Years Occupancy

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Figure 14: Paving Materials with SRI of At Least 29

Figure 15: Open Grid Pavement System for Parking Area

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INFRASTRUCTURE & SEQUESTRATION - TOWARDS


THE LOW CARBON CITY
IS7

Control in External Light Spill and


Brightness

Comply with the interior lighting AND the


requirement for exterior lighting for light spill
and brightness

DESIGN
IS

1 Point

Aim
To minimize light trespass from the building and site, reduce sky-glow to
increase night sky access, improve night time visibility through glare
reduction and reduce development impact on natural environments.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Project teams must comply with the requirement for exterior lighting:
For exterior lighting
Light areas only as required for safety and comfort. Exterior lighting
power densities shall not exceed those specified in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA
Standard 90.1-2007 for the documented lighting zone. Justification shall
be provided for the selected lighting zone. Lighting controls for all exterior
lightings shall comply with section 9.4.1.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA
Standard 90.1- 2007, without amendments.
Classify the project under 1 of the following zones, as defined in IESNA
RP-33, and follow all the requirements for that zone:
1. LZ1: Dark (developed areas within national parks, state parks,
forest land and rural areas)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building-mounted
luminaires produce a maximum initial luminance value no greater

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than 0.01 horizontal and vertical foot-candles (0.1 horizontal and


vertical lux) at the MyCREST project boundary and beyond. A
document that 0% of the total initial designed fixture lumens (total
of all fixtures on site) are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or
higher from nadir (straight down).
2. LZ2: Low (primarily residential zones, neighbourhood districts, light
industrial areas with limited night time use and residential mixeduse areas)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building-mounted
luminaires produce a maximum initial luminance value no greater
than 0.10 horizontal and vertical foot-candles (1.0 horizontal and
vertical lux) at the MyCREST project boundary and no greater
than 0.01 horizontal foot candles (0.1 horizontal lux) 3 metres (10
feet) beyond the project boundary. A document that no more
than 2% of the total initial designed fixture lumens (total of all
fixtures on site) are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher
from nadir (straight down).
3. LZ3: Medium (all other areas not included in LZ1, LZ2 or LZ4, such
as commercial/ industrial, and high-density residential)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building-mounted
luminaires produce a maximum initial luminance value no greater
than 0.20 horizontal and vertical foot-candles (2.0 horizontal and
vertical lux) at the project boundary and no greater than 0.01
horizontal foot candles (0.1 horizontal lux) 4.5 metres (15 feet)
beyond the site. A document that no more than 5% of the total
initial designed fixture lumens (total of all fixtures on site) are
emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight
down).

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4. LZ4:

High2

(high-activity

commercial

districts

in

major

metropolitan areas)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building-mounted
luminaires produce a maximum initial illuminance value no
greater than 0.60 horizontal and vertical foot-candles (6.5
horizontal and vertical lux) at the MyCREST project boundary and
no greater than 0.01 horizontal footcandles (0.1 horizontal lux) 4.5
metres (15 feet) beyond the site. A document that no more than
10% of the total initial designed fixture lumens (total of all fixtures
on site) are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir
(straight down).
LZ2, LZ3 and LZ4 - For project boundaries that abut public rights-ofway, light trespass requirements may be met relative to the curb
line instead of the MyCREST project boundary.
5. For all zones
Luminance generated from a single luminaire placed at the
intersection of a private vehicular driveway and public roadway
accessing the site is allowed to use the centreline of the public
roadway as the MyCREST project boundary for a length of 2 times
the driveway width centred at the centreline of the driveway.
a.

The requirement to use ASHRAE Addenda is unique to this


credit and does not obligate Project teams to use ASHRAE
approved addenda for other credits.

b.

To be LZ4, the area must be so designated by organizations


with local jurisdiction, such as the local zoning authority.

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Justification
Excessive light pollution has been known to reduce the enjoyment of
night sky and to affect the ecology of the site. Particularly for projects
located in suburban or rural locations, the brightness of external lights
and buildings can disturb the ecological system regarding day and
nocturnal patterns of living and sleeping of fauna in the environment. This
pollution can cause human health problems as well as ecological
problems for many birds, insects, and other animals. Light pollution often
represents night time lighting that is not necessary, wasting energy while
causing light trespass and contrast, reducing visibility.
To achieve safe, efficient, and aesthetically pleasing lighting design,
projects must aim for lighting uniformity, low contrast, no glare, and
preventing light from spilling off the site. This can be achieved through
judicious selection of fixtures with the full cut-off that direct light towards
the ground but prevent it from shining up into the night sky.
Hence, the aim of these sub-criteria is to minimize light trespass from the
building and site, reduce sky-glow to increase night sky access, improve
nighttime visibility through glare reduction and reduce development
impact from lighting on nocturnal environments.
Approach & Strategy
Adopt site lighting criteria to maintain safe light levels while avoiding offsite lighting and night sky pollution. Minimize site lighting where possible,
and use computer software to model the site lighting. Technologies to
reduce light pollution include full cut-off luminaires, low-reflectance
surfaces and low-angle spotlights.

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Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Provide the exterior lighting drawings with lighting fixtures as
installed.
2. Submit Lighting Power Density calculation.
References, Standards & Codes
1. S. Hamidi, Abidin, Z.Z, Ibrahim, Z, A., N.N.M.Shariff Effect of Light
Pollution on Night Sky LimitingMagnitude and Sky Quality in
Selected Areas in Malaysia, Proceedings of 2011 3rd
International Symposium & Exhibition in Sustainable Energy &
Environment, 1-3 June 2011, Melaka, Malaysia
2.

Fereshteh Bashiri, Che Rosmani Che Hassan ,Light Pollution and


Its Effect on the Environment , IJFPS, Vol 4, No 1, pp 08-12, March
, 2014

3. Cheung, Chi-fai (20 March 2013). "Light Pollution in Hong Kong


'Worst on the Planet'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 6 April
2013.
4.

L. Scheling (2006). "Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night


Lighting". Natural Areas Journal 27 (3): 281282.

5.

Catherine Rich and Travis Longcore (2006). Ecological


Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press. ISBN 155963-128-7.

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ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

EP Req1

Building Envelope Performance

The Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV)


and Roof Thermal Transfer Value (RTTV)
Based on Methodology and Guidelines in
MS1525:2007

DESIGN
EP

Req1

Cr

Required

Aim
To control the amount of heat conducted, absorbed and radiated into
a building through a building envelope and the rate of heat transfer into
buildings through the roof that will contribute to Building Energy Intensity.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
The Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) and Roof Thermal Transfer
Value (RTTV) computed on the methodology and guidelines stipulated
in MS1525:2007 by achieving:
i.

OTTV: 50W/m2

Justification
OTTV is an index developed to assess the combined impact of key
passive strategies related to heat conduction and radiation through the
building envelope and is a key aspect of assessing passive design and
the energy conservation characteristics of a building envelope. OTTV
and RTTV are measures of the heat-gain transmitted through a unit area
of a buildings wall or roof. OTTV and RTTV recorded in units of W/m2. They
are concerned with conductive & radiation heat-gains transmitted
through glazing and opaque components. Control of OTTV implies the
control of heat transfer through a building envelope.
Strategies include the selection of glazing, window size, external shading
to walls, wall colour, wall type and roof type at the early design stage to

93 | P a g e

meet the OTTV criteria. It is best that any measure to improve energy
efficiency or to save energy considered in the early planning stage of
the building. Building energy efficiency regulation must include the
concept of OTTV as one of its aspects.
Approach & Strategies
The passive strategy aims to reduce energy transfer that mostly
transferred through walls and roofs. Strategies that can reduce OTTV
include limiting the window to wall ratio, designing shading devices using
heat control glass and using materials with a high insulation value. Roof
material with a low U-Value will contribute to low RTTV. Materials with
high resistance rate (R-value) may also contribute to reducing the rate
of heat transfer.
The size of the opening needs to be optimum to reduce heat absorption
into buildings through windows.
Use appropriate simulation software to calculate the combined total
OTTV calculation. Building design should comply with MS 1525: 2007,
which consists of:
1. Materials containing high resistance value to achieve low U heat
transfer.
2. At the design stage, determined material specifications for
building envelope must consider both factors above to achieve
desired OTTV value.
3. OTTV value: 50 W/m can be achieved through building energy
management system.

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Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub criteria contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

Table 2.4 Estimation of OTTV with respect to the orientation for Block A
Thus, the R1 width of horizontal projection/ height of fenestration 600mm / 2020mm 0.3 according to clause 5.3.3 MS 1525: 2007.
**Horizontal projection is adopted, thus R1 = 0.30
Table 2.5 overall OTTV block A
Overall OTTV for block A 282,049/6252.8 45.1 1W/m2<50W/m2 (clause 5.2MS 1525: 2007)

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Table 2.6 Estimation of OTTV with respect to the orientation for Block B
Thus, the R1 width of horizontal projection/ height of fenestration 600mm / 2020mm 0.3 according to clause 5.3.3 MS 1525: 2007.
**Horizontal projection is adopted, thus R1 = 0.30
Table 2.7 overall OTTV block B
Overall OTTV for block B 689,065/15,459 44.6W/m2<50W/m2 (clause 5.2MS 1525: 2007)

Table 2.8 Estimation of OTTV with respect to the orientation for Block C.
Table 2.9 overall OTTV block C
Overall OTTV for block C 224,680/5121,2 = 43.87W/m2<50W/m2 (clause 5.2MS 1525: 2007)

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Table 1.2 Estimation of RTTV for block A


RTTV for Block A = 647.22/2644=0.245<<25W/m2 thus, satisfies the requirement of MS 1525: 2007 as
stated in clause 5.6.2

Figure 16: OTTV Calculation

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Submittals
1. OTTV Calculation Report
2. Roof material specifications indicate desired U-value.
3. Catalogue from supplier.
4. Brief explanation and U-value calculation for suggested roof.
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

EP Req2

Roof Thermal Performance

Roof Design Should Consider the Rate of


Heat Transfer (U-value) According to the
Following Category:
i.
If 50kg/m2 : U-Value 0.6W/m2K
ii.
If <50kg/m2: U-Value 0.4W/m2K

DESIGN
EP

Req2

Cr

Required

Aim
To reduce the heat transfer into the building by a roof.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Roof without Skylight:
As per required in MS1525, roof design should consider the rate of heat
transfer (U-value) according to the following category:
i.

If 50kg/m2: U-Value 0.6W/m2K

ii.

If < 50kg/m2: U-Value 0.4W/m2K

Roof with Skylight:


The roof design should consider the rate of heat transfer (U-value)
according to the following category:
iii.

RTTV

: 25W/m2

Justification
The guidelines are as stated in MS1525, while the requirements are to
reduce the external heat-gain transmitted through a unit area of a
buildings wall or roof.
Approach & Strategy
Specify roof material with a low roof U-value to avoid a higher heat
transfer into the building including specification of roof insulation

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Below is the sample of the calculation of Roof U-value:

Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub criteria contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

Submittals
1. Roof U-Value
2. Section of detail roof drawing.
3. Specification from manufacturer
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

EP Req3

Building Energy Efficiency Performance

DESIGN
EP

To demonstrate a 6% Energy Savings from


the Baseline

Req3

Cr

Required

Aim
To demonstrate the reduction of a buildings energy consumption and
carbon emission significantly above the baseline without sacrificing
thermal comfort.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
To demonstrate a 6% energy savings from the baseline
AND
Ensure thermal comfort parameters that comply with MS1525:2007
Justification
Energy efficiency is a cornerstone and crucial criteria to achieve low
carbon design. The aim is to design the building envelope and systems
to maximize energy performance. In general, this can be achieved
through efficient design, deliberate mechanical and electrical system
selection, proper commissioning and monitoring. These energy savings
will translate directly into the cost and operational savings.
A computer simulation model will be used to assess the energy
performance and identify the energy impact of the measures. This model
will quantify energy performance as compared to a baseline building. A
building cannot be considered green if it is not energy efficient. The
energy used by buildings is mostly generated by burning fossil fuels, which
release greenhouse gas emission that contributes to climate change. No

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building should define itself as green unless it consumes less energy and
generates

fewer

greenhouse

gas

emissions

than

average

or

conventional buildings.
Approach & Strategy
Demonstrate a 6% improvement for new buildings in the proposed
building performance rating compared to the baseline building
performance rating by a whole building project simulation:
1. Meets the requirements of the baseline
2. Maximize passive strategies and opportunities such as the
orientation of the main faade to North/South to reduce the
heat impact transferred into the building. Minimize the
opening at East/West faade
3. Optimize facade systems such as install low E glass and
shading device at east/west facade.
4. Install efficient mechanical equipment.
This is a prerequisite and compulsory point. Project teams must
demonstrate, through Static Simulation (MyCREST 1, 2 or 3-star rating) or
Dynamic Simulation (4 or 5-star rating), that their proposed designs have
achieved at least 6% savings above the baseline.
The Baseline Model
All the characteristics, requirements and parameters of the Baseline
model are based on basic characteristics derived from the MS1525
Version 2007. The characteristics of the baseline model must follow
MyCREST requirements and are as outlined in MyCREST BASELINE
MODELLING GUIDE in Appendix 2 at the end of this guide. Among these
parameters are:

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1. Passive Design:
The baseline building envelope must combine its passive
properties such that it must achieve a maximum of OTTV = 50
W/m2, RTTV = 25W/m2 (with skylights and minimum U values for a
roof) as stated in MS1525.
The baseline model must be a model without any shading device
and have a WWR of 50% and must be evenly distributed on ALL
facades
Windows
WWR

= 50% and must be evenly distributed on ALL facades

2. Active Design:
a. Equipment
b. The active design shall follow the minimum requirement for
OTTV,

RTTV,

lighting

and

ACMV

components

and

equipments under item 5, 6, 7 and 8 as stated in MS


1525:2007. Details of the modelling guideline can refer in
Appendix 2.
c. Baseline spaces by space Lighting Power Density (LPD)
stated in EP4 Artificial Lighting.
d. ACMV basis

of

design

must

comply with

related

requirements based on ASHRAE 62.1 and ASHRAE 55.


The Proposed or As-Designed Model
For the proposed design, the following are its features:
1. Passive Design:
Project teams must select strategies to ensure a reduction in OTTV
while promoting passive strategies such as daylight harvesting in
buildings.

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2. Active Design:
Project teams must select from a range of strategies to reduce
demand and conserve energy such as:
This can include the use of VSD (variable speed drive) to control
motors driving, chilled water pumps and cooling tower fans. The
use

of

smaller

capacity

MVAC

systems

for

separate

buildings/block operating on shifts rather than by a centralized


bigger capacity MVAC system to cater for the entire MVAC
requirement for all the buildings to enhance performance load
factor efficiency. Other strategies include the control of fresh air
with the use of C02 sensors. In buildings with long operational
hours, energy saving has been demonstrated with the use of heat
recovery wheel. Significant savings can also be achieved through
the use of high-efficiency chiller plants and motors to reduce
overall plant energy consumption at full or partial loads. Both
efficient light sources and lighting controls play a significant part
in reducing energy use and increasing efficiency. This includes the
installation and calibration of daylight sensors, motion sensors and
occupancy-sensor lighting controls in all areas include offices and
intermittently used areas.
Temperature

controls

and

humidity

i.e.

thermostats

for

offices/staff enable individual air-condition control of individual


offices. An exceptional score under the MyCREST innovation
category can achieve if at least 50% of the total individual rooms
or staff workstations are equipped with individual thermal controls
to allow comfortable thermal regulation.

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3. Natural Ventilated Areas and Strategies


MyCREST allows the inclusion of natural ventilatedn areas as a part
of a building passive strategy. This is because passive strategies
that utilise natural ventilation with adequate airflow and
complying with thermal comfort requirements represent a
significant carbon reduction strategy in buildings.
However Natural Ventilation (NV) strategies can only be included
if the following demonstrated:
a.

The spaces must fully occupy and have functions where

full-time occupants and staff stationed throughout the typical


working day. This includes spaces such as ground floor lobbies
where at least one staff stationed in the spaces, cafs, canteens,
restaurants, atriums and rest areas. Unoccupied spaces such as
toilets, storage, corridors are not eligible to include in the
comparison. Lift lobbies included if they are used throughout the
working day. In total, the NV spaces must not be more than 20%
of the occupied areas.
As a basic principle, natural ventilation strategies can only count
towards the achievement of a maximum of 2 points in MyCREST.
Exceptions considered on a case-by-case basis and to be
decided by the MyCREST review committee.
b.

Based on functions, it must fulfil the requirements listed in:


i. Criteria EP 12 (non-AC energy scorecard in MyCREST
Design scorecard) sub-criteria:
I.

EP12.3, EP12.4, EP12.5, EP12.6, EP12.8, EP12.9 and


EP12.10

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OR
ii. Article 4.6.2, 4.6.3 and 5.9 as stated in MS 1525:2007
To gain EP points, projects must demonstrate the following:
c.

Create a baseline model where the naturally ventilated area


is modelled as fully air-conditioned space with the same
thermal parameters as outlined in MS1525 2007 and
ventilation requirements as per ASHRAE 62.1 - 2007.

d. Create and run the proposed design model with the selected
areas as natural ventilated spaces with mechanical
ventilation assistance.
e.

They must demonstrate that they have complied with all


Airflow and Ventilation criteria and verify these with
simulation as stipulated under 'NON AC building scorecard'
including CFD simulation and verification to ensure both
airflows in adequate and thermal comfort is achieved in
these spaces.

4. The inclusion of renewable energy


Apart from that, renewable energy sources such as energy
generated from solar panels also can be used to gain
percentage savings and points and achieve savings above the
baseline energy level as long as with project boundary are owned
by the same owner. Savings are calculated based on kWh and
not cost.
Consultant engineers are required to run their heat load
calculation based on the two models, the baseline model and

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their proposed design model. Basically, the MyCREST requires


teams to adjust the heat load calculations, which comply with the
OTTV equal to 50W/m2 and RTTV equal to 25 W/m2. Once the
required OTTV and RTTV are achieved, the consultant needs to
input the energy consumption in the Baseline Calculation.
Definition of Process Loads
In energy simulation, there will be a portion of total energy use consumed
by process energy. Typically, in an energy simulation study, the process
energy portion is equal for both baseline and proposed design models.
Process energy is considered to include but is not limited to office and
general miscellaneous equipment, computers, elevators and escalators,
kitchen cooking and refrigeration, laundry washing and drying, lighting
and pumps.
Hence, regulated (non-process) energy which are the energy included
in the calculation of energy savings based on active and passive
features includes lighting (interior, parking garage, surface parking,
faade,) MVAC (space cooling, fans, pumps, toilet exhaust, parking
ventilation, kitchen hood exhaust etc.) and service hot water heating.
Documentation of process load energy savings shall include a list of the
assumptions made for both the baseline and proposed design, and the
theoretical or empirical information supporting these assumptions.
Project teams can demonstrate energy savings and points gain from
items related to process loads through a report of the energy efficiency
characteristics specification of items related to process loads. However,
this must be submitted as an exceptional calculation methodology

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where the efficiency of the process load related items are compared
with its conventional counterpart. Project teams must demonstrate and
define with clarity and understanding what is considered the
conventional efficiency or energy use of the counterparts.
Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub criterion contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance
Submittals
1. Energy Carbon calculation
2. Energy simulation report
3. A basic report containing:
a. Information regarding the method used to achieve
thermal comfort for a project.
b. Explanation on how the project will allow individual thermal
control for at least 50% of all rooms and also thermal control
for common areas.
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM
2. ASHRAE 90.1, Energy Standards for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential Buildings

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ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

EP Req4

Fundamental Refrigerant Management

DESIGN
EP

A Step Towards Decreasing Greenhouse


Gas Emissions as a Contribution to Ozone
Protection.

Req4

Ci

Required

Aim
To reduce stratospheric ozone depletion.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Zero use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-based refrigerants in the base
buildings ventilating, air conditioning and refrigeration (MVAC&R)
systems. When reusing existing base building MVAC equipment,
complete a comprehensive CFC phase-out conversion before project
completion. Phase-out plans extending beyond the project completion
date considered on their merits.
Existing small MVAC units (defined as containing less than 0.5 pounds
[0.227 kg] of refrigerant) and other equipment, such as standard
refrigerators, small water coolers and any other equipment that contains
less than 0.5 pounds (0.227 kg) of refrigerant, are not considered as part
of the base building system and are not subject to the requirements of
this prerequisite.
Justification
The aim is to reduce ozone depletion impacts of the environment.
Refrigerants have varying applications, lifetimes, ozone-depleting
potentials (ODPs), and global warming potentials (GWPs).

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Approach & Strategy


When reusing existing MVAC systems, conduct an inventory to identify
equipment that use CFC-based refrigerants and provide a replacement
schedule for these refrigerants.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Specification of refrigerant used
2. Brochure of the refrigerant specified
References, Standard and Codes
None

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EP1

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Building Envelope Performance


Thermal Performance
1 point: Reduction of 3 W/m2 in OTTV from
the Baseline
2 point: Reduction of 6 W/m2 in OTTV from
the Baseline
3 point: Reduction of 9 W/m2 in OTTV from
the Baseline

DESIGN
EP

Cr

3 Points

Aim
To control the amount of heat conducted, radiated and absorbed into
a building through the building envelope. To control the rate of heat
transfer into a building, which will contribute to the lowering of Building
Energy consumption.
Requirement
Building OTTV value should be:
1 POINT:
Reduction of 3 W/m2 in OTTV from the baseline
2 POINT:
Reduction of 6 W/m2 in OTTV from the baseline
3 POINT:
Reduction of 9 W/m2 in OTTV from the baseline
Justification
Passive strategies represent some of the most cost-effective strategies for
energy conservation.
OTTV and RTTV is one aspect of energy conservation. OTTV and RTTV are
used to measure the external heat-gain transmitted through a unit area
of a buildings wall or roof. They are recorded in units of W/m2. It

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concerns conductive & radiation heat-gains transmitted through glazing


and opaque components.
Control of OTTV implies the control of heat transfer through the building
envelope. If the heat gain is controlled, then the load on the airconditioner can be reduced, leading to lesser consumption of electricity.
This is related to the proper selection of important envelope components
such as type of glazing, window size, external shading to walls, wall
colour, wall type and roof type at the early design stage to meet the
OTTV criteria. Hence, any measure to improve energy efficiency or to
save energy would be considered at the early planning stage of the
building. Building energy efficiency regulation must include the concept
of OTTV as one of its aspects.
Below is comparison of OTTV minimum standards in various countries:-

112 | P a g e

Approach & Strategy


To select and specify envelope design that consider, but not exclusive
to, the following:
1. Wall and roof construction systems that contribute towards
decreasing cooling loads.
2. Materials with high resistance rate (R-value) contribute to
reducing the rate of heat transfer.
The size of the opening needs to be optimum to reduce heat absorption
into buildings through windows.
Reference must be made to strategies and items outlined in MS1525
apart from reducing carbon dioxide gas emissions (CO2) into the
atmosphere to achieve the minimum requirement for building energy
efficiency.
Use appropriate simulation software to achieve the total OTTV
calculation. A building design should comply with MS 1525: 2007, which
consists of:
1.

Materials containing resistance value to achieve low U heat


transfer.

2. At the design stage, material specifications for building envelope


must consider both factors above to achieve desired OTTV value.
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Submittals
1. OTTV Calculation Report
2. Roof material specifications indicate desired U-value.
3. Catalogue from the supplier.
4. A brief explanation and U-value calculation for suggested roof.
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007 Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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EP 2

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Decentralization of Lighting Systems


Control

DESIGN
EP

2.1 Control of Lighting Through Zoning

2.1

Cr

1 Points

Aim
To enable higher levels of control of artificial indoor lighting system
through zoning and layout.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Install at least two light switches for each room with an area of 30m.
Number of switches must be matched accordingly
AND
Prepare one light switch with labels for open spaces 30m in size. If
room size is 30m, amount of switched must be paired accordingly
AND
Light switches placed near doorways and easily accessed
AND
Separate switches for lights parallel to natural lighting.
Justification
It has been demonstrated that lighting layout design with proper zoning
area would help towards the lighting energy saving strategies and
achieving further savings. This will also significantly contribute towards
savings during the operations period as occupants can be reminded
and educated to switch off the electric light when they leave the space.
In many cases, occupants can play a role to switch off lights when not

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needed. However, they have been unable to do so, as the zoning of


lights does not enable them to switch off when not used.
Approach & Strategy
Each room with an area of 30m must have at least 2 light switches
whereby each switch must clearly labelled for the control of the
respective lights.
For open offices with an area of 30m must include space partitions
according to zone, and if 30m number of switched must be paired
accordingly with each switch must be clearly labelled for the control of
the respective lights.
Location of switched must be near entrance and exit as well as not
obstructed by doors. Lights must be located parallel with windows or
glass walls for buildings with natural day lighting with separate switches.
Zone partition must be reduced to ease light control, and only certain
zones will have lighting.
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Submittal
Show floor plan drawings showing the location of switches and areas
with zones as well as schematic drawings.
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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EP 2

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Decentralization of Lighting Control


2.2 Automatic Motion Sensors in All Toilets
and Staircase

DESIGN
EP

2.2

Cr

1 Point

Aim
To enable higher levels of control of the artificial indoor lighting system to
save energy.
Requirements
1 POINT:
Install automatic motion sensors in all staircases and toilets area.
Motion sensors are encouraged to be located at intermittently used
spaced such as conference or meeting room, seminar room, walkways
and corridors.
The energy saving impact in the usage of motion sensors must also be
calculated and included under EP11 (building energy efficiency
performance). The baseline model is assumed as a model with spaces
without motion sensors. An occupancy schedule following trends in
occupancy of the specific spaces must be included as part of
calculations.
Justification
Automatic motion sensors can ensure that lights in intermittently
occupied spaces can be switched off when not in use. If motion sensors
are used in spaces other than the above, they could be accounted for,
and achieve points under EP 11. This particular sub-criteria is specific
towards the provision of these sensors in these areas.

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Approach & Strategy


Light control for all toilets and staircase area must be controlled with
automatic motion sensors
Automatic sensors detect the presence or absence of people and turn
lights on and off accordingly. They may reduce lighting energy
consumption by 50% or more in some circumstances, due to the
variability of occupancy including offices, warehouses, storerooms,
restrooms, loading docks, corridors, stairwells, office lounges, and
conference rooms. Open-plan office spaces, where one or more people
may be moving in and out throughout the course of the workday, are
not good candidates for occupancy sensors.
The two most common sensor types are passive infrared, which require a
direct line of sight to the movement of infrared (heat) sources, and
ultrasonic, which detect any movement, human or otherwise (for
example, curtains).
Passive infrared (PIR) PIR sensors, the most commonly used type, are able
to "see" heat emitted by occupants. Triggering occurs when a change
in infrared levels is detected, as when a warm object moves in or out of
view of one of the sensor's "eyes." PIR sensors are quite resistant to false
triggering. They are best used within a 15-foot or 5m range for two
reasons: first, there are potential "dead" spots between their wedgeshaped sensory patterns that get wider with distance; and, second,
being passive, they do not send out any signal. Instead, PIR sensors
depend on the intensity of the heat output of the moving part of the
subject.

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Submittal
Present a floor plan that shows location of automatic motion sensors
including detailed electrical schematic drawings for installation of the
automatic sensors
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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EP 3

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Admission of daylight and provision of


automatic controls in the daylit zone
3.1 Automatic Daylight (Photo Sensors)
Sensors

DESIGN
EP

3.1

Cr

1 Points

Aim
To increase the admission of usable, glare-free natural light and to
harvest daylight by installing a lighting control system to dim light and/or
turn them off when there is adequate of daylight especially at the
perimeter.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Install automatic daylight sensors (photo sensors) to regulate the
perimeter of occupied building spaces with ample daylighting.
Justification
Daylight sensors in conjunction with well-designed artificial lighting
systems can maximize the quality of daylight. The highest efficiency can
be reach in environments with ample daylight coming through windows.
The intensity of artificial lighting is constantly adjusted to reflect the
incoming natural luminous flux. At noon, all or most of the illumination can
be provided by the sun while early or late in the day, this function is taken
over by the artificial lighting system. Thus, the provision of daylight sensor
seems to be a useful method to regulate day lighting of the entirely
occupied building spaces perimeter.

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Reduction of 50%
lighting power
consumption

Reduction of 15%
lighting power
consumption

Use 100% of lighting


power consumption

Approach & Strategy


Photo Sensor Placements
The north-facing application is the simplest to place photo sensors
in, as they are not exposed to direct sunlight. Photosensors can
be placed in a pretty broad region usually 6ft (1.8m) to 12 ft (3.7m)
from the glazing /perimeter.
For east and west-facing application, placement should be
towards the south side of space and far enough from windows to
avoid direct sunlight.

Figure 17: Sample of North Facing Application

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Figure 18: Sample of East or West Facing Application

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Figure 19: Placement of Closed Loop Photo Sensors

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Submittals
1. Present a floor plan drawing showing the location of the
automatic light sensors and automatic motion sensors including
detailed electrical schematic drawings for the installation of the
automatic sensors.
2. Brief description of the proposed photo sensors application.
References, Standard and Codes
1. Jiakung Lu, Dagnachew Birru, Kamin Whitehouse, Using Simple
Light Sensors to Achieve Smart Daylight Harvesting.
2. SEAI, Lighting Control, A Guide to Energy Efficient and Costeffective Lighting:
http://www.seai.ie/Publications/Your_Business_Publications/Tech
nology_Guides/Lighting_Controls.pdf

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EP3

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Provision of an adequately daylit zone


without glare
3.2 Natural Lighting

DESIGN
EP

3.2

CR

2 Points

Aim
To increase the admission of usable daylight without glare or diffused
interior day lighting.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Design 20% of a combination of all occupied building spaces and
transitional spaces (enclosed or perimeter circulation spaces) to achieve
daylight luminance with an above of 250 lux (for occupied area) and 50
lux (for transitional area) as measured at the working plane, 800mm from
floor level or;
2 POINTS:
30% of a combination of all occupied building spaces and transitional
spaces (enclosed or perimeter circulation spaces) achieve daylight
luminance with an above of 250 lux (for occupied area) and 50 lux (for
transitional area) as measured at the working plane, 800mm from floor
level.
AND
Demonstrate through simulation of three separate workstation areas in
random selection across total working spaces and viewpoints that glare
in controlled and maintain brightness levels below 1000 cd/m2 at
occupied building spaces

. Other indices such as the Glare Index, can

also be used to demonstrate the control of glare and its compliance with

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international standards. Project teams must conduct a glare assessment


with the MyCREST recommended software tools at the beginning of the
project and should the luminance levels are found to be more than
1000cd/m, or the minimum glare indices are not achieved. The team
must propose glare reduction strategies. Based on the strategies, the
project team must redo the simulation and get the acceptable
luminance levels.
Project teams can include the use of automated or the installation of
manual solar shading blind shades instead of the above.
Justification
The two primary reasons for using daylight to meet the illumination
requirements in occupied building spaces and transitional spaces are
the psychological benefits and the energy savings benefits. Good
daylighting has been shown to improve overall attitude, satisfaction and
well-being of building occupants.
In the tropical climate, external luminance and sky brightness is high
throughout the working day. The provision of daylight will not be effective
and successful without the control of glare under such conditions. Many
green building case studies have shown that daylight strategies were
unsuccessful as the control of glare was not considered and
implemented. Some research studies have shown a variety of benefits of
day-lighting in different building types and functions; among them were
improved retail sales, increased worker productivity and reduced
absenteeism

in

office

buildings,

improved

student

educational

performances, and improved patient recovery times in hospitals.


Exposure to daylight has also been shown to improve general health and
circadian rhythm.

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However, such benefits can only be realized, under hot climatic


conditions, without the control and reduction of glare.
Daylighting, with proper electric lighting controls, can result in significant
energy savings by reducing electric lighting loads and associated
cooling loads.

Figure 20: Marked Occupied Spaces Zoning Day Lit Zones (in green)

Approach & Strategy


Daylighting
Define and locate all occupied building spaces on each level of the
building and engage simulation analysis on daylighting prediction using
MyCREST recommended simulation tools (IESVE, DAYSIM-RADIANCE,
Dialux) and predict the threshold of value of 250-500 lux under 10 000 lux
CIE Overcast Sky condition and simulate 0.8m above floor plan).

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Define and locate all transitional spaces (enclosed or perimeter) of each


level of the building and undertaken a simulation and analysis exercise
on daylighting prediction using MyCREST recommended simulation tools
(IESVE, DAYSIM-RADIANCE, Dialux)and predict the threshold of value of
50-100 lux under10 000 lux CIE Overcast Sky condition and simulate 0.8m
above floor plan).
Day lighting comprises of windows, faade shading/light deflecting
devices (e.g. light shelves), roof lights and atrium spaces. For a naturally
lighted area, the lighting level should be equally distributed without
major contrast.
During the design process, the following design strategies should be
understood and explored:
1. Increase

perimeter

daylight

zonesextend

the

perimeter

footprint to maximize the usable day-lighting area.


