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How are calls made from cell phone A to cell phone B?

Let Cell Phone A is the source and Cell Phone B is the destination. Then how calls are
made related to Mobile computing and Networking concepts.

2 Answers

Roshan Ekka, Electronics Engineer, Extrovert, Self taught Web developer


Written Jul 31, 2015

You need to know some basic terms related to mobile phone communication system which
is also given. After that, the steps involved in making and receiving a call is also described.
So here are a few terms that you will now find frequently in the coming sections.
Base Station : It is a fixed station that consist of transmitters and receivers
mounted on tall Towers strategically placed at different locations.
Control Channel : Radio channel used for transmission of control signals.
Voice Channel : Radio channel used for transmission of voice signals.
Forward Channel : Radio channel used for transmission of information from
base station to mobile phone. (Includes Control and Voice Channels).
Reverse Channel : Radio channel used for transmission of information from
mobile phone to base station. (Includes Control and Voice Channels).
Before a mobile phone can establish a call, it first needs to establish a connection to the
available service providers network. Whenever a mobile phone is switched on, it first scans
the group of forward control channels to determine the strongest one. Then it keeps on
monitoring the same channel untill the signal level drops below a minimum level after
which it again starts to scan. Every mobile phone repeats this process as long as it is kept
switched on. The signal level of the current channel which the phone is locked to will be
displayed on the handset.
So now lets see the steps that occur when a mobile phone user dials a number to make a call.
First of all, a call initiation request is sent on the reverse control channel. Along with this
request, the mobile phone also sends its Mobile Identification Number (MIN), Electronic
Serial Number (ESN) and the dialled telephone number. The base station receives this data
and sends it to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The MSC validates the request by
checking the MIN with the records on its database. If it is valid, a connection to the called
party is made through Public switched Telephone network (PSTN). Then the MSC requests
the base station to move the mobile phone to an unused voice channel so that the
conversation can begin. Once a call is in progress, the MSC adjusts the power transmitted by
the mobile phone as it moves in and out of the coverage area of each base station. When a
mobile phone with a call in progress moves from one base station to another, the process is
called handoff.
Now let us also see the steps that occur when a call is made from a land line to a mobile
phone. When ever a call is made through PSTN to a mobile, the request is transfered to the
MSC. The MSC dispaches the request to all the base stations. Then the MIN which is the

subscribers number is transmitted as a message throught all the base stations in the system.
The mobile identifies the message and responds to it. The base station then relays the
acknowledgement to the MSC. Then the MSC requests the base station to move the phone to
an unused voice channel. During this process,a control signal is also send which triggers the
mobile phone to start ringing. The MSC connects the call to the PSTN and the conversation
can begin as soon as the mobile user accepts the call.
When a call is made and there is no free voice channels available then you will probably hear
a message that the network is busy. This happens when a large numbers of calls are made
from within the coverage area of a single base station. All these steps described above
happens within a few seconds that the user is not able to identify it. They almost start
hearing the ringing tone as soon as the call is placed.

Now according to the diagram above, it can be understood simply by:


Mobile device is connected to BTS (Antenna).
BTS is connected to the Switching system called BSC.
BSC is connected to the main switching system called MSC.
MSC contains its own VLR (VLR: is a temporary database which stores the information of
the visitors under its coverage area. VLR stands for Visitor Location register. When you
roam in a different place VLR stores your user information.).
MSC's are connected to GMSC which is connected to HLR. (HLR stands for Home location
register, It is the main database where the documents or information of user is stored. all
the documents that you give during purchase of a SIM card is stored in this HLR. VLR Takes

your information from HLR when you Roam in other state or region.).
HLR also provides authentication by AuC. AuC is connected with HLR. If you initiate a call
HLR and AuC will see if you are a genuine Mobile user with valid IMEI number and Plan.
and then the call is set up from source to the destination device.
Now this is only the basic information of a call setup. To understand the complete GSM
architecture you need to know Thing about channel and frequency. how frequency
allocation is done. various Multiplexing schemes. which are bit technical and can not be
covered in a small post.
If you like my post do not forget to upvote it.
Thanks

Pakistan
2G capabilities

GSM 900, GSM 1800

3G capabilities

UMTS 900, UMTS 1800, UMTS 2100

4G capabilities

LTE 850, LTE 1800