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Topicality Scholars GDI 16

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Resolution

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Resolution 2016-2017
Topic wording for 2016-2017 is
NFHS.org, 16
[1-11-16, China Selected as the 2016-17 National High School Policy Debate
Topic, https://www.nfhs.org/articles/china-selected-as-the-2016-17-nationalhigh-school-policy-debate-topic/, accessed 4-29-16]

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially


increase its economic and/or diplomatic engagement with the Peoples
Republic of China.

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Resolved:

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Resolved

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Resolvable
Resolved means resolvable
Garner, Blacks Law Dictionary editor, 95
[Bryan A., A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage, p. 764]

Resolvable; resolvible; resoluble. The first is far more common than the
other in meaning able to be resolved E.g. We held that the pilot
base dispute was a 'major' dispute subject to the court's jurisdiction
and not a 'minor' dispute resolvable by the Railway Labor Act's
adjustment mechanism. Resoluble has the liability of meaning also
capable of being dissolved again. The variant spelling resolvible is to
be avoided.

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Determined
Resolved means to make a firm decision about, to make clear
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
(resolve, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/resolved, accessed 730-9)

resolved
One entry found.
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DaleCarnegie.com/resolution
Main Entry:
1resolve Listen to the pronunciation of 1resolve
Pronunciation:
\ri-zlv, -zolv also -zv or -zov\
Function:
verb
Inflected Form(s):
resolved; resolving
Etymology:
Middle English, from Latin resolvere to unloose, dissolve, from re- +
solvere to loosen, release more at solve
Date:
14th century
transitive verb1obsolete : dissolve, melt2 a: break up, separate <the
prism resolved the light into a play of color> ; also : to change by
disintegration b: to reduce by analysis <resolve the problem into simple
elements> c: to distinguish between or make independently visible

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adjacent parts of d: to separate (a racemic compound or mixture) into


the two components3: to cause resolution of (a pathological
state)4 a: to deal with successfully : clear up <resolve doubts>
<resolve a dispute> b: to find an answer to c: to make clear or
understandable d: to find a mathematical solution of e: to split up (as
a vector) into two or more components especially in assigned
directions5: to reach a firm decision about <resolve to get more
sleep> <resolve disputed points in a text>6 a: to declare or
decide by a formal resolution and vote b: to change by
resolution or formal vote <the house resolved itself into a
committee>7: to make (as voice parts) progress from dissonance to
consonance8: to work out the resolution of (as a play)intransitive verb1:
to become separated into component parts ; also : to become reduced
by dissolving or analysis2: to form a resolution : determine3: consult,
deliberate4: to progress from dissonance to consonance
synonyms see decide
resolvable Listen to the pronunciation of resolvable \-zl-v-bl, zol- also -z-v- or -zo-v-\ adjective
resolver noun

Resolved means firm in purpose, determined


Dictionary.com
(resolved. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random
House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/resolved, accessed: 7-299)
resolved
/rzlvd/ Show Spelled Pronunciation [ri-zolvd] Show IPA
Use resolved in a Sentence
adjective
firm in purpose or intent; determined.
Origin:
14901500; resolve + -ed 2
Related forms:

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resolvedly /rzlvdli/ Show Spelled Pronunciation [ri-zol-vid-lee]


Show IPA , adverb
resolvedness, noun

Resolved means single-minded, determined


WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
(resolved, WordNet, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=resolved, accessed 7-29-9)
Adjective
* S: (adj) single-minded, resolved (determined) "she was firmly
resolved to be a doctor"; "single-minded in his determination to
stop smoking"
* S: (adj) solved, resolved (explained or answered) "mysteries solved
and unsolved; problems resolved and unresolved"

Resolved means determined in purpose


Encarta
(resolved,
http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?
refid=1861700940, accessed 7-30-9)

resolved
resolved [ ri zlvd ]
adjective
Definition: determined: determined in purpose

Resolved means determined


Cambridge University Press
(resolved, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define_b.asp?key=67258&dict=CALD,
accessed 7-30-9)

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resolved Show phonetics


adjective [after verb] FORMAL
determined:
[+ to infinitive] He was resolved to ask her to marry him the next day.

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Firm Conclusion
Resolved means firm in purpose
Random House Dictionary, 14
[resolved, Dictionary.com, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/resolved,
accessed 9-10-14]
resolved
[ri-zolvd] Spell Syllables
Synonyms Examples Word Origin
adjective
1. firm in purpose or intent; determined.

Resolved means to have reached a conclusion


WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
(resolved, WordNet, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=resolved, accessed 7-29-9)

Verb
* S: (v) decide, settle, resolve, adjudicate (bring to an end; settle
conclusively) "The case was decided"; "The judge decided the case in
favor of the plaintiff"; "The father adjudicated when the sons were
quarreling over their inheritance"
* S: (v) conclude, resolve (reach a conclusion after a discussion
or deliberation)
* S: (v) purpose, resolve (reach a decision) "he resolved never to drink
again"
* S: (v) answer, resolve (understand the meaning of) "The question
concerning the meaning of life cannot be answered"
* S: (v) resolve (make clearly visible) "can this image be resolved?"
* S: (v) resolve, solve (find the solution) "solve an equation"; "solve for
x"

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* S: (v) dissolve, resolve, break up (cause to go into a solution) "The


recipe says that we should dissolve a cup of sugar in two cups of water"

Resolved means settled


Oxford Dictionaries
[resolved,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/resolved,
accessed 9-10-14]

Definition of resolved in English:


resolved
Syllabification: resolved
Pronunciation: /rizlvd, -zlvd

ADJECTIVE
[PREDICATIVE, WITH INFINITIVE]
Firmly determined to do something:
Constance was resolved not to cry

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Resolve

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Decide
To resolve is to make a formal decision or determination
Cambridge University Press
(resolve, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define_b.asp?key=67258&dict=CALD,
accessed 7-30-9)

Definition
resolve (DECIDE) Show phonetics
verb [I] FORMAL
to make a decision formally or with determination:
[+ that] She resolved that she would never speak to him again.
[+ adverb or preposition] After hours of argument, they resolved against
taking legal action.
[+ to infinitive] The company resolved to take no further action against
the thieves.
See also resolute.

Resolve means to settle a resolution


Random House Dictionary, 14
[resolved, Dictionary.com, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/resolved,
accessed 9-10-14]

resolve
[ri-zolv] Spell Syllables
verb (used with object), resolved, resolving.
1.to come to a definite or earnest decision about; determine (to do
something):
I have resolved that I shall live to the full.

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2.to separate into constituent or elementary parts; break up; cause or


disintegrate (usually followed by into).
3.to reduce or convert by, or as by, breaking up or disintegration (usually
followed by to or into).
4.to convert or transform by any process (often used reflexively).
5.to reduce by mental analysis (often followed by into).
6.to settle, determine, or state formally in a vote or resolution, as of
a deliberative assembly.
7.to deal with (a question, a matter of uncertainty, etc.)
conclusively; settle; solve:
to resolve the question before the board.
8.to clear away or dispel (doubts, fears, etc.); answer:
to resolve any doubts we may have had.
9.Chemistry. to separate (a racemic mixture) into optically active
components.
10.Music. to cause (a voice part or the harmony as a whole) to progress from
a dissonance to a consonance.
11. Optics. to separate and make visible the individual parts of (an image);
distinguish between.
12. Medicine/Medical. to cause (swellings, inflammation, etc.) to disappear
without suppuration.
Expand
verb (used without object), resolved, resolving.
13. to come to a determination; make up one's mind; determine (often
followed by on or upon):
to resolve on a plan of action.
14. to break up or disintegrate.
15. to be reduced or changed by breaking up or otherwise (usually followed
by to or into).
16. Music. to progress from a dissonance to a consonance.
noun

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17. a resolution or determination made, as to follow some course of


action.
18. firmness of purpose or intent; determination.
Origin Expand
1325-75; Middle English resolven (v.) < Latin resolvere to unfasten, loosen,
release, equivalent to re- re- + solvere to loosen; see solve
Related forms Expand
resolver, noun
preresolve, verb, preresolved, preresolving.
unresolving, adjective
Synonyms Expand
1. confirm. See decide. 2. analyze, reduce. 17, 18. decision.

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Firm Conclusion
Resolving an issue means coming to a firm conclusion about it
Dictionary.com
(resolved. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random
House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/resolved, accessed: July
29, 2009)

resolve
/rzlv/ Show Spelled Pronunciation [ri-zolv] Show IPA verb, -solved,
-solving, noun
verb (used with object)
1. to come to a definite or earnest decision about; determine
(to do something): I have resolved that I shall live to the full.
2. to separate into constituent or elementary parts; break up; cause or
disintegrate (usually fol. by into).
3. to reduce or convert by, or as by, breaking up or disintegration
(usually fol. by to or into).
4. to convert or transform by any process (often used reflexively).
5. to reduce by mental analysis (often fol. by into).
6. to settle, determine, or state formally in a vote or resolution,
as of a deliberative assembly.
7. to deal with (a question, a matter of uncertainty, etc.)
conclusively; settle; solve: to resolve the question before the
board.
8. to clear away or dispel (doubts, fears, etc.); answer: to
resolve any doubts we may have had.
9. Chemistry. to separate (a racemic mixture) into optically active
components.
10.
Music. to cause (a voice part or the harmony as a whole) to
progress from a dissonance to a consonance.
11.
Optics. to separate and make visible the individual parts of (an
image); distinguish between.

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12.
Medicine/Medical. to cause (swellings, inflammation, etc.) to
disappear without suppuration.
verb (used without object)
13.
to come to a determination; make up one's mind; determine
(often fol. by on or upon): to resolve on a plan of action.
14.

to break up or disintegrate.

15.
to be reduced or changed by breaking up or otherwise (usually
fol. by to or into).
16.

Music. to progress from a dissonance to a consonance.

noun
17.
a resolution or determination made, as to follow some course
of action.
18.

firmness of purpose or intent; determination.

Origin:
132575; ME resolven (v.) < L resolvere to unfasten, loosen, release,
equiv. to re- re- + solvere to loosen; see solve

The aff is not resolved to resolve is to make a firm decision


about
American Heritage Dictionary
(resolved., Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/resolved, accessed: July 29, 2009)

resolve (r-zlv')
v. resolved, resolving, resolves
v. tr.
1. To make a firm decision about.
2. To cause (a person) to reach a decision. See Synonyms at decide.
3. To decide or express by formal vote.
4. To change or convert: My resentment resolved itself into resignation.

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5. To find a solution to; solve. See Synonyms at solve.


6. To remove or dispel (doubts).
7. To bring to a usually successful conclusion: resolve a conflict.
8. Medicine To cause reduction of (an inflammation, for example).
9. Music To cause (a tone or chord) to progress from dissonance to
consonance.
10. Chemistry To separate (an optically inactive compound or mixture)
into its optically active constituents.
11. To render parts of (an image) visible and distinct.
12. Mathematics To separate (a vector, for example) into coordinate
components.
13. To melt or dissolve (something).
14. Archaic To separate (something) into constituent parts.
v. intr.
1. To reach a decision or make a determination: resolve on a
course of action.
2. To become separated or reduced to constituents.
3. Music To undergo resolution.
n.
1. Firmness of purpose; resolution.
2. A determination or decision; a fixed purpose.
3. A formal resolution made by a deliberative body.
[Middle English resolven, to dissolve, from Old French resolver, from
Latin resolvere, to untie : re-, re- + solvere, to untie; see leu- in IndoEuropean roots.]
resolv'abil'ity, resolv'ableness n., resolv'able adj., resolv'edly (zl'vd-l) adv., resolv'er n.