2. Allow daylight penetration high in space. Windows located high
on a wall or in roof monitors and clerestories will result in deeper
light penetration and reduce the likelihood of excessive
brightness.
3. Reflect daylight within a space to increase room brightness. A light
shelf, if properly designed, has the potential to increase room
brightness and decrease window brightness.
4. Slope ceilings to direct more light into a space. Sloping the ceiling
away from the fenestration area will help increase the surface
brightness of the ceiling further into space.
5. Avoid direct beam daylight on critical visual tasks. Poor visibility
and discomfort will result if excessive brightness differences occur
in the vicinity of critical visual tasks.

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6. Filter daylight. The harshness of direct light can filter through


vegetation, curtains, louvers, or the like, and will help distribute
light.
7. Understand that different building orientations will benefit from
different daylighting strategies; for example, light shelves - which
are effective on the south facades - are often ineffective on east
or west elevations of buildings.
Glare Level Controls
Considering the real brightness levels can only be measured after the
buildings are finished. Therefore, the provision of simulation tools at the
very beginning of the design stage is highly recommended to predict the
desired brightness levels.
Some strategies that may be employed to reduce unwanted daylight
glare include:
1. Engage simulation analysis on glare prediction at the early design
stage using the MyCREST recommended simulation tools (IESVE,
DAYSIM-RADIANCE, Evalglare). And predict the threshold of value
of 1000 cd/m using 10 000 lux CIE Overcast Sky condition and
simulate at an angle of 15 to 60 from horizontal eye level (1.2 m
above floor plan).
2. Provision of side lighting concept that provides daylight through
apertures located on the perimeter of the wall of a building. The
concept involves two types of glazing system namely the daylight
glazing and the view glazing. To maximize daylight penetration
and reduce window glare, it is advisable to separate the daylight
aperture from the view aperture.

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Figure 21: Side Lighting Concept Usually Involves the Provision of Light Shelves

3. Well-oriented

apertures

can

maximize

daylight

harvesting

potential as well as minimize glare and solar heat gain. Orienting


the long axis of a building in the east/west direction will maximize
the amount of northern and southern facades. The area of east
and west openings can be minimized to reduce direct sunlight
(glare) entering the building.
4. The use of automated or manual blind shades/tinted films (e.g.
NES Solar) or full external louvers on windows to control the
amount or transmittance angle of sunlight entering the working
space.

130 | P a g e

5.

If the final interior color scheme of a project is not yet determined


during the early design stage, for simulation purposes, Interior
colors and hence, Surface reflectance to assess glare can be set
as below;
Ceilings: 80% or more
Walls: 50%-70%
Floor: 20%-40%
Partitions: 40%-70%
Furniture: 25%-45%

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Submittals
1. Typical floor plans indicating the identified occupied building
spaces/transitional spaces.
2. Typical floor plans, sections and details drawings showing the
variable position of any glare control system.
3. Simulation results of luminance analysis in the form of photometric
chart in plan and perspectives views including false colour or
contour showing daylight incidence.
4. A brief report on daylighting strategies, spatial allocation, and
solar control devices/system applied and on how the credit will
meet. The report should also include all related simulation results
and table /graph of all participated spaces that employ day
lighting system.

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References, Standard, and Codes


1. ASHRAE Journal, The Energy Impact of Daylighting

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EP4

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Artificial Lighting

DESIGN
EP

4.1 Design LPD by:


1 point: 15% improvement in Lighting
Power Density (LPD)
2 points: 20% improvement in Lighting
Power Density (LPD)
3 points: 25% improvement in Lighting
Power Density (LPD)
4 points: 30% improvement in Lighting
Power Density (LPD)

4.1

Cr

4 Points

Aim
To achieve increasing energy efficiency in terms of lighting power and
to utilise lighting technologies and sources beyond the required standard
to reduce the CO2 impact associated with high energy use.
Requirement
1 POINT:
15% to 19% improvement in Lighting Power Density (LPD) from baseline
2 POINTS:
20% to 24% improvement in Lighting Power Density (LPD) from baseline
3 POINTS:
25% to 29% improvement in Lighting Power Density (LPD) from baseline
4 POINTS:
30% to 34% improvement in Lighting Power Density (LPD) from baseline
AND
Comply with the lux levels recommended (space by space) are based
on the minimum standards for IESNA Standard 2000 (except office
spaces based on MS1525).

133 | P a g e

Justification
Comply with the LPD guidelines to improve energy efficiency by
reducing wasteful designs and by limiting the power allowed for lighting
without compromising occupants comfort and visual performance.
Reduce connected lighting power density below what is stated in
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 by using either space by space method or area
weighted whole building lighting power average.
Approach & Strategy
Below is the LPD guideline from ASHRAE 90.1: 2007;
Common Space Types
Office Enclosed
Office Open Plan
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose
Classroom/Lecture/Training
For Penitentiary
Lobby
For Hotel
For Performing Arts Theatre
For Motion Picture Theatre
Audience/Seating Area
For Gymnasium
For Exercise Centre
For Convention Centre
For Penitentiary
For Religious Buildings
For Sports Arena
For Performing Arts Centre
For Motion Picture Theatre
For Transportation
Atrium First Three Floors
Atrium Each Additional Floor
Lounge/Recreation
For Hospital
Dining Area

LPD, W/m2
15*
15*
14
15
14
14
12
36
12
10
4
3
8
8
18
4
28
13
5
6
2
13
9
15*

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For Penitentiary
For Hotel
For Motel
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining
For Family Dining
Food Preparation
Laboratory
Restrooms
Dressing/Locker/Fitting Room
Corridor/Transition
For Hospital
For Manufacturing Facility
Stairs Active
Active Storage
For Hospital
Inactive Storage
For Museum
Electrical/Mechanical
Workshop
Sales Area [for accent lighting, see Section 9.6.2(b)]

14
15*
15*
15
23
13
15
10
6
5
11
5
6
9
10
3
9
16
20
18

135 | P a g e

Building - Specific Space Types


Gymnasium/Exercise Centre
Playing Area
Exercise Area
Courthouse/Police Station/Penitentiary
Courtroom
Confinement Cells
Judges Chambers
Fire Stations
Engine Room
Sleeping Quarters
Post Office Sorting Area
Convention Centre Exhibit Space
Library
Card File and Cataloguing
Stacks
Reading Area
Hospital
Emergency
Recovery
Nurse Station
Exam/Treatment
Pharmacy
Patient Room
Operating Room
Nursery
Medical Supply
Physical Supply
Radiology
Laundry Washing
Automotive Service/Repair
Manufacturing
Low Bay ( <25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height)
High Bay (25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height)
Detailed Manufacturing
Equipment Room
Control Room
Hotel/Motel Guest Rooms

LPD, W/m2
15
10
20
10
14
9
3
13
14
12
18
13
29
9
11
16
13
8
24
6
15
10
4
6
8
13
18
23
13
5
12

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Dormitory Living Quarters


Museum
General Exhibition
Restoration
Bank/Office Banking Activity Area
Religious Buildings
Worship Pulpit, Choir
Fellowship Hall

12

Building - Specific Space Types


Retail
Sales Area [for accent lighting, see Section 9.6.3(c)]
Mall Concourse
Sports Arena
Ring Sports Area
Court Sports Area
Indoor Playing Field Area
Warehouse
Fine Material Storage
Medium/Bulky Material Storage
Carpark
Transportation
Airport Concourse
Air/Train/Bus Baggage Area
Terminal Ticket Counter

LPD, W/m2

11
18
16
26
10

18
18
29
25
15
15
10
5*
6
11
16

*Values taken from MS1525 in order to take into account the technology
presence in the market.
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137 | P a g e

Sample Calculation Input


A x PLPD

A x ALPD

3082.49

5886.51

3082.49

5886.51

28169.12
18065.70
3543.31
3568.68
5303.28
3813.25
5379.2
5099.93
6528.26
2609.13
7952.46
3960.66
4282.17
8636.99
8542.01
3085.75
5459.47
9200.53
5562.9

35853.92
22861
4521.08
5161.68
8500.37
4844.63
9855.16
10481.71
9272.53
3249.25
12344.69
5031.24
4032.84
14313.9
14762.84
4258
6190
11274.31
6977.39

138762.8

193786.54

ENGRS BLOCK
LEV 1
TOTAL (ENGRS BLOCK)
LEV 1
HOSP ENTRANCES
MAIN ENTRANCE
ADMISSION & REVENUE
IP & HEDU
LIBRARY
ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING UNIT
MEDICAL RECORD DEPT
MEDICAL STORE
PHRAMACY DEPT
SOCIAL WORKERS OFFICE
MORTUARY
ENGINEERING DEPT
PRIVATISED SERVICES AREA
CATERING DEPT
REHABILITATION UNIT
CAFETERIA
SPEC CENTRAL REISTRATION
LEVEL 1-CORE 1 & FE
LEVEL 1-CORE 2
TOTAL (LEVEL 1)

LEVEL 13-VIP WARD


ROYAL. VIP & MULTI-DIP 1 ST WARD
LEVEL 13-CORE 1
TOTAL (LEVEL 13-VIP WARD)
LEVEL 13-ROYAL WARD
ROYAL WARD
LEVEL 13-CORE 1
TOTAL (LEVEL 13-ROYAL WARD)
PLANT ROOM
LEV 1
LEV 2
TOTAL (PLANT ROOM)
APARTMENT
TYPE D,E,F & G
SERVICES
AMENITIES
TOTAL (APARTMENT)
NURSE HOUSEMAN
LG
L01
L02
L03
TOTAL (NURSE HOUSEMAN)

POINT

11997.96
13948.73

17198.06
17279.84

25946.71

34477.9

2809.7
13331.81

3811.8
17228.66

16141.51

21040.46

33962.13
3506.4

60377.12
5232

37468.53

65609.12

248972.1
4437.32
20208.5

331510.4
446379
14634.6

273617.92

350608.79

7121.37
6622.94
6694.94
6694.94

8565.31
8040.54
8120.54
8120.54

27134.19

32846.93

TOTAL PLPD

973160.46

TOTAL ALPD

1385155.82

PERCENTAGE

35%

Submittals
1. Light Power Density Calculation
2. Typical floor plans to indicate the identified occupied building
spaces.
3. To present data on brightness level for each area through manual
calculation method or simulation software.
4. A summary report on lighting strategies and spatial allocation on
how the credit will meet. The report should also include all lighting
simulation results, and table /SOA of all participated occupied
building spaces.
References, Standard, and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.
ASHRAE 90.1, Energy Standards for Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Building.

138 | P a g e

EP4

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Artificial Lighting

4.2 LED Lighting for 24 Hours Area/Usages and


Efficient Lighting in Carpark Areas

DESIGN
EP

4.2

CR

1 Point

Aim
The aim is to achieve increasing energy efficiency beyond the required
standard to reduce the CO2 impact associated with high energy use.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Utilise efficient LED lighting for 24 hours functional lighting including car
park (i.e. emergency and exit signage). In particular, provide energy
efficient lighting for covered car park area. The lighting power density of
the car park areas must comply with values in accordance with ASHARE
90.1.
Justification
24-hour areas represent one of the highest potentials to save energy from
electric lights. Well-designed LED lighting fixtures can retain 70% of their
initial output for 50,000 hours or more, depending on operating
conditions and other factors. At 24 hours per day of continuous use, such
fixtures can deliver useful light for six years or longer many times as long
as incandescent sources, and up to twice as long as long-life fluorescent
sources.
Lumen maintenance describes how long a lighting fixture retains a
certain percentage of its initial light output. White light sources used for
general illumination are commonly considered to be at the end of their
useful life when their light output falls below 70% of initial output. For white

139 | P a g e

and coloured accent and non-task lighting, the lumen maintenance


threshold is often considered to be 50%.
Approach & Strategy
Install LED bulb or light in the areas where the artificial light are opened
24 hours such as emergency signage, exit signage, and parking area.
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Submittals
1. Specification of the LED lights.
2. Location of LED lights
References, Standard, and Codes
None

140 | P a g e

EP5

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Individual Metering

DESIGN
EP

Sub-meter Switch Boards for Each Services


System 100kVA

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To encourage sub-meter installation to allow monitoring of energy use in
a building according to usage
Requirement
1 POINT:
Installation of sub-meters on switchboards for each service system that is
100kVA of Total Connected

Load (TCL).

This criterion refers to building service engineering systems within a


building such as air ventilation system, lift system, fire alarm systems,
lighting systems and others. Apart from division according to service
systems, metering according to levels, renting (agency, unit) may also
be considered.
Justification
Submeters are useful for monitoring the energy usage of equipment
items or circuits. Submeters can reveal operational inefficiencies,
demand spikes, and other bottom-line impacting events while increasing
facility operational effectiveness.
Approach & Strategy
Installation of separate sub-meters for lighting systems, chillers, sockets,
AHU, lifts and other services using loads of 100 kVA (TCL).

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If an Energy Control Management System is available, all sub-meters are


to be connected to the system to monitor and control energy use more
efficiently.
Potential Issues to Arise
Most switch systems and light system are located on one board. Each
service must be divided for each switchboard especially for lighting
systems and sockets.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Present electrical schematic drawings that show the location of the submeter on the main switchboard and on the small switch board for each
service of 100 kVA (TCL).
References, Standard, and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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EP6

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Renewable Energy

1 Point: Provide Renewable Energy of 0.5% from


Total Building Electrical Consumption
2 Points: Provide Renewable Energy of 1% from
Total Building Electrical Consumption
3 points: Provide Renewable Energy of 2 % from
Total Building Electrical Consumption
4 points: Provide Renewable Energy of 3 % from
Total Building Electrical Consumption

DESIGN
EP

Cr

4 Points

Aim
To encourage the use and installation of renewable energy sources to
decrease the effects of environment pollution and reduce greenhouse
gas emissions.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Provide renewable energy of 0.5% from total building electrical
consumption
2 POINTS:
Provide renewable energy of 1% from total building electrical
consumption
3 POINTS:
Provide renewable energy of 2% from total building electrical
consumption
4 POINTS:
Provide renewable energy of 3% from total building electrical
consumption
Justification
Renewable energy is a source of clean energy with no pollution impact.
However to be sustainable and carbon reducing, an energy source must
meet the following criteria:

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1. Have minimal or no negative environmental or social impact;


2. Meet the needs of people today and in the future in an
accessible, equitable and efficient manner;
3. Protect air, land and water and not deplete natural resources;
4. Have little or no net carbon or other greenhouse gas emissions;
5. Have safety mechanism and not burden future generations with
unnecessary risks.
Approach & Strategy
These can include solar photovoltaic, micro/mini hydro sources, biogas
and biomass sources, the wind and tidal wave energy systems - all of
which produce electrical energy. The system may be a grid connection
system whereby the use of Feed-In-Tariff can be realized or a stand-alone
system that is highly relevant in remote areas. Renewable energy may
also produce energy in other forms such as heat for direct use without
being transformed into other forms of energy (this include solar water
heaters and co-generation systems)
Potential Issues that may arise
1. On-site research and feasibility studies should be conducted
before concept design. This includes ensuring no significant
overshadowing occurs that can result in less optimum system
performance.
2. The site and location of the installation at times may be not within
the MyCREST project boundary. MyCREST allows this exception
and unique conditions as long as the system designed is installed
within a master plan boundary and owned and operated by the
same owner.
3. Feed-in-tariff incentives can be used to demonstrate the ROI
(Return

on investment) of such

systems, however

when

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calculating the energy savings above the baseline, the savings


must be based on kWh per year and not cost savings.
4. A system that is totally off-site (not within a project boundary or a
master plan boundary) cannot include in the savings calculations.
However, exceptions can be considered and subject to MyCREST
review committee decision.
Examples:
Renewable energy such as solar, the wind, micro/mini hydro, biogas,
biomass and other sources that do not pollute the environment.
Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub-criterion contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

Figure 22: Provisional of Renewable Energy System

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Submittal
Providing calculation for renewable energy prediction from the system
including drawings for installation.
References, Standard, and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.
2. Specification for Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) System (CKE
Specification)
3. Renewable Energy Act2010

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EP 7

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Energy Efficient Unitary Air-Conditioning


Systems
Energy Efficiency from the Selection of
Unitary Air-Conditioning System

DESIGN
EP

Cr

1 Point

Aim
To reduce the energy consumption and at the same time to maintain
the comfort and performance of occupant in both temperature and
noise level.
Requirement
Use energy efficient split unit air-conditioner to meet the following
requirements:
1 POINT
Provide that all unitary air-conditioning system used are labelled 3 Star
Energy Efficient by the Suruhanjaya Tenaga.
OR
The Energy Efficiency Ratio(EER) must follow requirement in TIER 2
tabulated in CEE Commercial Unitary AC and HP Specification: Unitary
Air Conditioning Specification, 6 January 2012.
AND
Maximum noise allowed is not more than 45dB for an indoor unit.
Justification
In Malaysia, energy is generated primarily through the use of electricity;
hence, it is essential to minimize building energy consumption in a holistic
way. Apart from passive design strategies, the application of energy
efficient split unit will reduce the energy usage of a building. Meanwhile,

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a reduction of building energy consumption leads to a direct reduction


of CO2 emissions.
Approach & Strategy
Use a product picked from the Suruhanjaya Tenaga list in their official
website.
Please refer to this link:
http://www.st.gov.my/index.php/ms/consumer/electricity/efficient-useof-electricity/energy-efficient-products.html
Inverter Technology
Through advanced technology, Inverter air conditioners are more
economical to operate and quieter to run than conventional units. They
can handle greater extremes in temperature, are smoother and more
stable in operation, and can reach the desired temperature more
quickly than conventional air conditioners.
Inverter Control
The Inverter component allows the outdoor unit to vary its speed and
output to match the required capacity of the indoor unit. Thus, the
inverter model can achieve 30% more operating efficiency than
conventional models and therefore, is much less expensive to run.
Quiet Operation
Units to include quiet fan speed ("Quiet Mode") to make sure the noise
level maintained.

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The Energy Efficient Label

Performance Indicator and Testing Standards for Air-Conditioner


The energy performance of electrical equipment can be checked at the
nameplate.

Air conditioners have Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). EER

indicates the conversion efficiency of the equipment; the higher the


value, the more efficient the appliance is. EER for an air conditioner
denotes the ratio of the cooling capacity to the power input (watt).
1. Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) based on tests done in accordance
with the MS ISO 5151:2004 (Non-ducted air conditioners and heat
pump: performance indicator and testing standard).
2. The tests can be either the Balanced Type Calorimeter or
Psychometric type.
3. The tested capacity value must be at least 90% of that declared
by the manufacturer.

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4. The EER calculated as shown below:

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1. The Star ratings based on the EER values are as shown below:
a) Cooling capacity < 4.5kW.

Star
Rating

EER Value
(Btu/h/w)

11.94

11.16-11.93

10.37-11.15

9.56-10.3

9.00-9.55

b) 7.1k

Star
Rating

EER Value
(Btu/h/w)

10.71

9.83-10.70

8.94-9.82

8.03-8.93

7.50-8.02

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Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub-criterion contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

Submittals
1. Unitary air conditioning system detailed drawing.
2. Product brochure including specifications and energy efficient
label from Suruhanjaya Tenaga.
References, Standard and Codes
1. Suruhanjaya Tenaga Energy Efficient Label.
2. Your Guide to Energy Efficiency at Home, Suruhanjaya Tenaga
3. Consortium
Conditioning

Eenergy
and

Efficiency

Heat

Pump

Commercial

Unitary

Air

Specification:

Unitary

Air

Conditioning Specification, 6 January 2012.

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PART B
For MYCREST New
BUILDINGS (air
conditioned)
MyCREST EP (Energy
Performance) criteria
scorecard
FOR AIR-CONDITIONED
BUILDINGS

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EPReq5

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Commissioning of Building Energy


Systems

To Verify and Ensure the Installation of


Energy Related Systems as Specified

DESIGN
EP

Req5

Ci

Required

Aim
To ensure the systems, appliances and amenities are integrated and
installed and fine-tuned as per owner project requirements.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Designate an individual as the commissioning authority (CxA) to lead,
review and oversee the completion of the commissioning process
activities including:
1. Review Owners Project Requirements and Basis of Design
2. Develop and incorporate commissioning requirements into the
construction documents.
3. Develop and implement a commissioning plan.
4. Verify the installation and performance of the systems to be
commissioned.
The individual serving as the CxA must be independent of the projects
design and construction management though the CxA may be an
employee of any firm providing those services. The CxA may also be a
qualified employee or consultant of the owner.
The owner must document the owners project requirements. The design
team must develop the basis of design. The CxA must review these

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documents for clarity and completeness. The owner and design team
must be responsible for updates to their respective documents.
Justification
Commissioning is a process of verifying that building systems are
performing as intended and according to the owners requirements as
outlined in project documents. This can lead to a fully optimized building,
using less energy and keeping occupants comfortable and productive.
Commissioning is often thought of as a single point in a construction
project, carried out before handover. In reality, if your building is to be as
efficient as possible, commissioning will need to begin at the start of the
project and include continuous monitoring and fine tuning during
operation.
Approach & Strategy
Testing and commissioning records regarding eco-friendly amenities
should be completed and recorded according to proper management.
Building System to be commissioned including:
1. Cooling system equipment and distribution
2. Air-handling and fan coil units and air distribution system
3. Ventilation and exhaust systems
4. MVAC controls
5. Lighting and daylighting controls
6. Electrical sub-metering systems
7. Any domestic hot water system (if applicable)
8. Any renewable energy system (if applicable)
9. Any rainwater harvesting system (if applicable)

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While performing these duties, consider the following for smooth


commissioning operations:
1. The CxA shall conduct a review of contractor submittals for
commissioned systems.
2. The CxA develops a construction phase commissioning plan.
3. The CxA conducts a scoping meeting with the construction team
members.
4. Additional meetings will be required to plan, scope, coordinate,
and resolve problems.
5. Equipment documentation is submitted to the CxA during normal
submittals.
6. The CxA shall work with the mechanical contractor and controls
contractor

in

developing

start-up

plans

and

start-up

documentation formats.
7. The CxA shall prepare a commissioning report.
Role and Function of the Commissioning in MyCREST Project
The commissioning agent (CxA) is generally contracted directly to a
building owner as a third-party independent representative:
1. The CxA may be (but not preferred) a subcontractor (or
employee) of the building owner, design engineer, test and
balance

contractor,

or

another

trade

contractor

(i.e.

MVAC/mechanical, electrical, plumbing, fire protection, security,


etc.) for specific trade testing. It is highly recommended by most
industry experts and standards that the CxA be an independent
third-party consultant directly contracted by owner. It is also
highly recommended that the CxA be contracted early in the
project planning stage, included in design charrettes,

156 | P a g e

2.

The

CxA works

closely with the

owner's

representative,

building/facility operating engineer, architect, design engineer,


general contractor, and all trade subcontractors.
3. The CxA typically is responsible for leading and managing the
project commissioning process (design and/or construction) and
works closely with the design, construction, and operation teams
4. A CxA's ability to add value to a project is rooted in their ability to
create positive working relationships with all parties involved and
not pointing fingers when issues arise. It is important that the CxA
clearly identifies the communication processes/streams, the
project goals and expectations (from the owners project
requirement (OPR)), and the team member responsibilities.
5. A CxA has to be able to give open, constructive criticism while
also being able to listen attentively.
6. The CxA's primary goal is to provide a completed and properly
operating product to the building owner and occupant/user.
7. The CxA's work and performance of service are equally or
primarily in the background performing design, submittal, O&M
Manual reviews and development of testing and commissioning
processes for the project, as well as in documenting the
commissioning efforts.
8. The CxA attends design and construction meetings, performs
construction site observations, observes factory equipment
testing, directs and observes functional performance testing of
systems and equipment. The CxA typically does not actually
perform the hands-on testing, as these are actually performed by
the manufacturer, vendor, or trade contractors, and directed
and observed by the CxA utilizing testing procedures and
expected performance outcome previously identified by the CxA
during the commissioning document development process.

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9. The CxA typically prepares a commissioning specification and


commissioning plan during the project design phase. The design
engineer also may develop the commissioning specification (and
rarely the commissioning plan) in situations where the CxA has not
been contracted, or brought into the design team during the
design process. The commissioning plan is a live document that
outlines the commissioning processes and expectations based on
the Owner's OPR, the design engineer's basis of design (BOD) and
the project construction document (drawings and specifications).
The commissioning plan is modified as the commissioning process
progresses throughout the design, construction, and final
acceptance of the facility. The functional performance test
procedures are typically developed by the CxA with assistance of
the trade contractors, vendors, and manufacturers based on the
design engineer's contract documents.
10. These same parties and the design engineer, and owner's
representative (typically the facility operating engineer) review
the functional performance test procedures and expected
outcomes prior to testing. The systems, equipment, items,
processes, modes, and sequences of operations to be tested by
the CxA (contractors or others). These should be detailed and
identified in the design engineer's construction documents
(drawings and specifications), the construction request for
proposal (RFP), the contractors bid submission, the commissioning
specifications, the commissioning plan, and the contractors
submittals.
11. Of utmost importance, often neglected by contractors, are the
equipment/systems "installation and operations manuals" (IOM or
IO&M) "specific to the project" (not generic). The IOM's along with
complete, and very detailed, sequence of operations (SOO) and

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control drawings/documents submittal "specific to the project"


(not generic) are of utmost importance to the CxA to perform the
review and develop proper testing procedures. Timely delivery of
these documents to the CxA is important to facilitate the CxA
ample time to review, develop test, obtain reviews, and
implement changes prior to scheduling of any testing.
Appointment of the Commissioning Engineer (CxA)
1. The owner shall appoint directly an independent third-party "CxA"
who will be responsible for verifying the green features
incorporated in the design and the finished installation as
intended by the green consultant, design engineers and the
design requirements (OPR) of the client.
2. The owner shall appoint the CxA at the beginning of the project
after the design engineers and architects have been appointed.
3. The owner shall include the inclusion of the role of the CxA in the
main contract form. All the parties involved in the project shall
provide all data requested at various stages and shall comply with
all the testing requirements of the CxA, and all parties shall give
their full cooperation to ensure the green objectives are
achieved.
4. The CxA shall prepare a validation plan based on the owner's
project requirements (OPR) and the designed data produced by
the design architects and design engineers (BOD) after the design
approved by the owner and the project construction documents.
This validation plan shall be revised during the project
management phase accommodating all the variations if any.
5. The CxA shall be invited to attend all project management
meetings, design and construction meetings, factory test and site
commissioning start-up tests. Manufacturers, design engineers,

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design architects, main contractors, sub-contractors, facility


managers shall ensure that all tests criteria shall meet the
requirements of the validation engineer.
6. The CxA shall submit his report to MyCREST through the green
consultant.
7. The CxA shall be a professional engineer registered with the
Malaysian Board of Engineers or equivalent. He shall not be a
party of the design team nor the main contractor nor the subcontractor in the same project that he is validating.
8. Some features already included under the responsibility of design
engineers is not repeated under the role of CxA to maintain the
status quo of design engineers and design architects. It is not the
intention of MyCREST to reduce the role of the design engineers
and design architects. They shall remain as the principal party with
the new validation engineer providing only a subsidiary role.
Qualifications of the Commissioning Engineer
Registered Professional Engineer with at least 5 years experience in
design, construction, and commissioning. A professional engineer
certified by the board of engineers will overview the commissioning, and
testing parameters and validate the results.
OR
If less than 5 years, must be a member of an affiliated commissioning
company and must be registered with Suruhanjaya Syarikat-Syarikat
Malaysia.
OR
Is currently registered as an NEBB (The National Environmental Balancing
Bureau) Building Systems Commissioning Certified Firm or TABB (The
Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau) Commissioning Contractor

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who has certified at least 5 (five) buildings/industrial plants on M&E


systems;
The company must have at least in their full-time employment, one
professional

Mechanical

engineer

and

one

professional

electrical/electronic engineer registered with the BEM, each with at least


5 years testing & commissioning experience in building services. In lieu of
the professional electrical/electronic engineer, to have a competent
supervising engineer or competent electrical engineer registered with
Suruhanjaya Tenaga, or, at least, two high tension charge men
registered with Suruhanjaya Tenaga.
Fixation

of

the

applicant

is

based

upon

comprehensive

review using the specific evaluation criteria listed below:


1. Experience in successful commissioning of projects of various sizes
and scope including specific activities including:
a. Design review and other pre-construction activities
b. Construction activities
c. Post construction warranty phase activities.
2. Extensive experience in the design/design review of the MVAC
systems and energy management control systems.
3. Experience in the field of operation and troubleshooting of MVAC,
lighting, renewable and energy management control systems.
4. Direct experience in monitoring and analysing system operation
using energy management control system trending or standalone measuring and data logging equipment.
5. Knowledge in building operation and maintenance and O&M.
6. Knowledge in testing and balancing of both air and water
systems. Familiarity with relevant codes /equivalent standard
procedures and methods is required.

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7. Verbal and written communication skills, highly organized and


able to work with both management and trade contractors.
8. Experience in writing commissioning specifications.
9. Past experience of the key members of the team.
The MyCREST council will commence the registry of the Commissioning
Authorities after a thorough completion of the pre-qualification process.
CIDB as an authority reserves the right to approve or reject any
application without assigning any reason and no claim of whatsoever
nature in this regard shall be entertained.

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Pre-Design Phase

Design Phase

Select a commissioning lead


Pre Design Phase commissioning meeting
Begin developing Owners Project Requirements
Develop initial Commissioning Plan outline

Design Phase commissioning meeting (If Pre


Design meeting didnt occur)
Perform commissioning focused design review
Update Commissioning Plan
Develop commissioning requirements for the
specification
Begin planning for verification checklist, functional
tests, Systems Manual, and training requirements

Construction Phase kick off meeting


Review submittals, monitor development of Shop
and Coordination Drawings
Review O&M Manual
Perform ongoing construction observation
Perform verification checks
Perform diagnostic monitoring
Perform functional testing
Develop Commissioning Report and System
Manual
Develop Recommissioning Plan
Verify and review training of owners staff

Resolve outstanding commissioning issues


Perform seasonal/deferred testing
Perform near warranty end review

Construction Phase

Occupancy and
Operation Phase

Figure 23: Commissioning Process Overview

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Documentation to Be Submitted
For new and renewal pre-qualification applications, the documentary
requirements are the following:
1. A valid trade license copy with office & location map
2. CVs of locally available engineers/consultant
3. Evidence of Malaysia residence passport copy with valid visa
page
4. Copies of academic and professional qualifications /
certifications
5. Project team / organization chart of the core team.
6. Quality Certification and/or Quality Manual copy where
applicable
7. Approval from other relevant authorities if applicable
8. Proven track record summary for major Green Building
consultancy works undertaken. Identify certified projects.
9. Declaration regarding conflict of interest in the format provided.
10. Declaration regarding blacklisting / default / litigation with any
local or international agency in the format provided.
11. Proof of payment of Prequalification Application Fee
12. Location map of office
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Submittal listed under qualification of the Commissioning
Engineer
2. Design review report
3. Commissioning plan report

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References, Standard and Codes


1. International Performance Measurement Verification Protocol
*Refer Appendix 6 for the main commissioning, improved
commissioning and re-commissioning process flowchart.

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EP8

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Improved Commissioning During Design


Stage
To Enhance the Level of Commissioning
Activities Related to Energy Related Systems

DESIGN
EP

Ci

3 Points

Aim
Improved commissioning represents a higher scope and more intensive
level of activities in the commissioning and fine-tuning stage of the
building.
Requirement
3 POINTS:
Appoint a CxA and he/she shall be responsible for the following services
in addition to the main commissioning items.
1. Prior to any main commissioning activity, reviews at 50% and 90%
CDs shall be conducted. The CxA shall provide a focused review
of the design documentation (design intent, basis of design, and
sequences
functioning,

of

operation)

and

any

for

energy

efficiency,

recommendations

for

proper

enhanced

performance. The CxA shall review the specifications and


drawings for the purpose of advising the owner and the design
team on changes that may need to be made to promote
successful commissioning.
2. The CxA reviews the Operation & Maintenance (O&M)
documentation, project reports, and closeout documents for
completeness.
3. The CxA reviews, pre-approves, and coordinates the training
provided by the mechanical contractor and controls contractor
and verifies its completion.

