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An Intelligent Control Strategy for Power Factor Compensation on Distorted Low Voltage Power Systems

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Factor Compensation on Distorted Low Voltage

Power Systems

Shunfu Lin, Member, IEEE, Diogo Salles, Student Member, IEEE, Walmir Freitas, Member, IEEE, and

Wilsun Xu, Fellow, IEEE

harmonic resonance has become a major hurdle for performing

power factor compensation in commercial power systems, such

as office towers and shopping complexes. This paper presents an

intelligent power factor compensation controller that can perform

power factor correction without exciting harmonic resonance

under varying demand conditions. Practical and robust control

algorithms are proposed for the purpose of easy implementation

in a micro-controller. In addition, the controller relies on common

low cost sensing devices and does not require additional measurements. As a result, the proposed controller can be constructed as

a retrofitting device to replace existing power factor correction

controllers with little effort. Analysis of representative case studies

is conducted to illustrate how the proposed controller performs.

Index TermsCapacitor switching, commercial buildings, harmonic resonance, power factor control.

I. INTRODUCTION

commercial facilities, such as office towers and shopping

complexes. The application of power factor (PF) compensation

has long been accepted as a necessary step to improve the efficiency of these low voltage electrical installations [1][3]. This

is usually achieved by installing capacitors downstream to the

supply transformer at the entrance point of the facility. Such capacitor units are switched in and out of circuits as the demand

for VAR compensation of the building load fluctuates. If applied properly and controlled, capacitors can improve the performance of distribution circuits since, by providing the reactive

current locally, less power needs to be provided by the distribution network resulting in lower losses, improved line voltage,

Manuscript received January 28, 2012; revised April 24, 2012; accepted May

13, 2012. Date of publication July 13, 2012; date of current version August 20,

2012. This work was supported by the Natural Resources Canada through the

Technology, Innovation Program as part of the Climate Action Plan for Canada

and by FAPESP, Brazil. Paper no. TSG-00041-2012.

S. Lin is with the Department of Electric Power and Automation Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, 200090 China,

(e-mail: shunfulin@shiep.edu.cn).

D. Salles and W. Freitas are with the Department of Electrical Energy

Systems, University of Campinas, 13083-852, Campinas, Brazil (e-mail:

dsalles@ieee.org, walmir@ieee.org).

W. Xu is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada (e-mail: wxu@ualberta.

ca).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSG.2012.2201756

However, facility operators have reported frequent failures

or trips of these PF correction capacitor banks. One important reason is the proliferation of harmonic-producing loads;

solid-state power conversion devices are prime examples. The

problem is that capacitors might aggravate the existing harmonic distortion since, although these devices do not generate

harmonics, they provide a network path for possible local

or general parallel resonance conditions, which contributes

to a significant amplification of harmonic currents produced

by the facility loads. In cases of resonance, this current may

be very large and may damage the capacitors. Therefore, the

consideration of PF compensation capacitor installation should

also include harmonic resonance analysis at the design stage

[1][3], [5], [6].

According to [5], possible solutions to avoid harmonic

problems include the following: 1) ungrounding grounded-wye

capacitors; 2) changing capacitor bank sizes and locations; 3)

adding a reactor to an existing bank; 4) adding a filter capacitor;

and 5) controlling the capacitor switching scheme to avoid

resonance. The objective of this paper covers the fifth approach

and consists of developing a practical and robust control algorithm for the capacitor bank switching scheme that is capable

of achieving both power factor correction and resonance avoidance requirements. Previous works proposed optimization

algorithms for this purpose; however, they are time-consuming

and it is not guaranteed they converge to the optimal solution

under time-varying load and system impedance conditions

[7], [8]. More recent works have focused on the installation

of passive and active harmonic filters [9][11]. This approach

can be complex (e.g., stresses in the filters need to be considered, the harmonic spectrum of the nonlinear loads need

to be determined, etc.) and be costly (e.g., installation and

maintenance costs) to the facilitys owner. Another common

solution is to add reactors in series with existing capacitor

banks [12]. However, the system parameters vary dynamically

with the power system configurations and loads. Therefore,

the harmonic resonance might occur even if a combination of

capacitors connected in series with reactors has been installed.

Reference [13] proposed replacing the reactors with power

electronics inverters.