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Problem
Resolve means ending a problem
Cambridge Online Dictionary, 10
(resolve,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/resolve_1#resolve_1__3,
accessed 9-10-14)

resolve verb (SOLVE)


C1 [T] to solve or end a problem or difficulty:
Have you resolved the problem of transport yet?
The couple resolved their differences and made an effort to get along.

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Colon

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Introduces
Colon introduces
The Guide to Grammar and Writing, no date given
["The Colon," http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/marks/colon.htm,
accessed 9-11-14]

Use a colon [ : ] before a list or an explanation that is preceded by a clause


that can stand by itself. Think of the colon as a gate, inviting one to go on:
There is only one thing left to do now: confess while you still have time.
The charter review committee now includes the following people:
the mayor
the chief of police
the fire chief
the chair of the town council
You nearly always have a sense of what is going to follow or be on the other
side of the colon.

Colon precedes elaboration


Random House Dictionary, 9
[colon, Dictionary.com Unabridged,
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/colon, accessed 9-11-14]

colon /koln/ [koh-luhn]


noun,
1.
the sign (:) used to mark a major division in a sentence, to indicate
that what follows is an elaboration, summation, implication, etc., of what
precedes; or to separate groups of numbers referring to different things, as
hours from minutes in 5:30; or the members of a ratio or proportion, as in 1 :
2 : : 3 : 6.

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Pause for Explanation


Colon marks a pause for explanation
Lynch, Rutgers English professor, 2000
[Jack, "Guide to Grammar and Style,"
http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Writing/c.html, accessed 9-11-14]

A colon marks a pause for explanation, expansion, enumeration, or


elaboration. Use a colon to introduce a list: thing one, thing two, and thing
three. Use it to pause and explain: this sentence makes the point. Use it to
give an example: this, for instance.

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The USFG

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The

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Specification
The implies specification
Dictionary.com
(the. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/the, accessed: July 29, 2009)

the
1/stressed i; unstressed before a consonant ; unstressed before a
vowel i/ Show Spelled Pronunciation [stressed thee; unstressed before
a consonant thuh; unstressed before a vowel thee] Show IPA
Use the in a Sentence
definite article
1. (used, esp. before a noun, with a specifying or
particularizing effect, as opposed to the indefinite or
generalizing force of the indefinite article a or an): the book you
gave me; Come into the house.
2. (used to mark a proper noun, natural phenomenon, ship,
building, time, point of the compass, branch of endeavor, or
field of study as something well-known or unique): the sun; the
Alps; the Queen Elizabeth; the past; the West.
3. (used with or as part of a title): the Duke of Wellington; the Reverend
John Smith.
4. (used to mark a noun as indicating the best-known, most approved,
most important, most satisfying, etc.): the skiing center of the U.S.; If
you're going to work hard, now is the time.
5. (used to mark a noun as being used generically): The dog is a
quadruped.
6. (used in place of a possessive pronoun, to note a part of the body or
a personal belonging): He won't be able to play football until the leg
mends.
7. (used before adjectives that are used substantively, to note an
individual, a class or number of individuals, or an abstract idea): to visit
the sick; from the sublime to the ridiculous.

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8. (used before a modifying adjective to specify or limit its modifying


effect): He took the wrong road and drove miles out of his way.
9. (used to indicate one particular decade of a lifetime or of a century):
the sixties; the gay nineties.
10.
(one of many of a class or type, as of a manufactured item, as
opposed to an individual one): Did you listen to the radio last night?
11.
enough: He saved until he had the money for a new car. She
didn't have the courage to leave.
12.
(used distributively, to note any one separately) for, to, or in
each; a or an: at one dollar the pound.
Origin:
bef. 900; ME, OE, uninflected s. of the demonstrative pronoun. See that

The is a definite determiner it refers to a definite noun


Kosur, Language Learning Channel contributing editor & Illinois
State University Milner Library conservation technician, 9
(Heather Marie, 6-16-9, The Forms and Function of Determiners in English,
http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/36828.aspx,
accessed 9-7-9)

Definite and Indefinite Articles


The first grammatical form of the determiner in English is the
article. Articles indicate definiteness or indefiniteness of a noun.
The definite article in English is the. The indefinite articles in English are
a and an. Both singular and plural nouns can take the definite article.
Only singular nouns can take the indefinite article. The following
italicized determiners are examples of articles:
* The baby drank a bottle of milk.
* An apron is often worn by bakers.
* The shih tzu is a popular dog breed.
Articles are sometimes referred to simply as determiners.

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Unique Particular
The indicates uniqueness
American Heritage Dictionary
(the., Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/the, accessed: 7-29-9)

the 1 (th before a vowel; th before a consonant)


def.art.
1.
1. Used before singular or plural nouns and noun phrases that
denote particular, specified persons or things: the baby; the
dress I wore.
2. Used before a noun, and generally stressed, to emphasize one of a
group or type as the most outstanding or prominent: considered Lake
Shore Drive to be the neighborhood to live in these days.
3. Used to indicate uniqueness: the Prince of Wales; the moon.
4. Used before nouns that designate natural phenomena or points of the
compass: the weather; a wind from the south.
5. Used as the equivalent of a possessive adjective before names of
some parts of the body: grab him by the neck; an infection of the hand.
6. Used before a noun specifying a field of endeavor: the law; the film
industry; the stage.
7. Used before a proper name, as of a monument or ship: the
Alamo; the Titanic.
8. Used before the plural form of a numeral denoting a specific decade
of a century or of a life span: rural life in the Thirties.
9. Used before an adjective extending it to signify a class and giving it
the function of a noun: the rich; the dead; the homeless.
10. Used before an absolute adjective: the best we can offer.

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Definitive, Particular
The indicates particular setting a functional limit
Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 1]

Word the is a word of limitation. It is a word used before nouns with a specifying

or particularizing effect, opposed to the indefinite or generalizing force of a or


an.

The assumes a limit


Cambridge Dictionaries Online
(the, http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/the_1, accessed 911-14)

the determiner ( PARTICULAR )


used before noun phrases in which the range of meaning of the noun is
limited in some way

The indicates particular


New Oxford American Dictionary, 13
[New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.), Edited by Angus Stevenson and
Christine A. Lindberg, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

the /TTH, , TTH/


determiner

1. denoting one or more people or things already mentioned or assumed to be


common knowledge: what's the matter? | call the doctor | the phone rang. Compare with a.
used to refer to a person, place, or thing that is unique: the Queen | the Mona
Lisa | the Nile.
informal denoting a disease or affliction: I've got the flu.
(with a unit of time) the present; the current: dish of the day | man of the moment.
informal used instead of a possessive to refer to someone with whom the speaker or person
addressed is associated: I'm meeting the boss | how's the family?
used with a surname to refer to a family or married couple: the Johnsons were not wealthy.
used before the surname of the chief of a Scottish or Irish clan: the O'Donoghue.

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2. used to point forward to a following qualifying or defining clause or phrase: the fuss that he
made of her | the top of a bus | I have done the best I could.
(chiefly with rulers and family members with the same name) used after a name to qualify it:
George the Sixth | Edward the Confessor | Jack the Ripper.
3. used to make a generalized reference to something rather than identifying a particular
instance: he taught himself to play the violin | worry about the future.
used with a singular noun to indicate that it represents a whole species or class: they placed
the African elephant on their endangered list.
used with an adjective to refer to those people who are of the type described: the unemployed.
used with an adjective to refer to something of the class or quality described: they are trying
to accomplish the impossible.
used with the name of a unit to state a rate: they can do 120 miles to the gallon.
4. enough of (a particular thing): he hoped to publish monthly, if only he could find the money.
5. (pronounced stressing the) used to indicate that someone or something is the best known or
most important of that name or type: he was the hot young piano prospect in jazz.
6. used adverbially with comparatives to indicate how one amount or degree of something
varies in relation to another: the more she thought about it, the more devastating it became.
(usu. all the ) used to emphasize the amount or degree to which something is affected:
commodities made all the more desirable by their rarity.
origin Old English (Northumbrian and North Mercian dialects) th; related to Dutch de, dat,
and German der, die, das.
usage: The article the is usually pronounced / TTH/ before a consonant sound (please pass the
potatoes; ) and /TTH/ before a vowel sound (please pass the asparagus; ). Regardless of
consonant and vowel sounds, when the desired effect following the is to emphasize exclusivity,
the pronunciation is /TTH/: she's not just any expert in vegetation management, she's the expert.

The specifies particular noun


Random House Dictionary, 2014
(the, Dictionary.com Unabridged,
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/the, accessed 9-11-14]

the1
[stressed th ee; unstressed before a consonant th uh; unstressed before a vowel th ee] Spell Syllables
Examples Word Origin

definite article
1. (used, especially before a noun, with a specifying or particularizing effect, as opposed to
the indefinite or generalizing force of the indefinite article a or an):
the book you gave me; Come into the house.

The is definitive, referring to specific nouns


Words and Phrases, 8
[Vol. 41B, Page 1]

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The word the is a definitive, and is commonly used before nouns


which are specific or understood. Hoffman v. Franklin Motor Car Co., 122
S.E. 896, 900, 32 Ga.App. 229

The delineates a particular


Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 2]
The word the is a definitive and when used before a noun has a specifying and particularizing
effect, and the word the is used with such meaning in the phrase or the use of the premises
appearing in provision of zoning ordinance defining an accessory building as a subordinate
building, separated from or attached to main building, the use of which is incidental to that of
the main building of the use of the premises.

The is definitive
Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 1]
The word the is a definitive, and is commonly used before nouns which are specific or
understood.

The is particular
Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 1]
The determines what particular thing is meant, i.e., what particular thing
we are to assume to be meant. * * * Yet this article is not always used to mean but one.
Take the well-worn and well-wearing quotation: The man that hath not music in his soul is fit
for treason, etc., the meaning of the article is not exhausted when one man is found with no
music in himself. The man means there, any man.