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4. Post-Occupancy Check: Include a post-occupancy check-up as


part of the commissioning proposal to verify how the building is
operating between 8 - 10 months after construction. The CxA shall
address a list of events or complaints compiled by the owner.
This post-occupancy check-up will include verifying that the
training requirements have been met and that a plan to resolve
outstanding commissioning-related issues has been pursued.
5. The CxA shall develop a systems manual that contains the
information necessary to fully re-commission the energy-related
systems within the tenant space.
Justification
Commissioning is a process of verifying that building systems are
performing in a way that meets your requirements. This can lead to a fully
optimized

building,

using

less

energy

and

keeping

occupants

comfortable and productive. Commissioning is often thought of as a


single-point in a construction project, carried out before the handover.
In reality, if your building is to be as efficient as possible, commissioning
will need to begin at the start of the project and include continuous
monitoring and fine-tuning during operation.
Approach & Strategy
Commissioning (Cx) is a process of verifying that the buildings systems
operate as intended and according to the owners requirements as
outlined in the project documents. Commissioning helps fill the gap
between the design team, whose members usually arent meant to be
responsible for checking minor construction details, and subcontractors,
who may inadvertently err on key items like fan power settings or sensor
locations.

167 | P a g e

Role and Function of the Commissioning Engineer in MyCREST Project


The commissioning agent (CxA) is generally contracted directly to the
building owner as a third-party independent representative:
1. The CxA may be (but not preferred) a subcontractor (or
employee) of the building owner, design engineer, test and
balance

contractor,

or

other

trade

contractors

(i.e.

HVAC/mechanical, electrical, plumbing, fire protection, security,


etc.) for specific trade testing. It is highly recommended by most
all industry experts and standards that the CxA be an
independent third-party consultant directly contracted by owner.
It is also highly recommended that the CxA be contracted early
in the project planning stages, included in design charrettes,
2.

The

CxA works

closely with the

owner's

representative,

building/facility operating engineer, architect, design engineer,


general contractor, and all trade subcontractors.
3. The CxA typically is responsible for leading and managing the
project commissioning process (design and/or construction) and
works closely with the design, construction, and operation teams
4. CxA's ability to add value to a project is rooted in their ability to
create positive working relationships with all parties involved and
not pointing fingers when issues arise. It is important that the CxA
clearly identifies the communication processes/streams, the
project goals and expectations (from the OPR), and the team
member responsibilities.
5. A CxA has to be able to give open, constructive criticism while
also being able to listen attentively.
6. The CxA's primary goal is to provide a completed and properly
operating product to the building owner and occupant/user.
7. The CxA's work and performance of service is equally or primarily
in the background performing design, submittal, O&M Manual

168 | P a g e

reviews

and

development

of

testing and

commissioning

processes for the project, as well as documenting the


commissioning efforts.
8. The CxA attends design and construction meetings, performs
construction site observations, observes factory equipment
testing, directs and observes functional performance testing of
systems and equipment. The CxA typically does not perform the
hands-on testing, as these

are actually performed by the

manufacturer, vendor, or trade contractors, and directed and


observed by the CxA utilizing testing procedures and expected
performance outcome previously identified by the CxA during the
commissioning document development process.
9. The CxA typically prepares a commissioning specification and
commissioning plan during the project design phase. The design
engineer also may develop the commissioning specification (and
rarely the commissioning plan) in situations where the CxA has not
been so contracted or brought into the design team during the
design process. The commissioning plan is a live document that
outlines the commissioning processes and expectation based on
the Owner's OPR, the design engineer's basis of design (BOD) and
the project construction document (drawings and specifications).
The commissioning plan is modified as the commissioning process
progresses throughout the design, construction, and final
acceptance of the facility. The CxA typically develops the
functional performance test procedures with the assistance of the
trade contractors, vendors, and manufacturers based on the
design engineer's contract documents.
10. These same parties and the design engineer, and owner's
representative (typically the facility operating engineer) review
the functional performance test procedures and expected

169 | P a g e

outcomes prior to testing. The systems, equipment, items,


processes, modes, and sequences of operations to be tested by
the CxA (contractors or others) should be detailed and identified
in the design engineer's construction documents (drawings and
specifications), the construction request for proposal (RFP), the
contractors bid submission, the commissioning specifications, the
commissioning plan, and the contractors submittals.
11. Of high importance, and often neglected by contractors, are the
equipment/systems "installation and operations manuals" (IOM or
IO&M) "specific to the project" (not generic). The IOM's along with
complete, and very detailed, the sequence of operations (SOO)
and control drawings/documents submittal "specific to the
project" (not generic) are of utmost importance to the CxA to
perform the review and develop proper testing procedures.
Timely delivery of these documents to the CxA is important to
facilitate the CxA ample time to review, develop test, obtain
reviews, and implement changes prior to scheduling of any
testing.
Appointment of the Commissioning Engineer (CxA)
1. The owner shall appoint directly an independent third-party "CxA"
who will be responsible for verifying the green features
incorporated in the design and the finished installation as
intended by the green consultant, design engineers and the
design requirements (OPR) of the client.
2. The owner shall appoint the CxA at the beginning of the project
after the design engineers and architects have been appointed.
3. The owner shall include the inclusion of the role of CxA in the main
contract form so that all the parties involved in the project shall
provide all data requested at various stages and shall comply with

170 | P a g e

all the testing requirements of the validation engineer. Also, all the
parties shall give their full cooperation to ensure the green
objectives are achieved.
4. The CxA shall prepare a validation plan based on the owner's
project requirements (OPR) and the designed data produced by
the design architects and design engineers (BOD) after the design
is approved by the owner and the project construction
documents. This validation plan shall be revised during the project
management phase accommodating all the variations if any.
5. The CxA shall be invited to attend all project management
meetings, design and construction meetings, factory test and site
commissioning start-up tests. Manufacturers, design engineers,
design architects, main contractors, sub-contractors, facility
managers shall ensure that all tests criteria shall meet the
requirements of the validation engineer
6. The CxA shall submit his report to MyCREST through the green
consultant.
7. The CxA shall be a professional engineer registered with the
Malaysian Board of Engineers or equivalent. He shall not be a
party of the design team nor the main contractor nor the subcontractor in the same project that he is validating.
8. Some features already included under the responsibility of design
engineers are not repeated under the role of CxA to maintain the
status quo of design engineers and design architects. It is not the
intention of MyCREST to reduce the role of the design engineers
and design architects. They shall remain as the principal party with
the new validation engineer providing only a subsidiary role.

171 | P a g e

Qualifications of the Commissioning Engineer


Registered Professional Engineer must register with at least 5 years
experience in design, construction, and commissioning. A professional
engineer certified by the board of engineers is adequate to design
mechanical systems and to sign the drawings. Therefore, they should be
adequate to understand testing parameters and validate the results
carried out by the manufacturer's engineers.
OR
If less than 5 years, must be a member of an AFFILIATED COMMISSIONING
COMPANY and must be registered with Suruhanjaya Syarikat-Syarikat
Malaysia.
OR
Is currently registered as a NEBB (The National Environmental Balancing
Bureau) Building Systems Commissioning Certified Firm or TABB (The
Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau) Commissioning Contractor
who has certified at least 5 (five) buildings/industrial plants on M&E
systems;
The company must have at least in their full-time employment, one
professional

Mechanical

engineer

and

one

professional

Electrical/Electronic engineer registered with the BEM, each with at least


5 years testing & commissioning experience in Building Services. In lieu of
the professional Electrical/Electronic engineer, to have a Competent
Supervising Engineer or Competent Electrical Engineer registered with
Suruhanjaya Tenaga, or, at least, two High Tension Charge men
registered with Suruhanjaya Tenaga.
Approval of the applicant is based upon a comprehensive review using
the specific evaluation criteria listed below:

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1. Experience in successful commissioning of projects of various sizes


and scope including specific activities such as
a. Design review and other pre-construction activities
b. Construction activities
c. Post-construction warranty phase activities.
2. Extensive experience in the design/design review of MVAC
systems and energy management control systems.
3. Experience in the field of operation and troubleshooting of MVAC,
lighting, Renewable and energy management control systems.
4. Direct experience in monitoring and analysing system operation
using energy management control system, trending or standalone measuring, and data logging equipment.
5. Knowledge in building operation and maintenance and O&M.
6. Knowledge in testing and balancing of both air and water
systems. Familiarity with relevant codes /equivalent standard
procedures and methods is required.
7. Verbal and written communication skills, highly organized and
able to work with both management and trade contractors.
8. Experience in writing commissioning specifications.
9. Past experience of the key members of the team
The MyCREST council will introduce a registry of the Commissioning
Authorities after a thorough completion of the pre-qualification process.
CIDB as an Authority reserves the right to approve or reject any
application without assigning any reason and no claim of whatsoever
nature in this regard shall be entertained.
Documentation to Be Submitted for registration of Commissioning
Authorities

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For New and Renewal pre-qualification applications, the documentary


requirements are the following:
1. A valid trade license copy with office & location map
2. CVs of locally available engineers/consultant
3. Copies of academic and professional qualifications/certifications
4. Project team/organization chart of the core team.
5. Quality Certification and/or

Quality Manual

copy where

applicable
6. Approval from other relevant authorities if applicable
7. Proven

track

record summary

for

major

Green

Building

Consultancy works undertaken. Identify certified projects.


8. Declaration regarding conflict of interest in the format provided.
9. Declaration regarding blacklisting/default/litigation with any local
or international agency in the format provided.
10. Proof of payment of Prequalification Application Fee
11. Location map of office

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Submittal listed under qualification of the Commissioning
Engineer
2. Design review report

References, Standards & Codes


International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol
(IPMVP)

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Refer Appendix 6 for the main commissioning, improved commissioning,


and re-commissioning process flowchart.

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EP9

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Air Penetration

1 Point: Division of Air-Conditioned and NonAir-Conditioned Areas


1 Point: Infiltration Rate Does Not Exceed 0.5
ACH (Air Change Per Hour)
or Equivalent

DESIGN
EP

Cr

2 Points

Aim
To prepare adequate measures to avoid unregulated air flow for airconditioned areas
Requirement
1 POINT:
Ensuring the separation and division of air-conditioned and non-airconditioned areas are undertaken, and infiltration is controlled between
these areas.
1 POINT:
Through calculation, ensure that the air penetration rate does not
exceed 0.5 ACH (air change per hour) or any equivalent expert
requirement.
Justification
Air infiltration (also referred to as leakage) is the uncontrolled flow of fresh
air through gaps and cracks in a building envelope. Ventilation is a
natural process that moves fresh air into a building (usually from the
outside) and removes stale air. Although it is an important part of a
healthy living environment, uncontrolled air infiltration can alter the
desired airflow patterns, temperature and humidity conditions within a
building. Uncontrolled air infiltration can cause reduced air quality and
comfort and reduced efficiency of a buildings ACMV system. Common
locations of air infiltration include door and window frames, a poorly

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insulated attic, electrical outlets, chimneys duct and plumbing


penetrations.
Approach & Strategy
An effective area planning during the design stage is required to avoid
unregulated airflow for air-conditioned areas.
Reducing sources of unwanted air infiltration in a new building requires
attention to a building envelope. Reducing air infiltration into a building
will allow for the more efficient use of the MVAC system, which may
translate into energy savings if the strategy properly implemented. During
the raining seasons, air exfiltration (or the loss of air from a building) is
more important. In fact, exfiltration accounts for 25-40% of the energy
used to run the MVAC system of a conventional building.
However, a better insulated and sealed building (sometimes referred to
as weatherproofed) will reduce both air infiltration and exfiltration.
Overall, the thermal performance of a building its ability to maintain a
constant and desirable temperature - is controlled by a combination of
insulation, moisture control, ventilation and air sealing.
There are many strategies to reduce unwanted air infiltration. These
include air barriers, sealants, tightly built doors and windows, and
weather stripping. In general, these strategies all serve as barriers to the
movement of air through the envelope of a building. Every crevice or
hole in the buildings construction must be sealed to create a continuous
air barrier. This is in addition to constructing physical barriers to air
movement and densely packing insulation into wall cavities.

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A blower door test can be used for quality control to test the air sealing
of a new building. The test involves temporarily fitting a fan into the
buildings doorway and measuring the rate of airflow needed to keep
the building at a certain pressure. The controlled airflow created by this
procedure can be used to identify air leaks in a buildings envelope.
Therefore, minimizing air infiltration should be considered in detail during
the planning and construction phases of any new building. It is also
important that a properly sealed building has an efficient ventilation
system to ensure a healthy supply of fresh air.

Figure 24: Air Lock Entrance

Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub criteria contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

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Submittals
1. Preliminary designs displaying air-conditioned zones
2. Schedule of Accommodation (SOA)
3. Plans displaying ante-room area labels, air-conditioned and nonair-conditioned areas.
4. Design drawing for air-conditioning systems.
References, Standard and Codes
1. U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program Air
Leakage Guide, 2012:
http://www.energycodes.gov/sites/default/files/documents/BECP_Buidl
ing%20Energy%20Code%20Resource%20Guide%20Air%20Leakage%20G
uide_Sept2011_v00_lores.pdf

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EP10

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

DESIGN

Building Energy Management System

EP

10

Cr

1 Point

Building Energy Management System

Aim
To promote the use of an energy monitoring management system to
integrate and monitor all equipment to ensure energy use is monitored
and controlled more efficiently.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Installation of an energy monitoring management system within the
building.
Justification
A building cannot be considered green if it is not energy efficient. The
energy used by buildings is mostly generated by burning fossil fuels, which
release greenhouse gas emission that contributes to climate change. No
building should define itself as green unless it consumes less energy and
generates

fewer

greenhouse

gas

emissions

than

average

or

conventional buildings. To manage energy consumption, the building


shall monitor and control the systems efficiently.
Approach & Strategy
Installation of energy monitoring management system must be decided
at the design stage.
This is to standardize indoor services and design requirements to be
integrated into the system at the design stage.

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Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub-criterion contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

Submittals
1. Floor plan
2. Circuit diagram
3. Input-Output (I/O) Point
References, Standard and Codes
1. MS 1525:2007 Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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EP 11

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Building Energy Efficiency Performance

Assess the Building Energy Performance by


Comparing the Baseline and Proposed
Figure, and to Assess Carbon Emission from
Energy Production Through Simulation.

DESIGN
EP

11

Cr

40 Points

CALCULATOR
EP/CAL01 DESIGN ENERGY
PERFORMANCE

Aim
The aim is to achieve significant levels of energy efficiency above the
average building energy performance by comparing the baseline and
the proposed energy consumption levels.
Requirement
Assess the building energy performance by comparing the baseline and
the proposed figure, and to assess carbon emission from energy
production through static or dynamic simulation.
Percentage
Reduction from
Baseline (%)
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
39

Points*
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

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42
45
48
51
54
57
60
63

26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40

*Additional 1 point is given in cumulative of total points if the applicant


can provide evidence or simulation on the cooling effect of shaded
trees (height of tree 15 metre when achieving maturity) that are
planted within 5 metre distance from the building parameter towards the
reduction of the total building energy.
Justification
The burning of fossil fuels is the single largest contributor to global climate
change, as well as contributing to a host of toxic emissions that directly
affected communities in the local and global context. Rising energy
prices also impose a significant economic imperative that requires a
careful examination of understanding how to best to significantly
reduced energy demand. A building cannot be considered green if it
is not energy efficient. The energy used by buildings is mostly generated
by the burning fossil fuels, which release greenhouse gas emissions that
contribute to climate change. No building should define itself as green
unless it consumes less energy and generates fewer greenhouse gas
emissions than average or conventional buildings.
Approach & Strategy
Demonstrate 9% or more of energy savings improvement for new
buildings in the proposed building performance rating compared to the

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baseline building performance rating by a whole building project


simulation:
1. Meet the requirements of the baseline
2. Maximize passive strategies and opportunities such as the
orientation of the main facade to North/South to reduce the
heat impact transferred into the building. Minimize the
opening at East/West facade
3. Optimize facade systems such as Install low-E glass and
shading device at east/west facade
4. Install efficient mechanical equipment
Proposed: Actual Design
The energy saving is equal to carbon emission reduction.
Acceptable Method:
1. Static Calculation (Lower Level of Certification - 1, 2 & 3-Star)
2. Dynamic Simulation ( Higher Level of Certification - 4 & 5-Star)
Project teams must demonstrate whether through Static Simulation
(MyCREST 1 2 or 3 star rating) or Dynamic Simulation (4 or 5 star rating)
that their proposed design has achieved at least 9% savings above the
baseline.
All the characteristics, requirements, and parameters of the Baseline
model are based on basic characteristics derived from the MS1525
Version 2007. The characteristics of the baseline model must follow the
MyCREST requirements and are as outlined in the MyCREST BASELINE
MODELLING GUIDE in Appendix 2 at the end of this guide. Amongst
these parameters are:

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1. Passive Design:

Baseline must achieve a minimum of OTTV = 50 W/m2, RTTV =


25W/m2 (with skylights and minimum U values for roof) as stated
in MS1525.
The following of the characteristics are additional characteristics
of the baseline model:
Windows
WWR

= 50% and must be evenly distributed on ALL facades

2. Active Design:

Equipment
Active design shall follow the minimum requirement for OTTV, RTTV,
lighting and ACMV components and equipment under item 5, 6,
7 and 8 as stated in MS 1525:2007. Details modelling guideline can
be referred in Appendix 2.
Baseline spaces by space Lighting Power Density (LPD) as stated
in EP4 Artificial Lighting.
ACMV Basis of Design must comply with ASHRAE 62.1 and ASHRAE
55.
For the proposed design, the naturally ventilated (NV) area and
strategies can be included as the energy efficient strategy to gain EP
points by creating a comparison between baseline (to be considered as
fully air-conditioning space and proposed design (naturally ventilated
space). The natural ventilation spaces must occupy spaces such as the
lobby, caf, restaurant, atrium/lobby and rest areas. Unoccupied space
such as toilets, storage, corridors are not eligible to include in the
comparison. NV spaces must not be more than 20% of the occupied
areas and can only count towards the achievement of a maximum of 2

185 | P a g e

points in MyCREST. Based on the space function, it must fulfil the


requirements listed in:
a. Criteria EP 12 (non-AC energy scorecard in MyCREST Design
scorecard) sub-criteria:
i. EP12.3, EP12.4, EP12.5, EP12.6, EP12.8, EP12.9 and EP12.10
OR
b. Article 4.6.2, 4.6.3 and 5.9 as stated in MS 1525:2007
Apart from that, renewable energy sources such as solar panels also can
be used to reduce energy and achieve savings above the baseline
energy level as long as with project boundary and owned by the same
owner. Savings are calculated based on kWh and not costs.
Consultant engineers are required to run their heat load calculation
based on two models, the baseline, and their design. Basically, the
MyCREST requires teams to adjust the heat load calculations, which
comply with the OTTV equal to 50W/m2 and RTTV equal to 25 W/m2.
Once the required OTTV and RTTV achieved, the consultant needs to
input the energy consumption in the Baseline Calculation.
For this sub- criterion, the baseline is according to MS1525 requirement.
For active design, process load energy consumption should be the same
for both baseline and actual design.
Project teams can include NV areas in their savings calculation and
provided that they can demonstrate that in a typical building of a similar
function, occupancy, and type, this space is normally or typically airconditioned. These are only areas with high occupancy such as cafes
and ground floor lobbies.

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They must demonstrate that they have complied with all Airflow and
ventilation points under 'NON-AC building scorecard' including CFD
simulation and verification to ensure both airflows in adequate and
thermal comfort achieved in the spaces.
Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub-criterion contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

The input for this calculator is:


1. Quantity and Load
2. Group Diversity Factor (DF)
3. Operational Hours
Submittals
1. Energy Carbon calculation
2. Energy simulation report
3. Evidence/Simulation of Treess Cooling Effect

Figure 25: Use of Smaller WWR (Window to Wall Ratio, Shading


Devices) and Specification of Glass

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References, Standard and Codes


1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.
2. ASHRAE 90.1, Energy Standards for Buildings Except Low Rise
Residential
Buildings
Sample Calculator Input

Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool


Energy Model Template

Building Energy Consumption


Item

Baseline Building (kWh/year)


Total Connected Load (kW)

Diversity Factor

Operational Hours

Proposed Building (kWh/year)


Building Energy Consumption (kWh)

Total Connected Load (kW)

Building Energy Consumption (kWh)

MECHANICAL
Plant Room:
Chillers

0.00

0.0000

Chilled Water Pump

0.00

0.0000

Condenser Water Pump

0.00

Cooling Tower

0.00

0.0000
0.0000

Air System:
Air Handling Unit, AHU(s)

0.0000

0.0000

Fan-Coil Unit, FCU(s)

0.0000

0.0000

Air-cooled Split Unit, ACSU(s)

0.0000

0.0000

Supply Air Fan

0.0000

0.0000

Exhaust Air Fan

0.0000

0.0000

Interior Lighting

0.0000

Plug Load

0.0000

0.0000
0.0000

Receptacle / Process Load

0.0000

0.0000

Elevators and Escalators

0.0000

0.0000

Mechanical Ventilation:

Lighting & Small Power:

Other Loads:

0.0
Total Annual Carbon Emission, Baseline (tCO2e/year)

0.0000

Total Annual Energy Consumption, Proposed (kWh/year)

0.0000

Total Annual Carbon Emission, Proposed (tCO2e/year)

0.0000

Total Percentage Annual Energy Consumption Reduction, %

0.0%

188 | P a g e

MyCREST EP (Energy
Performance) criteria
scorecard
FOR NON AIRCONDITIONED BUILDING
(Non-air-conditioned areas
minimum of 80% of total
floor area excluding car
parks and common area)

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Introduction

MyCREST offers an alternative version of the Design Tool and System for
what is defined as 'non air-conditioned buildings'. Generally, under a
tropical climate, there are selected building functions and types, which
are predominantly naturally ventilated with the use of mechanical fans.
This provision in MyCREST allows projects teams to utilize a specific
scorecard with gain the EP (Energy performance) points without the
demonstration of the EP points through baseline and proposed design
calculations.
MyCREST only allows the use of these exceptional scoring for EP points if
the following are demonstrated:
1. The building typologies are from the following:
a. Residential quarters
b. Mosques and religious buildings
c. Nursery and childcare centres
d. Schools
e. Resort buildings
f.

R& R buildings

g. Community halls
h. Dormitories and residential colleges
i.

Open cafes and shop houses

Essentially these are buildings where a majority of functional and


occupied spaces are naturally ventilated with mechanical assistance
such as fans where needed.

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2. The building has an estimated value or ratio of 20:80 percent of


occupied areas representing the ratio between air-conditioned areas
and non-air-conditioned

areas.

Hence in

MYCREST, a

non-air-

conditioned building is defined as when the air-conditioned occupied


areas is 20% of the gross occupied areas or less. The Non air-conditioned
areas are defined as 'occupied areas' which are bounded by walls and
roof/ceiling but natural ventilated.
To calculate this ratio, unoccupied areas toilets, storerooms and patios
and verandas should not include in this definition.
MyCREST gives a prescriptive requirement to these typologies for the Non
air-conditioned sub-criteria listed in EP11: Heat Gain Control and Comfort
through Natural Ventilation replaces the 'energy simulation' criteria listed
in the MyCREST New Construction (air-conditioned) scorecard.
In summary, in MyCREST, a building can use the non-AC scoring systems
for EP points if the building has equal or less than 20 per cent of its
occupied areas to be air conditioned and which utilized decentralized
units such as split units, fan coil units to air-conditioned its AC spaces.
Should a building have the above ratio but its air-conditioned spaces are
served by a central chiller and these air-conditioned occupied areas are
more than 20 per cent of its gross occupied area, then the airconditioned scorecard and all its requirements and prerequisites including static or dynamic simulation and energy template submission
must still apply and be used to gain the EP points.
The non-air-conditioned areas can contribute to a maximum of two
points only and essentially must comply with requirements, link to its

191 | P a g e

natural ventilated strategy, as outlined in the non-air-conditioned


scorecard EP12: Heat Gain Control and Comfort through Natural
Ventilation.
In principle, the non-air-conditioned scorecard in a MyCREST assessment
consists the following:
1. Non air-conditioned areas must comply with primary passive strategies
using natural ventilation including optimum orientation to reduce heat
gain and divert winds for comfort. Massing of building and spatial
design to induce airflow and achieve minimum standards of thermal
comfort
2. Air-conditioned areas must comply with the selection of airconditioned units based on a minimum efficiency requirement
outlined in sub-criteria EP7: Energy Efficient Unitary Air-Conditioning
System based on labelling by Suruhanjaya Tenaga.

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ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

EP Req6

ENERGY EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE


AND ASSESSMENT

DESIGN
EP

Use of Energy Efficient Equipment and


Submit the Annual Predicted Performance
(BEI) of Energy Systems in a Non-AirConditioned Building

Req6

Cr

Required

Aim
To assess and report on the energy usage and energy performance of a
MyCREST-defined non-air-conditioning buildings.
AND
To achieve higher levels of building energy performance and reduce
annual energy consumption and environmental impacts associated with
excessive energy use in the whole life of building.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Use energy efficient equipment for air-conditioned space area in a nonair-conditioned building with either a minimum of 3-Star Rating or an EER
of more than 11.
AND
Submit the predicted annual performance of energy systems based on
conventional schedules in a non-air-conditioned building.
Justification
The criteria outlines minimum efficiency requirement of installed systems
such as split units or Direct Expansion (DX) units. It also requests the
predicted annual operating energy consumption of a non-airconditioned

building.

Reducing

use

of

non-renewable

energy

contributes to the overall building environmental performance. In


Malaysia, energy generation is primarily through the use of electricity;

193 | P a g e

hence, it is essential to minimize building energy consumption in a holistic


way. Meanwhile, a reduction of building energy consumption leads to a
direct reduction of CO2 emissions.
Approach & Strategy
Based on Electricity Regulation 1994 (Amendments 2013) Regulation
101A(3)
"Any equipment that meets all the requirements of efficient use of
electricity under sub-regulation (1) shall be affixed with an efficiency
rating label in such form and manner as may be determined by the
Commission."
All manufacturers and importers of the following products: television,
refrigerator, domestic fan and air conditioner, must affix the Energy
Efficiency Label onto the products before it can be sold to the customer.

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The Energy Efficiency Label

Energy Efficiency Labelling Guideline for Air Conditioner


1. Size Specification
2. Label Usage Option
3. Calculation Guideline
4. 2-Star Label
5. 3-Star Label
6. 4-Star Label
7. 5-Star Label
Energy Efficiency Labelling Guideline for Domestic Fan
1. Size Specification
2. Label Usage Option
3. Calculation Guideline
4. 2-Star Label
5. 3-Star Label
6. 4-Star Label
7. 5-Star Label

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Energy Efficiency Labelling Guideline for Refrigerator


1. Size Specification
2. Label Usage Option
3. Calculation Guideline
4. 2-Star Label
5. 3-Star Label
6. 4-Star Label
7. 5-Star Label
Energy Efficiency Labelling Guideline for Television
1. Size Specification
2. Label Usage Option
3. Calculation Guideline
4. 2-Star Label
5. 3-Star Label
6. 4-Star Label
7. 5-Star Label
Each air conditioner has an energy efficiency rating that lists how many
BTU's per hour used for each watt of power it draws.
For room air conditioners, this rating is the Energy Efficiency Ratio or EER.
For central air conditioners, this rating is the Seasonal Energy Efficiency
Ratio or SEER.
These ratings are posted on an Energy Guide Label, which must be
attached in a visible place on all new air conditioners. Many AC
manufacturers are voluntary participants in the Energy Star labelling
program. Energy Star labelled appliances indicate higher EER and SEER
ratings.

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How is Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) Calculated?


The air conditioner EER is its British thermal units (BTU) rating over its
wattage. For example, if a 10,000-BTU air conditioner consumes 1,200
watts, its rating is 8.3 (10,000 BTU/1,200 watts). The higher the rating is, the
more efficient the air conditioning unit is. However, a higher rating is
usually accompanied by a higher price.
The annual operating energy consumption of energy systems in a nonair-conditioned building aimed at quantifying the energy end-use and
apportioning for all electrical, mechanical, and thermal systems for
which either electrical or thermal energy as installed and used in the
building. Quantify energy usage for each system used in providing
lighting, air-conditioning, ventilation, heating (water), and air circulation.
Carbon Calculator
All energy calculation for this sub criteria contributes to:
Calculator ID: EP-CAL01 Design Energy Performance

Submittals
1. Summary of annual total building energy consumption and an

input parameter.
2. Major building layout, elevation drawings, features, building

equipment and system information required for energy simulation


3. Building Energy Index calculation

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References, Standard, and Codes


1. MS1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

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EP12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Heat Gain Control and Comfort
Through Natural Ventilation

12.1 The Use of Fragmented Open Plan to


Induce Ventilation

DESIGN
EP

12.1

Ci

2 Points

Aim
To increase the potentials of wind-induced ventilation through building
form.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
1. If the layout design is a fragmented and polygonal form, provide
a layout design of the building that demonstrate an open layout
and a more fragmented design as compared to a conventional
compact option;
2. If the layout design is mono-shape compact such as a circular,
or square-like form, or a rectangular form, then demonstrate that
the design maximizes

its aspect ratio values towards the

prevailing wind conditions on site. The intention is catching


prevailing wind into the internal environment while demonstrating
a provision of adequate solar control.
3. In a tight urban infill where a project with tight site constrains, the
strategy should maximize openings towards prevailing winds and
to encourage and integrate the introduction of building features
that divert wind speeds are encouraged.
Justification
An open plan provides ventilation (outdoor air) to ensure safe, healthy
and comfortable conditions for building occupants. When carefully

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designed, natural ventilation can reduce building construction and


operation costs, and reduce the energy consumption for airconditioning.
Approach & Strategy
In general, designing for natural ventilation in the tropics necessitates an
open system to encourage maximum air movement to achieve
acceptable indoor comfort under hot, humid conditions. Designing for
air-conditioning, on the other hand, requires a diametrically opposed
approach to design towards a closed system or compact design to minimize infiltration and thus, minimizing energy expenditure. In
summary, designing for natural ventilation requires open facades, cross
ventilation, shallow plans and high surface-to-volume ratio.
To assist cooling effects and increase cross ventilation for comfort cooling
of occupants, Givoni (1998: p388) confirms:
A building plan considered as ideal for a hot-humid climate is a
detached elongated building with a single row of rooms with openings
(window and doors) on two opposite walls. Such an arrangement
enables cross-ventilation of each individual room independently of
others.

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Figure 26: A Fragmented Form

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. A narrative of the open plan nature of the proposed building
layout plan

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2. A conceptual diagram showing direction of wind flow in line with


orientation and the potentials of catching prevailing winds of site
3. A layout plan that demonstrate the principles above
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

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PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation

EP 12

12.2 Orientation of Building Layout and


Major Openings

DESIGN
EP

12.2

Ci

2 Points

Aim
Where it is not possible to divert or catch the wind from all directions, the
minimum is not to obstruct the prevailing wind. If it is not feasible through
form and opening design, then specific features should be integrated
into the design that can divert and take into account the prevailing
winds.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Orientation of building layout and major openings according to the
prevailing regime of localized wind as indicated by wind rose of a
location by:
1. Provide an analysis of prevailing wind conditions on building site
either in the form of
a. Wind rose
b. Frequency analysis tabulation
c. Long-term measurement of local data or from the nearest
meteorological station
Note: Approximate wind directions are summarized in seasonal
"wind rose" diagrams must be obtained from what is available
from the nearest Meteorological Department. If data taken at
stations that are far from the building site, actual values at a
remote building site can differ dramatically

203 | P a g e

2. Demonstrate the overall layout in terms of


a. Building massing
b. Building envelope
c. Location of openings
EITHER
Does not obstruct the prevailing winds on site
OR
Involve a building feature/mechanism or strategies such as
wind wall, scoop, and location of openings that can divert the
prevailing winds.
3. A summary description on any surrounding obstructions in terms of
a. Existing buildings around the proposed site
b. Future planned developments and buildings around the site,
extensive vegetation or any other obstruction
Justification
Optimum orientation of a building layout and massing will improve the
circulation of natural ventilation (outdoor air) to achieve acceptable
comfort conditions. When carefully designed, natural ventilation can
reduce building construction costs and operation costs and reduce the
energy consumption.
Approach & Strategy
Approximate wind directions must be summarized in the seasonal "wind
rose" diagrams available from the nearest Meteorological Department.
The data taken at meteorological stations and airports far from site can
result in actual values at a remote building site can differ dramatically.

204 | P a g e

This pertains to high-rise residential buildings. Hence, the project must


demonstrate how its overall form facilitates wind-induced ventilation. The
disposition of service core, staircases and lifts, the orientation of the
building, glazing and shading systems including the use of fins to divert
wind, the use of recessed balconies and the integration of multi-storey
atria and projections. The aim is to generate air movement while
maintaining adequate comfort, where a bioclimatic element is be
manipulated to achieve higher energy savings yet ensure acceptable
or better thermal comfort in the tropics.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. A summation or concise description of the weather data on the
prevailing winds direction based on the above in terms of:
a. range of magnitude
b. direction
c. average wind speed value averaged from the last 3 - 20 years
of data of winds on site
2. Wind rose data or frequency of winds tabulation.
3. Submission of a drawing which includes a Superimposition of
layout/plan of the proposed design on the wind rose diagram or
visual of wind direction frequency on site to demonstrate the
alignment of the orientation of the building on the main cardinal
points and the pattern of prevailing winds.