The concept of the controller proposed in this paper is

simpler; whenever resonance conditions exist, the capacitor

bank should be changed in size to shift the resonant point to

1563

systems.

solved; how to determine if the resonance condition exists

under varying demand conditions? It is not safe and intelligent to decide the suitable number of switched capacitors

units assuming constant system impedance since it varies for

different operating conditions. In order to solve this issue, the

proposed controller uses pre- and postdisturbance (due to the

capacitor switching) steady-state waveforms of the voltages

and currents at the interface point to estimate the harmonic

system impedance [14][16]. It must be highlighted that the

proposed controller relies on common low cost sensing devices

and does not require additional measurements. As a result, the

controller can be constructed as a retrofitting device to replace

existing power factor correction controllers with little effort.

This paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses the

conventional control approach for power factor compensation.

Section III describes the characteristics associated to the harmonic resonance problem. Section IV presents the development

of the proposed capacitor controller. Section V presents case

studies to evaluate the proposed approach. Section VI summarizes the main findings of this paper

II. COMMON REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION SCHEME

As mentioned before, the traditional approach for power

factor compensation in commercial facilities consists of placing

capacitor banks in parallel with the load at the entrance point

of the facility, offsetting the inductive loading (lagging power

factor) of the equipments. Fig. 1 shows a common power factor

compensation arrangement used in commercial power systems.

As one can observe, the scheme typically consists of one or

more breaker switched capacitor units along with an intelligent

control unit, current (CT) and voltage (VT) transformers, which

are connected at the low side of the supply transformer.

These banks often include three to nine capacitor units connected in three-phase grounded-wye, ungrounded-wye, or delta

configurations [5]. In practice, commercial installations employ

switched capacitor banks, instead of fixed banks, in which the

capacitors units are switched on and off automatically to compensate for changing load conditions (minimum condition up

to peak load) [17], [18]. Fig. 2 illustrates a typical kilovar demand over a 24 h period [5]. This curve can be determined

by a recording kilovar meter or calculated using kilowatt and

power factor measurements. The fixed banks satisfy the base

load requirements, and the switched banks compensate for the

inductive kilovar peak during the heavier load periods [5], [17].

Fig. 2. Application of switched and fixed capacitors for a time varying kvar

demand condition.

Fig. 3. Conventional strategy for power factor correction through switched capacitor banks.

to a new, higher power factor, one must subtract the inductive

kvar of the corrected

power factor from the existing

power factor. The difference is the amount of capacitive kvar to be added to the system. The following formula is a

convenient way of doing this [5]:

(1)

where:

kW

kvar

is based on a local automatic controller. The control senses

voltage and current, and uses either these parameters directly

or a derived parameter like power factor to compare against a

threshold. Fig. 3 shows a flowchart that illustrates the conventional strategy of the automatic controller based on the measured

power factor.

According to the flowchart above, the following steps are performed for PF correction [4], [19]:

1564

opening and closing of the capacitor switches based on the

measured power factor.

2) The control unit measures voltage (VT) and current (CT)

on the feeder side (as shown in Fig. 1) and the results of the

computed power factor is compared to the predetermined

target power factor setting.

3) Using measured and target power factors and the capacitor

information, the control unit determines if one or more capacitor banks need to be switched on or off to bring the actual power factor as close as possible to the targeted power

factor setting.

Based on the above considerations, automatic capacitor

controllers have been developed and marketed for commercial

power system designers and operators. While such controllers

work well for traditional passive loads such as motors, more

and more facility operators have reported frequent capacitor

failures or trips. As a result, reactive power compensation

cannot be achieved.

This problem is caused by the parallel resonance between

the capacitor and the upstream impedance. This resonance is

excited by the harmonic currents produced by modern facility

loads such as office electronics and variable frequency drives.

Industry, therefore, has a strong need for capacitor controllers

that can perform power factor correction on one hand and can

avoid harmonic resonance on the other. In addition, the controller shall not require additional sensors or inputs and can

retrofit current controllers with zero alteration to the existing

facility. In the next section, the resonance problem is explained

in detail.

III. HARMONIC RESONANCE PROBLEM

With any application of capacitor banks, there is always

the risk of resonance. This is due to the interaction of the

banks capacitance with the inductive reactance characteristics of the supply system. Harmonic currents at or near the

resonant frequency can create high harmonic voltages across

the high parallel impedance and the capacitor may not be able

to withstand the resonance voltage, leading to fuse blowing

or capacitor damage [5], [18]. In order to facilitate the description of the resonance problem, Fig. 4 is used to represent

a harmonic-producing commercial facility with a shunt PF

correction capacitor connected at the PCC with the distribution

system. In this figure, the impedance

and current source

represent the linear and nonlinear loads of the facilities,

respectively [20]. Assume that the supply system can be represented by a Thvenin impedance of

, where h

fundamental frequency).