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Proper Noun Context


The indicates particular proper noun
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
(the". http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/the%5B1%5D, accessed
7-30-9)

Main Entry: 1 the Listen to the pronunciation of 1the


Pronunciation: \before consonants usually th, before vowels usually
th, sometime before vowels also th; for emphasis before titles and
names or to suggest uniqueness often th\
Function: definite article
Etymology: Middle English, from Old English th, masculine
demonstrative pron. & definite article, alteration (influenced by oblique
cases as ths, genitive & neuter, tht) of s; akin to Greek ho,
masculine demonstrative pron. & definite article more at that
Date: before 12th century
1 aused as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun
equivalent is definite or has been previously specified by context or by
circumstance <put the cat out> bused as a function word to indicate
that a following noun or noun equivalent is a unique or a particular
member of its class <the President><the Lord> cused as a function
word before nouns that designate natural phenomena or points of the
compass <the night is cold> dused as a function word before a noun
denoting time to indicate reference to what is present or immediate or is
under consideration <in the future> eused as a function word before
names of some parts of the body or of the clothing as an equivalent of a
possessive adjective <how's the arm today> fused as a function word
before the name of a branch of human endeavor or proficiency <the
law> gused as a function word in prepositional phrases to indicate
that the noun in the phrase serves as a basis for computation <sold by
the dozen> hused as a function word before a proper name (as
of a ship or a well-known building) <the Mayflower> iused as a
function word before a proper name to indicate the distinctive
characteristics of a person or thing <the John Doe that we know
wouldn't lie> jused as a function word before the plural form of a
surname to indicate all the members of a family <the Johnsons> k

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used as a function word before the plural form of a numeral that is a


multiple of ten to denote a particular decade of a century or of a
person's life <life in the twenties> lused as a function word before the
name of a commodity or any familiar appurtenance of daily life to
indicate reference to the individual thing, part, or supply thought of as
at hand <talked on the telephone> metersused as a function word to
designate one of a class as the best, most typical, best known, or most
worth singling out <this is the life><the pill> ; sometimes used before a
personal name to denote the most prominent bearer of that name2 a (1)
used as a function word with a noun modified by an adjective or by an
attributive noun to limit the application of the modified noun to that
specified by the adjective or by the attributive noun <the right
answer><Peter the Great> (2)used as a function word before an
absolute adjective or an ordinal number <nothing but the best><due on
the first> b (1)used as a function word before a noun to limit its
application to that specified by a succeeding element in the sentence
<the poet Wordsworth><the days of our youth><didn't have the time
to write> (2)used as a function word after a person's name to indicate
a characteristic trait or notorious activity specified by the succeeding
noun <Jack the Ripper>3 aused as a function word before a singular
noun to indicate that the noun is to be understood generically <the dog
is a domestic animal> bused as a function word before a singular
substantivized adjective to indicate an abstract idea <an essay on the
sublime>4used as a function word before a noun or a substantivized
adjective to indicate reference to a group as a whole <the elite>

The refers to specific noun in context


Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 3]
The word the, as used in provision of will for setting aside of a specified number of
shares of the bank stock, referred to existing stock and stock owned by testator and
constituted a specific bequest of stock, so that administration expenses were first chargeable
against the balance of the estate.

Assumes one particular noun in context


Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 3]
Word the in constitutional provision that either party may have certain matters attached

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to the bill of exceptions indicated an intent that there be but one bill of exceptions in a case.
Kraft v. Montgomery Ward & Co.

The is defined as particular in context


Merriam-Webster
[the, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/the, accessed 7-12-14]

1 a used as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun equivalent


is definite or has been previously specified by context or by circumstance <put the cat
out> b used as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun equivalent is a
unique or a particular member of its class <the President> <the Lord> c used as a function
word before nouns that designate natural phenomena or points of the compass <the night is
cold> d used as a function word before a noun denoting time to indicate reference to what is
present or immediate or is under consideration <in the future> e used as a function word
before names of some parts of the body or of the clothing as an equivalent of a possessive
adjective <how's the arm today> f used as a function word before the name of a branch of
human endeavor or proficiency <the law> g used as a function word in prepositional phrases
to indicate that the noun in the phrase serves as a basis for computation <sold by the dozen> h
used as a function word before a proper name (as of a ship or a well-known
building) <the Mayflower> i used as a function word before a proper name to indicate the
distinctive characteristics of a person or thing <the John Doe that we know wouldn't lie> j
used as a function word before the plural form of a surname to indicate all the members of a
family <the Johnsons> k used as a function word before the plural form of a numeral that is a
multiple of ten to denote a particular decade of a century or of a person's life <life in the
twenties> l used as a function word before the name of a commodity or any familiar
appurtenance of daily life to indicate reference to the individual thing, part, or supply thought of
as at hand <talked on the telephone> m used as a function word to designate one of a class as
the best, most typical, best known, or most worth singling out <this is the life> <the pill> ;
sometimes used before a personal name to denote the most prominent bearer of that name
2 a (1) used as a function word with a noun modified by an adjective or by an attributive
noun to limit the application of the modified noun to that specified by the adjective or by the
attributive noun <the right answer> <Peter the Great> (2) used as a function word before an
absolute adjective or an ordinal number <nothing but the best> <due on the first> b (1) used
as a function word before a noun to limit its application to that specified by a succeeding
element in the sentence <the poet Wordsworth> <the days of our youth> <didn't have the time
to write> (2) used as a function word after a person's name to indicate a characteristic trait or
notorious activity specified by the succeeding noun <Jack the Ripper>
3 a used as a function word before a singular noun to indicate that the noun is to be
understood generically <the dog is a domestic animal> b used as a function word before a
singular substantivized adjective to indicate an abstract idea <an essay on the sublime>
4 used as a function word before a noun or a substantivized adjective to indicate reference to
a group as a whole <the elite>

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The in context means the specific United States


Johnston, University of Toronto International Student Centre,
no date
(Martine, Special Cases in the Use of the Definite Article,
http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/english-as-a-secondlanguage/definite-article, accessed 9-7-9)

To decide if you should use the word the, ask yourself these
three questions:
1. Is the noun indefinite (unspecified) or definite (specific)?
The general rule states that the first mention of a noun is indefinite and
all subsequent references to this noun are definite and take the.
A man is walking down a road. There is a dog with the man.
The second mention may be a synonym:
Combine butter, sugar and eggs. Add flour to the mixture.
First (indefinite) mention requires a or an for a singular count noun, no
article for a plural or non-count noun. Second mention makes the
correct for both count and non-count nouns:
A growing plant must have water and minerals. The plant must also
have sunlight. The minerals must include nitrates and the water must
not be saline.
Three special groups of nouns are considered definite in reference
even if they have not been mentioned in the preceding sentence or
clause.
a. The first group consists of nouns which refer to shared
knowledge of the situation or context. For example, in Canada
you can say
The Prime Minister will arrive tomorrow
because there is only one Prime Minister in Canada, and so it is
clear to whom you are referring. Similarly, if there is only one
hospital in the town, you can say
He's been working in the hospital for two years.
But you couldn't say this in Toronto, where there are many hospitals. You
would have to name the particular hospital in your first reference to it:

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He's been working at Toronto General Hospital for two years. He says
the hospital is in a financial mess.
b. The second group consists of nouns referring to unique
objects:
e.g., the sun/the earth/the Pope/the sky/the equator
c. Superlative adjectives and unique adjectives form the third
group. Because there can be only one of these (only one of a series can
be the tallest or the best or the first), they take the definite article
Mexico City is the most populous city in the world.
I enjoyed the first part, but I was disappointed at the end.
She is the principal researcher.
2. Is the noun modified?
a. Premodification: If the noun is preceded by one of the following-this/that/these/those/some/any/each/every/no/none/my/mine
do not use the definite article.
e.g., the red books/some red books/no red book/his red books/each red
book
b. Postmodification: if the noun is followed by a dependent clause
(who/which/that) or a prepositional phrase (of/in/to...), it is made definite
and takes the definite article. The man who lives next door is Chinese.
We take the regular collection of garbage for granted.
The journey to Vancouver take three days by train.
No one expected the results that were found.
EXCEPTION: collective nouns take the indefinite article:
a box of matches/a deck of cards/a bar of soap/a herd of cows.

The marks a proper noun, something well-known, or unique


Random House Dictionary, 2014
(the, Dictionary.com Unabridged,
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/the, accessed 9-11-14]

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2. (used to mark a proper noun, natural phenomenon, ship, building, time, point of the compass,
branch of endeavor, or field of study as something well-known or unique):

the sun; the Alps; the Queen Elizabeth; the past; the West.

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Context Key
Meaning of The varies in context
Words and Phrases, 69
[Vol. 43]

Meaning of the depends on the context and purpose of statute in


which it is found. Craig v. Boyes, 11 P.2d 673, 674, 123 Cal. App. 592.

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All
The can mean all of the
Words and Phrases, 8
[the, Vol. 41B, p. 1]
The definite article the has sometimes been construed to mean all of the.

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One
The refers to one
Cambridge Dictionaries Online
(the, http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/the_1, accessed 911-14)

the determiner ( PARTICULAR )


used to refer to things or people when only one exists at any one time

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United States

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Federal Republic
United States is a federal republic
The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13

[United States, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

United States
((abbr.: US or U.S.) )

a country that occupies most of the southern half of North America as well as Alaska and
the Hawaiian Islands; pop. 304,059,724 (est. 2008); capital, Washington, DC. Full name United
States of America.
The US is a federal republic comprising 50 states and the Federal District of Columbia . It
originated in the American Revolution, the successful rebellion of the colonies on the eastern coast
against British rule in 177583. The original 13 states that formed the Union drew up a federal
constitution in 1787, and George Washington was elected the first president in 1789. In the 19th century
the territory of the US was extended across the continent through the westward spread of pioneers and
settlers and acquisitions such as that of Texas and California from Mexico in the 1840s. After a long
period of isolation in foreign affairs, the US participated on the Allied side in both world wars and
emerged from the Cold War as the world's leading military and economic power.

United States is a republic


Flaum, Encyclopedia Britannica, 14
[Thea K. Flaum, United States, 8-5-14,
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/616563/United-States, accessed
9-11-14]

United States, officially United States of America, abbreviations U.S. or


U.S.A., byname America, country of North America, a federal republic of
50 states. Besides the 48 contiguous states that occupy the middle
latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaska, at
the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island state of Hawaii,
in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The coterminous states are bounded on the north
by Canada, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Gulf of
Mexico and Mexico, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. The United States
is the fourth largest country in the world in area (after Russia, Canada, and
China). The national capital is Washington, which is coextensive with
the District of Columbia, the federal capital region created in 1790.

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United States is a federal republic


Merriam Webster
[United States,
http://www.wordswarm.net/dictionary/united_states_of_america.html#mw,
accessed 9-11-14]
United States geographical name country North America bordering on Atlantic, Pacific, &
Arctic oceans; a federal republic capital Washington area 3,619,969 square miles (9,375,720 square
kilometers), population 281,421,906

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Republic
United States refers to the republic comprising 48
conterminous states, Alaska, Hawaii, and D.C.
Random House Dictionary, 14
(united states. Dictionary.com Unabridged,
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/united%20states, accessed: 9-11-14,
AFB)

United States
Use united states in a Sentence
noun
a republic in the N Western Hemisphere comprising 48
conterminous states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska in
North America, and Hawaii in the N Pacific. 267,954,767;
conterminous United States, 3,022,387 sq. mi. (7,827,982 sq. km); with
Alaska and Hawaii, 3,615,122 sq. mi. (9,363,166 sq. km). Capital:
Washington, D.C. Abbreviation: U.S., US
Also called United States of America, America.