205 | P a g e

References, Standards & Codes


1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

WIND ROSE SUMMARY


SUBANG AIRPORT
1975-2003

TIME: 24 HOURS

ANNUAL

6
3

36.9

0.8
ORLM
1.5

1.8
3.9

3.4
5.4

5.5

8.0

10.8
M/S

7.9

10.7

TIME

13.8

Figure 27: An Example of a Wind Rose

206 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation

DESIGN
EP

12.3 Design for Cross Ventilation

12.3

Ci

2 Points

Aim
Cross ventilation represents one of the most effective forms of ventilation
from a thermal comfort and occupant health viewpoint.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
OCCUPIED AREAS
The layout design should provide openings on opposite sides and
attempt to limit any individual room depth from the window wall by as
much to 6 meters. Beyond 6 meters, for typical rooms, cross ventilation
may not be effective for average wind speeds. However, this point can
be achieved if a majority of the occupied NV space is of not more than
15 meters of maximum depth of spaces with opposite facing openings.
The design must prove that this is achieved for at least for 70% of the
occupied areas.
However, from 6 - 15 meters, cross ventilation can still be effective
provided that
1. Openings are located at opposite ends of the occupied space.
2. Openings are not located to result in a short-circuiting of natural
airflow in the room.

207 | P a g e

3. The openings are located to sufficiently ventilate at normal


human height; this can effectively result in airflow at body height
to achieve thermal comfort.
TRANSITIONAL AND COMMON AREAS
Opening must be provided
1. At opposite ends of such spaces
2. However, comfort is not critical as in occupied areas hence (2)
and (3) is encouraged but not crucial.
Justification
Design for cross ventilation provides ventilation (outdoor air) to ensure
safe healthy and comfortable conditions for building occupants. When
carefully designed, natural ventilation can reduce building construction
costs and operation costs and reduce the energy consumption for airconditioning.
Approach & Strategy
Designing for cross ventilation in buildings allows for passive cooling and
reduces the reliance on air-conditioning. Like all natural ventilation
principles, the cross ventilation principle is based on the requirement of
ensuring a fresh and comfortable indoor climate. This is done with
minimal energy consumption and at low cost.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Building layout
2. Building cross-section

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3. Conceptual design of airflow ingress and egress


References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

Figure 28: Example of Layout and Location of Openings

209 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation

DESIGN
EP

12.4 Provide Operable Windows:

12.4

Ci

2 Points

Aim
Windows must be operable by occupants to facilitate natural ventilation
when needed.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Provision of operable windows:
1. Provide operable windows in ALL occupied areas
2. Window openings should be operable by the occupants
Justification
Operable windows provide ventilation (outdoor air) to ensure safe,
healthy and comfortable conditions for building occupants. When
carefully designed, natural ventilation can reduce building construction
costs and operation costs and reduce the energy consumption for airconditioning.
Approach & Strategy
Operable windows can be a part of an effective natural ventilation
strategy, when applied using the recommendations in the Carbon Trust
Good Practices Guide 237 and ASHRAE 62.1-2004. They can even be
equipped with motorized mechanical operators, which allow the
opening and closing modes to be controlled.

210 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Building plan
2. Details window drawing with type
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

211 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation
12.5 Demonstrate Adequate Internal
Airflow through Interior Layout Design:

DESIGN
EP

12.5

Ci

2 Points

Aim
In addition to the primary consideration of airflow in and out of the
building, airflow between the rooms of the building is necessary. When
possible, interior doors should be designed to be open to encourage
whole-building ventilation. If privacy is required, ventilation can be
provided through high louvers or transoms.
Requirements
2 POINTS:
Allow for adequate internal airflow:
In addition to the primary consideration of airflow in and out of a building,
airflow between the rooms of a building is important. When possible,
interior doors should be designed to be open to encourage wholebuilding ventilation. If privacy is required, ventilation can be provided
through high louvers or transoms.
Justification
Adequate internal airflow improves the circulation of the air to ensure
safe, healthy and comfortable conditions for building occupants. When
carefully designed, natural ventilation can reduce building construction
costs and operation costs and reduce energy consumption for airconditioning.

212 | P a g e

Approach & Strategy


In addition to the primary consideration of airflow in and out of a building,
airflow between the rooms of a building is important. When possible,
interior doors should be designed to be open to encourage wholebuilding ventilation. If privacy is required, ventilation can be provided
through high louvers or transoms.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Documentation verification
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

213 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Heat Gain Control and Comfort
Through Natural Ventilation

12.6 Design Clerestories or Vented Skylights

DESIGN
EP

12.6

Ci

2 Points

Aim
Where skylights are designed, it must be optimized based on solar heat
gain control, thermal comfort requirement and ventilation aims
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Design Clerestories or Vented Skylights
A clerestory will provide an opening for stale air to escape in a buoyancy
ventilation system. The light well of the skylight could also act as a solar
escape to augment the flow. Openings lower in the structure, such as
basement windows, must be provided to complete the ventilation
system.
Justification
Clerestories or vented skylights are high-level windows help to exhaust
hot air under hot, humid conditions and reduce internal heat gain and
create thermal stratification in a multi-volume space to ensure healthy
and comfortable conditions for building occupants. When carefully
designed, such natural ventilation strategies can work effectively under
hot, humid conditions and reduce operational costs and reduce energy
consumption.

214 | P a g e

Approach & Strategy


Many times, under hot conditions, heat is trapped within a space as no
exhaust openings are provided at higher levels of the spaces. The
characteristic of air is its buoyancy where the hotter air tends to move
upwards and accumulate at higher levels. Hence, the use of clerestory
windows contributes in reducing hot trapped air during the day.
Additionally, high-level windows also provide daylight during the day
and reduce electric lighting. Though they are typically fixed, they can
be made operable, providing a means of cross-ventilation for a building.
Clerestory windows increase the amount of natural sunlight in the
building, and they can also be installed in a thoughtful manner
depending on the level of heat gain desired.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Conceptual diagram showing the predicted air movement by
stack effect and the location of air outlets and inlets.
2. The highlighted area affected by stack effect on the layout
plan.
3. A narrative on the predicted mechanism of the skylight vent in
the day and at night time.
4. Layout plan and sectional drawings.
5. Detail section of the vent.
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

215 | P a g e

Figures 29-32 show the example of skylight vent design option:

sun

OPTION 01- thermal chimney - sketch

Figure 29: Chimney Option Proposed

Figure 30: The 2nd Option Proposed

sun
view

view

OPTION 03- Direct parch cover - sketch

Figure 31: The 3rd Option Proposed

Figure 32: The 4th Option Proposed

216 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation

DESIGN
EP

12.7 Provide Roof Space Ventilation :


In Tropical Climates, Ventilating the
Roof Space Greatly Reduces Heat
Transfer to Conditioned Rooms Below

12.7

Ci

2 Points

Aim
To reduce heat gain through the roof.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Provide roof ventilation passively or actively:
In buildings with attics or spaces at the underside of roofs, ventilating the
attic space greatly reduces heat transfer to conditioned rooms below.
Ventilated attics are about 1oC (30F) cooler than unventilated attics.
Justification
Attic ventilation helps to reduce internal heat gain to ensure safe healthy
and comfortable conditions for building occupants. When carefully
designed, natural ventilation can reduce building construction costs and
operation costs and reduce energy consumption

through air-

conditioning.
Approach & Strategy
To effectively lower temperature in an attic, air circulation is necessary.
Soffit and vents provide a way for the cooler air from outside the house
to enter into the attic through normal air circulation and natural
convection process, thus, moving hot air out. As the cool air enters at the

217 | P a g e

lower part of the roof through the soffit vents, as the air circulates, it picks
up the heat, and the fan pushes it outside.

Ventilated air

Ridge vent

Shingle surface
Roffing deck

Insulation system
Soffit vent

Air flow

Figure 33: Air Flow to the Ridge Vent

Among the reasons to ventilate roof spaces, during the year under hot
condition, heat and moisture accumulate in every attic; when left
uncontrolled, the excessive heat and moisture often result in significant
damage to the roof, hence, structure-reducing their normal life
expectancies.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Documentation verification
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings.

218 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation
12.8 Provision of Fan-Assisted Cooling
Strategies:

DESIGN
EP

12.8

Ci

2 Points

Aim
To improve indoor air conditions
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Provision of the use of fan-assisted cooling strategies:
Ceiling and whole-building fans can provide up to -12C (9F) effective
temperature drop at one-tenth the electrical energy consumption of
mechanical air-conditioning systems.
Justification
Fan assisted cooling strategies to help to reduce internal heat gain to
ensure safe healthy and comfortable conditions for building occupants.
When carefully designed, natural ventilation can reduce building
construction costs and operation costs and reduce the energy
consumption through air-conditioning.
Approach & Strategy
Ceiling and whole-building fans can provide up to -12C (9F) effective
temperature drop at one-tenth the electrical energy consumption of
mechanical air-conditioning systems. This is to either increase the airflow
or lower the heat gain so that the natural ventilation can effectively cool
the spaces in the building.

219 | P a g e

Mechanical cooling and ventilation systems will be used to supplement


the natural ventilation. By lowering heat gains, less airflow will be required
to remove the heat, thus, reducing the need for mechanical cooling
systems.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Documentation verification
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

220 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS


Heat Gain Control and Comfort
Through Natural Ventilation

12.9 Recesses and Deep Shading of


Facades for Solar Heat Gain Reduction

DESIGN
EP

12.9

Ci

2 Points

Aim
To ensure reduction of heat gain for comfort in a hot climate.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Up to 50% of eastern and western facing glazed openings are either
recessed, shaded with deep overhangs (more than 1m) or have selfshading mechanisms including strategies such as the projection of
overhead balconies, cantilevers, use of veranda and patios.
Justification
Due to the fast pace of development, current designs have not
adequately considered the impact of deep recesses in buildings.
Vernacular building in the tropics has integrated verandas and patios.
The insertion of deep recesses can obstruct peak solar gain and impact
during the day from the incidence of direct sunlight on exposed walls
and windows. Direct sunlight will not only elevate solar gain through
glazed openings but will be absorbed by thermal mass such as concrete
wall and reradiate back into the internal spaces during night time. Hence
this basic passive strategy must be considered as the incorporation of
deep balconies such as veranda and patios on any eastern or western
exposed walls, and glazed openings of a building will reduce heat gain
both through conduction and radiation.

221 | P a g e

Walls, in particular, masonry walls and glazed openings are sources of


heat gain due to conductive and radiative processes as thermal mass
impacts of masonry act to absorb the heat and the greenhouse impact
of glass traps in the incoming solar radiation. Traditional and vernacular
architecture in this region, highlights and demonstrates the use of deep
recesses, which are important strategies towards both thermal comfort
and the reduction of heat gain incident on masonry walls in times when
air-conditioning is non-existent. Due to modernization, many of these
principles have been neglected. Daily and annual heat gain and
absorption will be effectively reduced if these walls were protected from
daily impose of solar radiation.
Approach & Strategy
This point is awarded if up to 20 percent or more of the east and west
facing walls or glazed openings are either recessed, shaded with deep
overhangs ( more than 1 m) or have self-shading mechanisms. This
including strategies such as the projection of overhead balconies,
cantilevers, self-shading from the optimum location, and correct
dimensioning of projections from verandas and patios.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Documentation verification
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings.

222 | P a g e

EP 12

ENERGY PERFORMANCE IMPACTS

DESIGN

Heat Gain Control and Comfort


Through Natural Ventilation

EP

12.10

Ci

2 Points

12.10 Prediction of Thermal Comfort in


Buildings

Aim
To minimize energy use while achieving an acceptable level of comfort
and further to enhance occupants satisfaction and well-being.
Requirement
Use of acceptable a multi-zonal analysis tool to calculate the air change
and predict comfort in these buildings. Through the use of commercially
available and MyCREST recognized CFD (computational fluid dynamics)
tool:
1 POINT:
Based on local wind data and distribution analysis, undertake an analysis
with CFD simulation show the distribution of natural ventilation through a
selection of occupied areas throughout an average day including the
calculation of volume flow rate within the spaces;
1 POINT:
Prove

sufficient

natural

ventilation

or

show

the

performance

improvements by simulating the effect of wind walls, towers, scoop,


stacks or massing of buildings.
Justification
Energy savings can be achieved by utilizing natural ventilation. However
thermal comfort must be assured during periods of low-level air. CFD
analysis can show the actual situation of natural ventilation throughout

223 | P a g e

the year; this information is useful to consider alternative design with


better passive systems or employing mechanical ventilation. CFD
simulation is an important tool to predict the performance of such
measurements.
Approach & Strategy
1. Predict external pressures around the building and show the
ventilation flow rate
CFD or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) system is concerned with
the numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer. It gives building
designers the information they need for detailed predictions of air flow
and heat transfer processes in and around building spaces - taking into
account boundary conditions such as the effects of climate, internal
energy sources and MVAC systems.
The use of an averaged wind data will be essential as the wind situation
varies across the day. Show the pressure variation and flow rate through
the building's openings through a day using averaged wind data.
Providing a framework where valuable information on the wind including velocity and surface pressure distributions can be analysed.
They also offer a platform for the applications for the rapid development
of virtual wind tunnel modelling based on Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) and visualization techniques in terms of Malaysian
context.
To analyse interior conditions, CFD must also take into account the
environment around, within and over the building and urban forms
surrounding the project.

224 | P a g e

The following parameters should be assessed and displayed: Room air


distribution, pressure regime analysis, temperature profile analysis and
external wind analysis.
Successive simulation runs should be undertaken to study the impact in
terms of occupant comfort, indoor temperature, vertical and horizontal
distribution of airflow. These require not only many simulations runs and
advanced computing capability and time, but the visualization output
of the simulations have to be projected and discussed in the team in
order to optimize conflicting requirements and balance the positive and
negative impact of strategic decisions.
Zone analysis can also be used for analysing infiltration and natural
ventilation in buildings. It uses a zone air flow model to calculate bulk air
movement in and through the building, driven by wind and buoyancy
induced pressures.
2. Predict internal cross ventilation or stack effect in at least 50% of the
main occupied area of the building
One of the focuses of this point is to demonstrate how effective is the
wind penetration into internal spaces and rooms such as occupied
rooms, corridors interior light wells, gaps between buildings and
courtyards. Another focus is to assess the comfort implications of a series
of what if options on building form. As a result, a closed plan can be
developed into a more open design. It is, therefore, possible to
investigate the wind penetration into elements such as internal light wells,
gaps between buildings and courtyards.

By assessing the comfort

implications of a series of what if options on building form, a closed plan


can be developed into a more open design - while at the same time,
ensuring air movement and enlivening the internal environments.

225 | P a g e

Ventilation Simulation Methodology and Requirements


The

natural

ventilation

simulation

shall

be

carried

out

using

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling to identify the most


effective building design and layout for the development. The simulation
results and recommendations derived are to be adopted to meet the
intent of the criteria.
The CFD modelling shall be carried out using validated software. The CFD
solver shall have the minimum capability of solving the Navier-Stokes fluid
flow equations for three-dimensional incompressible flows at steady state
on a body conforming computational grid. Turbulence modelling shall
also be included with the minimum requirement of using the standard k turbulence model, coupled with standard wall function.
For external pressure simulation, the computational domain shall include
the development of interest, the characteristics of the immediate
surroundings and buildings reside within the proximity of minimum 3 times
or more the length of the longest distance measured across the
boundary of the development. If the building and surrounding
development are located within hilly terrain, the topography information
shall be included in the simulation models. The computational domain
shall be further extended from the outer edge of the proximity regions to
the boundary such that it would not result in non-physical airflow solution
after the solution has converged. The computational domain shall also
be aligned along with the wind flow direction. The domain height shall
be extended, approximately 3 times the height of the tallest building
within the defined vicinity.
The computational grid generated for all simulations should resolve the
salient flow features in the apartment units and around the

226 | P a g e

development. As a guide, the dimension of the computational element


should be set at 0.1 to 0.2 m in the apartment unit, 0.5 to 1.0 m at all
buildings and ground level and 10 m at the far field boundary with a
minimum of 50 m away from the ground.
Based on local climatic wind condition, meteorological data on the
prevailing wind direction and velocity of the proposed site location for
at least three prevailing wind direction shall be used for the CFD
simulation. An example of the prevailing wind condition such as the
following mean speed and direction shall be taken from table below.
The inbound vertical wind profile shall be assumed to be given by the
logarithmic law with a reference height of 10 m.
The CFD results must be compiled and tabulated and included in a
report that highlights the following:
1. Geometrical Model should include
a. Isometric view of the model
b. Domain size used
c. Plan and 3D isometric model
2. Simulation settings
a. Boundary conditions
b. CFD software/ models used/ numerical scheme
c. Mesh/ cell sizing
d. Solution control-convergence criteria
3. Results and discussions
a. Pressure and velocity vector salient findings
b. Average wind velocity within each selected unit where
applicable.
c. Highlight areas with good natural ventilation
4. Conclusion

227 | P a g e

5. The following plots are to be placed in the appendices


a. Simulation results for each direction
b. Static pressure (plan view-ground & mid elevation,
isometric views on building faade)
c. Velocity vector and contour showing the plan view of
ground & mid-elevation of the building
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Predict external pressures around building
2. The CFD output and analysis report
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS1525: 2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings

228 | P a g e

OH Req1

OCCUPANT & HEALTH

Air Quality Performance

To Main Good Quality of Indoor Air

DESIGN
OH

Req1

Required

Aim
To design and maintain good indoor air quality in an occupied space by
establishing minimum indoor air quality (IAQ) performance. To enhance
indoor air quality in buildings, thus, contributing to the comfort and wellbeing of occupants.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Meet the minimum requirements of Section 4 through 7 of the ASHRAE
Standard 62.1-2007, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality or any
applicable local code or whichever is more stringent.
Condition 1: For air-conditioned buildings
Mechanical Ventilation systems must be designed using the ventilation
rate procedure as describe in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 or any
applicable local code, whichever is more stringent.
Condition 2: For non-air-conditioned buildings
Minimum fresh air ventilation in conjunction with mechanical ventilation
system shall follow the procedure as described in the ASHRAE Standard
62.1-2007 or any applicable local code, or whichever is more stringent.

229 | P a g e

Justification
This prerequisite requires that applicants demonstrate that the delivered
minimum zone outdoor airflow for each zone and the outdoor air intake
flow for each system meets or exceeds the point required by the ASHRAE.
Approach & Strategy
Design ventilation systems to meet or exceed the minimum outdoor air
ventilation rates as described in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007.
Building mechanical and passive ventilation systems seek to ensure that
adequate fresh air is available for occupants in a space. Underventilated buildings may be stuffy, odorous, uncomfortable and/or
unhealthy for occupants. The standard takes into account the density of
people within an area, the type of activity that is expected to occur
within the space, and the nature of the ventilation air delivery system.
For air-conditioned building, use either the Ventilation Rate Procedure
(most common and easier) or the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. In the
Ventilation Rate Procedure (Section 6.2), the breathing zone outdoor
airflow is equal to the sum of the outdoor airflow rate required per person
multiplied by the zone population, plus the outdoor airflow rate per unit
area multiplied by the zone floor area.
For non-air-conditioned or naturally ventilated spaces (Section 5.1), the
standard requires that all naturally ventilated spaces be permanently
open to and within 7.6 meter of operable wall or roof openings and that
the operable area is at least 4% of the net occupiable floor area.
For mixed-mode ventilated spaces, meet minimum requirements of
Chapter 6 of the ASHRAE.

230 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Narrative describing the projects ventilation design, including specifics
about fresh air intake volumes and special considerations that affected
the projects ventilation design.
References, Standard and Codes
1. ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air
Quality

231 | P a g e

OH Req2

OCCUPANT & HEALTH

Indoor smoking restriction

DESIGN
OH

Indoor Smoking Restriction

Req2

Required

Aim
To enforce Smoking Restriction at Premises in line with the Control of
Tobacco Product (Amendment) Regulations 2004 & 2008
Requirement
REQUIRED:
Ensuring compliance towards regulation through restriction on smoking
in buildings/ premises.
Location of non-smoking signs must be visible in signage location plans.
Provide a designated area outside of the building for smokers 10m away
from main entrance.
Justification
The indoor smoking restriction credit is aimed at limiting the exposure of
building occupants to environmental tobacco smoke. The smoke is a
result of burning of cigarettes, pipes, or cigars, which contain thousands
of compounds, many of which are known as a carcinogen.

The

expected results of the credit are to increase occupants comfort, higher


productivity rates, lower absenteeism, and fewer illnesses. It is essential to
maintain a healthy living workspace through the protection of indoor
environments from contaminants.
Approach & Strategy
Continuous involvement and commitment by the building tenants
towards smoking restrictions.

232 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Floor plans to display signage on smoking-restricted areas.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Federal Government Gazette. March 2, 2012. Control of
Tobacco Product (Amendment) Regulations. Jabatan Peguam
Negara. 2012
2. Warta Kerajaan Malaysia, Akta Makanan 1983, PeraturanPeraturan Kawalan Hasil Tembakau 2004.

233 | P a g e

OH1

OCCUPANT & HEALTH

Control & Strategies to Reduce Mould


Occurrence

DESIGN
OH

1 point:
1. Indoor Mould Prevention Guideline
2. Comprehensive Mechanical Air Ventilation
System

1 Points

Aim
To prevent mould in building areas and lodges in order to ensure building
users health and harmony
Requirement
1 POINT:
1. The building design must comply with the Indoor Mould Prevention

Guideline published by JKR 2009 or other international equivalent


standard/guidelines.
2. Mechanical or naturally air ventilation system should maintain

sufficient air movements in ventilated spaces to prevent air


stagnation.
3. Walls subjected to natural ventilation must be maintained at a

temperature higher than the dew point at the space conditions


without any use of active control (e.g. electric heater)
4. Avoidance of cold air diffuser near or directed to wall surfaces.

*Architect is required to comply with Clause 3.1 and Mechanical &


Electrical Engineer is required to comply with Clause 4.1 as stated in
Guidelines on the Prevention of Mould Growth in Buildings.

234 | P a g e

Justification
Mould has the potential to cause health problems. It produces allergens
(substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some
cases, potentially toxic substances. Inhaling or touching mould or mould
spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Hence, mould
prevention is necessary to ensure the health of building occupants.
Approach & Strategy
Many factors may result in mould growth in a building. Factors may relate
to poor HVAC design, thermal bridging in walls and slabs, poor ventilation
and rain water or pipe water leakage. The most effective way to prevent
mould growth in buildings is to avoid these entire parameters
occurrence.
It is important to avoid any wet or damp areas on building surfaces or on
related items in order to prevent mould growth.
Humidity around all room areas and any air vents must be controlled and
kept

below

saturation

levels

during

construction

and

building

occupancy.
All windows must be left open continuously during post-construction and
before occupancy to allow sufficient time for moisture level in the
building materials to decrease below the danger level.
Other measurements:

1. Proper insulation of air-conditioning ducting system.


2. Prevention of leakage of rainwater through roof and walls
3. Prevention of infiltration of humid air into air-conditions spaces

235 | P a g e

4. Improve ventilation in buildings (for mechanically ventilated


buildings)

5. Avoidance of air-conditioned air supply diffuser very close to wall


surfaces

6. Prevention of water leakage into basement level.


7. Prevention of pipe leakage or broken pipe
8. Complete control of Indoor moisture sources and avoiding
creation of humidity
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Basic report outlining the strategies, which will be implemented to
fulfil the requirements for mould prevention by highlighting the
measurements taken to satisfy the requirements for this point.
2. Basic post-construction building commissioning plan indicating
sufficient moisture removal from the building construction before
occupancy.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Indoor Mould Prevention Guideline published by JKR 2009.
2. ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Fundamentals, ASHRAE 2009.
3. ASHARE Guideline for Buildings in Humid Climate Zone.
4. Australian Mould Guideline 2010.

236 | P a g e

OH2

OCCUPANT & HEALTH

Indoor Air Quality Pollutants

DESIGN
OH

3.1 Low VOC Materials - for Paints


and Coatings
1 Point
3.2 Low VOC Materials - for
Adhesives and Sealants 1 Point

2 Points

Aim
To reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that is odorous,
irritating and harmful to human health.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Low VOC Materials for paints and coatings
1 POINT:
Low VOC Materials for adhesives and sealants
Justification
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain
solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may
have short and long-term adverse health effects like eye, nose, and
throat irritations, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea, and damages
to the liver, kidney, and the central nervous system. Specifying low VOC
materials helps to reduce the indoor air pollution at source, which is one
of the effective indoor air pollution control strategies.
Approach & Strategy
Building materials such as paints, sealants, and adhesives form important
finishes for the exterior and interior surfaces. They are, however, potential
contributors to the poor indoor air quality and can have a bearing on an
occupants health. A wide variety of volatiles are released through
oxidation by both solvent-based and water-based paints. Sealants and

237 | P a g e

adhesives contain toxic chemicals that are released during construction


and occupancy. VOCs contained within the building materials
especially formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde, and urethanes and other
chemical substances can be injurious to health and can also be
odorous. This measure aims to select materials with low to zero quantities
of such chemic also as to minimize the source of emission. In selecting
low VOC materials, a practical thumb rule is to choose water-based
products with low odour.
1. Use only zero/low VOC paints. All paints used in the interior of the
building must be certified to contain zero VOC or less than the limits
specified as follows.

2. Ensure all the sealants and adhesives used are water based rather
than solvent based or have a low solvent content. Most construction
adhesives offer adequate bond strengths in water-based varieties.
Acrylics, silicones, and siliconized acrylics are the safest sealants for use
in the interiors and have the lowest solvent content. While solvent-based
products, such as urethanes and butyls, should preferably not be used
indoors as sealants used for exterior do not pose any concern.

238 | P a g e

3. Adhesives usually have a high-VOC emission potential. Hence, use


adhesives with low-VOC or no-VOC emissions such as acrylics or phenolic
resins (phenol formaldehydes indoors).
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Purchase orders/delivery orders of low VOC paints and coatings,
and/or adhesives and sealants to demonstrate compliance with
the committed design specifications.
2. Extracts of the tender specification showing the requirement to
use adhesive with low VOC materials.
3. Cut sheets, specification sheets, and commercial brochures of
the low VOC emission finishes or products used.
4. A certificate from the manufacturer for each of the category as
applicable to the applicant, clearly stating that the materials
used have zero VOCs or low VOCs (g/litre), as specified under
limits.
References, Standard and Codes
1.

South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule


#1168 (Adhesives, Sealants and Sealant Primers), Green Seal
Standard for Commercial Adhesives GS-36 (Aerosol Adhesives),
Green Seal Standard GS-11 (Paints), Green Seal Standard GC-03
(Anti-Corrosive Paints), South Coast Air Quality Management
District (SCAQMD) Rule 1113 (Architectural Coatings)

2.

Code of Practice On Indoor Air Quality: Department of


Occupational Safety and Health Ministry of Human Resources
Malaysia 2010

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MyCREST OH (Occupant &


Health) criteria scorecard
FOR AIR-CONDITIONED
BUILDINGS
(Air-conditioned areas >
4000m2)

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OH3

OCCUPANT & HEALTH

Carbon Dioxide Level Control


Installation of Indoor Monitoring System with

DESIGN
OH

Ci

1 Point

CO Sensor

Aim
Ensure monitoring and control of carbon dioxide levels (CO), which are
effective to ensure the comfort and harmony for building users and plant
rooms
Requirement
1 POINT:
Install monitoring system and control the CO level in AHU rooms with at
least 1 CO sensor at the main return air duct at each level to ensure that
the CO levels are maintained at 1000ppm.
Justification
Install permanent monitoring system that provides feedback on
ventilation system performance to ensure that the systems are
maintaining the design minimum ventilation requirements. Configure all
monitoring equipment to generate an alarm when the conditions vary
by 10% or more from a set point, via either a building automation system
alarm to the building operator or via a visual or audible alert to the
building occupants.
A demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) system is a typical energy
conservation strategy for large spaces with variable occupancy. CO2
sensors are practical means of confirming to ensure the ventilation
system is functioning properly.

241 | P a g e

Approach & Strategy


Use of CO monitoring and control system is a step to increase the indoor
air quality. It conserves energy to ensure that all areas receive enough
fresh air based on the current amount of building users. This indirectly
helps the users to achieve fresh air apart from controlling the CO at
appropriate levels.
Potential Issues to Arise
CO control and monitoring systems installed but do not fully function
according to the need of the original design especially during building
operations. Such situation is possible if there is a lack of comprehensive
maintenance.
Operation & Maintenance
As part of the system commissioning, the project team should confirm
that the CO2 system is calibrated and that the appropriate set points and
control sequences have been implemented.
It is recommended to use CO2 sensors that require recalibration no less
than every 5 years.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Confirmation of the type of ventilation system and installed
controls
2. Narrative describing the projects ventilation design and CO2
monitoring

system.

Include

specific

information

regarding

242 | P a g e

location

and

quantity

of

installed

monitors,

operational

parameters and set points.


3. Design

drawings

displaying

schematic

illustrations

of

the

monitoring systems and CO controls.


References, Standard and Codes
1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) HVAC Basics. 1998. Copyright 1998
Honeywell Inc.
2. Measuring Carbon Dioxide Inside Buildings Why is it Important?
Retrieved at
www.energy.wsu.edu/.../Measuring_CO2_Inside_BuildingsJan2013.pdf on 20th July, 2014. Washington State University,
Energy Program.
3. Fong, W.K., Matsumoto, H., Ho, C.H. & Lun, Y.F. Energy
Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emission Considerations in the
Urban Planning Process in Malaysia. Retrieved at
http://eprints.utm.my/6626/1/Wee_Hiroshi_Chin_Yu_EnergyConsu
mptionAndCarbonDioxide.pdf on 20th July 2014.

243 | P a g e

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON

ECReq1

Recycling Facility

Provide Facilities to Reduce Construction


Waste and Reduce Landfill Disposal.