The total impedance

seen by the harmonic current

source can be determined as

(2)

of the supply system

The inductive reactance

impedance increases and the capacitive reactance

decreases as the frequency increases, or as the harmonic order

increases. At a given harmonic frequency in any system where

a capacitor exists, there will be a crossover point where the

inductive and capacitive reactances are equal

.

Consequently, the total impedance

approaches infinity

and a very high voltage harmonic may result if the commercial

facility harmonic current has a frequency close to

(3)

where

is the system short-circuit level and

is the

capacitor size. The above frequency is called the resonance frequency of the system. In this case, the resonant components

and

are in parallel. The resulting resonance is called parallel resonance. The parallel resonance phenomenon can also

be visualized from a frequency scan plot, as shown in Fig. 5.

This figure illustrates how both system and capacitor reactances

change with the frequency. At the resonance frequency both reactances are equal and total impedance seen from the capacitor

location

will tend to a very large value. It is extremely

unlikely that these two impedances are exactly identical, but

near resonance can be very damaging as well. For example,

consider a system fault level of 250 MVA and a capacitor bank

rating of 10.8 Mvar. Substituting these numbers on (3) yields

the following:

The parallel resonance order of 4.83 is too close to the 5th harmonic order and if any magnitude of 5th harmonic current flows

from the harmonic-producing loads into the power system at the

capacitor bus, the capacitor may not be able to withstand the resonance voltage, leading to fuse blowing or capacitor damage.

TABLE I

CAPACITOR LOADING LIMITS ESTABLISHED

THE IEEE STANDARD 1036-1992

1565

BY

resonance should be a concern is to use (4), which shows how

further away the resonance frequency

should be from any

dominant harmonic frequency

.

(4)

However, the condition given by (4) is not sufficient because

resonance frequency shift can occur due to capacitance deviation [21], for example. Therefore, the final condition to decide

if a certain combination of capacitors should be switched is to

verify if the stress levels on the capacitors bank meet the limits

defined in Table I.

When large levels of voltage and current harmonics are

present, the ratings are quite often exceeded, resulting in

failures. Therefore, the consideration of power capacitor installation should include harmonic resonance analysis at the

design stage. Several solutions can be employed for harmonic

resonance damping as follows [5]:

1) ungrounding grounded-wye capacitors;

2) changing capacitor bank sizes and/or locations;

3) adding a reactor to an existing capacitor bank;

4) adding a filter capacitor;

5) controlling the capacitor switching scheme to avoid

resonance.

The installation of filters can bring unacceptable additional

operational and capital costs to the PF correction scheme and,

furthermore, a detailed harmonic study must be conducted to

ensure that the application of the filters will not cause other side

effects on both the facility and the distribution power system,

such as parallel resonance at harmonic frequencies other than

the one targeted by the filter. We think that focusing on a more

intelligent algorithm to control the capacitor switching scheme

to achieve both power factor correction and resonance avoidance requirements is more of interest for consumers and utilities.

Employ an adaptive control to monitor the harmonic distortion and switch the capacitors to avoid resonance might be

appropriate for commercial loads where there are numerous

switched capacitors coming on and off line randomly [18]. Basically, the idea is to develop a controller that relies on common

low cost sensing devices and does not require additional measurements. As a result, the controller can be constructed as a

retrofitting device to replace existing power factor correction

controllers with little effort. Therefore, a new strategy for the

PF correction capacitors bank controller is proposed in this

paper and it is discussed in detail in the next section. It is

important that the controller is able to achieve both power

factor and resonance avoidance requirements under varying

demand conditions.

is to determine the number of capacitor units to be switched

that can yield the highest power factor for the facility without

causing excessive harmonic stress on the capacitors. Since there

are limited numbers of capacitor combinations, the simplest algorithm is to scan through these combinations and pick the best

candidate. This approach is doable but is not efficient. Another

extreme is to formulate the problem as an optimization problem.

Such an approach complicates the problem, it is not guaranteed

to converge and it might be time-consuming. More importantly,

they cannot be easily implemented into a microcontroller. In this

paper, a practical, efficient, and robust algorithm is proposed.

Easy implementation is one of the main considerations of the

algorithm.