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Republic Government
Republic is the government
Munro, Encyclopedia Britannica, 13
[Andre, 3-18-2013, Republic,
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/498751/republic, accessed 9-1114]

republic, form of government in which a state is ruled by


representatives of the citizen body. Modern republics are founded on
the idea that sovereignty rests with the people, though who is included
and excluded from the category of the people has varied across history.
Because citizens do not govern the state themselves but through
representatives, republics may also be distinguished from direct
democracy, though modern representative democracies are by and
large republics.

Republic the state run by the elected representatives


The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13
[republic, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

republic /ripblik/
noun a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their
elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president
rather than a monarch.
archaic a group with a certain equality between its members.
origin late 16th cent.: from French rpublique, from Latin respublica, from
res ' entity, concern ' + publicus ' of the people, public '.

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Federal Jurisdiction
United States includes all of the jurisdiction of the federal
government
Words and Phrases, 6
[United States, Volume 43A]

U.S.N.Y. (1901) Downes v. Bidwell


a.
The term United States has a broader meaning in dealing with the
foreign sovereignty than when used in the constitution, and includes all
territory subject to the jurisdiction of the federal government.

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Jurisdiction
The United States includes all areas under US jurisdiction
U.S. Department of Defense, 9
(United States, The Dictionary of Military Terms, p. 574)

United States Includes the land area, internal waters,


territorial sea, and airspace of the United States, including the
following: A. US territories, possessions, and commonwealths;
and b. Other areas over which the US Government has complete
jurisdiction and control or has exclusive authority or defense
responsibility.

United States, in topic context, means all jurisdictions of the


US
Words and Phrases, 6
[United States, Volume 43A]

C.A.5 (Fla.) 1974.


Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.
a.
The Term United States, as used in Comprehensive Drug
Abuse Prevention and Control Act in a territorial sense, includes all
the places and waters, continental or insular, subject to the
jurisdiction of the United States, except the Canal Zone.

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Constitutional Union
United States is a Constitutional entity
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 1969
[United States, 3rd edition, edited by James A. Ballentine,
http://citizenlaw.com/pdf/u.pdf, accessed 9-11-14]

United States: The Union of several states, each equal in power,


dignity, and authority, brought into being by the Constitution,
emanating from and adopted by the people in whom the sovereignty resides.
McCulloch v Maryland (US) 4 Wheat 3l6, 4 L Ed 579. A body politic and
corporate, capable of attaining the objects for which it was created,
by the means which are necessary for their attainment. Van Brocklin v
Tennessee, 117 US 151, 29 L Ed 845, 6 S Ct 670. A person for the purpose of
a pretrial deposition under Federal Rule 26(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil
Procedure. 23 Am J2d Dep 242. Inclusive in reference to transactions with
foreign nations of all territories subject to the jurisdiction of the Federal
Government, wherever located. Downes v Bidwell, 182 US 244, 45 L Ed
1088, 21 S Ct 770.
A Federal government was created in 1777 by the union of thirteen colonies
of Great Britain in "certain articles of confederation and perpetual union," the
first one of which declared that "the stile of this confederacy shall be the
United States of America." Each member of the confederacy was
denominated a state." The confederacy, owing to well-known historical
reasons, having proven a failure, a new Constitution was formed in 1787, by
"The people of the United States "for the United States of America," as its
preamble declares. Downes v Bidwell, 182 US 244, 249, 45 1, Ed 1088, 1092,
21 S Ct 770.
See expressions following which begin with United States," also
terms and expressions beginning federal or national.

United States is the union of states under the Constitution


Words and Phrases, 69
[Vol. 43, p.506.]

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The United States is the union of the separate states under a


common Constitution. Texas v. White, 74 U.S.(7 Wall.) 700, 721, 19
L.Ed. 227

United States is a federal union


Guide to American Law, 83
(United States, The Guide to American Law: Everyone's Legal Encyclopedia
Hardcover December 1, 1983)
A comprehensive term for the territory that comprises fifty separate
states and is bound by the Federal Constitution into a union, which, in
the community of nations, is a single sovereign nation in international
affairs.

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Country/Nation
The United States is comprised of 48 contiguous states,
Alaska, Hawaii, and various territories, with DC as the capital
American Heritage Dictionary
(United States, Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/united states, accessed: 7-29-9, AFB)

United States or United States of America Abbr. U.S. or US or


U.S.A. or USA
A country of central and northwest North America with
coastlines on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It includes the
noncontiguous states of Alaska and Hawaii and various island
territories in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean. The area now
occupied by the contiguous 48 states was originally inhabited
by numerous Native American peoples and was colonized beginning
in the 16th century by Spain, France, the Netherlands, and England.
Great Britain eventually controlled most of the Atlantic coast and, after
the French and Indian Wars (1754-1763), the Northwest Territory and
Canada. The original Thirteen Colonies declared their independence
from Great Britain in 1776 and formed a government under the Articles
of Confederation in 1781, adopting (1787) a new constitution that went
into effect after 1789. The nation soon began to expand westward.
Growing tensions over the issue of Black slavery divided the country
along geographic lines, sparking the secession of the South and the Civil
War (1861-1865). The remainder of the 19th century was marked by
increased westward expansion, industrialization, and the influx of
millions of immigrants. The United States entered World War II after the
Japanese attack (1941) on Pearl Harbor and emerged after the war as a
world power. Washington, D.C., is the capital and New York the
largest city. Population: 302,000,000.

The United States is the nation


Cambridge University Press

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(United States, Cambridge Dictionary of American English,


http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define_b.asp?key=unite*1+4&dict=A,
accessed 7-30-9)

Definition
The United States (abbreviation US) is the United States of
America, a nation consisting of 50 states, all but one (Hawaii) in
North America.

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USA
The United States is the United States of America
Cambridge University Press
(United States, Cambridge Dictionary of American English,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define_b.asp?key=unite*1+4&dict=A,
accessed 7-30-9)

Definition
The United States (abbreviation US) is the United States of
America, a nation consisting of 50 states, all but one (Hawaii) in
North America.

United States is synonymous with United States of America


Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
(United States of America". http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/United%20States%20of%20America, accessed 7-309, AFB)

* Main Entry: United States of America


* Variant(s): or United States \yuu -n-td-stts, especially Southern
y-\
* Function: geographical name
country North America bordering on Atlantic, Pacific, & Arctic
oceans; a federal republic Washington area 3,619,969 square
miles (9,375,720 square kilometers), population 281,421,906

United States is the same as United States of America


Words and Phrases, 69
[Vol. 43, p. 506]

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In informations and indictments in the United States of America,


it is unnecessary to use the words of America after the words
United States. People v. OCampo, 71 N.E.2d 375, 377, 378, 330
Ill.App. 401.

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Geographic
United States refers to a geographical entity
Merriam Webster
[United States, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/united
%20states, accessed 9-11-14]

United States geographical name

(Concise Encyclopedia)

Variants of UNITED STATES


United States officially United States of America
Learn More About UNITED STATES
Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about "United States"

United States is a country composed of 50 states and DC


Flaum, Encyclopedia Britannica, 14
[Thea K. Flaum, United States, 8-5-14,
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/616563/United-States, accessed
9-11-14]

United States, officially United States of America, abbreviations U.S. or


U.S.A., byname America, country of North America, a federal republic of
50 states. Besides the 48 contiguous states that occupy the middle
latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of
Alaska, at the northwestern extreme of North America, and the island
state of Hawaii, in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The coterminous states are
bounded on the north by Canada, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the
south by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico, and on the west by the Pacific
Ocean. The United States is the fourth largest country in the world in area
(after Russia, Canada, and China). The national capital is Washington,
which is coextensive with the District of Columbia, the federal
capital region created in 1790.

United States is a geographical entity


Merriam Webster

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[United States,
http://www.wordswarm.net/dictionary/united_states_of_america.html#mw,
accessed 9-11-14]
United States geographical name country North America bordering on Atlantic, Pacific, &
Arctic oceans; a federal republic capital Washington area 3,619,969 square miles (9,375,720 square
kilometers), population 281,421,906

United States is 50 states and DC


The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13

[United States, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

United States
((abbr.: US or U.S.) )

a country that occupies most of the southern half of North America as well as Alaska and
the Hawaiian Islands; pop. 304,059,724 (est. 2008); capital, Washington, DC. Full name United
States of America.
The US is a federal republic comprising 50 states and the Federal District of Columbia . It
originated in the American Revolution, the successful rebellion of the colonies on the eastern coast
against British rule in 177583. The original 13 states that formed the Union drew up a federal
constitution in 1787, and George Washington was elected the first president in 1789. In the 19th century
the territory of the US was extended across the continent through the westward spread of pioneers and
settlers and acquisitions such as that of Texas and California from Mexico in the 1840s. After a long
period of isolation in foreign affairs, the US participated on the Allied side in both world wars and
emerged from the Cold War as the world's leading military and economic power.

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Includes Territories
The United States includes territories and areas under US
jurisdiction
U.S. Department of Defense, 9
(United States, The Dictionary of Military Terms, p. 574)

United States Includes the land area, internal waters,


territorial sea, and airspace of the United States, including the
following: A. US territories, possessions, and commonwealths;
and b. Other areas over which the US Government has complete
jurisdiction and control or has exclusive authority or defense
responsibility.

US is a country including states, territories, and DC


The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 14
[Fifth Edition, https://ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=united+states,
accessed 9-11-14]

United States or United States of America Abbr. US or U.S. or USA or


U.S.A.
Share: United StatesUnited States
A country of central and northwest North America with coastlines on
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It includes the noncontiguous states
of Alaska and Hawaii and various island territories in the Caribbean
Sea and Pacific Ocean. The area now occupied by the contiguous 48 states
was originally inhabited by numerous Native American peoples and was
colonized beginning in the 1500s by Spain, France, the Netherlands, and
England. Great Britain eventually controlled most of the Atlantic coast and,
after the French and Indian Wars (1754-1763), the Northwest Territory and
Canada. The original Thirteen Colonies declared their independence from
Great Britain in 1776 and formed a government under the Articles of
Confederation in 1781, adopting (1787) a new constitution that went into
effect after 1789. The nation soon began to expand westward. Growing
tensions over the issue of black slavery divided the country along geographic
lines, sparking the secession of the South and the Civil War (1861-1865). The
remainder of the 1800s was marked by increased westward expansion,

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industrialization, and the influx of millions of immigrants. The United States


entered World War II after the Japanese attack (1941) on Pearl Harbor and
emerged after the war as a world power. Washington, DC, is the capital
and New York the largest city.

United States includes all territories


Words and Phrases, 6
[United States, Volume 43A]

D. Minn. 1944.
Alien Registration Act of 1940
a.
United States is used in the Alien Registration Act as including
the states, the territories of Alaska and Hawaii, the District of
Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but the term does not
include the Philippine Islands.

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Not All Jurisdictions/Territories

United States doesnt mean all jurisdictions


Words and Phrases, 6
[United States, Volume 43A]

CA.9 (Hawaii)
Rabang v. I.N.S.
a.
As used in the constitution, term United States does not
include all territories subject to jurisdiction of the United States
Government.