DESIGN
EC

Req1

Ci

Required

Aim
To assist in the reduction of waste from the occupant and to divert a
majority of waste from landfills into the recycling facility.
Requirement
REQUIRED:
During the construction period, indicate the location of recycling
facilities in the building layout plan.
Implement accessible specified area(s) for the collection and storage of
recycled wastes for the entire building. Materials include at least paper,
glass, plastics and aluminium.
The followings are the requirements for providing solid waste
management facilities:
1. Total number of building occupants (including staff and
customers)
2. Total wet/dry waste (in kg) produced per day by building
occupants
3. A building plan to indicate the location proposed for 3R Bins and
disposal rooms location

244 | P a g e

Justification
Building construction produces a lot of wastes, which needs to be
managed properly. Through proper waste management, wastes can be
diverted from entering landfills. Therefore, a construction site and
building need to be equipped with a proper collection and storage
apparatus.
Approach & Strategy
Allocate an area for collection and storage that is adequately sized and
located in an accessible area.
Identify valid local waste contractors for glass, plastic, metals, office
paper, newspaper, and cardboard. Educate occupants on recycling
measures.
The building owner (through the Facilities Manager) needs to provide the
total number of building occupants, which include the staff and
customers of the building. Approximately, a Malaysian produces 0.45 to
1.44kg/day of solid waste per capita, with a ratio of 70% of wet waste
and 30% of dry waste.
The waste production should be divided into two measurements: wet
waste and dry waste. The following tables show the calculation (to
obtain waste production in kg; max population x waste production x wet
(or dry) waste ratio).
Table 1: Example of Wet Waste Calculation

Max population

1500

persons

Waste production

0.5

kg/person/day

245 | P a g e

Wet waste

70%

Waste production

525

kg/day

Table 2: Example of Dry Waste Calculation

Max population

1500

persons

Waste production

0.5

kg/person/day

Dry waste

30%

Waste production

225

kg/day

The facility manager needs to allocate the location of the facilities on


the building plan. Three bins should be located at a strategic place, to
ease the segregation of wastes. Disposal Rooms are important to store
the cleaning apparatus and enhancing the segregation of waste.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
A Building Plan displaying the location and size of the recycling collection
area.
References, Standards and codes
1. Akta Pengurusan Sisa Pepejal dan Pembersihan Awam 2007 (Akta 672)

246 | P a g e

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON

Specification of Labelled Green Products

EC1

Non-Calculator

Carbon Impact

DESIGN
EC

Green Products:
1 POINT: Green Products
Scoring System 40% - 49%
2 POINT: Green Products
Scoring System 50% - 59%

Ci

2 Points

Aim
To encourage the usage of green products in the construction industry.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Target Green Products Scoring System (GPSS) of 40% - 49%
2 POINT:
Target Green Products Scoring System (GPSS) of 50% - 59-%
Justification
The application of the Green Product Scoring System (GPSS) is to
encourage a project team to specify the green products to be used in
their projects. It is also to educate and create awareness among the
stakeholders in the environmentally friendly products and services and to
encourage manufacturers to apply for green certification for their
products.
Approach & Strategy
Identify the green products available in the market by considering the
major product components listed in the Green Product Scoring System
Manual (GPSS). The product shall have any of the following criteria:
1. Durable product
2. Environmental protection
3. Renewable Energy

247 | P a g e

4. Recycled content
5. Local product
6. Recyclable materials
7. Improved water quality/efficiency
8. Energy efficiency
9. Improved indoor air quality (IAQ)
The GPSS calculation for building considers only the superstructure
elements and M&E systems. Substructure components for the building
and all temporary works shall be removed from the GPSS calculation. The
GPSS calculation for road excludes electrical works, mechanical works
and road furniture.
Scoring calculation method is based on a point scale as specified in the
GPSS manual:

SCORE

DESCRIPTION

The product used is not considered Green or do not have


any form of certification

Product self-declared Green by the manufacturer with


certification from independent body; e.g. compliance to
ISO 14000
OR
*Type II: Self-declarations or claims made by
manufacturer;
Any certificate or accreditation from any green/ecofriendly organization from all over the world

*Type I: Based on multiple criteria and life-cycle


considerations; e.g., product or materials that have ecolabel

248 | P a g e

OR
Certificate from any members of Global Eco-Label
Network (GEN)

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Product Certification and brochure
2. Specification of the products use
Standards & Codes
1. Green Product Scoring System Manual.
2. Global Eco-Label Network (GEN)
http://www.globalecolabelling.net/

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EC2

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON


Sustainablee Sources Materials &
Products
2.1 Sustainable Timber Source

DESIGN
EC

2.1

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To encourage the practice of timber selection from environmentally
responsible forest management.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Ensure 50% of wood-based materials and products used (structural
framing and general dimensional framing, flooring, sub-flooring, wood
doors and finishes) are certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
or the Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCC).
Justification
Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to
global climate change. The negative environmental impacts of
irresponsible forest practices can include forest destruction, wildlife
habitat loss, soil erosion and stream sedimentation, water and air
pollution and waste generation.
The FSC and the MTCC ensure that the wood used for the project comes
from environmentally responsible forest management. It incorporates
many criteria that contribute to the long-term health and integrity of
forest ecosystem including to sustainable timber harvesting, preserving

250 | P a g e

wildlife habitat and biodiversity, maintaining soil and water quality and
conserving endangered and old-growth forest.
Approach & Strategy
1. Identify the quantity and type of wood-based materials used in
the project.
2. Check the record of the wood species and products that comply
with the FSC or the MTCC requirements.
3. Identify the certified retailers, suppliers and manufacturers to the
contract
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Record of all wood-based materials identified for the project;
verify which materials are FSC and/or MTCC certified.
2. Specify the estimated quantity of each wood product.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
2. Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCC)
3. The Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)

251 | P a g e

EC2

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON

Sustainable Sources Materials & Products


2.2 Recycled Content

DESIGN
EC

2.2

Ci

2 Points

Aim
The need to increase the recycled content in building materials is a
viable and practical strategy for all building owners in pursuit of a green
building certification. Use of recycled content will result in a lower
embodied carbon rate in any given building material, apart from
reducing waste production levels from manufacturing activities.
Requirement
The project is required to utilize recycled content materials so that the
total of postconsumer recycled content plus half of the pre-consumer
content constitutes at least 10% or 15%, based on material cost, of the
total value of the materials in the project. The use of reused materials
awarded as per the following:
1 POINT:
More or equal to 10% of total materials cost to constitute recycled
content
2 POINTS:
More or equal to 15% of total materials cost to constitute recycled
content
Recycled content within a building material is determined by its weight.
The recycled content portion of the construction material is then
multiplied by the cost of assembly to determine the recycled content
value. Other expenses such as mechanical and electrical costs,

252 | P a g e

plumbing costs and so forth not included in the calculation. Only


permanently installed materials are considered for this project.
Justification
Encouraging the use of recycled content in building materials is a
strategy to reduce impacts from processing and harvesting virgin
sources. This contributes to the reduction of carbon emission from the
traditional material processing, thus reducing the embodied carbon of
a building material.
Approach & Strategy
Establish a percentage of recycled materials for the project to aim for
and identify reliable suppliers to assist in achieving the purpose. Monitor
construction activities to ensure the proper materials with recycled
content are installed.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Product brochure showing the percentage of post and preconsumer recycled content
2. Calculation indicating the compliance with the requirement
3. Green label certification (if any)

253 | P a g e

References, Standards & Codes


1. EPA, Using Recycled Industrial Materials in Buildings, 2008
http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/imr/pdfs/recy-bldg.pdf
2. EPA, Recover Your Resources, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization
Projects, 2009:
http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/tools/cdbrochure.pdf

254 | P a g e

EC3

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON


Industrial Building System (IBS)

Construction with a CIDB IBS score > 50%


Construction with a CIDB IBS score > 70%

DESIGN
EC

Ci

3 Points

Aim
To reduce wastage of construction materials and reduce wastage going
to landfill. There is a possibility of the reduction of materials carbon
emission with the reduction of wastage without compromising the
building quality.
Requirement
2 POINTS:
Provide a minimum score of 50% for IBS.
3 POINTS:
Provide a minimum score of 70% for IBS.
Justification
Industrialized Building System is known to be part of efficient construction
methods where materials used are precast or manufactured off-site.
Apart from improving construction productivity and quality, IBS also
reduces construction waste on site and at the same time reduce the
transportation waste sent to landfill.
Approach & Strategy
The use of IBS component with minimum score of 70% in a government
project is to be made compulsory. The government project will be
automatically achieved 2 points under this sub-criterion. The private
sector is encouraged to use IBS in their projects.

255 | P a g e

Target which elements to be used for IBS in design stage. 6 components


commonly used in Malaysia are:
1. Pre-cast Concrete Framing, Panel & Box System
2. Steel Framing Systems
3. Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems
4. Steel Formwork Systems
5. Block Work Systems
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
IBS Calculation
References, Standards & Codes
1. CIS 3: 2005 (National housing standard for medium-low cost
houses besides flats),
2. CIS 4: 2005 (National housing standard for medium-low cost
flats),
3. CIS 6: 2005 (Quality assurance for treatment of timber roof trusses
with copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives),
4. IBS Catalogue Precast Concrete Component for Building Work
2004/2005,
5. IBS Catalogue Precast Concrete Building Component for
Building Work 2004/2005,
6. IBS Catalogue Prefabricated Timber Component for Building
Work 2004/2005,
7. IBS Sizing Guide Precast Concrete Component for Housing
Building

256 | P a g e

EC4

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON

DESIGN

Solid Waste Management- Route And


Recyclers

EC

Ci

1 Point

Establish Waste Management Route and


Provide Recycler Details

Aims
To navigate the management of solid waste through a policy and waste
management route.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Establish waste management route and provide recycler details
Justification
The Solid Waste Management Route is important to the facilities
management team as it will provide the information of how solid waste
will be managed according to the Waste Management Hierarchy and
Solid Waste Management Policy.
Approach & Strategy
The Waste Management Route summarizes the waste management
activity through a route table. A Solid Waste Management Route must
be developed based on the Waste Management Hierarchy (Reduce,
Reuse,

Recycle,

Compost

and

Landfill)

and

the

Solid

Waste

Management Policy. The intention of Solid Waste Management Route is


to show the path for each type of waste as shown in Figure 34 below. In
the Operations and Maintenance stage, a Solid Waste Management
Policy shall be submitted to demonstrate the project owners
commitment to a sustainable waste management plan.

257 | P a g e

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Design brief describing specific Solid Waste Management Route
according to the type of building being assessed.
2. Design brief describing a Solid Waste Management System (if any)
designed for the building (e.g. chute system).
References, Standards and Codes
1. Dato Seri Arpah Abdul Razak, Solid Waste Management in
Malaysia: The Way Forward, Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing
and Local Government Malaysia, 2013.

258 | P a g e

Waste
Management
Hierarchy

Input

Reduce

Policy

Solid Waste
Management
Policy

Wet
Waste
Compost
Building

Waste

Dry
Waste

Other
Waste

Implementations

Awareness
programme

Composting
machine/tank

Output

Reducing
amount of
waste

Fertilizer

Reduce

Awareness
programme

Reducing
amount of
waste

Reuse

Re-usage
containers

Recycle

3Rs Bins

Transit
materials

Dispose

Waste bins

Landfill

Figure 34: Solid Waste Management Route

259 | P a g e

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)- Building


Works*

EC5

DESIGN
EC

Materials Life Cycle Analysis Building Works

Cr

6 Points

CALCULATOR**

EC-CAL01: DESIGN LCA

Aim
To encourage construction team in selection of low carbon emission
building materials.
Requirement
To verify the ennvironmental emissions associated with the cradle to gate
life cycle of building material is below the stated baseline:
2 POINTS:
Reduction of 5% of the carbon emission from baseline level
3 POINTS:
Reduction of 10 % of the carbon emission from the baseline level
4 POINTS:
Reduction of 15% of the carbon emission from baseline level
5 POINTS:
Reduction of 20 % of the carbon emission from the baseline level
6 POINTS:
Reduction of 25% of the carbon emission from baseline level
There are 8 elements listed in the LCA calculator. The MyCREST calculator
will be updated from time to time. Project teams have the option and
opportunity to include any other element or assembly (other than the 8
listed in the calculator) into their embodied energy calculation should

260 | P a g e

their values be known. However in this case, baseline values must be


justified from ' other similar conventional counterpart materials. This
justification must be submitted and included with justification in the LCA
baseline calculation for that specific element. This justification must be
founded upon the basis that the baseline materials and elements'
constitute or represent conventional elements and assemblies in a
typical reinforced concrete structure or building in Malaysia. Point will be
awarded
1. Through the use MyCREST Calculator EC-CAL01: DESIGN LCA OR/AND
2. Verified and commercially known LCA software for analysis such as
Simapro and Gabi.
In the case of (1) the baseline is 0.4. (Please refer Appendix 1 No.3)
In the case of (2) the baseline must be justified by project team which
must be based on standard and conventional construction.
Assessment of baseline will be done based on project by project basis.
**The current MyCREST calculator deals with basic structural element
only.
Justification
Replacing part of energy-intensive materials with less energy-intensive
materials and/or utilize regionally available materials, will demonstrate a
commitment to lower carbon in the structural applications of building
materials such as roofing/ flooring, columns, and load-bearing walls, for
structural applications. Use such technologies to demonstrate a
minimum reduction in the overall embodied energy, when compared to
equivalent products for the same application, for the structural system

261 | P a g e

used in a building, thus meeting the equivalent strength requirements.


Strategies can include specifying fly-ash in concrete mix and using low
embodied carbon materials to reduce the carbon emission release to
the environment.
Approach & Strategy
Design teams shall choose low carbon emission materials with the
selection of materials that are made with less extraction process require
and less energy use.
Use recycled content materials which are known to be less in carbon
emission rather than using new raw materials.
Request carbon emission data from several manufacturers to compare
which material has less emission impact.
Carbon Calculator
Refer: Calculator ID: EC-CAL01:
Design LCA

The input for this calculator is:


1. Type of materials
2. Quantity
3. tCO2e of the materials

262 | P a g e

Submittals
1. Calculation of reduction of tCO2e
2. List of materials included in the calculation
References, Standards & Codes
1. Alan Clarke, Nick Grant & Judith Thornton, April (2009),
Quantifying The Energy and Carbon Effects of Water Saving,
Elemental Solutions.
2. Chris Riedy, Aleta Lederwasch & Nicky Ison, (Publication year not
available), Defining Zero Emission Buildings.
3. David Clark, 29 July (2013), Embodied Carbon Case Studies for
Office Buildings.
4. Sophia Lisbeth Hsu, May 7 (2010), Life Cycle Assessment of
Materials and Construction in Commercial Structures: Variability
and Limitations.

263 | P a g e

Sample Calculator Input

Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool


Life Cycle Analysis Calculator Template
Project Details
Project Name
MYCREST Rating

NEW CONSTRUCTION / MAJOR RENOVATION

Date

5/31/16

EC13: Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) - Structural Elements

ICE database to be used for CO2 value.


m2

Building Gross Floor Area (GFA)

Baseline
Baseline LCA - Above Reference

0.00

tCO2e

Proposed
No

Item

Description

kgCO2/kg

A= from ICE
1

Quantity

Value

B= Extract from BoQ

Conversion Note (from supplier or


Web

0.00
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2350kg/m3
11kg/m2

Beam
0.00

0.00

Rebar / BRC

0.00

0.00

Formwork

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2350kg/m3
11kg/m2

Column
0.00

0.00

Rebar / BRC

0.00

0.00

Formwork

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

a) Steel

0.00

0.00

b) Timber

0.00

0.00

a) Metal Roofing - Lysaght trimdeck

0.00

0.00

b) Concrete Tiles

0.00

0.00

b) Steel Structure

E=D/1000

0.00

a) Concrete G30- 0% flyash

D=C*A

0.00

b) Steel Structure

C= see note for conversion

Formwork 20mmthick

a) Concrete G30- 0% flyash

Total tCo2e

Rebar / BRC
b) Steel Structure

Total kgCO2e

Slab
a) Concrete G30- 0% flyash

Facilitator must convert all BoQ Quantity to


Unit kg
Unit of
materials

2350kg/m3
11kg/m2

Roof Truss
150mm width,2mm thick =
3.21kg/m

Roof Covering
0.47mm thick = 4.16kg/m2

0.00

0.00

a) Claybrick

0.00

0.00

b) Cement brick

0.00

0.00

c) Autoclaved Aerated Blocks

0.00

0.00

a) Timber frame

0.00

0.00

b) Aluminum Frame

0.00

0.00

150mm width,2mm thick =


3.21kg/m

Normal 12mmthick

0.00

0.00

4mm thick=10kg/m2,
6mmthick=15kg/m2, 8mm thick
20kg/m2, 10mmthick =25kg/m2.
12mm thick= 30kg/m2

Low-E

0.00

External Wall
1m2=59nos, 1nos=2.5kg

Window frame

Window Glass

0.00
0.00

Total tCO2e
#DIV/0!

Reduction of the Carbon Emission from baseline (%)


* Please fill in whenever applicable to your project

SUMMARY
EC13 LCA - Structural Elements points Documented:
Total Carbon Impact for LCA - Structural Elements

#DIV/0!
0.000

tCO2e

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EC6

LOWERING THE EMBODIED CARBON

Salvaged and Reused Materials

DESIGN
EC

Reuse Salvaged Materials

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To reuse building materials in order to reduce demand for virgin materials
and reduce waste, thereby lessening impacts associated with the
extraction and processing of virgin resources.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Salvage or reuse construction materials for 2% of building materials
based on total material cost.
Justification
Reusing material found onsite or offsite diverting materials from
construction waste stream, reducing the need of landfill space and
environmental impact from associated water and air contamination. It
also helps to reduce the production of new materials.
Approach & Strategy
Reused items can be found onsite or offsite. Identify opportunities to
incorporate salvage materials into building design and research
potential reused material suppliers. Example of items that can be reused
onsite is concrete waste which can be used as road base.
Project teams shall consider materials that will be permanently installed
in the project. Mechanical, electrical and plumbing assemblies are
excluded from calculation.

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Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. List of proposed salvaged material.
2. Calculation of the value of reused materials against the estimated
total value of the materials for the project.
References, Standards & Codes
1. Ahmad Firman Masudi, Che Rosmani Che Hassan, Noo Zalina
Mahmood, Siti Nazziera Mokhtar & Nik Meriam Sulaiman,
October 10 (2011), Construction Waste Quantification and
Benchmarking: A Study in Klang Valley, Malaysia, David
Publishing.
2. Bradley Guy, Building Deconstruction: Reuse and Recycling of
Building Materials.
3. Construction Salvaged And Recycling Toolkit, June (2007), Metro.
4. EPA, Recover Your Resources, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization
Projects, 2009:
http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/tools/cdbrochure.pdf

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WE Req1

WATER EFFICIENCY FACTORS

Reduce potable water - 10% reduction


Water Efficient Products

DESIGN
WE

Req1

Cr

Required

CALCULATOR
WE-CAL01: DESIGN WATER EFFICIENCY
FACTOR

Aim
To design efficient water and plumbing strategies and reduce the water
consumption of the building occupants.
Requirement
Required:
Reduction of potable water usage by 10%.
Justification
To encourage and promote the usage of water efficiently by using a
better type of water fittings system and flow rates.
Approach & Strategy
Designers are encouraged to attain exposure towards technological
advancements in the market related to water efficiency products.
Baseline
Water efficient fittings are measured based on the water flow rate. From
the baseline levels given below, the team must calculate reduction of

267 | P a g e

the propose water fitting from baseline. The baseline to calculate water
efficient is shown as below:
Flush Fixture
Conventional Water Closet
(Male)
Conventional Water Closet
(Female)
Conventional Urinal (Male)
Flow Fixture
Conventional Lavatory
Kitchen Sink
Bidet
Ablution Tap
Shower

Flow rate (LPF)


6.00
6.00
2.50
Flow rate
(LPM)
8.00
8.33
8.00
8.00
10.00

*The carbon emission factor for processed water is 0.419 kg CO2e/ m3.
The baseline is generated based on the minimum flow rate / water
consumption for 1 Star rated in Guideline for Voluntary Water Efficient
Products Labelling Scheme, April 2013, Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air
Negara (SPAN).
The carbon emission factor for processed water is derived from CIS
20:2012, Green Performance Assessment System in Construction, page
31, Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB).
Proposed Design
The estimated water consumption based to the proposed fitting and
flow rate. The requirement for this criterion is the calculation must show
the efficiency of the building in term type of fittings, flow rates and
building occupancy by 10%.

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Carbon Calculator
Refer: Calculator ID: WE-CAL01:
Design Water Efficiency Factor
The input for this calculator is:
1. Daily Uses
2. Occupants
Submittal
Water fittings specification with flow rate.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Guidelines for Voluntary Water Efficient Products Labelling
Scheme (WEPLS) Standard By Span
2. 2011 Guidelines to Defra/DECCs GHG Conversion Factors for
Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission Factors

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Sample Calculator Input

Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool


Water Efficiency Factors Calculator Template
Project Details
Project Name
MyCREST Rating

NEW CONSTRUCTION / MAJOR RANOVATION

Date

5/31/16

WEreq1: Reduced Potable Water - 10% Reduction


Daily Occupancy
Building Occupancy

people

Annual Work Days

days

Baseline Case
Flush Fixture Data
Flush Fixture

Fixture Type

Total Daily Uses

Flowrate (LPF)

Water-Closet

Conventional

6.0

Water Consumption (l)


0.00

Urinal

Conventional

2.5

0.00
0.00

Total Calculated Flush Fixture Water Use Volume (l)

Flow Fixture Data


Flush Fixture

Fixture Type

Total Daily Uses

Flowrate (LPF)

Lavatory

Conventional

8.0

15

0.00

Kitchen Sink

Conventional

8.3

15

0.00

Bidet

Conventional

8.0

15

0.00

Ablution Tab

Conventional

8.0

300

0.00

Shower

Conventional

10.0

300

0.00

Duration (second)

Water Consumption (l)

0.00

Total Calculated Flow Fixture Water Use Volume (l)

Proposed Case
Flush Fixture Data
Flush Fixture

Fixture Type

Total Daily Uses

Water-Closet

Ultra Low-Flow

Flowrate (LPF)

0.00

Urinal

Ultra Low-Flow

0.00

Total Calculated Flush Fixture Water Use Volume (l)

Water Consumption (l)

0.00

Flow Fixture Data


Flush Fixture

Fixture Type

Total Daily Uses

Flowrate (LPF)

Duration (second)

Annual Water Consumption (l)

Lavatory

Low-flow

0.00

Kitchen Sink

Low-flow

0.00

Bidet

Low-flow

0.00

Ablution Tab

Low-flow

0.00

0.00
0.00

Low-flow
Shower
Total Calculated Flow Fixture Water Use Volume (l)

Total Calculated Flow Fixture Water Use Annual Volume, Baseline Case (l)
Total Calculated Flow Fixture Water Use Annual Volume, Proposed Case (l)
Percent Reduction of Water Use (%)

0.00
0.00
#DIV/0!

WE1: Water Conservation Strategies


Carbon Emission (tCO2e)
Total Calculated Annual Carbon Emission for Water Use, Baseline Case (l)

0.000

Total Calculated Annual Carbon Emission for Water Use , Proposed Case (l)

0.000

Carbon Emission Reduction compare to baseline (%)

#DIV/0!

SUMMARY
WEreq1 Reduced Potable Water - 10% Reduction points Documented:
Total Carbon Impact for Water Usage
WE1 Water Conservation Strategies points Documented:

#DIV/0!
0.000

tCO2e

#DIV/0!

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WE1

WATER EFFICIENCY FACTORS

Water Conservation Strategies


30% Carbon Emission Reduction Compared
to WEPLS Standard by SPAN) : 1 Point

DESIGN
WE

Cr

2 Points

50% Carbon Emission Reduction Compare to


WEPLS Standard by SPA:
2 Points

CALCULATOR
WE-CAL01: DESIGNWATER EFFICIENCY
FACTOR

Aims
To use water efficiently
Requirement
1 POINT:
30% carbon emission reduction compare to Voluntary Water Efficient
Products Labelling Scheme (WEPLS) standard by SPAN
2 POINTS:
50% carbon emission reduction compare to WEPLS standard by SPAN
Justification
To encourage and promote the usage of water efficiently by using a
better type of water fittings system and flow rates.
Approach & Strategy
The proposed MyCREST rating system awards water efficiency
performance points on the basis of predicted building water
consumption of Proposed Building compared to a modelled Baseline
Building.

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Below are the list of percentage water saving and point award.

Baseline Building
The baseline is generated based on the minimum flow rate / water
consumption for 1 Star rated in Guidelines for Voluntary Water Efficient
Products Labelling Scheme (WEPLS) by SPAN. The building occupancy
must be same as Proposed Building.

Below is the baseline water consumption:


Flush Fixture
Conventional Water Closet
(Male)
Conventional Water Closet
(Female)
Conventional Urinal (Male)
Flow Fixture
Conventional Lavatory
Kitchen Sink

Flow rate (LPF)


6.00
6.00
2.50
Flow rate
(LPM)
8.00
8.33

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Bidet
Ablution Tap
Shower

8.00
8.00
10.00

Proposed Building
The Proposed Building Water Consumption is generated using the actual
design based on the type of fittings, flow rates and building occupancy.
Carbon Calculator
Refer: Calculator ID: WE-CAL01:
Design Water Efficiency Factor

The input for this calculator is:


1. Daily Uses
2. Occupants
3. Water fitting flow rate
Submittals
1. Water fitting specification with flow rate
2. Water Efficiency Fitting Calculator
References, Standards and Codes
1. Guidelines for Voluntary Water Efficient Products Labelling
Scheme (WEPLS) Standard By Span
2. 2011 Guidelines to Defra/ DECCs GHG Conversion Factors for
Company Reporting: Methodology Paper for Emission Factors

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WE2

WATER EFFICIENCY FACTORS

Reduced Potable Water For Landscape


For Landscape Irrigation, Pursue a Designed
System Which Reduces Potable Water
Source Through Alternative Means OR
Refuse Potable Water Use Completely

DESIGN
WE

Ci

2 Point

Aim
To promote landscaping strategies and elements and encourage
rainwater harvesting that reduces the use of potable water for
landscape and irrigation.
Requirements
1 POINT:
Decrease potable water source by 60% through alternative methods for
landscaping uses i.e. rainwater harvesting
2 POINTS:
100% reduction of potable water used for landscaping i.e. complete
refuse potable water use.
Justification
To encourage and promote the usage of water irrigation efficiently by
using a better type of irrigation system and low irrigation type of
landscape.
Approach & Strategy
Efficient water use for landscaping may reduce carbon impact through
plantation of native or adaptive plants that require less water. Minimize
or avoid use of potable water for landscape irrigation.
Carbon Calculator
None

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Submittals
1. Narrative of the system with references to Guidelines used
calculations, and description of how the system meets the
requirement.
2. Narrative by a landscape architect explaining the selection of
native or adaptive plants, the efficient irrigation system and
indicating that it will meet all the requirements.
3. Calculation of landscape water consumption.
References, Standard and Codes
NAHRIM

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WE3

EFFECTIVE WATER USE MANAGEMENT


Water Sub Meter &Leak Detection

3.1 Install Individual Sub-meters to Monitor


the Major Water Usage: 1 point
3.2 Linking All Private Meters to the Energy
Management System (EMS) for Leak
Detection: 1 point

DESIGN
WE

Ci

2Points

Aim
To reduce/avoid water wastage in case of leakage through early
detection by having water leak detection system.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Install individual sub-meters to monitor the major water usage in all these
locations:
1. Cooling towers and make-up water tank
2. Landscape watering system
3. Kitchens
4. Leased areas
5. Fire resistant water tank system
6. Main pipe distribution from tank OR internal domestic water tank
pipe
7. Rainwater Harvesting System
8. Recycled waste water system
1 POINT:
Linking all private meters to the Energy Management System (EMS) for
leak detection

276 | P a g e

Justification
Water sub- meter is used to measure water consumptions and detect
water leakage system to avoid water wastage.
Approach & Strategy
Meter locations must be easily accessed. If there are automated building
systems, sub-meters must be equipped with a device which can record
readings.
Water leak detection system requires a device and integration between
water sub-meter and building automated system. This system is part of
the Energy Management and Control System.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Water sub-meter installation technical report
2. Schematic drawings of water sub-meter installation
3. Water leak installation system technical report
4. Schematic drawings of water leak detection system installation
References, Standard and Codes
None

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WE4

EFFECTIVE WATER USE MANAGEMENT


Recycled Grey Water

4.1 1 Point : Recycling Waste Water Using


Waste Water Filtering System
10%
4.2 1 Point : Recycling Waste Water Using
Waste Water Filtering System
20%

DESIGN
WE

Ci

2 Points

Aim
Encouraging recycled waste water use (grey water) for activities not
related to food and beverage (non-potable use) such as cleaning and
landscaping in order to reduce domestic water use.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Recycling waste water using waste water filtering system 10%
2 POINTS:
Recycling waste water using waste water filtering system 20%
Justification
To encourage and promote the usage of recycled waste water system
by using a waste water filtering system and reduce the consumptions of
potable water.
Approach & Strategy
Waste water is divided into two, which are grey water and black water.
Only grey water is encouraged to be recycled for the use of activities
specific to cleaning and watering landscapes and needs to go through
a special filtering system. Recycled waste water cannot be used for food
and beverage as well as hygiene purposes. To avoid confusion, suitable
labels must be prepared at every waste water tap.

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Potential Issues to Arise


Acceptance of the concept of recycled waste water is new in Malaysia.
Submittals
1. Design report and calculations on waste water recycling system
2. Schematic drawings of waste water recycling system
Carbon Calculator
None
References, Standard and Codes
1. Charlotte Parkes, Hannah Kershaw, Jim Hart, Raphael Sibille &
Zac Grant, August (2010), Energy and Carbon Implications of
Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Recycling, Environment
Agency, SC090018.
2. C. Pinney, R. Grey, R. Grey, R. Wagget, S. Mustow, & T. Smerdon,
March (1997), Water Conservation : Implication Of Using
Recycled Greywater And Stored Rainwater In The UK, 13034/1 .

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SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY

DESIGN

DESIGN FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

SC1

SC

To Assess the Relative Ease of Access and Use


of Facilities for Persons With Handicaps

1 Points

Aim
To assess and provide relative ease of access and use of facilities for
persons with disabilities. In doing so the building takes one step ahead in
the pursuit of sustainability - by encompassing human ease and comfort
without discrimination towards people with different physical or mental
forms.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Prepare disabled-friendly amenities based on all legal and expert
requirements, but not restricted to the following:
1.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 .AND,

2.

MS1183: Part 8: 1990 (P) Code of practice for precautions in


the design and construction of buildings: Part 8: Code of
practice for means of escape for disabled people

3.

MS 1184: 2002 Code of practice on access for disabled


persons to public buildings (First revision)

4.

AND,

MS 1331: 1993 Code of practice for access of disabled people


outside buildings

5.

AND ,

AND,

Guideline for Preparation of Minimum Amenities for the


Disabled at Building Projects by JKR, Architects Department,
IPJKR October 2006 (JKR 20802-0007-2006) .AND,

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6.

Planning, Guidelines 7 Standard: Facilities of the Disabled,


town & Country Planning Department, Ministry of housing &
Local Government Malaysia (JPBD 1/2000) 200.2

Justification
The credit is aimed at integrating all members with different abilities into
the society. It presents a guide to help cater for the usability, safety,
comfort

and

convenience,

without

discrimination

towards

any

occupants, in the design process. By providing these qualities, there is a


probable increase productivity rates and decrease in absenteeism.
Approach & Strategy
Address and improve all accessibility features through building
maintenance programmes, renovations, and refurbishments. Building
management policies are employed to ensure that current access
provisions are not misused or mistreated through housekeeping practices
or by untrained staff. The quality of accessibility is periodically reviewed
through user feedback surveys and access audits.
Examples of supplementary aids/appliances
1. Audio/tactile signage and way finding systems to aid in
orientation and navigation of persons with vision impairments.
2. Evacuation chairs to aid in assisted evacuation of persons with
impaired mobility.
3. All printed information, brochures, and maps to be made
available in alternative formats such as large print, audio, and
Braille.
4. Induction loop systems at all counters, reception desks, meeting
rooms, waiting areas, and so on.

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Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Plan on the disable facilities
2. Detailed drawing of the facilities for the disabled
References, Standards and Codes
1.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984.

2.

MS1183: Part 8: 1990 (P) Code of practice for precautions in


the design and construction of buildings: Part 8: Code of
practice for means of escape for disabled people.

3.

MS 1184: 2002 Code of practice on access for disabled


persons to public buildings (First revision).

4.

MS 1331: 1993 Code of practice for access of disabled


people outside buildings.

5.

Guideline for Preparation of Minimum Amenities for the


Disabled at Building Projects by JKR, Architects Department,
IPJKR October 2006 (JKR 20802-0007-2006).

6.

Planning, Guidelines 7 Standard: Facilities of the Disabled,


town & Country Planning Department, Ministry of housing &
Local Government Malaysia (JPBD 1/2000) 200.2.

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SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY

SC2

Access To Views From Work Area


(Occupied Spaces)

Design for the Occupied Area to Have a


Direct Line of Sight Through Vision Glazing

DESIGN
SC

1 Point

Aim
To promote higher levels of wellbeing, productivity and human comfort.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Design 60% of the occupied building spaces has a direct line of sight
through vision glazing and measured between 0.8m to 2.3m above
finished floor plan levels,
Justification
Windows provide daylight in buildings, and may also provide a view of
outdoors. The character of the view is important to human well-being.
Extensive research in environmental psychology has established that
access to outside views and nature, both through a view and through
immersion in natural settings, is beneficial. For instance, hospital patients
with a view of green spaces, as opposed to those with a view of a blank
brick wall, recovered more quickly from surgery and required less postoperative pain medication. This benefit is not simply associated with the
possibility of a higher light exposure from a more exposed faade. Other
recent studies have proven that having access to views of nature in the
workplace will provide relief of boredom, anxiety, and stress; and,
therefore increase occupants health and productivity.

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Approach & Strategy


To provide maximum outdoor view; use of transparent glass is
encouraged for wall partitions and for room walls as well. This allows for
the pleasure of the outdoor view even at a distance from windows. For
privacy reasons, parts of the wall may be specified as frosted glass. Low
interior partitions and column free spaces are also encouraged to be
included. Offices should pinpoint open plan areas along the perimeter
of the facade, while private workplaces or areas not frequently
occupied should be placed at the core of the building.

Figure 35: Example of Open-Plan Office Layout with Maximum Line Of Sight for
Outdoor Views

Carbon Calculator
None

284 | P a g e

Submittals
1. Typical floor plans indicating and clearly marked identified
occupied building spaces.
2. Plan and sectional drawings clearly showing the line of sight
drawn from occupied building spaces to the vision glazing
perimeter.
3. Design strategy of the interior layout that will be designed or
recommended to maintain view to the outside.
References, Standards & Codes
1. MS 1525:2007, Code of Practice for Energy Efficiency and Use of
Renewable Energy by SIRIM.