It is important to note that the switching control algorithm

is only one of the components of the controller. The algorithm

needs the system impedance information as input. There is

also a need to detect if a capacitor is being overstressed due to

changing harmonic conditions. Therefore, the proposed controller actually has at least the following three major functions:

A. measurement of the system impedance;

B. detection of resonance condition;

C. determination of capacitor units.

The following subsections provide description of each one of

the above functions.

A. Measurement of the System Impedance

In the previous section, it was discussed that in order to detect

a resonance condition, it is necessary to determine the system

impedance. One important issue is that the system impedance is

not constant, but varies due to loading and topological changes

on the system. Therefore, the following issue must be solved,

how the harmonic resonance condition can be determined for a

time varying load demand and topology?

A number of impedance measurement methods have been

developed, which can be classified into two types: the transients-based methods and the steady-state-based methods. The

transients-based methods inject transient disturbances into

the system. The frequency-dependent network impedances

are extracted from voltage and current transients [14]. The

main problems associated with these methods are the need

for a high-speed data acquisition system and for the source

of disturbances. The steady-state-based methods use pre- and

postdisturbance steady-state waveforms [14][16]. Typical

disturbances are harmonic current injections produced by an

external source or switching of a network component. Since

there are no transients involved, the methods can only determine network impedances at harmonic frequencies. Since

there is no need for a high-speed data acquisition system, the

steady-state method can be implemented with many common,

low-cost power quality monitors and it relies on the common

voltage and current transformer sensors illustrated on Fig. 1.

The simplest form of the steady-state measurement method

involves the switching of a network component at the location

where the network impedance is to be measured. Assuming

that there is a shunt capacitor available for switching, the basic

idea of this method can be summarized as follows [14], [15]:

1566

switched shunt capacitor units.

1) Record the steady-state waveforms of the capacitor voltages and currents. If the capacitor is not connected, its currents are treated as zero.

2) Changes are then made to the status of the capacitor. For

example, a capacitor unit can be switched on or off to meet

the power factor requirement.

3) The postdisturbance steady-state voltage and current

waveforms are recorded.

4) Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is applied to the pre- and

postdisturbance waveforms. For each harmonic, the following system equations can be developed:

(5)

(6)

where

and

are the predisturbance hth harmonic current and voltage, and

and

are the

post-disturbance hth harmonic current and voltage.

and

are the internal system voltage and system impedance,

respectively.

5) The system harmonic impedances can be determined from

the above two equations as follows:

(7)

The impedance does not include the switched capacitor

impedance. Practical implementation and field experiences

regarding this method to calculate

can be found on [16].

B. Detection of Resonance Condition

As mentioned before, from the system impedance and the existing capacitor impedance, the resonance frequency can be calculated through (3). For a certain system impedance (or system

fault level,

), the number of capacitor units

that

lead to a harmonic resonance frequency

equal or close

to the dominant harmonic frequencies. Fig. 6 illustrates, for a

particular system impedance, how the harmonic resonance frequency changes as more and more capacitor units are switched

on. For the figure below, the system is represented by a transformer of 1600 kVA with reactance of 6.0% and each capacitor

unit has a capacity of 50 kvar. From this figure, it is clear that the

resonance frequency can be shifted from a harmonic frequency

by changing the number of switched capacitor units.

A practical way to verify if

is too close to any harmonic

frequency

is to apply (4). In the example of Fig. 6, if 11

capacitors are switched ON, the resonance frequency

is too

close to the 7th harmonic order (point A in the figure), therefore, the bank should be increased or decreased. If two more

capacitor are switched (13 in total),

is around 6.4 (point B

in the figure), which is further away from 5th and 7th harmonic

orders. However, it is also necessary to evaluate for the current

combination of capacitor units if its loading conditions meet the

limits specified by Table I.

One can also observe from Fig. 6 that more than one combination of capacitor units can be considered to avoid resonance.

In the following subsections, it will be shown the criteria to select the most appropriate combination. In this paper, each combination refers to a particular number of capacitor units to be

switched on to the circuit.

C. Determination of Capacitor Units

The final step is to determine the number of capacitor units

that can be switched without violating power factor and resonance constraints. From the previous subsection, it is possible

to estimate, from the current system impedance, the combinations of capacitor units that can be switched so that the resonance frequency

is further away from the harmonic frequencies. This can be done through the following steps:

1) The system impedance

calculated from the last

capacitor switching is used as input.

