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# Physics 137A, Spring 2004 , Section 1 (Hardtke), Midterm II

Solutions

## Problem 1 Part A Let,



U11
U21

U12
U22

U11

U12

U21

U22

U=
The Hermitian conjugate is:
U =

## The unitarity condition, U U = 1, gives:




U11 U21
U11

U12
U22
U21

U12
U22


=

1
0

0
1

These yield four equations that are conditions on the matrix elements:

U11
U11 + U21
U21 = 1

U11
U12 + U21
U22 = 0

U12
U11 + U22
U21 = 0

U12
U12 + U22
U22 = 1

## Part B The equation U11

U11 + U21
U21 = 1 is equivalent to R + T = 1 for scattering from the left,

and the equation U12 U12 + U22 U22 = 1 is equivalent to R + T = 1 for scattering from the right.

## Problem 2 We are given A|i

= a|i and
B]
=B
+ 2B
A2
[A,
We can apply the commutation relation to the state |i:
B]|i

+ 2B
A2 )|i
[A,
= (B
Expanding the commutator, we have:
B
A)|i

+ 2B
A2 )|i
(AB
= (B
We can move one term to the right side:

+ 2B
A2 + B
A)|i

AB|i
= (B

Using A|i
= a|i, we have,
B|i)

A(
= (1 + 2a2 + a)(B|i)

Thus B|i
is and eigenvector of A with eigenvalue (1 + 2a2 + a).

Problem 3

dhAi
dt

h|Ai
dt

A

= h
|Ai + h|
i + h|A
i
t
t
t

A
= h
|Ai + h|A
i+h
i
t
t
t

## Now we can use the Schrdinger

equation,
h

= H,
t

is a Hermitian operator),
and its complex conjugate (noting that H
h

,
= H
t

Thus,

1
= H
t
h
We now have,

dhAi
dt

=
=
=
=

1
1
A

hH|Ai + h|AHi
+h
i
h
h
t
A
1
Ai
+ 1 h|AHi

h|H
+h
i
h
h
t
1
A
H
A)i

h|(AH
+h
i
h
t
1
A
h[A, H]i + h
i
h
t

## is Hermitian and can be moved to the second vector

In the second step, we have used the fact that H
in the inner product. Multiplying by h yields,
h

dhAi
H]i
+ hh A i
= h[A,
dt
t

Problem 4 Part A The stationary states |n i are solutions to the Schrodinger equation,
n i = En |n i,
H|
with En = (n + 12 )
h. The probability of measuring a given eigenvalue En is,
|cn |2 = |hn |i|2 .
For,
1
|(x)i = [2|2 (x)i + |3 (x)i],
5

we have c2 = 2/ 5 and c3 = 1/ 5 and all other cn equal to zero. Thus we measure energy
E2 = (2 + 21 )
h with probability |c2 |2 = 45 , and energy E3 = (3 + 12 )
h with probability|c3 |2 = 15
.

## Part B We know that,

a
+ |n i = cn |n+1 i.
We thus have,
h
a+ n |
a+ n i = |cn |2 hn+1 |n+1 i
= |cn |2
In the last step, we use the fact that the |n i are orthonormal. We can also write the inner
product as [using the relation (
a ) = a
+ ],
h
a+ n |
a+ n i = hn |
a a
+ n i
We now note that the Hamiltonian can be written as,
1
=a
H
a
+ h
,
2
and thus,
+ 1h
a
a
+ = H
.
2
Making this substitution, we have:
+ 1 h)n i
h
a+ n |
a+ n i = hn |(H
2
1
1
= hn |((n + )
h + h)n i
2
2
= (n + 1)
hhn |n i.
p
We now have |cn |2 = (n + 1)
h, or cn = (n + 1)
h.
Part C Using the result from Part B, we have,
|i = a
+ |(x)i
1
= a
+ ( [2|2 (x)i + |3 (x)i])
5
2
1
= A( ( 3h)|3 (x)i + ( 4h)|4 (x)i)
5
5
We introduce the complex number A in the last step since the vector is no longer normalized and
we need to determine A. We get A from,
1

= h(x)|(x)i
1
2
1
2
h)h3 (x)| + ( 4
h)h4 (x)|)( ( 3
h)|3 (x)i + ( 4h)|4 (x)i)
= |A|2 ( ( 3
5
5
5
5
4
1
= |A|2 ( (3
h) + (4
h))
5
5
16
h
= |A|2
5

This gives A =

5 .
4 h

## Substituting into the equation for |i we get,

|i =

3
1
|3 (x)i + |4 (x)i
2
2

## Using the procedure from Part A, we measure energy E = (3 + 21 )

h with probability |c3 |2 = 3/4
1
2
and measure energy E = (4 + 2 )
h with probability |c4 | = 1/4.