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FACULTY OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

BFF2821 MECHANICS LABORATORY


EXPERIMENT NO:
EXPERIMENT NAME:
SUBMISSION DATE:
SESSION NUMBER:
GROUP NUMBER:

05
THE SPRING BALANCE
9 OCTOBER 2016
01 P
4
GROUP MEMBERS

NAME
NUR SYAMIZA BINTI ZAMRI
SAMSIAH BINTI SUAILY
NIK NURHARYANTIE BINTI NIK MOHD KAMIL

ID
FA 14030
FA 14031
FA 14115

LAB INSTRUCTOR
MR AIDIL SHAFIZA
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
No.

Contents

Page

Aim

Objectives

Introduction

Apparatus and Procedure

4-6

4.1 Apparatus
4.2 Preparation
4.3 Test 1 : Tension
4.4 Test 2 : Tension
4.5 Test 3: Compression
5

Result

7-9

5.1 TEST 1 : TENSION


5.2 TEST 2 : TENSION
5.3 TEST 3 : COMPRESSION
6

Discussion

10

Conclusion

11

References

11

Rubrics

12

1.0

AIM
The aim that can be determine from this experiment is to determined the coiled spring is
stretched or compressed is depend on weights. It also to measure the weight by recording
the amount of deflection of the spring which is needed to balance the weights.

2.0

OBJECTIVES
To investigate how a spring behaves if it stretched under the influence of an

3.0

external force.
To verify that the behavior is related that described by Hooks Law.

INTRODUCTION

When a coiled spring is stretched or compressed, it stores energy. Because of this, coiled spring
can be used to cushion the effects of sudden loads, as in shock absorbers, buffers, etc. coiled
spring are also used to measure weights by recording the amount of deflection of the spring
which is needed to balance the weight. When used in this way they are called spring balance.
When a spring is stretched it can be shown that the increase in length of the spring is always
proportional to the stretching force (providing the spring is not over stretched). The same applies
to a spring which is compressed. This is summarized by the Hookes Law (see Equation 1).
Because of this, a spring balance has a uniform (evenly divided) scale which shows the units of
weight.
F=kx

(1)

F = force
k = spring constant
x = changes in spring length
The objective of this experiment is to verify that the extension of a coiled spring is proportional
to the load applied, and to show the principle of a Hookes law.

4.0

APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE


3

4.1

Apparatus

Apparatus
Mounting panel

Quantity/Specification
1

Tension springs

Compression bracket assembly

Adjustable hook

Knurled nuts

Weight hook

Weight

1 set

Spring balance

10 N

4.2

Figure
NIL

NIL

Preparation

1. Secure the mounting panel in the vertical position.


2. Position the adjustable hook and secure with nut.
3. Secure the compression bracket assembly with short screws and nuts.

4.3

Test 1: Tension

1. Hang the tension spring from the hook.


2. Hang a weight hook on the lower end of the spring.
3. Tape a piece of plain paper on the mounting panel so that the bottom of the weight hook is
close to the top of the paper (see Figure 1).
4. Mark the level of the weight hook on the paper with a pencil.
5. Place a load, W of 1N on the weight hook and mark the new level of the weight hook after
extension.
6. Record the weight besides the mark.
7. Add 25g loads and mark the new level.
8. Repeat by adding 25g loads until 125g is recorded.
9. Remove the load 25g at a time and mark the level weight hook at each step until all loads
have been removed.
4.4

Test 2: Tension

1. Repeat Test 1 by adding the following loads to the weight hook: 50g, 100g, 150g, 200g, and
250g.
2. Mark the level of spring when a new load is added to the weight hook.
3. Remove the load 50g at a time and mark the level weight hook at each step until all loads have
been removed.

4.5

Test 3: Compression
5

1. Move the plain paper used in Test 1 & Test 2 so that it covers an area at least from the top of
the compression bracket to the top of the vertical rod (see Figure 1).
2. Place a light weight (5g) in the sleeve and mark the level of sleeve as o on the paper.
3. Add a load of 50g to the sleeve and mark the new level of the bottom of the weight.
4. Record the weight beside the mark.
5. Repeat by adding 50g loads until 250g is recorded.
6. Remove the load 50g at a time and mark the level of the sleeve until all loads have been
removed.