United States means only the 50 States and DC


Words and Phrases, 6
[United States, Volume 43A]

Fla.App. 3 Dist. 1976.


Heftler Const. Co. and Subsidiaries v. Department of Revenue
a.
Term United States, as used in statute providing for exclusion
of income and losses derived from sources outside of United States,
means only the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

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Includes Agencies
United States includes US agencies
Words and Phrases, 6
[United States, Volume 43A]

D.D.C. 1982
a.
The term United States, as used in exception for offsetting
judgments to the priority given by Federal Tax Lien Act for attorney
liens includes the United States Postal Service and, hence,
attorneys lien on taxpayers recovery on contract claims against
the Service was subordinate to Internal Revenue Services claims
against taxpayer for unpaid employment taxes.

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Federal

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National
Federal is government of states, central government of US
The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13
[federal, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

federal /fed()rl/
adjective having or relating to a system of government in which
several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs:
Russia's federation treaty shares powers among Russia's federal and local
governments.
of, relating to, or denoting the central government as
distinguished from the separate units constituting a federation: the
federal agency that provides legal services to the poor.
of, relating to, or denoting the central government of the US.
(Federal) US historical of the northern states in the Civil War: a loud
Federal cheer was heard, proving Stonewall to be hard pressed.

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United States Federal Government

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The USFG Three Branches


The United States federal government has three branches and
is established by the Constitution
US Legal
[United States Federal Government, US Legal,
http://definitions.uslegal.com/u/united-states-federal-government/, accessed
7-2-16, NVM]

The United States Federal Government is established by the US


Constitution. The Federal Government shares sovereignty over the United
Sates with the individual governments of the States of US. The Federal
government has three branches: i) the legislature, which is the US
Congress, ii) Executive, comprised of the President and Vice
president of the US and iii) Judiciary. The US Constitution prescribes a
system of separation of powers and checks and balances for the smooth
functioning of all the three branches of the Federal Government. The US
Constitution limits the powers of the Federal Government to the
powers assigned to it; all powers not expressly assigned to the
Federal Government are reserved to the States or to the people.

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USFG Three Branches


U.S. federal government is composed of the three branches
USA.gov, the U.S. government's official web portal, 9
(U.S. Federal Government, http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml,
accessed 7-29-9, AFB)

U.S. Federal Government


Official information and services from the U.S. government
The three branches of U.S. governmentlegislative, judicial,
and executivecarry out governmental power and functions.
View a complete diagram (.PDF) of the U.S. government's branches.

The federal government of the United States is the central


United States governmental body, comprised of the three
branches
Wikipedia, 9
(Federal government of the United States, Last updated, 7-26-9,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_the_United_States,
accessed 7-29-9, AFB)

Federal government of the United States


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"United States federal Government" redirects here. This article
is about the United States federal government. For information
about politics in the United States, see Politics of the United States.
This article is about about the Federal Government of the United States.
For the textbook, see American Government (textbook).
The Federal Government of the United States is the central
United States governmental body, established by the United
States Constitution. The federal government has three
branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial. Through a

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system of separation of powers and the system of "checks and


balances," each of these branches has some authority to act on its own,
some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of its
own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches.[1] The policies
of the federal government have a broad impact on both the domestic
and foreign affairs of the United States. In addition, the powers of the
federal government as a whole are limited by the Constitution, which,
per the Tenth Amendment, gives all power not directed to the National
government, to the State level, or to the people.
The seat of the federal government is in the federal district of
Washington, D.C.

The United States federal government is the governing body of


the United States, comprised of three branches
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 4
(US, Reference.com, http://www.reference.com/browse/columbia/US,
accessed 7-30-9, AFB)

Government
The government of the United States is that of a federal
republic set up by the Constitution of the United States, adopted
by the Constitutional Convention of 1787. There is a division of
powers between the federal government and the state
governments. The federal government consists of three
branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The
executive power is vested in the President and, in the event of the
President's incapacity, the Vice President. (For a chronological list of all
the presidents and vice presidents of the United States, including their
terms in office and political parties, see the table entitled Presidents of
the United States.) The executive conducts the administrative business
of the nation with the aid of a cabinet composed of the Attorney General
and the Secretaries of the Departments of State; Treasury; Defense;
Interior; Agriculture; Commerce; Labor; Health and Human Services;
Education; Housing and Urban Development; Transportation; Energy;
and Veterans' Affairs.

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Not States
The United States federal government is the governing body of
the United States, distinct from the states
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 4
(US, Reference.com, http://www.reference.com/browse/columbia/US,
accessed 7-30-9)

Government
The government of the United States is that of a federal
republic set up by the Constitution of the United States, adopted
by the Constitutional Convention of 1787. There is a division of
powers between the federal government and the state
governments. The federal government consists of three
branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The
executive power is vested in the President and, in the event of the
President's incapacity, the Vice President. (For a chronological list of all
the presidents and vice presidents of the United States, including their
terms in office and political parties, see the table entitled Presidents of
the United States.) The executive conducts the administrative business
of the nation with the aid of a cabinet composed of the Attorney General
and the Secretaries of the Departments of State; Treasury; Defense;
Interior; Agriculture; Commerce; Labor; Health and Human Services;
Education; Housing and Urban Development; Transportation; Energy;
and Veterans' Affairs.

Federal indicates central government, not the states


Cambridge University Press, 14
(federal, Cambridge Dictionary of American English,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/american-english/federal, accessed
9-11-14, AFB)

English definition of federal


federal
adjective [not gradable] /fedrl/ US

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politics & government of or connected with the central government of


some countries:
the federal government
Federal law regulates trade with other countries.

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Should

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Useful Definitions

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Must/Mandate
Should means ought to
Random House Dictionary, 14
["should." Dictionary.com Unabridged
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/should, accessed 9-11-14]

3. must; ought (used to indicate duty, propriety, or expediency):


You should not do that.

Should indicates mandate


Garner, Blacks Law Dictionary editor, 95
[Bryan A., A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage, p. 805]

Should. Oddly, should, like may, q.v., is sometimes used to create


mandatory standards, as in the ABA Code of Judicial Conduct. In that code, in
which [t]he canons...establish mandatory standards unless otherwise
indicated, six of the seven canons begin, A Judge should... See ought (b)
& shall.

Should is a term of mandate


Words and Phrases, 6
[Vol. 39, p. 312]

The word should as used in Laws 1901, p. 387, c. 106, Section 3,


providing that, on proof of certain facts to the county court, it
shall be determined whether territory should be disconnected
from a city, does not authorize the court to do as it pleases; the
statute is mandatory. Town of Edgewater v. Liebhardt, 76 P. 366, 367,
32 Colo. 307.

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Duty
Should expresses obligation, duty, what should happen
The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13

[Should, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

should /SHoood/
modal verb (3rd sing. should)
1. used to indicate obligation, duty, or correctness, typically when
criticizing someone's actions: he should have been careful | I think we
should trust our people more | you shouldn't have gone.
indicating a desirable or expected state: by now students should
be able to read with a large degree of independence.
used to give or ask advice or suggestions: you should go back to bed
| what should I wear?
(I should) used to give advice: I should hold out if I were you.

Should implies duty


Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

Ala.App. 1960. In requested instruction which would have informed


jurors that if they had a reasonable doubt of defendants guilt
arising out of any part of evidence it is your duty to find
defendant not guilty, quoted words were equivalent to word
should, and it was error for court to refuse such a requested instruction.
Tidwell v. State, 118 So.2d 292, 40 Ala.App. 580. Crim Law 789(4).

Should means duty


Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

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Kan. 1906. The word should, as used in instructions, may convey to


the jury the sense of duty and obligation. State v. Connor, 87 P. 703,
74 Kan. 898.

Should denotes duty


Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

Kan. 1951. The word should denotes duty whereas word could
denotes no more than a possibility. Mosely v. Kansas City, 228 P.2d 699,
170 Kan. 585.

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Obligation
Should implies obligation or correctness
Oxford Dictionaries
[Oxford University Press, Should,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/should,
accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

Used to indicate obligation, duty, or correctness , typically when criticizing


someones actions:
he should have been careful
I think we should trust our people more
you shouldnt have gone
They should make it their duty to make everything as simple and
straightforward for you as possible.
When a person enters the army, they have to swear an oath, and they
should fulfil their obligation.
At the very least the council should assume a duty of care to all the
kids using this scheme.

Should implies obligation, expediency


Merriam Webster 14
[Should, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/should, accessed 911-14]
2used in auxiliary function to express obligation, propriety, or expediency <'tis
commanded I should do so Shakespeare> <this is as it should be H. L. Savage> < you should
brush your teeth after each meal>

Should is obligatory
Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

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Mo.1959 The word may is not as compelling as must or as


obligatory as should but it is not preclusive of them.--Rossomanno
v. Laclede Cab

Should expresses obligation


Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 373]

Pa.Super.1986. Trial judge's instruction that if Commonwealth did not


meet its burden, jury should find defendant not guilty, considered
as a whole, sufficiently stated the reasonable doubt standard;
trial judge was not required to use word must instead of
should.--Com. v. Hammond

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Expectation
Should implies probability
Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary & Thesaurus
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, Should,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/should, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

should modal verb (PROBABLE)


used to show when something is likely or expected :
My dry cleaning should be ready this afternoon.
You should find this guidebook helpful.
I wonder what's happened to Annie. She should be (= it was expected that
she would be) here by now.
UK "Could you have the report ready by Friday?" "Yes, I should think so (= it
is likely that it will be ready)."
This should be good (= this is likely to be interesting or amusing).

Should expresses expectation


Merriam Webster 14
[Should, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/should, accessed 911-14]
4used in auxiliary function to express what is probable or expected <with an early start, they
should be here by noon>

Should invokes what is probable


Cambridge University Press, 14
[Should, Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/american-english/should, accessed
9-11-14]

should modal verb (PROBABLE)

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used to express that the action of the main verb is probable:


She should be back at any minute.
If you follow these directions, you shouldnt have any trouble finding our
house.
That should be enough food for five people.

Should expresses what is likely


The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13

[Should, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

2. used to indicate what is probable: $348 million should be enough


to buy him out | the bus should arrive in a few minutes.

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Opinion
Should expresses opinion
Cambridge University Press, 14
[Should, Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/american-english/should, accessed
9-11-14]

should modal verb (OPINION)


fml used to express a desire or opinion:
I should think hed be happy just to have a job.
I shouldnt worry about that if I were you.

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Desirability
Should implies the necessity, desirability, or importance of the
action following the verb
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, Should,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/should, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

should modal verb (DUTY)


used to express that it is necessary, desirable, or important to perform the
action of the following verb:
He should have told me about the change in plans.
People like that should go to jail.
Where should we meet tonight?

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Implies Benefits
Should implies an evaluation of the benefits of an action
Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary & Thesaurus
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, Should,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/should, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

should modal verb (DUTY)


used to say or ask what is the correct or best thing to do :
If you're annoyed with him, you should tell him.
You should take the bus - it's the easiest way to get there.
"Should I apologize to him?" "Yes, I think you should."
You should be ashamed of yourselves.
This computer isn't working as it should.
There should be an investigation into the cause of the disaster.
He said that I should see a doctor.
I should have written to her but I haven't had time.
You shouldn't have said anything.
Where should (= do you suggest that) we meet tonight?
It's rather cold in here. Should I (= do you want me to) turn the heating on?