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SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY

SC3

Compatibility Of Urban And Facade


Design To Cultural Values

DESIGN
SC

The Presence of Culture and Heritage is


Enhanced Through Its Integration With
Recent Designs and Current Development

2 Point

Aim
The presence of culture and heritage is enhanced through its integration
with recent designs and current developments.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Project requirement will be determined later. However, this sub-criterion
is open to a project team to apply and propose. It will be decided
depending on case to case basis.
Justification
Cultural expression in buildings is at times, incorporated in an abstract
and modernised manner. This points promotes and allow the award of 1
point based on the cultural intentions of the building design.

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SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY

SC4

Maintenance Of Heritage Value Of


Existing Facilities
To Preserve the Heritage in
Existing Buildings

DESIGN
SC

1 Point

Aim
To preserve the heritage of the existing buildings.
Requirement
1 POINT:
The exact project requirement will be determined later. However this subcriteria is open to project team to apply and propose. It will be decided
depending on case by case basis.
Justification
The aim of this point is to award project which allows the preservation of
heritage artefacts, monuments and ruins within the project itself even
though these entities must not be within the project scope.

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DP1

DEMOLITION & DISPOSAL FACTORS

DESIGN

Responsible Sourcing Of Materials

DP

Provide at Least 3 Product Agreement of Any


Building Component/Assemblies That Sourcing
From Manufacturer or Supplier Can Collect or
Has a Buyback Programme Within the Life
Cycle or At the End of Materials Life for
Recycling or Reuse Purposes

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To specify the specification of products and materials with responsible
sourcing where the manufacture or supplier have initiated recycling
activities to collect back their end product wastes and hereby, reduces
the waste sent to the landfill
Requirement
1 POINT:
Provide

at

least

product

agreement

of

any

building

component/assemblies that source from a manufacturer or a supplier


who can collect or has a buyback programme within the lifecycle or at
the end of the materials life for recycling or reuse purposes.
Justification
To maximize the recovery of resources from the recyclable and
biodegradable waste and to reduce the burden on landfills.
Manufacturers and suppliers are willing to collect back old/used
products for them to reprocess and at the same time, reduce virgin
materials from being harvested.
Approach & Strategy
Research on the supplier who offer the services of collecting back their
product.

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Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. List of the materials targeted to achieved this point and
2. Agreement/certificate from the supplier/manufacturer as proof
that they will collect back the products supplied.
References, Standards and Codes
1. BES 6001 Framework Standard for the Responsible Sourcing of
Construction, Bre Global, Products David Gall & Nicki Ledger,
2. Responsible Sourcing Scheme for Concrete, National Ready
Mixed Concrete Association
3. The BES 6001 Framework Standard for the Responsible Sourcing
of Construction Products, Bre Global, Derek Hughes, 2011
4. The Seafish Guide to Responsible Sourcing, Seafish, 2011

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DP2

DEMOLITION & DISPOSAL FACTORS

DESIGN

Design For Dis-assembly

DP

Ci

1 Point

Provide More Than 3% Base on Cost Any


Building Component/Assemblies That Can Be
Dissembled for Future Reuse or Recycling.

Aim
To design and specify the materials used that can be dissembled for future
reuse or recycling thus reducing the waste to be sent to the landfill.

Requirement
1 POINT:
Provide

more

than

3%

base

on

cost

of

any

building

component/assemblies that can be dissembled for future reuse or


recycling AND
Provide the building owner on the disassembly materials records and
plan of major disassembly materials installed in the building.
Justification
Design for disassembly allows the reutilization of building components at
the end of the building lifecycle - hence the aim is to encourage the
installation of

building component/assemblies that can be easily

disassembled for future use.


Approach & Strategy
Specify materials that are easily dissembled e.g. interlocking brick wall,
precast block. Use of products that have an eco-label indicating that
the products can be dis-assembled is one good approach.

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The disassembly plan should include:


1. An explanation of reusable, recyclable and durable component
and materials selection
2. A plan for major components repairs and replacement, potential
conversions and end-of-life disassembly.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. List of materials specification/manufacture data sheet
2. Product brochure
3. Calculation to prove the requirement is achieved.
References, Standards &Codes
1. Philip Crowther, August (2005), Design For Disassembly: Theme &
Principles
2. Pgina da W, September (1994), Guidelines for designing for
disassembly and recycling

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AVOIDING CARBON EMISSION- DEMOLITION &


DISPOSAL FACTORS
DP3

Existing Structural Material Reused

Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof

DESIGN
DP

Ci

1 Point

Aim
To encourage the use of existing building construction and structure
materials that is found on site.
To decrease waste and to decrease carbon impact from manufacturing
and transportation.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Maintain 30% of the existing area of any two of the following structures:
1. Wall
2. Floor
3. Roof structure and finishes
This point is eligible for ONE (1) exceptional score if the project succeeds
to maintain >50% of the existing area of two of the above structures.
Justification
Existing walls, floor and roof can be maintained by having a good
planning and method of demolish. This can reduce the waste as well as
reduce the construction cost for new building.

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Approach & Strategy


Identify possible existing structure features that can be reclaimed before
construction.
Conserve the present building structure (structural floor and roof
decking) and envelope (the exterior skin and framing, not including
window assemblies and non-structural roofing material).

Potentially

unsafe materials that are reused is not included from calculation of the
percentage.
Example of a calculation of a project that successfully maintained30%
of the existing wall and floor structures:
No.

Item

1.

Existing wall area

Original area
size
1,000m2

2.

Existing floor area

600m2

Maintained area
size
350m2
180m2

TOTAL

530m2

Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Calculation of shell and structure reuse
2. Calculation of the reused content value of each material must be
provided.
3. Calculation of the value of reused materials against the estimated
total value of the materials for the project.

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References, Standards and Codes


1. Guidebook on Planning and Implementing Green Practices for
Building Construction Works CIDB Malaysia.

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SUSTAINABLE& LOW CARBON INITIATIVES

IN1

Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives


MyCREST Qualified Professional

DESIGN
IN

1 Point

Aim
To ensure the MyCREST goals and processes are implemented and assist
in the design stage in order to enhance the application and certification
processes.
Requirement
1 POINT:
A minimum of 1 key member of the project team will be a Certified
MyCREST Qualified Professional.
Approach and Strategy
Appoint a certified MyCREST Qualified Professional from the pre-design
stage to guide the project team members about green building design
and construction, especially with regards to the Sustainable and Carbon
Initiatives, the authority or international guidelines and the application
process in the early stages of the project.
Submittal
Proof of appointment of the named Certified MyCREST Qualified
Professional.

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SUSTAINABLE & LOW CARBON INITIATIVES


IN 2 & 3

Sustainable& Low Carbon Initiatives


1 Point Awarded to Each Innovation Applied
Up to a Maximum of 6 Points

DESIGN
IN

2&3

Cr

Max 6 Points

Aim
These are innovation points which could contribute towards the effort
towards gaining higher level of performance than what is stated in
MyCREST. This is the recognition of additional or outstanding efforts taken
by a project applicant that extend

beyond the guidelines and

requirements laid out by MYCREST that contribute to the reduction of


carbon emission.
Requirement
1 point awarded based on the innovation strategies, with a maximum of
6 points. All Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives are required to reduce
carbon emission and/or contribute to sustainability, which complies with
at least one of following three mandatory criteria:
1. Carbon Sequestration
Any effort to capture and store carbon through bio-sequestration,
principally tree-planting, preservation, relocation etc.
2. Carbon Reduction under Scope 3 of GHG Emissions
Scope 3 emissions, or 'value chain emissions', are defined as all the
indirect impacts upstream and downstream of an organization, which
are not already defined by the GHG Scope 1 and 2. Normally, Scope 3
emission smoke up the majority source of greenhouse gas emissions.

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The Scope 3 emissions comprise of regular business activities as common


such as purchased goods and services, business travel and employee
commuting, also including activities such as leased assets, upstream and
downstream transport and distribution, the use and disposal of solid
products and the impact of any investments.
Source: The Carbon Trust
3. Technological Advancements to Improve Building Performance
Implement

technological

advancements

to

heighten

building

performance in energy efficiency, water efficiency and embodied


carbon reduction. Strategies include waterless technologies, electro
chromic glass, high energy performance sliding doors and windows,
intelligent variable speed pumps, custom vent design and other similar
technologies.
Only six (6) Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives are allowed in a single
certification while one (1) point is allocated to Certified MyCREST
Qualified Professional. These initiatives are available, but not limited to, in
the list below from MyCREST with priority given to carbon sequestration,
Carbon Reduction (CR) and Carbon Impact (CI) Initiatives as a means
to decrease the carbon emissions of the building.
Achieving the Exceptional Score
Under the Innovation category, exceptional score can be awarded for
a maximum of 2 (TWO) points out of the maximum 6 points possible.
Exceptional Scores are points achieved by any project which score
ABOVE the maximum performance threshold in the MyCREST Scorecard.

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Each threshold jump above the maximum performance in the MyCREST


Scorecard is given 1 point, as shown in the table below.
Please note that only a maximum of 2 (TWO) points can be achieved

IS9.3

Stage

Carbon
Sequestrati
on Restoration
(New/Planti
ng)

Desig
n

Carbon
Sequestrati
on Restoration
(New/Planti
ng)

Constr
uction

Exemplary
point(s)

IS2.2

Credit

Maximum
Points

Credit no.

No.

from the Exceptional Score list.

1-2

1-2

Remarks

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT):
Plant
new
vegetation on 40% of site
area including building
foot print, with at least
10%
of
the
trees
measuring more than
28cm in diameter when
fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (2
POINTs):
Plant
new
vegetation on 45% of site
area including building
foot print, with at least
10%
of
the
trees
measuring more than
28cm in diameter when
fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT):
Plant
new
vegetation on 40% of site
area including building
foot print, with at least
10%
of
the
trees
measuring more than
28cm in diameter when
fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (2
POINTs):
Plant
new
vegetation on 45% of site
area including building
foot print, with at least
10%
of
the
trees

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EP1

Building
Envelope
Performan
ce Thermal
Performan
ce
Admission
of Daylit
Zone and
provision of
automatic
controls
3.2 Natural
Lighting

Desig
n

EP3.
2

Desig
n

EP14
.2

Admission
of Daylit
Zone and
provision of
automatic
controls
14.2
Natural
Lighting

Constr
uction

EP4.
1

Desig
n

EP15

Design
Lighting
Power
Density
(LPD)
Design
Lighting

Constr
uction

measuring more than


28cm in diameter when
fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Reduction of 12
W/m2 in OTTV from the
baseline

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Design that
40% of all occupied
building spaces have
achieved daylight
illuminance with an
average of 250 lux to
500lux as measured at
the working plane,
800mm from floor level.
Design 50% of
transitional spaces
(enclosed or perimeter
circulation spaces) to
achieve daylight of 50100lux.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Design that
40% of all occupied
building spaces have
achieved daylight
illuminance with an
average of 250 lux to
500lux as measured at
the working plane,
800mm from floor level.
Design 50% of
transitional spaces
(enclosed or perimeter
circulation spaces) to
achieve daylight of 50100lux.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): 45%
improvement in Lighting
Power Density (LPD)
from baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): 45%

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Power
Density
(LPD)
Renewable
Energy

Desig
n

EP6

EP16

Renewable
Energy

Constr
uction

10

EP11

Desig
n

40

11

EP19

Constr
uction

40

12

EC2.
2

Building
Energy
Efficiency
Performan
ce
Building
Energy
Efficiency
Performan
ceVerification
Sustainably
Sourced
Materials
and
Products
2.2 Local
materia
ls

Life Cycle
Analysis
(LCA) Structural
Elements
Life Cycle
Analysis
(LCA) Structural
Elements

13

EC6

14

EC1
4

Desig
n

Desig
n

10

Constr
uction

10

improvement in Lighting
Power Density (LPD)
from baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Provide
renewable energy of 4%
from total building
electrical consumption
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT):
Provide
renewable energy of 4%
from
total
building
electrical consumption
Percentage Reduction
from Baseline: 66% = 1
point

Percentage Reduction
from Baseline: 66% = 1
point

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Use at least 30%
of the total construction
material cost in a
project on permanent
local construction
material. The distance
between the material
manufacturing/processi
ng site and the project
site must not exceed
500km.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Reduction of
30% and above of the
carbon emission from
baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Reduction of
30% and above of the
carbon emission from
baseline

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15

EC1
1

Constructio
n Waste
Managem
ent

Constr
uction

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): Recycle and/or
salvage 75% volume of
non-hazardous
construction debris.

16

WE1

Water
Conservati
on
Strategies

Desig
n

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): 70% carbon
emission reduction
compare to WEPLS
standard by SPAN

17

WE5

Water
Conservati
on
Strategies

Constr
uction

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT): 70% carbon
emission reduction
compare to WEPLS
standard by SPAN

Justification
The MyCREST Innovation sub-criteria represent opportunities for project
teams to proposed new Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives as part of
their scoring plan. The innovation should not be part of a project main
scorecard or scoring plan and not replicated from the tools used.
Preferences will be given to strategies which achieve a verifiable and
significant impact on carbon reduction. Each MyCREST innovation
scoring proposal will be evaluated for each project on a case-by-case
basis while keeping in mind that implementation of any single initiative
does not automatically approve a similar initiative in other projects or in
future developments.
MyCREST Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives allow project teams to
pursue their own innovative strategies required the strategy is supported
with the proper documentation which are: detailed narrative proposing
the strategy or Innovation , detailed list of the requirements to fulfil the
sub-criteria, detailed list of submittals to fulfil this sub-criteria and the
possible design approaches to achieve this strategy.

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SUSTAINABLE & LOW CARBON INITIATIVES


List of Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives
Points

IN

1. Carbon Capture Technology

Calculator

DESIGN
IN

Cr

1 point

Carbon Reduction

Aim
To help address vehicle issues generated by transportation to and from
the building and to contribute to additional vehicle use reduction.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Initiate carbon capture/sequestration strategies and possible carbon
deposit into areas which will not affect the atmosphere.
Approach and Strategy
Implement carbon storage initiative through, but not restricted to, one of
the methods below:
Biochar is a type of charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass and is
considered as strategy towards carbon sequestration to mitigate carbon
dioxide emissions. Biochar is known to increase soil fertility and increase
agricultural productivity as it is rich in carbon and can endure in soil for
thousands of years.
Bio-sequestration is the capture and storage of the carbon emission
considered as atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by
biological processes. This may be by increased photosynthesis,
replantation or prevention of tree-clearing and genetic engineering; by
enhanced soil carbon trapping in agriculture; or by the use of algal bio
sequestration (see algae bioreactor) to absorb the carbon dioxide

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emissions from coal, petroleum (oil) or natural gas-fired electricity


generation.
Submittal
Proof and documentation of the carbon storage initiative

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SUSTAINABLE & LOW CARBON INITIATIVES


List of Sustainable & Low Carbon
Initiatives Points

IN
Non-Calculator

2. Car Park Mechanical Ventilation Fans


Provided with VSD and
Controlled by CO2 Censor

DESIGN
IN

Ci

1 point

Carbon Impact

Aim
To remove vehicle exhaust fumes, mainly carbon monoxide, during
normal car park usage, creating an acceptably air-conditioned
environment and to remove the smoke in the event of a fire to assist in
providing a safe means of escape.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Install car park mechanical ventilation controlled by carbon sensors.
Approach and Strategy
In many cases, car parks can be over ventilated with exhaust fans
running at full speed, 24-hours a day. This excessive energy consumption
may be greatly reduced with the implementation of a gas detection
control system, delivering energy and cost savings whilst still maintaining
a safe and comfortable carpark environment. The system needs to
achieve six air changes per hour for exhaust fume extract and 10 air
changes per hour for smoke clearance.
Apart from removing hazardous exhaust gases to ensure cleaner air
within the parking area, these systems allow fire authorities the ability to
purge smoke in the event of a fire.

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Submittal
Relevant documentation and verification of use of ventilation fans in
accordance to the above.

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SUSTAINABLE & LOW CARBON INITIATIVES


IN
Non-Calculator

List of Sustainable & Low Carbon


Initiatives Points
3. Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM)

DESIGN
IN

Ci

1 point

Carbon Impact

Aim
To allow countries with emission reduction commitments to meet part of
their commitments by investing in projects in developing countries that
reduce GHG emissions.
Requirement
1 POINT: Implement CDM in the building design and/or operations as an
optional method to receive capital or technology for building
sustainability
Justification
The World Resources Institute defines a carbon offset as "a unit of carbon
dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) that is reduced, avoided, or sequestered to
compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere". Common renewable
energy offsets are wind power, solar power, hydroelectric power and
biofuel. Some of these offsets are used to reduce the cost differential
between renewable and conventional energy production, increasing
the commercial viability of a choice to use renewable energy sources.
Once it has been accredited by the UNFCCC a carbon off-set project
can be used as carbon credit and linked with official emission trading
schemes, such as the European Union Emission Trading Scheme or Kyoto
Protocol, as Certified Emission Reductions.
Approach and Strategy

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Adopt the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) during the Pre-Design


stage in order for effective implementation. The five National CDM
criteria for all projects are:
1. Support the sustainable development policies of Malaysia and bring
direct benefits towards achieving sustainable development.
2. Involve participation of Annex I Party/Parties as CER buyer.
3. Provide technology transfer benefits and/or improvement of
technology, including enhancement of local technology.
4. Fulfil all conditions underlined by the CDB Executive Board.
5. Justify the ability to implement the proposed CDM project activity.

Figure 36: National CDM Project Cycle (Retrieved from the Malaysia CDM
Information Handbook)

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Submittal
Relevant documentation and verification of CDM implementation.
Reference
Malaysia CDM Information Handbook by the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment

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SUSTAINABLE& LOW CARBON INITIATIVES


List of Sustainable& Low Carbon Initiatives
Points
4. Exceptional Performance (CR points
only)

IN

DESIGN
IN

1 point

Aim
To encourage developers to pursue and achieve the above
requirement of any credit stated in the MyCREST.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Achieve beyond performance for a maximum of TWO (2) credits in either
the MyCREST New Construction or the Existing Building respectively.
Approach and Strategy
Exceptional Score are points that are awarded to projects which
achieve an exemplary performance and achieve over and above the
maximum threshold for each MYCREST sub criteria. The first point is given
for achieving next threshold of a requirement in selected criteria.
Exceptional scores given for any credit in the Design scorecard is
applicable to the Construction and O&M scorecard as well. Only a
maximum of 2 (TWO) Exceptional scores can be awarded under the
Innovation Category and all Exceptional Scores are awarded to CR

Stage

Exemplary
point(s)

Credit

Maximum
Points

Credit no.

No.

points only.

Remarks

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IS2
.2

IS9
.3

EP
1

EP
3.
2

Carbon
Sequestration
- Restoration
(New/Plantin
g)

Carbon
Sequestration
- Restoration
(New/Plantin
g)

Building
Envelope
Performance
- Thermal
Performance
Admission of
Daylit Zone
and provision
of automatic
controls

Desig
n

Constr
uction

1-2

1-2

Desig
n

Desig
n

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT):
Plant
new
vegetation on 40% of
site area including
building foot print, with
at least 10% of the trees
measuring more than
28cm
in
diameter
when fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (2
POINTs): Plant new
vegetation on 45% of
site area including
building foot print, with
at least 10% of the trees
measuring more than
28cm
in
diameter
when fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT):
Plant
new
vegetation on 40% of
site area including
building foot print, with
at least 10% of the trees
measuring more than
28cm
in
diameter
when fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (2
POINTs): Plant new
vegetation on 45% of
site area including
building foot print, with
at least 10% of the trees
measuring more than
28cm
in
diameter
when fully mature.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Reduction of
12 W/m2 in OTTV from
the baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Design that
40% of all occupied
building spaces have
achieved daylight

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3.2 Natural
Lighting

EP
14
.2

Admission of
Daylit Zone
and provision
of automatic
controls
14.2 Natural
Lighting

Constr
uction

EP
4.
1

Design
Lighting
Power
Density (LPD)

Desig
n

EP
15

Design
Lighting
Power
Density (LPD)

Constr
uction

EP
6

Renewable
Energy

Desig
n

illuminance with an
average of 250 lux to
500lux as measured at
the working plane,
800mm from floor level.
Design 50% of
transitional spaces
(enclosed or perimeter
circulation spaces) to
achieve daylight of 50100lux.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Design that
40% of all occupied
building spaces have
achieved daylight
illuminance with an
average of 250 lux to
500lux as measured at
the working plane,
800mm from floor level.
Design 50% of
transitional spaces
(enclosed or perimeter
circulation spaces) to
achieve daylight of 50100lux.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): 45%
improvement in
Lighting Power Density
(LPD) from baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): 45%
improvement in
Lighting Power Density
(LPD) from baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Provide
renewable energy of
4% from total building
electrical consumption

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EP
16

Renewable
Energy

Constr
uction

10

EP
11

Desig
n

40

11

EP
19

Constr
uction

40

12

E
C
2.
2

Building
Energy
Efficiency
Performance
Building
Energy
Efficiency
PerformanceVerification
Sustainably
Sourced
Materials and
Products
2.3 Local
materials

Life Cycle
Analysis
(LCA) Structural
Elements
Life Cycle
Analysis
(LCA) Structural
Elements
Construction
Waste
Managemen
t

Desig
n

10

Constr
uction

10

Constr
uction

Water
Conservation
Strategies

Desig
n

13

E
C
6

14

E
C
14

15

E
C
11

16

W
E1

Desig
n

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE (1
POINT):
Provide
renewable energy of
4% from total building
electrical consumption
Percentage Reduction
from Baseline: 66% = 1
point
Percentage Reduction
from Baseline: 66% = 1
point

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Use at least
30% of the total
construction material
cost in a project on
permanent local
construction material.
The distance between
the material
manufacturing/proces
sing site and the
project site must not
exceed 500km.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Reduction of
30% and above of the
carbon emission from
baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Reduction of
30% and above of the
carbon emission from
baseline
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): Recycle
and/or salvage 75%
volume of nonhazardous
construction debris.
EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): 70% carbon
emission reduction
compare to WEPLS
standard by SPAN

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17

W
E5

Water
Conservation
Strategies

Constr
uction

EXCEPTIONAL SCORE
(1 POINT): 70% carbon
emission reduction
compare to WEPLS
standard by SPAN

Submittal
Proof of achievement and specification of strategies to gain exceptional
performance through official documentation as per the respective subcriteria.

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SUSTAINABLE & LOW CARBON INITIATIVES


IN

DESIGN

List of Sustainable & Low Carbon Initiatives


Points
5. Other strategies Proposed by Developers

IN

1 point

Aim
To provide teams the opportunity to achieve exceptional performance
above the requirements set through their own creative, innovative and
practical strategies.
Requirement
1 POINT:
One point is awarded for each innovation achieved with the submittal
of the (1) intent, (2) proposed requirement, (3) document submittals, (4)
design approach of the proposed innovation credit and (5) carbon
calculation, as well as (6) the fulfilment of the initiative.
Approach and Strategy
Achieve the credit through measurable environmental performance
using a strategy not addressed in the MyCREST New Construction or the
Existing Building, including Elective Points or this Sustainable and Carbon
Initiatives

sub-criteria.

The

credit

proposed

by

developers

is

recommended to be quantifiable credits, that is, equivalent to CR points


as per the MyCREST Scorecard. A carbon calculation is expected if the
credit is regarded Carbon Reduction.

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Submittal
Proof and documentation of the intent, proposed requirement,
document submittals and design approach of the proposed sub-criteria
and the carbon calculation.

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ELECTIVE:
HEALTHCARE

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INFRASTRUCTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

DESIGN

Connection to Natural World

HC1

HC

Provide Outdoor Places of Respite on the Health Care


Campus to Connect Health Care Patients, Staff, and
Visitors to the Health Benefits of the Natural
Environment

1Point

Aim
Provide outdoor places of respite on the health care campus to connect
health care patients, staff, and visitors to the health benefits of the
natural environment.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Provide patient, staff, and visitor accessible outdoor places of respite
equal to 5% of the net usable program area.

Qualifying areas are

defined below:
1. Provide additional dedicated outdoor place(s) of respite for staff
equal to 2% of the net usable program area.
2. Exterior places of respite shall be subject to occupancy, located
within 60 meter of a building entrance or access point, and must
be spaces where no medical intervention or direct medical care
is delivered. Qualifying areas shall be open to fresh air, the sky and
the natural elements, including seasonal weather. In addition,
qualifying areas shall comply with all of the following:
a. Seating areas shall provide options for shade or indirect
sun. Provide shade structures, a trellis or tree-shaded
wheelchair accessible seating areas at a minimum of 1
space/ 1 square meter of garden area with 1 wheelchair
space per 5 seating spaces.

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b. Horticulture therapy or other specific clinical special use


gardens

(Cancer

Healing

Garden,

for

example),

unavailable to all building occupants may be used to meet


up to 50% of the required area.
c. Universal access with places to pause, available to staff
and/or patients. (Nature trails may comprise up to 30% of
the required area, provided trail access is available within
200 feet of a building entrance.)
Justification
Health care facility design should address the physical, emotional, and
spiritual needs of the patients and/or residents, staff, family members,
and visitors that inhabit these buildings. Privacy, confidentiality, security,
dignity, comfort, orientation, and connection to nature are key elements
and issues that need to be addressed in the design of supportive
environments.
Places of respite connected to the natural environment are key elements
in defining a supportive, high performance healing environment with
proven effects on patient, staff, and visitor well-being and improved
clinical outcomes. A growing body of research indicates that patients
and medical staff experience positive benefits from direct access to
nature. Providing direct access to exterior spaces for patients, families,
and caregivers is an important programming and design objective in all
health care construction and renovation.
Approach & Strategy
Select appropriate locations for places of respite, taking into account:
1. Environmental factors (e.g., winds, orientation, views)
2. Programs of care (e.g., Horticultural Therapy)

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3. Needs of

specific

patient

populations

(e.g.,

immune

suppression, sunlight sensitivity)


4. Realistic levels of maintenance
Consider issues of way finding and orientation, accessibility, strength and
stamina, activity and interest, privacy and security, independence of the
patient.
Provide choice and variety in the design of spaces (for example,
spaces that engage all the senses but also areas with limited sensory
stimulation). Consider a variety of smaller spaces conveniently located
throughout the facility rather than one large space. Also consider
integrating these exterior spaces with interior public spaces to enhance
the connection to nature throughout the facility. Design considerations
should include freedom from distractions, such as noise from mechanical
systems, facility administrative activities and medical treatments.
Direct connection to the natural environment includes views of distant
and nearby nature (such as inaccessible rooftop spaces with green
(vegetated) roofs and mature street trees). Positive views and vistas
should be considered and visual barriers into patient rooms, treatment
rooms and mechanical systems should be implemented.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
A report of the intentions and aims with design diagrams describing and
demonstrating the strategies that gear towards the goal hat 75% of all
inpatients and 75% of qualifying outpatients with >4 hour LOS have

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access to secure and supervised outdoor space in compliance with the


credit goals.
References, Standards and Codes
1. (2008), Sustainable Sites Management, by Green Guide For
Health Care, Version 2.2.
2. Jerry Smith, October (2007), HEALTH AND NATURE: THE INFLUENCE
OF NATURE ON DESIGN OF THE ENVIRONMENT OF CARE.

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INFRASTRUCTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

DESIGN

Equipment and Medical Equipment Efficiency

HC2

HC

Prevent Contaminant Releases to Air, Land and


Water

1 Point

Aim
To prevent contaminant releases to air, land and water.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Establish oil interceptors at all drains from parking areas and central plant
areas in compliance to the local regulations.
Justification
Health care facilities store and manage chemicals in both underground
tanks and other outdoor facilities. Along with run-off from parking areas,
these are significant potential

sources of surface and

groundwater

contamination. By minimizing potential exposure, health care facilities


can contribute to protecting the health of the surrounding community.
Approach & Strategy
1. Ensure that storage facilities include secondary containment
provisions to prevent unintentional spills and leakage from the
contaminating aquifers and site storm water.
2. Provide oil interceptors at all drains from parking areas and from
central

plant

areas

in

accordance

with

the

following

performance standards, as a minimum:


a. Vent each interceptor to the outer air with a minimum 2"
vent.

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b. Provide each interceptor with a readily accessible gastight


cleanout cover.
c. Provide either a waste line not less than 6 inches in
diameter with a full- sized cleanout to grade, or a two-inch
pump-out connection at grade.
3. Ensure that storage facilities include secondary containment
provisions in accordance with the following performance
standards:
a. Secondary containment must be constructed, operated,
and

maintained

product

tight.

The

secondary

containment must also be constructed, operated, and


maintained

in

manner

that

prevents

structural

weakening as a result of contact with any hazardous


substances released from the primary containment, and
be capable of storing hazardous substances for the
maximum anticipated period of time necessary to recover
any released hazardous substance.
b. Secondary containment must be constructed, operated,
and maintained to prevent any water intrusion into the
system by precipitation, infiltration, or surface runoff.
4. Provide a continuous monitoring system for the tank system. The
monitoring system must be capable of detecting both the entry of
the liquid - and vapor- phase of the fuel oil and water into the
secondary containment.

Carbon Calculator
None

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Submittals
1. Compile design documentation of on-site fuel oils to storage
system(s) verifying compliance with the credit goals.
2. Compile a plan indicating the location of all storage facilities,
and a narrative describing secondary containment provisions
verifying compliance with the credit goals.
References, Standards and Codes
None

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OCCUPANT & HEALTH


Control and Strategies to Reduce Mould
Occurrence for
Healthcare Buildings

HC3

DESIGN
HC

1. Use of Double Wall with Proper


Insulation for All 24 Hours AirConditioned Spaces
2. PU Insulation Materials or Equivalent Insulation
to Prevent Thermal Bridging Linked to 24 Hours
Air-Conditioned Spaces
3. Provide Proper Mechanical Ventilation for
Spaces Near 24 Hour Air-Conditioned Spaces.

1 Point

Aims
To prevent mould growth in health care building areas and lodges
to ensure building users health and harmony.
Requirement
1 POINT:
1. Use of double wall with proper insulation for 24 hours airconditioned spaces.
2. Use of proper PU or equivalent insulation to prevent thermal
bringing around all 24 hours air-conditioned spaces.
Justification
Mould has the potential to cause health problems. It produces allergens
(substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some
cases, potentially toxic substances. Inhaling or touching mould or mould
spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Hence, mould
prevention is important to ensure the health of the building occupants.
For healthcare building, this point is more important as patients will be
very sensitive to mould and air quality.

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Approach & Strategy


Many factors may result in mould growth in buildings. They include those
related to poor HVAC design, thermal bridging in walls and slabs, poor
ventilation and rain water or pipe water leakage. The most effective way
to prevent mould growth in a building is to avoid these entire parameters
occurrence in buildings. This is more challenging in healthcare buildings
due to the presence of 24-hour cooled spaces next to naturally
ventilated spaces.
It is important to eliminate wet or damp areas on all surfaces to prevent
mould growth. Humidity must be controlled in air-conditioned spaces. Air
movement must be enhanced on non-air-conditioned spaces and
thermal bridging shall be avoided.
Ensure moisture is controlled in buildings, outdoors and lodges at design
stage, construction and operation stage; in addition, have control over
the following:
1. Proper insulation of air-conditioning ducting system.
2. Proper insulation of walls surrounding 24 hours air-conditioned
spaces to avoid cold walls occurrence
3. Prevention of leakage of rainwater through roof and walls
4. Prevention of infiltration of humid air into air-conditions spaces
5. Control of air ventilation in buildings and use of mechanical
ventilation to provide sufficient air movement
6. Avoidance of air-conditioned air supply diffuser very close to wall
surface or cold air jets hitting the surface of the wall.
7. Prevention of water leakage into basement level.
8. Prevention of pipe leakage or broken pipe
9. Complete control of indoor moisture sources and avoiding
creation of humidity.

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Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Basic report outlining the strategies which will be implemented to
fulfil requirements for mould prevention
2. CFD simulation of the naturally ventilated spaces adjacent
to air- conditioned spaces indicating the air movement and wall
temperatures at critical times
3. Walls and slabs details around the 24 hours air-conditioned spaces
indicating proper thermal bridging prevention strategy
4. Basic post construction building commissioning plan indication
sufficient moisture removal from the building construction before
occupancy.
References, Standards and Codes
1. Indoor Mould Prevention Guideline published by JKR 2009.
2. ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Fundamentals, ASHRAE 2009.
3. ASHARE Guideline for buildings in Humid Climate Zone.
4. Australian Mould Guideline 2010.

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OCCUPANT & HEALTH


HC4

Indoor Leisure Areas


Connect Patients, Visitors, and Staff to the Natural
Environment Through Views of Nature from Indoor
Places of Respite.