2) Substituting (3) in (4) yields (8), from which it is possible

to determine the combinations of capacitors

that

can be switched. Normally, the dominant harmonic frequencies

are the odd harmonic orders from 3 to 29

(8)

3) Among the combinations found in step 2), it is possible

to determine which combinations (kvar) lead to a power

between utility lower

and upper

factor

limits. This verification can be done as follows:

(9)

4) From the combinations found in step 3), select the combination that lead to minimum switching relative to the current capacitor bank configuration.

5) Calculate the anticipated loading for this combination this

using the indices presented in Table I.

6) If loading indices meet the standard limits, switch the combination, otherwise discard this option from the combinations obtained in step 3) and go back to step 4) to select a

suboptimal solution.

The next subsection combines the previously discussed functionalities into a single flowchart.

1567

TABLE II

PARAMETERS OF A TYPICAL DISTRIBUTION POWER TRANSFORMER

TABLE III

ACTIVE AND REACTIVE POWER DEMAND OF THE CASE STUDY FACILITY

Fig. 7 presents the flowchart of the proposed capacitor bank

controller combining the previously discussed functionalities

to achieve acceptable utility power factor level as well as harmonic resonance avoidance. The flowchart is composed of the

following steps:

1) Read voltage and current from VT and CT sensors as illustrated in Fig. 1 and switch on a capacitor unit.

2) Read postswitching voltage and current and calculate harmonic system impedance

from (7).

3) Determine the combinations of capacitor units that meet

the resonance constraint given by (8).

4) Read voltage/current and calculate power factor (PF).

5) If PF is within utility lower

and upper

limits go to step 6), otherwise go to step 7). Normally,

is around 0.92 (depending on each utility comis equal to 1.

pany) and

6) If the capacitor bank loading indices (defined in Table I)

are below standard limits go back to step 4), otherwise go

to step 7).

7) Using (9), determine the combinations of capacitor units

from those determined in Step 3) that leads to PF between

and

.

8) Select the combination that leads to minimum switching

relative to the current capacitor bank configuration.

the standard limits switch the selected combination, otherwise go to step 11).

10) After the switching, if the capacitor bank loading indices

are below standard limits go back to step 2), otherwise go

to step 11).

11) Remove the combination selected in step 8) from those

determined in step 7). Go back to step 8).

One can observe from the flowchart of Fig. 7 that the proposed controller is simple and practical and has other advantage

as follows:

It does not require additional measurements relying on

common voltage and current transformer sensors.

The controller does not require the installation of reactors

and filters.

Furthermore, the controller not only checks if the harmonic

resonance frequency

is further away from any harmonic frequency, but the capacitor stress levels are also

verified to ensure the selection of the most appropriate

combination of capacitor units.

The controller takes into account the time-varying system

conditions to determine both the power factor and the resonance condition.

The proposed controller also preserves the objective of

conventional controllers, which is to achieve the highest

facility power factor.

In the following section, some case studies are conducted to

evaluate how the proposed controller performs.

V. CASE STUDIES

A case study is analyzed in this section to illustrate the

proposed control method. Suppose the parameters of a typical

power transformer feeding a commercial building as shown in

Table II.

1568

TABLE IV

HARMONIC CURRENT LIMITS OF THE INVESTIGATED SYSTEM

ACCORDING TO IEEE 519-1992 [20]

tions of switched on capacitors (n).

TABLE V

COMBINATIONS OF SWITCHED ON CAPACITORS LEADING TO HARMONIC

RESONANCE FREQUENCY CLOSE TO TYPICAL HARMONIC ORDERS

From the parameters of the power transformer, the secondaryside short-circuit current at the PCC is

The facility is equipped with a PF correction scheme composed of units of shunt capacitor of 20 kVAR each one. The demand of active and reactive power from the facility is provided

in Table III. In this table, the maximum demand load current

(fundamental frequency) is

to is approximately equal to 24.

According to the standard IEEE519-1992 [20], the harmonic

current limits corresponding to each harmonic order could be

calculated, shown in Table IV.

It is known that the system impedance mostly depends on the

impedance of the power transformer for LV distribution system.

According to the parameter of the power transformer and shunt

capacitors, the equivalent circuit of the transformer and shunt

capacitor could be drawn in Fig. 8, in which, the values are in

p.u. units and base value is 1000 kVA.

and

are the resistance and inductance of the power transformer, is the harmonic order, is the number of the switched on capacitors

and

are the resistance and capacitance of the combination

of switched on capacitors.