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Immediacy
Should implies immediacy
Merriam-Webster
[Merriam-Webster.com, n.d., Should, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/should, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

2used in auxiliary function to express obligation, propriety, or


expediency <'tis commanded I should do so Shakespeare> <this is as it
should be H. L. Savage> <you should brush your teeth after each
meal>

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Condition
Should implies a conditional approach
Merriam-Webster
[Merriam-Webster.com, n.d., Should, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/should, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

1used in auxiliary function to express condition <if he should leave


his father, his father would die Genesis 44:22(Revised Standard
Version)>

Should expresses the conditional mood in relation to the


status quo, the US should
The New Oxford American Dictionary, 13
[Should, 3rd edition, Oxford Reference database, accessed 9-11-14]

3. formal expressing the conditional mood.


(in the first person) indicating the consequence of an imagined
event: if I were to obey my first impulse, I should spend my days
writing letters.
referring to a possible event or situation: if you should change
your mind, I'll be at the hotel | should anyone arrive late, admission
is likely to be refused.

Should expresses condition


Random House Dictionary, 14
["should." Dictionary.com Unabridged
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/should, accessed 9-11-14]

2. (used to express condition):


Were he to arrive, I should be pleased.

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Should AT Less Common Meanings


Should mainly functions to express duty
Random House Dictionary, 14
["should." Dictionary.com Unabridged
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/should, accessed 9-11-14]

Usage note Expand


Rules similar to those for choosing between shall and will have long been
advanced for should and would, but again the rules have had little effect on
usage. In most constructions, would is the auxiliary chosen regardless of the
person of the subject: If our allies would support the move, we would
abandon any claim to sovereignty. You would be surprised at the complexity
of the directions.
Because the main function of should in modern American English is
to express duty, necessity, etc. ( You should get your flu shot before
winter comes), its use for other purposes, as to form a subjunctive,
can produce ambiguity, at least initially: I should get my flu shot if I
were you.Furthermore, should seems an affectation to many Americans when
used in certain constructions quite common in British English: Had I been
informed, I should(American would) have called immediately. I should
(American would) really prefer a different arrangement. As with shall and
will, most educated native speakers of American English do not follow the
textbook rule in making a choice between should and would. See also shall.

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Should AT Discretion/May
Should is distinct from may it is not permissive or
discretionary
Words and Phrases, 6
[Vol. 39, p. 311]

The use of the word should instead of the word may in the part of
the charge which tells the jury that they should consider the interest
the witness has, etc., is objectionable as in some measure an invasion of
the province of the jury; the word should there meaning more than
the word may in its permissive sense. Lynch v. Bates, 38 N.E. 806,
807, 139 Ind. 206.

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AT Should Requires Certainty

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Discretion
Should allows discretion
Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 369]

Ky.App. 1984. Should, when used in an administrative code, denotes


discretion. KRS 216B.040. Starks v Kentucky Health Facilities, 684 S.W.2d
5. Admin Law 324.

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Request
Should implies a polite request
Merriam-Webster
[Merriam-Webster.com, n.d., Should, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/should, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

5used in auxiliary function to express a request in a polite manner or to


soften direct statement <I should suggest that a guideis the first
essential L. D. Reddick>

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May
In the context of instructions, may and should are sufficiently
synonymous
Words and Phrases, 6
[Vol. 39, p. 311]

May, as used in an instruction that the jury may consider the


interest of a party to the action as affecting his credibility as a
witness, instead of should consider, will not be considered an
error; the words may and should in such connection being
sufficiently similar and synonymous. Chicago & E. R. Co. v. Meech,
45 N.E. 290, 293, 163 Ill. 305.

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AT Should = Mandate
Should is not mandatory in legal context
Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

La.App.2Cir. 1993.
Should is not mandatory in sentencing guideline that concurrent
sentences should be imposed if two or more criminal acts constitute
parts of common scheme. --State v. Stamper

Should is not an entitlement


Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

W.Va. 1897. Should, as used in an affidavit of attachment stating


that the plaintiff should recover may be merely the expression of
the affiants opinion, and hence is not the same force that the
plaintiff is entitled to recover, and the affidavit is insufficient, the
word entitled expressing a legal ground for such a recovery.
Sommers v. Allen, 28 S.E. 787, 44 W.Va. 120.

Should is advisory, not mandatory


Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 372]

Ohio Com.Pl. 1998.


Not all portions of the state standards for traffic control devices are
mandatory; the verb shall is to be considered mandatory, the verb
should is merely advisory, and the verb may should be read as
permissive.--Werden v. City of Milford

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AT Should = Obligation
Should is a recommendation, not an obligation
Words and Phrases, 6
[Volume 39, p. 369]

C.A.10 2001.
Term should in statute indicate recommended course of action,
but does not itself imply obligation associated with shall.--Qwe
Corp. v. F.C.C.

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Less Useful Definitions

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Futurity
Should expresses futurity
Merriam Webster 14
[Should, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/should, accessed 911-14]
3used in auxiliary function to express futurity from a point of view in the past
<realized that she should have to do most of her farm work before sunrise Ellen
Glasgow>

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Past Tense of Shall


Should is the past tense of shall
Random House Dictionary, 14
[Should, Dictionary.com, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/should,
accessed 9-11-14]

should
[shoo d] Spell Syllables
Synonyms Examples Word Origin
auxiliary verb
1. simple past tense of shall.

Should is the past tense of shall


Merriam Webster 14
[Should, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/should, accessed 911-14]
should verbal auxiliary \shd, shuud\

Definition of SHOULD
past of shall

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Would
Should is less direct would
Random House Dictionary, 14
["should." Dictionary.com Unabridged
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/should, accessed 9-11-14]

4. would (used to make a statement less direct or blunt):


I should think you would apologize.

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Substantially

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Substantially Violations

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1NC Substantially Great Extent


A. Interpretation Substantial means to a great extent
WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
(Substantially, WordNet 3.1,
http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=substantially, accessed 99-9)

Substantially
# S: (adv) well, considerably, substantially (to a great extent or
degree) "I'm afraid the film was well over budget"; "painting the room
white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger"; "the house
has fallen considerably in value"; "the price went up substantially".

B. Violation the plan isnt substantial because


C. Reasons to Vote Negative
1. Neg ground Substantial increase is key to neg ground
the direction of engagement uniqueness makes it
impossible to win uniqueness on the negative unless the
size of the link is big, and they get hyper specific link
turns and generic links wont apply makes clash
impossible for the neg

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2. Debatability Plan explodes the research burden forces


us to look up every small facet of US policy in the already
enormous areas of economic and diplomatic engagement.
Their interpretation legitimizes deal of the week,
conference of the week, aid package of the week, and
trade concession of the week affs any of those could be
qualitatively significant and have an advantage, but the
infinite number of those affs doesnt allow the neg to
research and prepare to rigorously debate the merits of
the aff or the resolution
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate

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Definitions

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In the Main
Substantially means in the main
Judicial and Statutory Definitions of Words and Phrases, 10
(West Publishing Company, Volume 4, p. 753, Google Books)

Substantially means in substance; in the main; essentially; by


including the material or essential part

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Essentially
Substantially means essentially
Oxford Dictionaries
[OxfordDictionaries.com, Substantially,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/substantiall
y, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

2 For the most part; essentially:


things will remain substantially the same over the next ten years

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Without Material Qualification


Substantial means without material qualifications
Blacks Law Dictionary 91
[p. 1024]

Substantially - means essentially; without material qualification.

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Materially
Substantial means materially
WORDS & PHRASES, 2
(Vol. 40A, 2002, p. 469.)

IILApI,. 2 Dist. 1923. Substantial means in substance, in the


main, essential, including material or essential parts. -White v. City
Of' Otlawa. 230 IILApIt. 491, affirmcd 149 N.G. 021. 318 Ill. 463.

Substantial means materially


Words & Phrases, 2
(Vol. 40A, 2002, p. 458.)

M.D. Tenn. 1941. Word "substantial" means in substance or in a


substantial manner, materially or essentially.-Newark Stove Co. v. Gray
& Dudley Co., 39 F.Supp. 992.

Substantially is essentially
Words & Phrases 64,
[p. 818.]

Substantially means in substance; in the main; essentially; by


including the material or essential part.

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Real
Substantial is real and substantive
Merriam Websters Dictionary
[Merriam Websters Learners Dictionary, Substantially,
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/substantially, accessed 7-3-16,
ZT]

Full Definition of substantial


1
a : consisting of or relating to substance
b : not imaginary or illusory : real, true
c : important, essential
Only the buildings that were constructed of more substantial
materials survived the earthquake.

Substantial means real, not illusory


WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
(Substantial, WordNet 3.0, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=substantially, accessed 9-9-9)

Adjective
* S: (adj) substantial, substantive (having a firm basis in reality
and being therefore important, meaningful, or considerable)
"substantial equivalents"
* S: (adj) substantial, real, material (having substance or
capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary) "the substantial
world"; "a mere dream, neither substantial nor practical"; "most
ponderous and substantial things"- Shakespeare

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Amount
Substantial must be of a considerable amount, quantity, and
size
Dictionary.com
[Dictionary, substantially, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/substantially?
s=t, adj. 1, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

Substantial
of ample or considerable amount, quantity, size, etc.:
a substantial sum of money.

Substantial is considerable in quantity


Merriam Websters Law Dictionary 96
[Merriam Websters Law Dictionary, Substantial,
http://dictionary.findlaw.com/definition/substantial.html, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

substantial adj
considerable in quantity
: significantly great [would be a abuse of the provisions of this
chapter "U.S. Code "] compare de minimis
substantiality [-stan-ch-a-l-t]

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Quantitative
Substantial is quantitative
Merriam-Webster 9
(http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/substantially, accessed 9-9-9)

Main Entry: substantial


b : considerable in quantity : significantly great <earned a
substantial wage>

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80%
Substantially is 80%
Curtin, Judge, United States District Court for the Western District of New York, 2003
(John T., 2-23-03 (Gateway Equipment Corp. -vs- United States of America 2003 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2942, United States District Court for the Western
District of New York, Lexis)

The government cites Webster's Ninth New College Dictionary for the
definitions of "limit" and "impairment" as suggesting "meanings equivalent
to restriction and reduction, respectively." Item 30, p. 3, n.1. It posits
that the word "substantially" suggests "an order of magnitude
equivalent to 80% or 90%." Id. It concludes that "using those
definitions, 'substantially limited' and 'substantially impaired'
means that there must be an 80%-90% restriction and/ or
reduction of use by virtue of the design of the CB-4000." Id.

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Degree
Substantially means to a large degree
Cambridge Dictionary
[Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary, substantially,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/substantially, accessed
7-3-16, ZT]

substantially
adverb US

/sbstnli/

to a large degree:
Serious crime is down substantially.