DESIGN
HC

1 Point

Aim
Connect patients, visitors, and staff to the natural environment through
views of nature from indoor places of respite.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Provide patients, visitors, and staff accessible indoor places of respite
with 90% of the occupied area of those spaces having direct views of
nature. To qualify, these spaces must have direct connection to the
natural environment and must have spaces where no medical
intervention or direct medical care is delivered and where no facility
administration or maintenance is being conducted.
Audio-visual technology that simulates nature may be used to fulfil up to
20% of the credit goal in spaces that are not accessible to nature.
Justification
Research shows that physical and visual connections to the natural
environment (access to outdoor space, views of nature, natural day
lighting) provide social, psychological, and physical benefits.

Such

connections also assist in patient recovery and healing, reduce stress,


and improve the overall health care environment. Similar benefits
accrue to the staff, thus leading to improved delivery of services to the
patients they serve.

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Approach & Strategy


Indoor Places of Respite may include, but are not limited to:
1. Family consultation or gathering spaces
2. Lounges without negative distractions, such as televisions
3. Caf or cafeteria seating areas
4. Grieving rooms
5. Meditation spaces or suraus
6. Resource areas and libraries
7. Designated staff break areas with positive sensory distractions
8. Spa or exercise spaces for staff and/or visitors
9. Seating areas within Atrium spaces that are sky lit and have live
plant material
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittals
1. Floor plans highlighting places of respite with views of nature.
2. Building program and calculation showing that 90% of these
spaces meet the credit goal of having direct views or connection
to nature.
3. Compile

annotated

demonstrating

site

and
planning

descriptive
principles

plans
to

graphically

maximize

the

experience of significant natural features for therapeutic value


4.

A list of all places of respite in the building program. Identify their


intended activities and areas, with calculations showing that 90%
of the aggregate area of those spaces meets the credit goal of
having direct views or connection to nature.

5. Compile floor plans highlighting all places of respite, indicating


those with views of nature.

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References, Standards and Codes


1. Professor Sir John Lawton, September (2010), Making Space for
Nature:A review of Englands Wildlife Sites and Ecological
Network.
2. Spengler, J.D. and Chen, Q. 2000. Indoor air quality factors in
designing a healthy building, Annual Review of Energy and the
Environment, 25, 567-600

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OCCUPANT & HEALTH


HC5

Daylight& Views: Lighting & Circadian Rhythms


Reinforce
Natural
Circadian
Rhythms(Sleep/Wake Patterns)in Patients and
Day Time Staff, and Promote Alertness in Both
Day-shift and Night-shift Staff

DESIGN
HC

1Point

Aim
Reinforce natural circadian rhythms (sleep/wake patterns) in patients
and daytime staff, and promote alertness in both day-shift and night-shift
staff
Requirement
1 POINT:
Establish electric lighting and day lighting systems and controls for
patient areas and staff work areas based upon principles of circadian
rhythm (a self-sustained biological rhythm that in an organisms natural
environment normally has the period of approximately 24 hours).
Justification
The human bodys hormone levels are largely influenced by its daily
exposure to light and darkness. Natural light reportedly helps regulate
the circadian rhythm, and thus has a significant effect on ones physical
and emotional wellness. Lighting and circadian rhythms can improve the
healing

environment, by supporting patient comfort and staff

performance with light that adapts to individual needs. It simulate


natural daylight, while indoors, thus helping maintain the biorhythm

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and speed up the healing of patients. This connection, the studies


further stated, has been observed in hospitals wherein patients who are
exposed to generous amounts of sunlight have reported feeling less pain
and stress, and even use up to 22% less medication per hour.
Approach & Strategy
PATIENT AREAS
In patient sleeping areas, establish lighting and lighting control design
solutions that allow for variation in day and night lighting characteristics.
1. Provide a separately controlled night time navigational lighting
system in the amber to red area of the colour spectrum.
2. Shield patient rooms from the bright light of work areas and
circulation spaces
3. Shield staff self-luminous monitors and chart lighting located within
patient rooms from patient bed view.
4. Provide night-time shielding of patient rooms from exterior light
sources.
STAFF AREAS
In staff areas, establish lighting to support work performance and
alertness through both daytime and night-time lighting cycles. Insure that
the area has multiple levels of lighting available.
1. Provide sleeping areas for staff and residents capable of near
complete darkness. If more than one person uses the sleeping
room, provide a night- time-navigational lighting system in the
amber to red area of the color spectrum.
2. Provide at least one location for night shift staff that provides a
separately controlled vertical lighting element of 4000K or greater
color temperature with a target vertical illuminance level of 250
foot candles when two (2) feet away at eye height measured.

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Provide a control that turns the lighting element off when the
space is unoccupied. Provide space for stretching and/or mild
physical activity to support alertness. Ensure that staffs are not
required to walk through this area in order to access the sleeping
area.
3. Provide access to daylight for all staff on their regularly traversed
work path without the need to enter a patient room or other
private space.
The timing of an individuals circadian functions will typically vary
dependent upon their population group (i.e. the young, the aged, those
undergoing chemotherapy, day-shift versus evening or night-shift staff.)
Therefore, any lighting system that helps to support a healthy circadian
rhythm must be capable of being tuned to the individual patient or to
the staff. Care must be taken to educate the staff on the use of such a
system because when the lighting works against the establishment of a
healthy circadian rhythm, adverse impacts may occur.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Drawings and specification information in compliance with credit goals
References, Standards and Codes
1. Martha Hotz Vitaterna, Ph.D., Joseph S. Takahashi, Ph.D., & Fred W.
Turek, Ph.D., (2001), Overview of Circadian Rhythms, Vol : 25, No: 2, pp :
85-93.

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OCCUPANT & HEALTH


HC6

PBT Source Decrease - Mercury in Lamps


Reduce the Release of Persistent Bio-accumulative
and Toxic Chemicals (PBTs) Associated with the
Lifecycle of Building Materials

DESIGN
HC

1Point

Aim
Reduce the release of Persistent Bio-accumulative and Toxic Chemicals
(PBTs) associated with the life cycle of building materials.
Requirement
1 POINT:
Specify and install low mercury fluorescent lamps according to the
following criteria as specified in European lighting industry standards
(Directive 2011-65, ELC, CELMA) :
Type
1
1 (a)
1 (b)
1 (c)
1 (d)
1 (e)
1 (f)
2 (a)
2 (a)
(1)
2 (a)(2)
2 (a)
(3)
2 (a)
(4)

Mercury in single capped(compact) fluorescent lamps not


exceeding (per burner):
For general lighting purposes <30W: 5 mg
For general lighting purposes 30Wand<50W: 5 mg
For general lighting purposes 50W and <150W: 5 mg
For general lighting purposes 150W: 15 mg
For general lighting purposes with circular or square structural
shape and tube diameter 17 mm
For special purposes: 5 mg
Mercury in double-capped linear fluorescent lamps for general
lighting purposes not exceeding(per lamp)
Tri-bandphosphor with normal life time and a tube diameter < 9
mm (e.g. T2): 5 mg
Tri-bandphosphor with normal lifetime and a tube diameter
2:9mmands17mm(e.g.T5):5mg
Tri-bandphosphor with normal lifetime and a tube diameter
>17mmand28mm(e.g.T8):5mg
Tri-bandphosphorwithnom1allifetimeandatubediameter >28 mm
(e.g.Tl2): 5 mg

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2 (a)
(5)
2 (b)
2 (b)
(1)
2 (b)
(2)
2 (b)
(3)
2 (b)
(4)
3
3 (a)
3 (b)
3 (c)
4 (a)
4 (b)
4 (b) -I
4 (b) II
4 (b) III
4 (C)
4 (C) -I
4 (C) II
4 (C) III
4 (d)
4 (e)
4 (f)
5 (a)
5 (b)
6 (a)

Tri-bandphosphor with long lifetime ( 25000h): 8mg


Mercury in other fluorescent lamps not exceeding (per lamp):
Linear halophosphate lamps with tube >28mm (e.g.T10 andTl2):10
mg
Non-linear halophosphate lamps(all diameters):15mg
Non-linear tri-band phosphor lamps with tube diameter
>17mm(e.g.T9)
Lamps for other general lighting and special purposes(e.g.
induction lamps)
Mercury in cold cathode fluorescent lamps and external electrode
fluorescent lamps (CCFL and EEFL)for special purposes not
exceeding (per lamp):
Short length ( 500mm)
Medium length (>500mm and 1500mm)
Long length (>1500mm)
Mercury in other low pressure discharge lamps (per lamp)
Mercury in High Pressure Sodium (vapour)lamps for general
lighting purposes not exceeding(per burner)in lamps with
improved colour rendering index Ra>60:
P 155 W
155 W < P 405W
P>405 W
Mercury in other High Pressure Sodium (vapour)lamps for general
lighting purposes not exceeding (per burner):
P 155 W
155W<P 405W
P>405 W
Mercury in High Pressure Mercury (vapour) lamps (HPMV)
Mercury in metal halide lamps (MH)
Mercury ill other discharge lamps for special purposes not
specifically mentioned in this Annex
Lead in glass of cathode ray tubes
Lead in glass of fluorescent tubes not exceeding 0,2 % by weight
Lead as an alloying element in steel for machining purposes and in
galvanized steel containing up to 0,35% lead by weight

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6 (b)
6 (c)
7 (a)

7 (b)

7 (c) I
7 (c)
II
7 (c)
III
8 (a)
8 (b)
9

9 (b)
11 (a)
11 (b)
12
13 (a)
13 (b)

14

15
16
17

Lead as an alloying element in aluminium containing up to 0,4%


lead by weight
Copperalloycontainingupto4% lead by weight
Lead in high melting temperature type solders(i.e. lead-based
alloys containing 85% by weight or more lead)
Lead in solders for servers, storage and storage array systems,
network infrastructure equipment for switching, signaling,
transmission, and network management for telecommunications
Electrical and electronic components containing lead in a glass or
ceramic other than dielectric ceramic in capacitors, e.g.
piezoelectric devices, or in a glass or ceramic matrix compound
Lead in dielectric ceramic in capacitors for a rated voltage of
125VACor 250VDCorhigher
Lead in dielectric ceramic in capacitors for a rated voltage of
lessthan125VACor 250VDC
Cadmium and its compounds in one shot pellet type thermal cutoffs
Cadmium and its compounds in electrical contacts
Hexavalent chromium as an anti-corrosion agent of the carbon
steel cooling system in absorption refrigerators up to 0.75% by
weight in the cooling solution
Lead in bearing shells and bushes for refrigerant-containing
compressors for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and
refrigeration (MVAC) applications
Lead used in C-press compliant pin connector systems
Lead used in other than C-press compliant pin connector systems
Lead as a coating material for the thermal conduction module Cring
Lead in white glasses used for optical applications
Cadmium and lead in filter glasses and glasses used for
reflectance standards
Lead in solders consisting of more than two elements for the
connection between the pins and the package of
microprocessors with a lead content of more than 80% and less
than 85% by weight
Lead in solders to complete a viable electrical connection
between semi-conductor die and carrier within integrated circuit
flip chip packages
Lead in linear incandescent lamps with silicate coated tubes
Lead halide as radiant agent in high intensity discharge(HID) lamps
used for professional reprography application

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18 (a)

18 (b)

19

20
21
23
24
25
26
27
29

30

31
32
33
34

Lead as activator in the fluorescent powder(1%lead by weight or


less)of discharge lamps when used as specialty lamps for diazo
printing reprography, lithography, insecttraps, photochemicaland
curing processes containing phosphors such as SMS ((Sr,
Ba)2MgSi2O7:Pb)
Lead as activator in the fluorescent powder (I% lead by weight or
less)of discharge lamps when used as sun tanninglamps
containing phosphors such as BSP (BaSi2O5:Bp)
Lead with PbBiSn-Hg and PblnSn-Hgin specific compositions as
mainamalgam and with PbSn-Hg as auxiliary amalgam in very
compact energy saving lamps (ESL)
Lead oxide in glass used for bonding front and rear
substrates of flat fluorescent lamps used for Liquid Crystal
Displays(LCDs)
Lead and cadmium in printing inks for the application of enamels
on glasses, such as borosilicate and soda lime glasses
Lead in finishes of fine pitch components other than
connectors with a pitch of 0.65 mm and less
Lead in solders for the soldering to machine through hole discoidal
and planar array ceramic multilayer capacitors
Lead oxide in surface conduction electron emitter
displays(SED)used in structural elements, not ably in the seal frit
and frit ring
Lead oxide in the glass envelope of black light blue lamps
Lead alloys as solder for transducers used in highpowered(designated to operate for several hours at acoustic
powerlevelsof125 dBSPL and above) loudspeakers
Lead bound in crystal glass as defined in Annex I (Categories 1,2, 3
and 4)of Council Directive 69/493/EEC(1)
Cadmium alloys as electrical/mechanicals older joints to electrical
conductors located directly on the voice coil in transducers
used in high-powered loudspeakers with sound pressure
levelsof100dB(A)and more
Lead in soldering materials in mercury free flat fluorescent
lamps(which e.g. are used for liquid crystal displays, design or
industrial lighting)
Lead oxide in seal frit used for making window assemblies for
Argon and Krypton laser tubes
Lead in solders for the soldering of thin copper wires of 100 um
diameter and less in power transformers
Lead in cermet-based trimmer potentiometer elements

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36
37
38
39

Mercury used as a cathode sputtering in hibitorin DC plasma


displays with a content up to 30mg per display
Lead in the plating layer of high voltage diodes on the basis of a
zinc borate glass body
Cadmium and cadmium oxide in thick film pastes used on
aluminium bonded beryllium oxide
Cadmium in colour converting II-VI LEDs(<10ugCd per mm2oflightemittingarea)for use in solids tate illumination or display systems

Justification
Persistent Bio-accurate and toxic chemicals (PBTs) are toxic chemicals of
particular health concern because they do not break down quickly in
the environment, they become widely distributed geographically and
they bio-magnify or concentrate in the tissue of living organisms as they
move up the food chain. With a few exceptions, the major source of
human exposures to PBTs in the general population occurs from the
consumption of contaminated food in the ordinary diet. These toxic
chemicals cause a range of adverse wildlife and human health effects,
including cancer, and developmental impacts in the nervous,
reproductive, and immune systems.
Immature, developing organisms are often the most sensitive to
exposures to PBTs. Because of their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulative characteristics, even very small, difficult to detect releases
can lead to harmful exposures. This has led to an emphasis on strategies
targeting elimination of the production and use of PBT substances, or
those that are known to lead to their formation, rather than attempts to
control emissions. Mercury is a potent neurotoxin. Significant amounts of
mercury released into the environment are transformed into methylmercury, which bio- concentrates in the food-chain.

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Prenatal exposure to methyl-mercury can result in deficits in language,


memory and attention. Mercury is one of at least six PBTs commonly
addressed in PBT elimination policies that have direct links with building
materials. Others include cadmium, lead, dioxins (including furans and
dioxin like compounds), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PBDEs
(poly-brominated di-phenyl ethers). These PBTs are used in the
manufacture of building materials or unavoidably produced and
released into the environment during one or more stages of the
materials life cycle.
Approach & Strategy
Research on the low mercury product available in market.
Carbon Calculator
None
Submittal
Compile documentation verifying compliance with the credit goal
criteria for mercury content in fluorescent lamps.
References, Standards and Codes
Directive 2011/65/EU of The European Parliament and of The Council on
the Restriction of The Use of Certain Hazardous Substance in Electrical
And Electronic Equipment

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APPENDIX 1
Technical Notes on MyCREST Baseline

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BASELINE FOR MyCREST CALCULATOR

INTRODUCTION
This technical report represents a summary of the derivation of the MyCREST baseline in each
carbon emission calculator.

LIST OF CARBON CALCULATOR IN MyCREST


NO

ID CODE

CALCULATOR

IS CAL01

DESIGN CARBON SEQUESTRATION CALCULATOR

EP CAL01

DESIGN ENERGY PERFORMANCE CALCULATOR

EC CAL01

DESIGN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS CALCULATOR

WE CAL01

DESIGN WATER EFFICIENCY FITTING CALCULATOR

IS CAL03

CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY CALCULATOR

EC CAL03

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION CALCULATOR

WM
CAL02

IS CAL05

WASTE MANAGEMENT CALCULATOR

LOW CARBON TRANSPORT FACTOR CALCULATOR

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BASELINE FOR EACH MyCREST CALCULATOR

1. IS CAL01

:DESIGN CARBON SEQUESTRATION CALCULATOR

INTRODUCTION
Carbon Sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric
carbon dioxide (CO2) and may refer specifically to:
a. "The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a
reservoir." When carried out deliberately, this may also be referred to as
carbon dioxide removal, which is a form of geo engineering.
b. The process of carbon capture and storage, where carbon dioxide is removed
from flue gases, such as on power stations, before being stored in underground
reservoirs.
c. Natural biogeochemical cycling of carbon between the atmosphere and
reservoirs, such as by chemical weathering of rocks.
Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of
carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate
change. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine
accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are released by burning fossil fuels.
CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN GREEN BUILDING
Tree Species
For instance biodiversity for plant less than 11 inch are - Ferns (1 family consists of
11000 species), Aroids, Gingers (more than 1000 species), Bamboo (10 families and
more than 50 genera), Orchids (most diverse), Bryophyte (such as mosses), Rattan,
Shrubs, Ground covers, Liana, Palms (8 families with 60 genera), cycads (250 species)
and annuals
Tree Size
11 inch trees sequester more carbon which can be claimed later based on carbon
sequestration rate. In this section it can be claimed based on percentage. There are 2
ways to get credit either through carbon sequestration rate or percentage of
preserved trees.
Tree Planting
Based on rate of sequestration and on both percentage and carbon rate.

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Sequestration Rate
Definitely coefficient rate for individual species differed. Again this will involve time
and cost in order to get the exact sequestration rate for each of individual species. On
top of that data availability on sequestration rate in Malaysia very limited. Therefore
we use standard coefficient rate for your ease. Any effort made to get the exact
sequestration rate are really appreciated.
Landscaping Process
On this section all the data will be based on flora inventory and analysis done by
botanist/horticulturist. During this process only tree with a trunk diameter of 11 inch
and above will be counted. But if effort made to hire botanist to conduct inventory
and analysis for trees with a trunk diameter less than 11 inch, credit can be claimed
based on carbon sequestration rate but time and cost will be affected. The Cost to
identify single species 200.00/ specimen. All the information on invasive or noninvasive species will be provided by the botanist at the first stage of site inventory and
analysis report. The type of fertilizer is not relevant in this section, only trees or
greenery area.
Integration to Architectural Design
Assessed Based on percentage of green area per site area
Baseline
As baseline, the site of originally Greenfield area will be measured by cutting all trees.
Methods of Carbon Sequestration Calculation
Three calculations have been developed:
A. Water bodies
B. Tree
a. less than 11 inch (28cm)
b. more than 11 inch (28cm)
C. Grass
The calculation on carbon sequestration will be divided into these three types of trees.
A. Water Bodies
Step 1: Total Dry Weight (TDW)
TDW = 0.56 x area in meter squared
Step 2: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW = TDW x 0.427
Step 3: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W = TCW x 3.6663
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Step 4:tCO2e = TCO2W/1000

B. Tree
a. less than 11 inch (28cm)
Step 1: Total Green Weight (TGW)
TGW I: W = 0.25D2H (1.2)
Step 2: Total Dry Weight (TDW)
TDW I = TGW I x 0.725
Step 3: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW I = TDW I x 0.5
Step 4: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W I = TCW I x 3.6663
Step 5: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W/year)
TCO2W I/YEAR
Step 6: tCO2e I = TCO2W/2204.62
W = above ground weight of the tree (lbs)
D = diameter of the trunk (inches)
H = Height of the tree (feet)
b. More than 11 inch (28cm)
Step 1: Total Green Weight (TGW)
TGW II: W = 0.15D2H (1.2)
Step 2: Total Dry Weight (TDW)
TDW II = TGW II x 0.725
Step 3: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW II = TDW II x 0.5
Step 4: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W II = TCW II x 3.6663
Step 5: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W/year)
TCO2W II/YEAR
Step 6: tCO2e II = TCO2W/2204.62
W = above ground weight of the tree (lbs)
D = diameter of the trunk (inches)
H = Height of the tree (feet)

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Determination age of tree


Age tree = Tree diameter at 1.5m height
2.5cm
C. Grass
Step 1: Total Dry Weight (TDW)
TDW = 0.56 x area in meter squared
Step 2: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW = TDW x 0.427
Step 3: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W = TCW x 3.6663
Step 4:tCO2e = TCO2W/1000
Derivation of Baseline
1. Carbon sequestration methods of calculation were developed by Harris, R.W., Clark, J. R.
And Matheny, N. P. (2003) in Arboriculture: integrated management of landscape trees,
shrubs, and vines. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.
2. Carbon sequestration. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia

Foundation, Inc. Web. 20 June 2013.


<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_sequestration>

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Technical Notes for Carbon Sequestration


NO

CRITERIA

*CI/ CR/ S

CONSULTANTS COMMENTS

SITE PLANNING AND CARBON ACCOUNTING ON SITE (FOR GREENFIELD OR GRADED SITE)
a

Site inventory and analysis on


existing greenery flora

Carbon sequestration-preservation

CR
Why 11 inches? Does an 11inch tree sequester more or less carbon than a sapling?

i) For non-urban areas:

Preserve 60 - 80 Percent of
trees with trunk diameter
larger than 28 cm
Preserve more than 80
Percent of trees with trunk
diameter larger than 28 cm
CR

ii) For urban areas:

Preserve 70 - 80 Percent of
trees with trunk diameter
larger than 28 cm
Preserve more than 80
Percent of trees with trunk
diameter larger than 28 cm

On this section all the data will be based on flora inventory and analysis done by
botanist/horticulturist. During this process only tree with a trunk diameter of 11 inch and
above will be counted. But if effort made to hire botanist to conduct inventory and
analysis for trees with a trunk diameter less than 11 inch, credit can be claimed based on
carbon sequestration rate but time and cost will be affected. For instance biodiversity for
plant less than 11 inch are - Ferns (1 family consists of 11000 species), Aroids, Gingers
(more than 1000 species), Bamboo (10 families and more than 50 genera), Orchids (most
diverse), Bryophyte (such as mosses), Rattan, Shrubs, Ground covers, Liana, Palms, (8
families with 60 genera), cycads (250 species) and annuals.
Cost to identify single species 200.00/ specimen
Furthermore 11 inch trees sequester more carbon which can be claimed later based on
carbon sequestration rate. In this section it can be claimed based on percentage. There
are 2 ways to get credit either through carbon sequestration rate or percentage of
preserved trees.
In this case we based on percentage to get point later on other section we used carbon
rate to get another point.

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Carbon sequestration-preservation
(Contd)

Approach and Strategy identifies variation in sequestration rate but this does not seem to
be taken into account.

i) For non-urban areas:

Preserve 60 - 80 Percent of
trees with trunk diameter
larger than 28 cm
Preserve more than 80
Percent of trees with trunk
diameter larger than 28 cm

ii) For urban areas:

Definitely coefficient rate for individual species differed. Again this will involve time and
cost in order to get the exact sequestration rate for each of individual species. On top of
that data availability on sequestration rate in Malaysia very limited. Therefore we use
standard coefficient rate for your ease. Any effort made to get the exact sequestration
rate are really appreciated

Brown field site with no trees cannot achieve any credit in this category.

Preserve 70 - 80 Percent of
trees with trunk diameter
larger than 28 cm
Preserve more than 80 Percent of
trees with trunk diameter larger
than 28 cm

Definitely no trees, in order to get credit proposed more trees

How is integration to architectural design assessed?

Based on percentage of green area per site area

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Carbon sequestrian restoration


(new tree/s planting )

Reference to LEED are US horticultural solutions applicable to Malaysia?

Plant new vegetation on


30% of site area excluding
building foot print
Plant new vegetation on
40% of site area excluding
building foot print
Plant new vegetation on
50% of site area excluding
building foot print
Replant vegetation on more
than 50% of site area
excluding building foot print
Produce carbon sequestration of
not less than 0.5tCO2e

It depends on situations or else hire Malaysian horticulturist as a consultant to advice on


certain things. For instance soil in US more alkaline whereas in Malaysia more acidic and
this will influence type of fertilizer and maintenance wise

Define tree planting are the criteria only based on rate of sequestration?
CR

No but will be based on both percentage and carbon rate as stated earlier

Where are the information on invasive and noxious weeds and what fertilizers are
required or permitted?

All the information on invasive or non-invasive species will be provided by the botanist at
the first stage of site inventory and analysis report
Type of fertilizer is not relevant in this section, only trees or greenery area

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2. EP CAL01

: DESIGN ENERGY PERFORMANCE CALCULATOR

Baseline
In the MyCREST operational energy calculations, points are awarded according to
improvement of the baseline model and its predicted energy consumption.
The baseline of a passive design model can be generally defined as a model based on
the shape and geometry of the proposed design of a building, but with no projections
or protrusions, and which minimally complies with the MS1525 2007.
In MyCREST, a baseline of a passive design model is based on the MS1525 minimum
compliance in terms of passive (OTTV parameters that combine to produce an average
OTTV not exceeding 50) and selected factors of an active design.
The baseline model is a model that is based on the basic geometry of the proposed
design.
To comply with OTTV of 50:
For model using the MyCREST calculator, the consulting engineer must generate a
baseline model or scenario based on a simplified but similar geometry to the proposed
design.
All characteristics, requirement and parameters of the Baseline model are based on
the basic characteristics derived from the MS1525 Version 2007. These characteristics
must follow the MyCREST requirements and are as outlined in the MyCREST BASELINE
MODELLING GUIDE (Appendix 2). Among the parameters are:
Passive Design:
The baseline must achieve a minimum of OTTV = 50 W/m2, RTTV = 25W/m2 (with
skylights) and minimum U values as stated in MS1525.
The following are the additional characteristics of the baseline model:
Windows
WWR

= 50% and must be evenly distributed on ALL facades

Active Design:
Equipment
Active design shall follow the requirements as stated in the MyCREST MODELLING
GUIDE as per Appendix 2.

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Baseline spaces by space Lighting Power Density (LPD) are as stated in the EP4 Artificial
Lighting.
The ACMV Basis of Design must comply with the ASHRAE 62.1 and the ASHRAE 55.
The baseline model can be:
1. If dynamic thermal software is used, the baseline model can show positive
effects of optimum orientation by rotating the model and running an energy
simulation on four cardinal directions of the exact north, east, west and south.
OR
2. If the MyCREST calculator is used and In lieu of the above, the baseline model
average OTTV value for all facades can be calculated to reach a combination of
passive parameters to achieve a value not exceeding 50 W/m2.
Effects of the orientations can be included by assuming that with the values of
the passive design, the building is assumed to orientate exactly at north- south
based on the site boundaries.
3. Effects of natural ventilation for occupied transitional spaces such as lobbies
and cafes can be calculated by assuming that all these spaces are airconditioned in the baseline model.

The carbon emission factor for electricity is 0.747 kg CO2e/ unit.


Derivation of Baseline
The carbon emission factor for electricity derived from the CIS 20:2012, Green
Performance Assessment System in Construction, pg: 31, Construction Industry
Development Board Malaysia (CIDB).

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3. ECCAL01

: DESIGN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS CALCULATOR

Baseline
Baseline for total structural element embodied carbon must be < 0.34 tCO2e/m2.
The propose materials embodied carbon is deducted from baseline to get the
percentage of reduction. The point given will be based on the percentage reduced
from baseline.
Derivation of Baseline
The development of the baseline for MyCREST LCA calculator was based on two case
studies. Two projects with similar material specifications and close to conventional
type of building have been chosen to get the baseline for this calculator. For the
purpose of this criterion, only structural elements were taken into account; they are:
Slab
Column & Beam
Wall
Roofing
Window frame & glazing
The value of the embodied carbon for each material listed above was taken from
the Green PASS embodied carbon building materials.
Result from 2 case studies:
Case study 1 - Total embodied carbon per m2
= 0.43 tCO2e/m2
Case study 2 - Total embodied carbon per m2
= 0.38 tCO2e/2 This value is taken
Average
= 0.40 tCO2e
as baseline for LCA
calculation

Challenges &Limitation
No database on the embodied carbon per m2 for different types of buildings
materials normally used in Malaysia.

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4. WE CAL01

: DESIGN WATER EFFICIENCY FITTING CALCULATOR

Baseline
Water efficient fitting is measured from the water flow rate. From the baseline given
below, the team must calculate the reduction of their proposed water fitting from the
baseline. The water-efficient baseline is as shown:
Flush Fixture
Conventional Water Closet (Male)
Conventional Water Closet
(Female)
Conventional Urinal (Male)
Flow Fixture
Conventional Lavatory
Kitchen Sink
Bidet
Ablution Tap
Shower

Flow rate (LPF)


6.00
6.00
2.50
Flow rate (LPM)
8.00
8.33
8.00
8.00
10.00

The carbon emission factor for processed water is 0.419 kg CO2e/ m3.
Derivation of Baseline
The baseline is generated from the minimum flowrate / water consumption for 1 Star
rated in Guideline for Voluntary Water Efficient Products Labelling Scheme, April 2013,
SuruhanjayaPerkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN).
The carbon emission factor for processed water derived from the CIS 20:2012, Green
Performance Assessment System in Construction, pg: 31, Construction Industry
Development Board Malaysia (CIDB).

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5. IS CAL03

: CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY CALCULATOR

Baseline
The MyCREST Construction Transportation & Machinery Emission Calculator
calculates all onsite activities that require transports and machineries. The following
table shows the construction activities from site clearing to external works.
There is no baseline for this calculator as the applicant only need to report the total
carbon emission release by their machineries for the total duration of construction
stage.
Activity
Site Clearing

Earthwork

Substructure work
Superstructure
work
External works
(excluding
landscape works)

Type of
Transportation/Machinery
Lorry
Back hoe
Crane
Lorry
Back hoe
Crane
Lorry
Back hoe
Crane
Lorry
Back hoe
Crane
Lorry
Back hoe
Crane

Energy source
Varies
Diesel
Diesel
Varies
Diesel
Diesel
Varies
Diesel
Diesel
Varies
Diesel
Diesel
Varies
Diesel
Diesel

Derivation of Conversion Factor


Carbon emission for onsite transportation and machineries was taken from the CIS
20:2012, Green Performance Assessment System in Construction, pg: 30, Construction
Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB).

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6. EC CAL03 :
CALCULATOR

CONSTRUCTION

MATERIALS

TRANSPORTATION

Baseline
This calculator was developed to consider the reduction of carbon emission in
materials transportation when purchasing regional materiasl within 500km distance
from site. All materials transportation use diesel-engine, heavy truck type with a
distance of 500km between the factory and the project site.
Carbon emission of diesel-engine, heavy truck = 2.7CO2 kg/litre

Transport
type
Truck heavy truck

Fuel
A
Diesel

litre/km
B
0.336

Baseline
Distance
C
500

Total Fuel
Consumption
(Litre)
D= B x
C
168

Kg
CO2/litre
E
2.63

Derivation of Baseline
Data of carbon emission of diesel-engine, heavy truck was taken from: The
Contribution of Road Transport to a Cleaner Environment, DAF,
http://www.daf.eu/UK/Trucks/Documents/Road-Transport-and-the-Environment.pdf

AND
CIS 20:2012, Green Performance Assessment System in Construction, pg: 31,
Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB).
500km distance was taken as a baseline to ensure the consistency between this sub
criteria and regional materials.

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7. WM CAL02 : WASTE MANAGEMENT CALCULATOR


Baseline
There are seven categories of waste listed in the calculator. Each category will have its
own type of waste. For the baseline, each type of waste is set to be 100% send to
landfill as a mode of disposal and the mode of transportation is diesel lorry. The
details of the baseline are as follows:
BASELINE

Category

Types of waste

Used Cooking Oil


Paint
Batteries
Glass
Metal
Aluminium
Cardboard

Schedule

Recyclable
Residual
Biodegradable
Inert
Mixed Municipal
Solid
Reusable

Concrete
Wood
Cement
Tiles
Food
Food Packaging

Mode of
Disposal

Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled
Landfilled

tCO2e/t
Waste

0.075
0.026
0.02
0.58
0.213

Main
Transportation
Mode

Energy
Source
(Electricity/D
iesel/Petrol/
Natural Gas)

Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry
Lorry

Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel

tCO2e/unit of
Transportation

0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027

Derivation of Baseline
Carbon emission for waste disposal process and transportation was taken from the
CIS 20:2012, Green Performance Assessment System in Construction, pg: 32-34,
Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB).

