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Nurhadi Hamka

The Australian National University
Data Set 1:
a) Used independent t-test
1. Independent variable= gender agreement
2. dependent variables= Methods used (values= direct grammatical
instruction, pure communicative approach with no grammatical
3. the dependent variable is parametric (pure and mix groups):
more than 30 participants
4. we are going to test the difference between groups
5. the two groups (experimental and control) consist of different
6. the characteristics of both groups are basically the same, but
they are made up as a different sets of individuals (control and
experimental) for the sake of research and to control variables
that we interest to so that we can compare both groups
b) t = -2.9417
c) p-value = 0.005606
d) after conducting independent t-test by using R program, it was
found that students who received some direct grammatical
instruction were more accurate in assigning gender agreement than
those who have taught using a purely communicative approach with
no direct grammatical instruction.
e) H0 is rejected because the p-value is less than 0.05, so that the
alternative hypothesis is supported.
Data Set 2
a) Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitneys U test
1) The data is not parametric: only 20 students, and independent.
2) We compare two different groups (male and female)
3) We use ordinal data
b) w = 140.5
c) p-value = 0.4271
d) Using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitneys U test, it was found that there is no
difference between male and female regarding their attitude to
using computer their classes.
e) According to p-value which is greater than 0.05, H 0 is supported, so
that the alternative hypothesis was rejected
Data Set 3
a) Wilcoxon Signed Rank test
1) The participants in this group are the same individuals who were
tested in the pre-test and in the post-test.
2) The pre-test and post-test is used to measure the impact of the
method we apply



3) the number of data is not parametric, therefore we use Wilcoxon

Signed Rank test instead dependent t-test
v = 34.5
p-value = 0.0245
By conducting Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, it was found that the
computer games involved intensive practice of reading and writing
skills and that it had a positive impact on students reading
comprehension skills.
After conducting Wilcoxon signed rank task on R program, the
number of p-value showed less 0.05. It means the H 0 rejected and
the alternative hypothesis is supported

Dr. Yuko Kinoshita, LING6509 Research Design in (Applied Linguistics),
Lecture slides Week 8. The Australian National University.
Drnyei, Z (2007) Research Methods in Applied Linguistics. Oxford
Applied Linguistics: Oxford.