Figure 1: Experiment setup for spring balance

5.0

RESULTS
6

5.1

TEST 1 : TENSION

1 g = 0.00980665 N
25 g = 0.245 N
50 g = 0.490 N
75 g = 0.735 N
100 g = 0.981 N
125 g = 1.230 N
Load, F (N)

Elongation of spring , x (m) after

Elongation of spring , x (m) after

0.245
0.490
0.735
0.981
1.230

adding load
0.011
0.021
0.033
0.045
0.056

release load
0.013
0.023
0.034
0.047
0.056

Load,F versus Elongation,x

Elongation ,x (m)

0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0

load, F( N )
Elongation of spring , x (m) after putting load
Elongation of spring , x (m) after release load

5.2

TEST 2 : TENSION

50 g = 0.490 N
7

100 g = 0.981 N
150 g = 1.471 N
200 g = 1.961 N
250 g = 2.452 N
Load, F (N)

Elongation of spring , x Elongation of spring , x (m) after

0.490
0.981
1.471
1.961
2.452

(m) after adding load


0.024
0.044
0.067
0.089
0.109

release load
0.026
0.047
0.069
0.091
0.109

Load,F versus Elongation,x


0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

Elongation ,x (m)

load, F( N )
Elongation of spring , x (m) after putting load
Elongation of spring , (x/m) after release load

5.3

TEST 3 : COMPRESSION

Load, F (N)

Compression of spring , x (m) after

Compression of spring , x (m) after

0.490
0.981

adding load
0.02
0.03

release load
0.01
0.02
8

1.471
1.961
2.452

0.05
0.07
0.09

0.04
0.06
0.09

Load,F versus Compression,x


0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

Coompression ,x(m)

load, F( N )
compression of spring , x (m) after putting load
compression of spring , x (m) after release load

6.0

DISCUSSION
1. Calculate the spring constant value, k. without using f=kx.

Since y = mx + c
Which is y = f , k = m , x = x , and c = 0 .
Then k is the slope of the graph
9

k=

y 2 y1
x 2x 1

Spring use for Test 1 and Test 2 ( Tension ) :


k=

0.9810.490
0.0450.021
20.46

Spring use for Test 3 ( Compression ) :


k=

1.9610.981
0.0 70.0 3

24 . 5

2. Explain why springs are usually used in building weighing device.


A spring balance measures the weight of an object by opposing the force of gravity acting with
the force of an extended spring. The spring scale measures weight by reporting the distance that a
spring deflects under a load. Springs are usually used in building weighing device because of it
comes with different size and shape which is designed for different uses. Besides it is also lighter
and compact compared to other scale .The convenience offered by a spring scale is a definite
advantage .The cylindrical shape of springs makes it easy to transport and store since they don't
require a flat surface to rest, and even larger spring scales meant for weighing heavier objects are
not overly large. So spring scale is more often to choose in weighing device with bigger capacity.
The convenient nature of the spring scale makes it friendly-used in various industrial fields.

6. Conclusions

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From this experiment , we can conclude that the extension of coiled spring is proportional to the
load applied and the principle of Hookes law is F = kX .Hooke's law is a principle
of physics that states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance Xis
proportional to that distance. That is: F = kX, where k is a constant factor characteristic of the
spring: its stiffness, and X is small compared to the total possible deformation of the spring(1) .
Under tension or compression, the material (wire) of a coil spring undergoes torsion. The spring
characteristics therefore depend on the shear modulus, not Young's Modulus.(2) Hooke's
law of elasticity states that the extension of an elastic rod (its distended length minus its relaxed
length) is linearly proportional to its tension, the force used to stretch it. Similarly, the
contraction (negative extension) is proportional to the compression (negative tension).(3)
7. References
1) The anagram was given in alphabetical order, ceiiinosssttuv, representing Ut tensio, sic vis
"As the extension, so the force": Petroski, Henry (1996). Invention by Design: How Engineers
Get

from

Thought

to

Thing.

Cambridge,

MA:

Harvard

University

Press.

p. 11. ISBN 0674463684.


2) IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online
corrected version: (2006) "shear modulus, G".
3) Ferdinand Pierre Beer, Elwood Russell Johnston, John T. DeWolf (1992), "Mechanics of
Materials". (Book) McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0-07-112939-1

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