Substantially means to a great or significant extent


Oxford Dictionaries
[OxfordDictionaries.com, Substantially,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/substantiall
y, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

substantially
1 To a great or significant extent:
profits grew substantially

Substantially is to great extent or degree


Wordnet
[Wordnet 3.1, Substantially, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn
s=substantially&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=
&o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

S: (adv) well, considerably, substantially (to a great extent or degree ) "I'm afraid
the film was well over budget"; "painting the room white made it

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seem considerably (or substantially) larger"; "the house has fallen


considerably in value"; "the price went up substantially"

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Important
Substantial is of considerable importance, degree, amount, or
extent
American Heritage Dictionary 11
[American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition,
Substantial, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company,
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/substantially, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

substantial (sb-stnshl)
adj.
1. Considerable in importance, value, degree, amount, or extent: made a substantial
improvement ; won by a substantial margin.

Substantial must be a worthwhile or important change


Collins English Dictionary 12
[Dictionary.com, Collins English Dictionary Complete & Unabridged,
Substantially, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/substantially?s=t,
accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

substantial
worthwhile; important : a substantial reform

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Requires Context
Substantial must be determined by context
Words & Phrases, 2
(Vol. 40A, 2002, p. 464)

Cal. 1956. "Substantial" is it relative term, its measure to be gauged by


all the circumstances surrounding the matter in reference to which the
expression has been used.-Atchison, 'I'. & S. F. IZy. Co. v. Kings County
Water Dist., 3(12 P.2d 1, 41 Ca1.2J 140.

Substantial is determined contextually and must be given


meaning
Words & Phrases, 1960
"Substantial" is a relative term, Its measure to be gauged by all
the circumstances surrounding the matter In reference to which
the expression is used. Robinson v. North Am. Life & Cas. Co., App.,
30 Cal. Rptr. 57, 60. The term "substantial" is relative and its
meaning is to be gauged by the circumstances. State by Lord v.
Pahl, 95 N.W.2d 85, 89, 254 Minn. 349. "Substantial" is a relative
term, the meaning of which is to be gauged by all the
circumstances surrounding the transaction in reference to
which the expression has been used, and it imports a
considerable amount of value in opposition to that which is
inconsequential or small. Application of Scroggin, Cal.App., 229 P.2d
489, 491. "Substantial" is a relative word, which, while it must be
used with care and discrimination, must nevertheless be given
effect, and in a claim of patent allowed considerable latitude of
meaning where it is applied to such subject as thickness, -,is by
requiring two parts of a device to be of substantially the same thickness,
and cannot be held to require them to be of exactly the same thickness.
Todd v. Sears Roebucl, & Co., D.C. N.C., 119 F.Supp. 38, 41. "Substantial"
is a relative term, its measure to be gauged by all the circumstances
surrounding the matter in reference to which the expression has been
used. Atchison, T. & S. P. Ry. Co. v. Kings County Water Dist., Cal., 302
P.2d 1, 3.1.

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Substantially isnt precise, but still must be given meaning.


The most objective way is to define it contextually
Devinsky, McDermott Will & Emery LLP partner, 2
(Paul November, IP Update, Volume 5, No. 11, November 2002, IS CLAIM
"SUBSTANTIALLY" DEFINITE? ASK PERSON OF SKILL IN THE ART,, p.
http://www.mwe.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/publications.nldetail/object_id/C2
C73BDB-9B1A-42BF-A2B7-075812DC0E2D#claim1, accessed 9-9-9)

In reversing a summary judgment of invalidity, the U.S. Court of Appeals


for the Federal Circuit found that the district court, by failing to look
beyond the intrinsic claim construction evidence to consider what a
person of skill in the art would understand in a "technologic context,"
erroneously concluded the term "substantially" made a claim fatally
indefinite. Verve, LLC v. Crane Cams, Inc., Case No. 01-1417 (Fed. Cir.
November 14, 2002). The patent in suit related to an improved push rod
for an internal combustion engine. The patent claims a hollow push
rod whose overall diameter is larger at the middle than at the
ends and has "substantially constant wall thickness" throughout
the rod and rounded seats at the tips. The district court found
that the expression "substantially constant wall thickness" was
not supported in the specification and prosecution history by a
sufficiently clear definition of "substantially" and was,
therefore, indefinite. The district court recognized that the use
of the term "substantially" may be definite in some cases but
ruled that in this case it was indefinite because it was not
further defined. The Federal Circuit reversed, concluding that
the district court erred in requiring that the meaning of the
term "substantially" in a particular "technologic context" be
found solely in intrinsic evidence: "While reference to intrinsic
evidence is primary in interpreting claims, the criterion is the meaning
of words as they would be understood by persons in the field of the
invention." Thus, the Federal Circuit instructed that "resolution of any
ambiguity arising from the claims and specification may be aided by
extrinsic evidence of usage and meaning of a term in the context of the
invention." The Federal Circuit remanded the case to the district
court with instruction that "[t]he question is not whether the
word 'substantially' has a fixed meaning as applied to 'constant
wall thickness,' but how the phrase would be understood by

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persons experienced in this field of mechanics, upon reading


the patent documents."

Substantial is flexible the judge has discretion


Mellinkoff, Law Professor UCLA, 1992
(David , Mellinkoffs Dictionary of American Legal Usage, p. 626).

Substantial is as flexible in the law as in ordinary English. That is its


reason for continued existence in the law. Long use of substantial in
combinations, e.g., substantial evidence, can produce an impression of
precision, which is lacking. The word is an alert! What substantial
fastens itself to becomes infected with substantials flexibility. A place
for discretion.

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Meaningless
Substantial doesnt mean anything
Horowitz, J.D. Candidate, 13
[Colby, Fordham Law Review, v. 81, CREATING A MORE MEANINGFUL
DETENTION STATUTE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM HEDGES V. OBAMA,
http://fordhamlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/Vol_81/Horowitz_April.pdf, p. 28802881, accessed 7-23-13]

2. What Does It Mean To Provide Substantial Support? Even among


courts that agree that support is a valid independent category for detention,
there is little consensus about the meaning of support or what
activities qualify as substantial support.227 The D.C. Circuit, while
affirming detention based on material support, noted that it was a
standard whose outer bounds are not readily identifiable.228 The
meaning of substantial support is particularly unclear .229 Absent a
congressional definition of the term (which is lacking in the NDAA), courts
are forced to evaluate substantial support on a case-by-case, ad
hoc basis.230 One judge noted that this is problematic because the
term is highly elastic and could potentially cover everything from
core membership and support to vague affiliation and cheerleading .231

Substantial is ambiguous
Horowitz, J.D. Candidate, 13
[Colby, Fordham Law Review, v. 81, CREATING A MORE MEANINGFUL
DETENTION STATUTE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM HEDGES V. OBAMA,
http://fordhamlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/Vol_81/Horowitz_April.pdf, p. 2887-9,
accessed 7-23-13]

B. Should Section 1021(b)(2) Be Voided for Vagueness?


Judge Forrest held that section 1021(b)(2) violated the Fifth Amendment
because it is vague,291 and thus fails to provide notice of what conduct may
subject an individual to detention.292 Throughout the opinion, Judge
Forrest criticized not only the statute itself but also the
governments litigation position because it was a moving target,293
and it failed to provide any specific definitions of contested terms

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like substantially supported and associated forces.294 The


government essentially conceded the vagueness of these terms,295
and Judge Forrest stated that they had not been adequately defined by
previous case law.296
The government argued in Hedgesand continues to argue on appeal that
force authorizations and military statutes, like the AUMF and section 1021,
should not be subject to vagueness review by the courts.297 This is
because, as the Supreme Court has explained, Congressin giving the
Executive authority over matters of foreign affairsmust of necessity paint
with a brush broader than that it customarily wields in domestic areas.298
Additionally, the government stated that the terms in section 1021
should not have fixed and rigid definitions, but should be evaluated
on a case-bycase basis.299 Judge Forrest rejected this argument and
equated section 1021 with a criminal statute because it permits an
individual to be indefinitely imprisoned.300 The problem was further
compounded, as Judge Forrest noted, by the lack of a scienter element in the
statute, meaning that an individual could be detained without any knowing
conduct.301
Some scholars and commentators agree with Judge Forrest that the
terms used in section 1021(b)(2) are impermissibly vague.302 They
believe that terms like substantial support and associated forces
are ambiguous at best303 and, at worst, allow for the possibility of
abuse or manipulation.304 The government has argued, however, that
congressional statutes relating to national security must be vague, and that
it is the responsibility of the President as Commander-in-Chief (and not the
courts) to interpret and execute them.305 Below, the terms substantial
support and associated forces are analyzed in the context of Hedges, the
definitions provided by the government on appeal, and similar statutes.
In Hedges, the government failed to define substantial support or
to provide any examples demonstrating what the term means.306
The government also failed to provide a definition of the term when pressed
by the D.C. District Court three years earlier.307 The plaintiffs in Hedges
argue that the addition of the term substantial support in section
1021(b)(2) is a clear attempt to extend detention authority beyond
the AUMF and to make it easier for the government to justify
questionable detentions.308

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Reject substantial because it doesnt provide interpretive


value
Horowitz, J.D. Candidate, 13
[Colby, Fordham Law Review, v. 81, CREATING A MORE MEANINGFUL
DETENTION STATUTE: LESSONS LEARNED FROM HEDGES V. OBAMA,
http://fordhamlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/Vol_81/Horowitz_April.pdf, p. 2897,
accessed 7-23-13]

2. Abandoning Substantial Support


The term substantial support should be removed from any future
detention statute because it is confusing and unnecessary . The
government has consistently failed to provide a definition of
substantial in court.372 Even on appeal to the Second Circuit in
Hedges, the governments new definition of substantial is vague and
barely applicable to unconventional conflicts.373 Thus, the term
substantial support adds little interpretive value.

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Increase

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Violations

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1NC Net Increase


A. Interpretation the aff must net engagement
Rogers, New York state judge, 5
(Judge, State of New York, et al, Petitioners v. US EPA, respondent, nsr
manufacturers roundtable, et al, intervenors, 2005 U.S. App. LEXIS 12378, **;
60 ERC (BNA) 1791, Lexis)

According to government petitioners, the lack of a statutory definition


does not render the term "increases" ambiguous, but merely
compels the court to give the term its "ordinary meaning." See
Engine Mfrs.Ass'nv.S.Coast AirQualityMgmt.Dist., 541 U.S. 246, 124 S. Ct.
1756, 1761, 158 L. Ed. 2d 529(2004); Bluewater Network, 370 F.3d at 13;
Am. Fed'n of Gov't Employees v. Glickman, 342 U.S. App. D.C. 7, 215 F.3d 7,
10 [*23] (D.C. Cir. 2000). Relying on two "real world" analogies,
government petitioners contend that the ordinary meaning of
"increases" requires the baseline to be calculated from a period
immediately preceding the change. They maintain, for example, that in
determining whether a high-pressure weather system "increases" the local
temperature, the relevant baseline is the temperature immediately
preceding the arrival of the weather system, not the temperature five or ten
years ago. Similarly, [**49] in determining whether a new engine
"increases" the value of a car, the relevant baseline is the value of the car
immediately preceding the replacement of the engine, not the value of the
car five or ten years ago when the engine was in perfect condition.