From Fig. 8, the resonance frequency corresponding to different combinations of switched on capacitors can be determined, as shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9 shows that when the number of switched on capacitors

is 6, 8, 12, 19, or 20, the resonance frequency does not meet

the constraint defined by (8), which means that the resonance

frequency is so close to the characteristic harmonics that the

obtained for different harmonic orders

and combinations of switched on capacitors

.

resonance frequency for these combinations.

Taking the base impedance

as 0.23 ohms, the total

impedance

from Fig. 8 can be calculated for different

and , as shown in Fig. 10.

Table IV gives the current limits corresponding to each harmonic order in LV distribution system. If multiplying the current

limits and the total impedance

, the voltage limit in each

harmonic order can be determined. Therefore, the total RMS

working voltage of the capacitors can be expressed as

(10)

is the harmonic voltage

where is the fundamental voltage,

and is the maximum harmonic order. The maximum working

voltage of the capacitors for different combinations of switched

on capacitors considering the case study is shown in Fig. 11.

1569

Fig. 13. Number of the switched on capacitors and corresponding power factors before and after compensation using proposed control strategy.

tions of switched on capacitors (n).

Supposing the system harmonic impedance could be precisely measured by using the capacitor switching, for simplicity,

the system harmonic impedance is assumed to be

Fig. 12. Number of the switched on capacitors and corresponding power factor

before and after compensation using conventional control strategy.

It is observed that the working voltage of the capacitors exceed the 110% when the number of the switch-on capacitors is

equal to 6, 8, 12, or 20.

Assume the required threshold PF range for the facility is

. According to the flowchart of the traditional

capacitor controller shown in Fig. 3, the required bank size necessary to meet this PF range can be calculated from (1). Fig. 12

shows the existing and corrected power factor with the traditional strategy and the number of switched on capacitor units

considering the demand profile provided in Table III.

It is obvious that, the number of the switched on capacitors

is equal to 6 for sample points 1 and 2 and 8 for sample points

3, 4, and 5. From Fig. 11, one can observe that these combinations cause the bank working voltage to exceed the 110% limit

defined in [5].

For the first sample point given in Table III, the number of

switched on capacitors

can be firstly determined as 6 to meet

. From the system impedance

, the

resonance frequency is calculated as

, which does

not respect the requirement defined by (8) and means that

cannot be selected as 6. Instead, if

, the new PF can be

estimated as

, which is acceptable. Similarly

for other cases, the corrected PF can be calculated for all the

sample points given in Table III, as shown in Fig. 13.

One can observe from both Figs. 13 and 11 that the new control strategy avoids the harmonic resonance problem, which, in

turn, it can prevent damage to the capacitor bank of the facility.

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper presents a new control strategy for power factor

compensation on distorted low voltage power systems. The proposed strategy can perform power factor correction without exciting harmonic resonance under varying demand conditions.

Practical and robust control algorithms are proposed for the purpose of easy implementation in a microcontroller. In addition,

the controller relies on common low cost sensing devices and

does not require additional hardware circuits. As a result, the

proposed controller can be constructed as a retrofitting device

to replace existing power factor correction controllers with little

effort and low cost. Analysis of representative case studies validates the proposed strategy and illustrates how the proposed

controller performs.

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22, no. 6, pp. 25432551, Nov. 2007.

[14] A. Robert and T. Deflandre, Guide for assessing the network harmonic

impedances, , CIGRE 36.05, Working Group CC02 Rep., Mar. 1993.

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Shunfu Lin (M12) received the B.S. degree in applied physics and the Ph.D.

degree in nuclear technology and application from the University of Science

and Technology of China in 2002 and 2007, respectively.

He worked for the Corporate Technology of Siemens Limited China as a Research Scientist in power monitoring and control of low-voltage distribution

system from July 2007 to September 2009. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of University of Alberta,

Canada from October 2009 to October 2010. He is currently a Distinguished

Professor at the Shanghai University of Electric Power, China. His research interests include power quality and power measurement.

Diogo Salles (S04) received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil in 2006 and 2008,

respectively, where currently he is working toward the Ph.D. degree.

From 2010 to 2011, he was a visiting Ph.D. student at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. His research interests are power quality and analysis

of distribution systems.

Walmir Freitas (M02) received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from

the University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil in 2001.

He is currently an Associate Professor, University of Campinas. His areas of

research interest are analysis of distribution systems and distributed generation.

of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, in 1989.

Currently, he is a Professor and a NSERC/iCORE Industrial Research Chair at

the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. His research interests are power

quality and distributed generation.

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