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University Of Perpetual Help System DALTA

Materials Of Engineering
& Testing Laboratory

Raw Grade

Report No. 1
Universal Testing Machine (UTM)

Prepared By: Gatbonton, Noel A.


Course/Yr: BSME III

Date Performed: November 24, 2016


Date Submitted: December 01, 2016

Engr. Manuel P. Romero


Instructor

Universal Testing Machine (UTM)

Upper Grip
Length
Indicator

Lower Grip

Monitor
Movable Ram
Keyboard
Main Base
Power,
Pump and
Stop Button

Cotrol Buttons

Hydraulic
Hoses

Controller

CPU

Pump

Disccusion:
A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester, materials testing
machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and compressive
strength of materials. The "universal" part of the name reflects that it can perform many
standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures (in other
words, that it is versatile).

Components:

Load frame - Usually consisting of two strong supports for the machine. Some small
machines have a single support.

Load cell - A force transducer or other means of measuring the load is required.
Periodic calibration is usually required by governing regulations or quality system.
Cross head - A movable cross head (crosshead) is controlled to move up or down.
Usually this is at a constant speed: sometimes called a constant rate of
extension (CRE) machine. Some machines can program the crosshead speed or
conduct cyclical testing, testing at constant force, testing at constant deformation,
etc. Electromechanical, servo-hydraulic, linear drive, and resonance drive are used.

Means of measuring extension or deformation - Many tests require a measure of the


response of the test specimen to the movement of the cross head. Extensometers are
sometimes used.
Output device - A means of providing the test result is needed. Some older machines
have dial or digital displays and chart recorders. Many newer machines have a
computer interface for analysis and printing.

Conditioning - Many tests require controlled conditioning (temperature, humidity,


pressure, etc.). The machine can be in a controlled room or a special environmental
chamber can be placed around the test specimen for the test.

Test fixtures, specimen holding jaws, and related sample making equipment are called
for in many test methods.

Use:

The set-up and usage are detailed in a test method, often published by a standards
organization. This specifies the sample preparation, fixturing, gauge length (the length
which is under study or observation), analysis, etc.
The specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer if required
can automatically record the change in gauge length during the test. If an extensometer is
not fitted, the machine itself can record the displacement between its cross heads on

which the specimen is held. However, this method not only records the change in length
of the specimen but also all other extending / elastic components of the testing machine and
its drive systems including any slipping of the specimen in the grips.
Once the machine is started it begins to apply an increasing load on specimen.
Throughout the tests the control system and its associated software record the load and
extension or compression of the specimen.
Machines range from very small table top systems to ones with over 53 MN (12
million lbf) capacity.

Universal Testing Machine could perform


Tensile Test
Clamp a single piece of anything on each of its ends and pull it apart until it breaks. This
measures how strong it is (tensile strength) how stretchy it is (elongation), and how stiff it
is (tensile modulus).
Compression Test
The exact opposite of a tensile test. This is where you compress an object between two
level plates until a certain load or distance has been reached or the product breaks. The
typical measurements are the maximum force sustained before breakage (compressive
force), or load at displacement (i.e. 55 pounds at 1 compression), or displacement at load
(i.e. 0.28 of compression at 20 pounds of force).
Bend Test

is a compression test where you support a length of material by spanning it across two
supports on each end. There is nothing supporting the middle portion underneath of it.
Then you press down from above directly in the middle of the span of material until the
supported material breaks or reaches a specific distance. This test measures how strong the
material in flexure (flexural strength) and how stiff it is (flexural modulus).

Answers to problem:
1.) Discuss the functions of the major parts of the machine.
UTM consists of 2 main parts, the Loading Unit and Control unit. In the Loading Unit, it
is composed of Upper Grip to clamp testing specimen from top. Lower Grip to clamp
testing specimen from below and table to place the specimen used for compression test.
The Control Unit is the part that records the data.
2.) What properties of engineering materials are being tested in the universal tesing
machine? List at least five and explain the importance of each test.
a.) Tensile Test- to measure how strong (tensile strength), stretchy (elongation) and
how stiff.
b.) Compression Test To measure maximum compressive stress before breaking.
c.) Bend Test To measure how strong the material in flexure. (flexural Strength.)
d.) Puncture Test To measure the rupture characteristics of a material.
e.) Peel Test Testing adhesion properties of film bonded to substrate
3.) Differentiate destructive from non-destructive testing.

a.) destructive testing are defined as those tests that are made to a material
through the use of tools or machines, which produce an irreversible alteration
of their chemical composition or dimensional geometry.
b.) Nondestructive testing are defined as those tests based on physical
phenomena, whose objective is to obtain information on defects or on state of
a material without causing any chemical, dimensional, or mechanical
damages in the material itself.
4.) Why is it necessary to test the engineering materials?
Material testing is a must because it is our responsibility to protect the public or the
person who will use the material. Testing a material will also tell us to use the exact
needed material for a certain project and to save money.

Conclusion:
Material testing is necessary for us to know the limit of a certain materials. It will
protect us who will use the materials. It will also save us money due to we will discover
different materials and its exact purpose. A UTM can perform different test like tensile test,
compression test, bend test, torsion test, puncture test and peel test, depending on the
machine you have. Familiarizing the machine helped us to have a slight knowledge about
the machine and what it does.