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8. IS CAL05

: LOW CARBON TRANSPORT FACTOR CALCULATOR

Baseline
The purpose of the calculator was to estimate the reduction of carbon emission for
the provision of parking for low-emission vehicles. The baseline specified for this
calculator is as below:
All conventional cars used are petrol-engine, 1600cc car with a driving distance of
100kmbetween staff house and office.
Carbon emission of 1600cc Petrol-engine car = 2.23 CO2 kg/litre.
Derivation of Baseline
Data of carbon emission of a 1600cc petrol-engine car was taken from: Vehicle Data
Tool, COMCAR, http://comcar.co.uk/newcar/companycar/poolresults/co2litre.cfm

100km distance is an assumption developed by the consultants in order to create a


baseline by taking into account the logical and cultural considerations of the average
distance of workers and their offices in Malaysia.
Challenges &Limitation
Lack of local transportation carbon emission database.
Too many variables to consider for e.g. different distance for each person between
their houses and offices.

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APPENDIX 2
MyCREST Building Baseline Modelling Guideline

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MyCREST Building Baseline Modelling


Guideline
2014 Edition

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INTRODUCTION
1. This document guides on the use of the MyCREST Simulation tool and the
Baseline Building Energy Model (SBEM). It also guides for the use of other
approved software tools comprising the MyCREST Baseline Calculation
Methodology (BCM) when demonstrating compliance for:
a. MyCREST Design
2. This document is under continuous review. It will be updated as and when the
need for additional clarification is identified.
3. To be approved, the software tool must satisfy the criteria as published by
MyCREST Panel. These requirements are updated from time to time, and cover
a number of generic issues as follows:
a. The software tool has to demonstrate that the calculations are
technically robust, and that they cover a necessary minimum set of
energy flows.
b. The software tool has to demonstrate that it follows the procedures for
compliance and certification as defined in this document, including the
use of the BCM databases. The definitions of Baseline and Reference
buildings, and other issues are defined from time to time.
c. The software tool has to demonstrate that it reports a minimum set of
output parameters, and that these parameters can be passed
appropriately to standard modules for:
i. Compliance checking
ii. Deriving a set of recommendations for energy efficiency
improvements.
4. In addition to ensuring that the software tools are compatible in terms of
technical scope, the approval process also checks that the procedural
guidance is being followed in terms of the calculation and reporting processes.

VERSION POLICY
5. All software tools, including the MyCREST template tool and the approved
Dynamic Simulation Models (DSM), evolve with time as improvements are
made to functionality and the quality of the underlying algorithms.

354 | P a g e

CHOOSING A SOFTWARE TOOL


6. All calculation methods involve a degree of simplification, and two classes of
software tools are available for use for Building Regulations compliance for
buildings other than dwellings. The tools are:
a. The MyCREST Static tool
b. The Approved Dynamic Simulation Models (DSMs). These will be
applicable for any building unless an individual DSMs approval
specifically excludes certain classes of building or building features. They
may prove more flexible than SBEM in handling certain building features,
and are also more suited as design support tools (as opposed to carrying
out compliance and certification calculations).
Interface approval as well as software approval is necessary to ensure that
procedures are followed appropriately as well as the calculations being carried out
correctly.

THE BASELINE BUIDING


1. The Baseline building must have the same size, shape and zoning arrangements
as the actual building, with the same conventions relating to the measurement
of dimensions.
2. Each space must contain the same activity (and therefore, the same activity
parameter values) as proposed for the equivalent space in the Actual building.
3. The Baseline building must be given the same orientation and be exposed to
the same weather data as the Actual building. The Baseline building must be
subjected to the same site shading from adjacent buildings and other
topographical features as are applied in the model of the Actual building.
4. Whatever system type (ventilation, cooling) is specified in a zone in the Actual
building must also be provided in the Baseline building. Note that in some
zones, air-conditioning need not be provided. For example, the Actual building
may contain a non-air conditioned stairwell or atrium space. The
corresponding zones in the Baseline building must also be non-air conditioned.
However, if air-conditioning was provided to either of these spaces in the
Actual building, then it must correspondingly be specified in the Baseline
building, and then both buildings must heat those spaces to the heating setpoint specified in the zone type in the BCM database.
5. Any building services system not covered by the energy performance
requirements in the Building Regulations1 must be ignored in both the Actual
and Baseline building.
6. There is a Requirement that the energy performance for the Actual Building
should be reduced by 6% compared to the Baseline Building.

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BUILDING ENVELOPE
7. For the Baseline Building, the windows, doors and roof light areas need to be
modeled to comply with OTTV 50 W/m2 and OTTV 25W/m2. The following of
the characteristics is for the baseline model:a. Passive Design:
The Baseline must achieve a minimum of OTTV = 50 W/m2, RTTV =
25W/m2 (with skylights and minimum U values as stated in MS1525.The
following are the additional characteristics of the baseline model:
Windows
WWR

= 50% and must be evenly distributed on ALL facades

b. Active Design:
Equipment
Active design shall follow the requirements as stated in the MyCREST
MODELLING GUIDE. Baseline spaces by space Lighting Power Density
(LPD) are as stated in the ACMV Basis of Design, which must comply with
ASHRAE 62.1 and ASHRAE 55.
HVAC SYSTEM
8. Each space in the Baseline building will have the same level of servicing as the
equivalent space in the Actual building.
9. A space is only considered as having air-conditioning if the system serving
that space includes refrigeration. Night cooling using mechanical ventilation
is not air-conditioning. If the same mechanical ventilation system that is used
for night cooling is also used to provide normal ventilation, then the space
should be regarded as being mechanically ventilated.
10. For Baseline Building, the active design shall follow the baseline requirement for
EQUIPMENTS as below:a. Chiller Efficiency
: MS1525
b. Motor efficiency
: MS 1525
AUXILIARY ENERGY
11. Baseline auxiliary for motor and pump should be comply as below:
a. Motor efficiency
: MS 1525

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LIGHTING POWER DENSITY


12. The ambient lighting in the Baseline building is as table below without
compromising the occupant comfort.

Common Space Types

LPD, W/m2

Office Enclosed

15*

Office Open Plan

15*

Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose

14

Classroom/Lecture/Training

15

For Penitentiary

14

Atrium First Three Floors

Atrium Each Additional Floor

Lounge/Recreation

13

For Hospital

Dining Area

15*

For Penitentiary

14

For Hotel

15*

For Motel

15*

For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining

15

For Family Dining

23

Food Preparation

13

Laboratory

15

Restrooms

10

Dressing/Locker/Fitting Room

Corridor/Transition

For Hospital

11

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For Manufacturing Facility

Stairs - Active

Active Storage

For Hospital

10

Inactive Storage

For Museum

Electrical/Mechanical

16

Workshop

20

Sales Area [for accent lighting, see Section


9.6.2(b)]

18

Building-Specific Space Types

LPD, W/m2

Gymnasium/Exercise Centre
Playing Area

15

Exercise Area

10

Courthouse/Police Station/Penitentiary
Courtroom

20

Confinement Cells

10

Judges Chambers

14

Fire Stations
Engine Room

Sleeping Quarters

Post Office Sorting Area

13

Convention Centre Exhibit Space

14

Library
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Card File and Cataloguing

12

Stacks

18

Reading Area

13

Hospital
Emergency

29

Recovery

Nurse Station

11

Exam/Treatment

16

Pharmacy

13

Patient Room

Operating Room

24

Nursery

Medical Supply

15

Physical Supply

10

Radiology

Laundry Washing

Automotive Service/Repair

Manufacturing
Low Bay ( <25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height)

13

High Bay (25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height)

18

Detailed Manufacturing

23

Equipment Room

13

Control Room

Hotel/Motel Guest Rooms

12

Dormitory Living Quarters

12

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Museum
General Exhibition

11

Restoration

18

Bank/Office Banking Activity Area

16

Religious Buildings
Worship Pulpit, Choir

26

Fellowship Hall

10

*Values taken from MS1525 in order to take into account the technology presence in
the market.
Baseline should comply with the LPD guidelines improve energy efficiency by
reducing wasteful design by limiting power allowed for lighting without compromising
occupant comfort and visual performance. Reduce connected lighting power
density below than allowed by IESNA or ASHRAE standard 90.1 2007 using either space
by space method or area weighted whole building lighting power average. The lux
level according to the spaces must comply with the minimum standards in the IESNA
Standard Handbook 2000. (In exception of office and selected spaces which has
been derived from MS1525).

LIGHTING
13. Lighting is modeled according to the baseline and designed Lighting Power
Density with the compliance of lux level according to IESNA.
14. The general lighting in the Actual building will include any capabilities of
modeling daylight harvesting, and occupancy sensor control.
CALCULATING THE CO2 EMISSION
15. The CO2 emissions from the Actual and Baseline building is based from KETTHA
conversion. This conversion will be updated from time to time. The current
conversion is 1kWh equal to 0.747 kgCO2e (MGTC 2011).

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ENERGY AUDIT
PURPOSE
1. To perform an energy audit to measure the actual environmental
parameters of the tenanted areas and determine the actual energy
consumption of the building and compare it with general engineering
practices.
2. To determine the additional energy required resulting from the tenant-installed
equipment.
3. To determine the energy consumption of the car-park areas.
4. To determine the actual distribution of energy utilization of major building
services in the building
5. To verify the effectiveness of any energy efficiency practices currently installed
in this building
6. To measure the space noise level and illumination level
7. To determine the actual consumption of commercial water supplied of
building
8. To write a report on the status of energy consumption for the purpose of
submission to GBI for registration
SCOPE
1. The whole building office area and car park area including landscape areas
TASK OF ENERGY AUDITOR
1. Obtain building data and energy billing data
2. Do site inspection for the purpose of:
a. Extracting data from energy management system
b. Extracting data from the actual equipment nameplate installed in the
building
c. Taking actual reading of
i. Temperature
ii. Relative humidity
iii. Noise level
iv. Carbon dioxide level
v. Illumination level including daylight level.
In the office areas, common areas, M&E room, landscaped areas and
the car-parking area.
d. Take photographs to illustrate the report.
3. Examine the energy data and establish the actual; monthly/yearly
consumption and maximum demand levels

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4. Evaluate its current energy consumption vis--vis simulated baselines, designed


values, good engineering practices and to verify the savings
5. Analyse the maximum demand from the EMS printout and the energy bills
6. Determine the building energy intensity (BEI) of the building
7. Determine the utilization of energy for each major building services
8. Consult the facility personnel on historical maintenance records, equipment
functionality normal operating schedule and any anomalous operating
schedule with abnormal consumption.
9. Confirm that the facility is billed on the proper tariff rate
10. Calculate the actual water consumption supplied commercially to the building
11. Evaluate the operating efficiency of major energy equipment, chiller, fans,
motors and pumps
THE REPORT
1. The report should contain:
a. The description of the building, name owner, location, size and type.
b. The actual energy consumption, water consumption and electricity
maximum demand of the building over the period the data were
available.
c. The energy savings and the level of effectiveness of any energy
efficiency programmes

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APPENDIX 3
MyCREST Guide for PV Solar Energy Generation
Estimation

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MyCREST GUIDE FOR PV SOLAR ENERGY GENERATION


ESTIMATION
The following is a simple set of guidelines for projects to estimate the annual electrical
energy generation for solar renewable systems in MyCREST. In MyCREST solar energy
generation is calculated under renewable energy and represent carbon amount
that can be offset from the carbon emission. In MyCREST, the solar energy generated
cannot be used to attain points under Energy Performance, but can attain points
under Renewable energy and Innovation.
Various factors can contribute to the amount of electrical energy that can be
generated by Solar panels. These include the solar panel specifications, the available
solar radiation and cloudiness of the sky, the degree of orientation of the panel
towards the annual sun path and the solar panel area and material of the solar cells
itself.
Essentially, the following steps should be taken:
1. Determine the targeted solar power.
2. Determine the location or inclination of solar panel (roof, on the ground etc.)
3. Refer to the product specifications on the electricity generated per year by
1kWhp.
4. Input the annual estimated energy in EP-CAL 01/02/03 Energy Performance
template.

Malaysian Carbon Reduction and Environmental Sustainability Tool


Energy Model Template
Renewable Energy
Technology Type

Description

Annual Energy Offset by Renewable Technology, kWh

Please Select
Please Select
Please Select
Please Select
Please Select
Please Select

Total

0.00

Total Percentage of Renewable Energy used in the building, %

0.0%

Total Carbon Offset by Renewable Technology, tCO2e

0.00

* Please refer to appendix 3 for solar PV calculation

Note: If separate software has been used to calculate the energy generated renewable sources, supporting documents must be provided summarising the calculations.

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APPENDIX 4
Method of Modelling CFD

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Method of Modelling CFD


i.

Predict external pressures around building

Providing a framework where valuable information on wind and sunlight environment


and concentration of these environmental forces around building complexes including surface pressure distributions can be analyzed. They also provide a platform
for the applications of the rapid development in virtual wind tunnel modeling based
on Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and visualisation techniques in
terms of the Malaysian context. Animated sunlight analysis tools should also be used
as a support in predict the internal impact of built features forms in order to minimise
unwanted sunlight and maximise usable daylight which are the principal issues
under this climate.
By analyzing the varied geometry of buildings through CFD and visualization tools,
the environment around, within and over the urban forms can be analysed. Wind and
sunlight are strong directional factors that can influence the microclimate around and
inside a building - these studies will further enhance the knowledge of the accuracy
of these predictions in order to assist in strategic design decisions. The methodology
emphasises use the current developments in computational fluid dynamics and
sunlight visualisation software to analyse the impact of bioclimatic parameters.
Because these models and simulation process make heavy demands on input and
computing time, the necessary hardware and software are crucial for this
achievement.
The parameters that can be analysed are external and internally i.e. Room air
distribution, pressure regime analysis, temperature profiles analysis and external
temperature analysis.
Successive simulation runs should be undertaken to study the impact in terms of
occupant comfort, indoor temperature, vertical and horizontal distribution of airflow,
sunlight and daylight penetration are studied by different members of the research
team. These requires not only many simulations runs and advanced computing
capability and time, but the output of the simulation in terms of visualisation have to
be projected and discussed in a team in order to optimise conflicting requirements
and balance the positive and negative impact of strategic decisions.
CFD or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) system is concerned with the numerical
simulation of air flow and heat transfer. It gives building designers the information they
need for detailed predictions of air flow and heat transfer processes in and around
building spaces - taking into account boundary conditions such as the effects of
climate, internal energy sources and HVAC systems.

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Zonal analysis can also be used for analysing infiltration and natural ventilation in
buildings. It uses a zonal airflow model to calculate bulk air movement in and through
the building, driven by wind and buoyancy induced pressures.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is concerned with the numerical simulation of
fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer processes. The objective of CFD applied to
buildings is to provide the designer with a tool that enables them to gain greater
understanding of the likely air flow and heat transfer processes occurring within and
around building spaces given specified boundary conditions which may include the
effects of climate, internal energy sources and HVAC systems.
ii.

Predict internal cross ventilation or stack effect in at least 50 percent of the main
occupied areas of the building

One of the focuses of this point is to demonstrate how effective is the wind penetration
into internal spaces and rooms such as occupied rooms, corridors internal light wells,
gaps between buildings and courtyards. Another focus is to assess the comfort
implications of a series of what if options with respect to building form. As a result, a
closed plan can be developed into a more open design. It is therefore possible to
investigate the wind penetration into elements such as internal light wells, gaps
between buildings and courtyards. By assessing the comfort implications of a series
of what if options with respect to building form, a closed plan can be developed
into a more open design while at the same time, ensuring air movement and
enlivening the internal environments.
Ventilation Simulation Methodology and Requirements
The natural ventilation simulation shall be carried out using computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) modeling to identify the most effective building design and layout for
the development. The simulation results and recommendations derived are to be
adopted to meet the intent of the criteria.
The CFD modeling shall be carried out using well validated software. The CFD solver
shall have the minimum capability of solving the Navier-Stokes fluid flow equations for
three dimensional incompressible flows at steady state on a body conforming
computational grid. Turbulence modeling shall also be included with the minimum
requirement of using the standard k- turbulence model, coupled with standard wall
function.
All simulation models shall be carried out under isothermal condition of 33.0C air
temperature at steady state condition.
For external pressure simulation, thee computational domain shall be include the
development of interest, the characteristics of the immediate surroundings and
buildings reside within the proximity of minimum 3 times or more the length of the
longest distance measured across the boundary of the development. In the event
367 | P a g e

that the building and surrounding development are located within hilly terrain, the
topography information shall be included in the simulation models. The
computational domain shall be further extended from the outer edge of the proximity
regions to the boundary such that it would not result in non-physical airflow solution,
after the solution has converged. The computational domain shall also be aligned
along with the wind flow direction. The domain height shall be extended,
approximately 3 times the height of the tallest building within the defined vicinity.
The computational grid generated for all simulations should resolve the salient flow
features in the apartment units and around the development. As a guide, the
dimension of the computational element should be set at 0.1 to 0.2 m in the
apartment unit, 0.5 to 1.0 m at all buildings and ground level and 10 m at the far field
boundary with a minimum of 50 m away from the ground.
Based on local climatic wind condition, meteorological data on the prevailing wind
direction and velocity of the proposed site location for at least three prevailing wind
direction shall be used for the CFD simulation. Example of the prevailing wind
condition such as the mean speed and direction for Singapore shall be taken from
table below. The inbound vertical wind profile shall assume to be given by the
logarithmic Law with reference height at 10 m.
Table 1: Tabulation of Prevailing Wind Direction & Speed obtained from NEA over a
Period of 18 Years.
Wind Direction
Mean Speed (m/s)
North

2.0

North-East

2.9

South

2.8

South-East

3.2

There shall have two large scale simulation models using the specified computational
domain and grid to assess the wind flow conditions and air-flow pattern within the
development and units. The simulation modelling can be conducted based on the
two best prevailing wind directions for the building development that is North or NorthEast (N or E) and South or South-East (S or SE).

Stage 1
CFD
Simulation
model
for
development

1. For internal spaces, determine up to five (5) typical


room design layouts that have the majority number of
units. If the proposed building development comprises
less than 5 typical units types, all the typical unit design
layouts are to be selected for the simulation.
368 | P a g e

Stage 2
CFD
Simulation
Model for Units

2. Conduct also a simulation to assess the wind flow


conditions
around
the
proposed
building
development and adjacent buildings. Natural
ventilated corridor linked to the unit should be taken
into consideration for the simulation models.
3. From the simulation results, determine the wind
pressure taken at 0.5 m from every assumed opening
of all units at mid height (capped at 20 storey height)
and the pressure difference (i.e. the difference of the
maximum and minimum wind pressure) of each unit.
In instances, where all or some of the typical unit
layouts are not designed at mid-height level, the
average wind pressure and respective pressure
differences should be determine for these typical units
located at the level closest to the mid-height level.
4. Derive the average pressure difference for all units at
mid height or selected level.
5. Select the unit with pressure difference that is closest
to the average pressure difference derived in C3.5(d)
from each typical unit design layout as determined in
C3.5(a) for Stage 2 simulation. The maximum
allowable margin of 10% difference from the
average pressure difference is deemed acceptable.
6. Conduct a large scale CFD simulation to assess the air
flow conditions of these five (5) selected spaces. All
living or functional spaces in the unit are to be
included in the simulation modeling except for
enclosed spaces such as storeroom or CD shelter. For
the simulation model, all windows and doors can be
assumed to be fully opened except for the main door,
which is assumed to be closed at all time.
7. From the simulation results, determine the area
weighted average wind velocity of each selected unit
y considering the air flow conditions of the applicable
areas. For residential buildings, the applicable areas
refer to living room, open kitchen (that is connected
to the living room), study rooms and all bedrooms. The
area-weighted average wind velocities of these areas
are to be computed at horizontal-plane 1.2 m above
the floor level. The same applies to naturally ventilated
functional spaces for non-residential buildings.

The selected space is deemed to have good natural ventilation if the area-weighted
average wind velocity of the unit is not less than 0.6 m/s. The overall percentage of
units achieving good natural ventilation is given by:
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(No. of Selected Units for Each Layout x Area-Weighted Average Wind Velocity) x
100%
Total Number of Selected Units x 0.60 m/s
The Qualified Person (QP) and the other appropriate practitioners shall ensure that the
following report is available as evidences to demonstrate compliance with the
ventilation simulation framework. The report should comprise the following items:
i.
Cover page with a proper title, photo of development, developers information
(including developers name and address and person-in-charge), Consultants
detail (including the principals name and authorized signature, firms address
and person-in-charge)
ii.
Table of contents
iii.
Executive Summary
Background of the development
Main findings
Concluding remarks
iv.
Background/ Introduction
v.
Methodology
Describe methodology used in the study
Provide rationale for the units selection as well as salient information such
as the total no. of units and different design units layout and location
vi.
Geometrical Model should include
Isometric view of the development from various angles
Domain size used
Plan and 3D isometric model of units form various angles
vii.
Simulation settings
Boundary conditions
CFD software/ models used/ numerical scheme
Mesh/ cell sizing
Solution control-convergence criteria
viii.
Results and discussions
Simulation results for the development for all direction showing the main
graphical plots of the plan pressure and velocity vector salient findings
Tabulation showing the listing and details of all typical nit types and the
selected unit types as well as the corresponding number of units and the
area-weighted average wind velocity within each selected unit where
applicable.
Calculation of percentage of units with good natural ventilation and
area-weighted average wind velocity of 0.60 m/s or more.
ix.
Conclusion
x.
The following plots are to be placed in the appendices
Simulation results for the development for each direction
Static pressure (plan view-ground & mid elevation, isometric
views on building faade)
Velocity vector and contour showing the plan view at ground &
mid elevation

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APPENDIX 5
Occupants Satisfaction Survey Sheet

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OCCUPANT SATISFACTION SURVEY


Background
1. How many years have you
worked in this building?
Less than 1 year
1-2 years
3-5 years
More than 5 years
2. How long have you been
working at your present
workspace?
Less than 3 months
4-6 months
7-12 months
More than 1 year
3. In a typical week, how many
hours do you spend in your
workspace?
10 or less
11-30
More than 30
4. How would you describe the
work you do? Administrative
support
Technical
Professional
Managerial/ supervisory
Other
5. What is your age?
30 or under
31-50
Over 50
6. What is your gender?
Female
Male

Personal Workspace Location


7. On which floor is your
workspace located?
............. floor
8. In which area of the building is
your workspace located?
North
East
West
South
Core
Do not know
9. To which direction do the
windows closest to your
workspace face?
North
East
West
South
No windows
Do not know
10. Are you near to an exterior wall
(within 15 feet)?
Yes
No
11. Are you near a window (within
15 feet)?
Yes
No
12. Which of the following best
describes your personal
workspace?
Enclosed office, private
Enclosed office, shared with
other people
Cubicles with high partitions
(about five or more feet high)
Cubicles with low partitions
(lower than five feet high)
Workspace in open office
with no partitions (just desks)
Other

372 | P a g e

Office Layout
13. How satisfied are you with the
amount of space available for
individual work and storage?
1 Very Satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very Dissatisfied
14. How satisfied are you with the
level of visual privacy?
1 Very Satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very Dissatisfied
OCCUPANT SATISFACTION SURVEY
15. How satisfied are you with the
ease of interaction with coworkers?
1 Very Satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very Dissatisfied
16. Overall, does the office layout
enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes
17. How satisfied are you with the
amount of space available for
individual work and storage?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
18. How satisfied are you with the
level of visual privacy?
1 Very satisfied
2

3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
19. How satisfied are you with ease
of interaction with co-workers?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
20. Overall, does the office layout
enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes
Office Furnishings
21. How satisfied are you with the
comfort of your office
furnishings (chair, desk,
computer, equipment, etc.)?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
22. How satisfied are you with your
ability to adjust your furniture to
meet your needs?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
Thermal Comfort
23. How satisfied are you with the
colours and textures of flooring,
furniture and surface finishes?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
373 | P a g e

24. Do your office furnishings


enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes
25. Which of the following do you
personally adjust or control in
your workspace? (check all
that apply)
Window blinds or shades
Operable window
Thermostat
Room air-conditioning unit
Portable fan
Ceiling fan
Adjustable air vent in wall or
ceiling
Adjustable floor air vent
(diffuser)
Door to interior space
Door to exterior space
None of the above
Other
26. How satisfied are you with the
temperature in your
workspace?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
27. Overall, does your thermal
comfort in yourworkspace
enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes

Air Quality
28. How satisfied are you with the
air quality in your workspace
(i.e. stuffy/stale air, cleanliness,
odours)?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
Lighting
29. Overall, does the air quality in
your workspace enhance or
interfere with your ability to get
your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes
30. Which of the following controls
do you have over the lighting in
your workspace? (check all
that apply)
Light switch
Light dimmer
Window blinds or shades
Desk (task) light
None of the above
Other
31. How satisfied are you with the
amount of light in your
workspace?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied

374 | P a g e

32. How satisfied are you with the


visual comfort of the lighting
(e.g., glare, reflections,
contrast)?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
33. Overall, does the lighting quality
enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes
Acoustic Quality
34. How satisfied are you with the
noise level in your workspace?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
35. How satisfied are you with the
sound privacy in your
workspace (ability to have
conversations without your
neighbours overhearing and
vice versa)?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied

Cleanliness and Maintenance


37. How satisfied are you with
general cleanliness of the
overall building?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
38. How satisfied are you with
cleaning service provided for
your workspace?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
39. How satisfied are you with
general maintenance of the
building?
1 Very satisfied
2
3
4
5 Very dissatisfied
40. Does the cleanliness and
maintenance of this building
enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes

36. Overall, does the acoustic


quality in your workspace
enhance or interfere with your
ability to get your job done?
1 Enhances
2
3
4
5 Interferes

375 | P a g e

IEQ Parameter benchmark


Unit of
Measure

Acceptable
Range/ Limits

23 26

55 70

m/ s

0.15 0.5

ii. Carbon dioxide

ppm

1000

iii. Carbon monoxide

ppm

10

iv. Formaldehyde

ppm

0.1

mg/ m3

0.15

ppm

lux

300 400

db(A)

40 50

Parameter

Measure

1. Thermal
comfort

i.

2. Indoor air
quality

i.

Temperature

ii. Relative humidity


Air movement

v. Particulate matters
vi. Total volatile organic
compounds (TVOC)
3. Indoor
lighting
4. Indoor
acoustic
NOTE:

Illuminance
Ambient sound

Sources:
a) Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-Residential
Buildings, MS: 1525
b) Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health, DOSH Malaysia

376 | P a g e

APPENDIX 6
MyCREST Commissioning Flow Chart

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Basic Commissioning

Improved Commissioning

Owner develops Owner Project Requirement (OPR)

Architect, MEP and Lighting designer create BOD

DESIGN

Owner designates CxA


before 50% CD

CxA reviews OPR and BOD

Project team incorporates commissioning


requirements into construction docs

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

Owner designates CxA

CxA reviews OPR and BOD

CxA conducts
commissioning design
review at 50% CD
CxA develops and presents commissioning plan
based on OPR and BOD

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CxA reviews contractor


submittals

CONSTRUCTION/INSTALLATION

CxA verifies installation and performance of


building systems

CxA performs systems functional performance


testing

CxA develops systems


manual for commissioned
systems
CxA verifies training
requirements are
completed

POST-CONSTRUCTION

CxA develops commissioning report

CxA reviews building


operation 8-10 months after
completion

379 | P a g e

ReCommissioning ( MyCREST O&M)

Investigation and Analysis - Determine


possible energy conservation measures
through commissioning

Implement Result

Implement all low-cost or no-cost


measures

Measure performance

Develop the final report

Compile a system manual

Develop an ongoing commissioning plan

Verify continued staff training - provide facility


managers, engineers, and major-systems
equipment operators with training that builds
awareness and skills in a broad range of sustainable
building operations topics in MYCREST

380 | P a g e

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Provide training for building staff

Repeat
system
testing and
evaluation
over 2 years
cycle

APPENDIX 7
MyCREST Calculator Formula

381 | P a g e

IS2 CARBON ACCOUNTING ON SITE (FOR GREENFIELD OR GRADED LAND)

A. TREE: LESS THAN 11 inch (28cm)


Site Area Condition
Location of Site Area

Non-Urban Area/Urban
Area

Within the project boundary, total existing trees with trunk diameter larger

than 28cm
Total preserved and protected trees (with trunk diameter larger than 28cm

(as per ISreq1 Site Inventory Analysis on Greenery Template)1


Existing tree preserved expressed as a percent of total existing tree

(z/y) x 100

Trees with diameter GREATER OR EQUAL 28 cm


Diameter2
(cm)

Height
(m)

Age (years)

Number
of Trees

(a x 0.3937) /
2.5 = A

Formula
((0.25 x W2 / 6.4516) x (D / 0.3048) x 1.2 x 0.725 / A) x H
/ 2.20462 = E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
E11

Total Dry Weight (TDW)


Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

SUM (E1:E11) = SUM 1


SUM 1 x 0.5= SUM 2
SUM 2 x 3.6663 / 1000 = SUM 3

382 | P a g e

Step 1: Total Green Weight (TGW)


TGW : W = 0.25D2H (1.2)
: W = 0.25 x ((D2/6.4515) x (H/0.3048) x 1.2)
Step 2: Total Dry Weight (TDW)
TDW = TGW x 0.725
Step 3: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW = TDW x 0.5
Step 4: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W = TCW x 3.6663
Step 5: Total CO2 Weight per year (T lbsCO2W/year)
TCO2W/year = TCO2W /Age of Tree
Step 6: Total ton of CO2 Weight per year equivalent
tCO2e = TCO2W/2204.62

W = above ground weight of the tree (lbs)


D = diameter of the trunk (inches)
H = Height of the tree (feet)
* cm to inch

= 0.3937

Inch2 to cm2

= 6.4515

feet to meter

= 0.3048

metric ton to pound

= 2204.62

Determination of tree age


Age tree = Tree diameter at 1.5m height / 2.5cm

383 | P a g e

B. TREE: MORE THAN 11 inch (28cm)


Trees with diameter GREATER OR EQUAL 28 cm
Diameter2
(cm)

Height
(m)

Age (years)

Number
of Trees

(a x 0.3937) /
2.5 = A

Formula
((0.15 x W2 / 6.4516) x (D / 0.3048) x 1.2 x 0.725 / A) x H
/ 2.20462 = E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
E11

Total Dry Weight (TDW)


Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

SUM (E1:E11) = SUM 1


SUM 1 x 0.5= SUM 2
SUM 2 x 3.6663 / 1000 = SUM 3

Step 1: Total Green Weight (TGW)


TGW : W = 0.15D2H (1.2)
: W = 0.15 x ((D2/6.4515) x (H/0.3048) x 1.2)
Step 2: Total Dry Weight (TDW)
TDW = TGW x 0.725
Step 3: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW = TDW x 0.5
Step 4: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W = TCW x 3.6663
Step 5: Total CO2 Weight per year (T lbsCO2W/year)

384 | P a g e

TCO2W/year = TCO2W /Age of Tree


Step 6: Total ton of CO2 Weight per year equivalent
tCO2e = TCO2W/2204.62

W = above ground weight of the tree (lbs)


D = diameter of the trunk (inches)
H = Height of the tree (feet)
* cm to inch

= 0.3937

Inch2 to cm2

= 6.4515

feet to meter

= 0.3048

metric ton to pound

= 2204.62

Determination of tree age


Age tree = Tree diameter at 1.5m height / 2.5cm

385 | P a g e

C) GRASS
For Grass, Turf and Groundcovers
Total Grass Area

Total Dry Weight (TDW)

A x 0.56 = B

Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

B x 0.427 = C

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

C x 3.6663 / 1000

Step 1: Total Dry Weight (TDW)


TDW = 0.56 x Area in meter square
Step 2: Total Carbon Weight (TCW)
TCW = TDW x 0.427
Step 3: Total CO2 Weight (TCO2W)
TCO2W = TCW x 3.6663
Step 4: Total ton CO2 Weight (T CO2W)
tCO2e = TCO2W/1000

D) WATER BODIES
For Water Bodies
Total Water Bodies Area
*Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

A
A x 0.56 x 0.427 x 3.6663 / 1000

386 | P a g e

IS6 URBAN HEAT ISLAND MITIGATION


Option 1: Vegetated Roof
Total roof area (excluding mechanical equipment, photovoltaic panels and

m2

skylights)(m )
Total vegetated roof area (m2)

m2

Vegetated roof area, as percentage of total roof area

The vegetated roof area must be at least 50% of the total roof area to earn 1 point.

Type of Planting
Grass, Shrubs and Groundcovers

Shady Trees

For Grass, Shrubs and Groundcovers


m2

Total Grass Area


Total Dry Weight (TDW)

0.00

Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

0.00

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

0.0000

kg
kg
tCO2e

Shady Trees
Diameter (cm)

Height (m)

Age (years)

Number of Trees

0
0
0
0
Total Dry Weight (TDW)

0.00

Total Carbon Weight (TCW)

0.00

Carbon Sequestration, tCO2e

0.0000

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS (LCA) - STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

387 | P a g e

kg
kg
tCO2e