B. Violation the aff is not a net increase in engagement with


China because
C. Reasons to vote neg
1. Ground theres no stable ground, they can just spike out of
all of our DAs by offsetting their increase with a decrease in
engagement elsewhere.

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2. Bidirectionality allowing for decreases in other areas


makes the topic bidirectional overstretching the neg burden
and diluting the resolution, gutting all predictable limits and
education. the infinite number of those affs doesnt allow the
neg to research and prepare to rigorously debate the merits of
the aff or the resolution
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate

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Increase

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Make Greater
Increase is to make greater.
Random House Dictionary, 11
[Increase http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/increase, accessed 6-611, TP]

increase [v. in-krees; n. in-krees] Show IPA verb, -creased,


-creasing, noun verb (used with object) 1. to make greater, as in
number, size, strength, or quality; augment; add to: to increase taxes.

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Greater in Size, Number, Strength, Quality


Increase is to become greater in size or intensity
Merriam-Webster Dictionary
[Merriam Webster, Increase, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/increase, accessed 7-2-16, ZT]

Increased, increasing
intransitive verb
1: to become progressively greater (as in size , amount, number, or intensity)
The house increased in value.
She increased her wealth substantially.

Increase is to make greater in number, size, strength, or


quality.
Dictionary.com
[Increase, Dictionary.com, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/increase?s=t,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

verb (used with object), increased, increasing.


1. to make greater, as in number, size, strength, or quality;
augment; add to:
to increase taxes.
verb (used without object), increased, increasing.
2. to become greater, as in number, size, strength, or quality:
Sales of automobiles increased last year.
3. to multiply by propagation.
4. to wax, as the moon.

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Increase is to make greater in size, amount, intensity, or


degree
OxfordDictionary.com
[Increase, OxfordDictionary.com,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/increase,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

increase
VERB
Pronunciation: /inkrs/
Become or make greater in size, amount, intensity, or degree:
[NO OBJECT]: car use is increasing at an alarming rate
[WITH OBJECT]: we are aiming to increase awareness of social issues
(as adjective increasing) the increasing numbers of students

Increase is in amount, size, value


Cambridge Business English Dictionary
[Increase, Cambridge Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/increase#translations,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

increase
verb [I or T] UK

/nkris/ US

to become larger in amount or size, or to make something do this:


increase by sth Sales have increased by 10%.
increase to sth Our gross margin increased to 24%.
increase in price/size/value Over the past two years the department
has increased in size.
the number/rate/level increases Staffing numbers increase during the
summer months.

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increase gradually/slowly/steadily Bookings are increasing steadily.


Interest rates have increased slightly.
increase dramatically/rapidly/significantly The volume of work has increased
dramatically.
increase efficiency/production/productivity The new measures are intended
to increase efficiency.
to increase costs/prices/sales
This process greatly increases manufacturing speeds.

Increase is gaining; a change based on increase; the process of


becoming important; the amount and the act
WordNet 3.1, 15
[Increase, WordNet 3.1, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=increase&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&o9
=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=, accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

S: (n) addition, increase, gain (a quantity that is added) " there was an addition
to property taxes this year"; "they recorded the cattle's gain in weight over a
period of weeks"
S: (n) increase (a change resulting in an increase) "the increase is
scheduled for next month"
S: (n) increase, increment, growth (a process of becoming larger or
longer or more numerous or more important) "the increase in
unemployment"; "the growth of population"
S: (n) increase, increment (the amount by which something increases) "they
proposed an increase of 15 percent in the fare"
S: (n) increase, step-up (the act of increasing something) "he gave me
an increase in salary"

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Net Increase
Increase means net increase
Words and Phrases, 5
(Cumulative Supplementary Pamphlet, v. 20a, p. 295)

Cal.App.2 Dist. 1991. Term increase, as used in statute giving the


Energy Commission modification jurisdiction over any alteration,
replacement, or improvement of equipment that results in increase of 50
megawatts or more in electric generating capacity of existing thermal power
plant, refers to net increase in power plants total generating capacity; in
deciding whether there has been the requisite 50-megawatt increase as a
result of new units being incorporated into a plant, Energy Commission
cannot ignore decreases in capacity caused by retirement or
deactivation of other units at plant. Wests Ann.Cal.Pub.Res.Code
25123.

Increase requires evidence of the prior condition


Ripple, Seventh Circuit United States Appeals Court senior
circuit judge, 7-21-87
[Kenneth F., 7-21-87, OpenJurist, Emmlee K. Cameron, Plaintiff-Appellant, v.
Frances Slocum Bank & Trust Company, State Automobile Insurance
Association, and Glassley Agency of Whitley, Indiana, Defendants-Appellees,
Lexis]

Also related to the waiver issue is appellees' defense relying on a provision of


the insurance policy that suspends coverage where the risk is increased by
any means within the knowledge or control of the insured. However, the
term "increase" connotes change. To show change, appellees would
have been required to present evidence of the condition of the
building at the time the policy was issued. See 5 J. Appleman & J.
Appleman, Insurance Law and Practice, 2941 at 4-5 (1970). Because no
such evidence was presented, this court cannot determine, on this
record, whether the risk has, in fact, been increased. Indeed, the
answer to this question may depend on Mr. Glassley's knowledge of the
condition of the building at the time the policy was issued, see 17 J.
Appleman & J. Appleman, Insurance Law and Practice, 9602 at 515-16

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(1981), since the fundamental issue is whether the appellees contemplated


insuring the risk which incurred the loss.

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Greater in Frequency
Increase can be an expansion or growth in size, degree, and
frequency
Collins English Dictionary 12
[Increase, Dictionary.com, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/increase?s=t,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

increase
verb (nkris)
1.
to make or become greater in size, degree, frequency, etc; grow or expand

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Progressive
An increase is progressive
Merriam Webster Dictionary
[Increase, MerriamWebsterDictionary.com, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/increase, accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

Full Definition of increase


increased increasing
intransitive verb
1
: to become progressively greater (as in size, amount, number, or intensity)
2
: to multiply by the production of young
transitive verb
1
: to make greater : augment
2
obsolete : enrich
increasable play \-kr-s-bl, -kr-\ adjective
increaser noun
See increase defined for English-language learners
See increase defined for kids
Examples of increase in a sentence
The house increased in value.
She increased her wealth substantially

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Must Be Preexisting
Increase requires pre-existence
Brown, Oregon District Court US Federal Judge, 3
[Anna J., 7-17-03, CourtListener, Elena Mark and Paul Gustafson, Plaintiffs, v.
Valley Insurance Company and Valley Property and Casualty, Defendants,
Lexis]

FCRA does not define the term "increase." The plain and ordinary
meaning of the verb "to increase" is to make something greater or
larger. 4 Merriam-Webster's [**22] Collegiate Dictionary 589 (10th ed.
1998). The "something" that is increased in the statute is the "charge for any
insurance." The plain and common meaning of the noun "charge" is "the
price demanded for something." Id. at 192. Thus, the statute plainly means
an insurer takes adverse action if the insurer makes greater (i.e., larger) the
price demanded for insurance.
An insurer cannot "make greater" something that did not exist
previously. The statutory definition of adverse action, therefore,
clearly anticipates an insurer must have made an initial charge or
demand for payment before the insurer can increase that charge. In
other words, an insurer cannot increase the charge for insurance unless the
insurer previously set and demanded payment of the premium for that
insured's insurance [**23] coverage at a lower price.

Increase requires making an already existing thing greater


Buckley et al, BuckleySandler LLP founding partner, 6
[Jeremiah S., 11-13-06, Amicus Curiae Brief, Safeco Ins. Co. of America et
al., petitioners, v. Charles Burr, et al., respondents., p. 25-26,
http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/06-84/0684.mer.ami.mica.pdf]

First, the court said that the ordinary meaning of the word increase is to
make something greater, which it believed should not be limited to cases
in which a company raises the rate that an individual has previously been
charged. 435 F.3d at 1091. Yet the definition offered by the Ninth Circuit
compels the opposite conclusion. Because increase means to make
something greater, there must necessarily have been an existing

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premium, to which Edos actual premium may be compared, to determine


whether an increase occurred. Congress could have provided that
ad-verse action in the insurance context means charging an amount
greater than the optimal premium, but instead chose to define adverse
action in terms of an increase. That def-initional choice must be respected,
not ignored. See Colautti v. Franklin, 439 U.S. 379, 392-93 n.10 (1979) ([a]
defin-ition which declares what a term means . . . excludes any meaning
that is not stated).
Next, the Ninth Circuit reasoned that because the Insurance Prong includes
the words existing or applied for, Congress intended that an increase in
any charge for insurance must apply to all insurance transactions from an
initial policy of insurance to a renewal of a long-held policy. 435 F.3d at
1091. This interpretation reads the words exist-ing or applied for in
isolation. Other types of adverse action described in the Insurance Prong
apply only to situations where a consumer had an existing policy of
insurance, such as a cancellation, reduction, or change in insurance.
Each of these forms of adverse action presupposes an already-existing
policy, and under usual canons of statutory construction the term
increase also should be construed to apply to increases of an
already-existing policy. See Hibbs v. Winn, 542 U.S. 88, 101 (2004) (a
phrase gathers meaning from the words around it) (citation omitted).

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Includes Create
Increase doesnt require pre-existence
Reinhardt, Ninth Circuit United States Appeals Court Judge, 5
[Stephen R., 8-4-05, FindLaw, Jason Ray REYNOLDS; Matthew Rausch,
Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. HARTFORD FINANCIAL SERVICES GROUP, INC.;
Hartford Fire Insurance Company, Defendants-Appellees., Lexis]

Specifically, we must decide whether charging a higher price for initial


insurance than the insured would otherwise have been charged because of
information in a consumer credit report constitutes an "increase in any
charge" within the meaning of FCRA. First, we examine the definitions of
"increase" and "charge." Hartford Fire contends that, limited to their ordinary
definitions, these words apply only when a consumer has previously been
charged for insurance and that charge has thereafter been increased by the
insurer. The phrase, "has previously been charged," as used by Hartford,
refers not only to a rate that the consumer has previously paid for insurance
but also to a rate that the consumer has previously been quoted, even if that
rate was increased [**23] before the consumer made any payment.
Reynolds disagrees, asserting that, under [*1091] the ordinary
definition of the term, an increase in a charge also occurs whenever
an insurer charges a higher rate than it would otherwise have
charged because of any factor--such as adverse credit information, age,
or driving record 8 --regardless of whether the customer was
previously charged some other rate. According to Reynolds, he was
charged an increased rate because of his credit rating when he was
compelled to pay a rate higher than the premium rate because he failed to
obtain a high insurance score. Thus, he argues, the definitions of "increase"
and "charge" encompass the insurance companies' practice. Reynolds is
correct.
Increase" means to make something greater. See, e.g., OXFORD
ENGLISH DICTIONARY (2d ed. 1989) ("The action, process, or fact of
becoming or making greater; augmentation, growth, enlargement,
extension."); WEBSTER'S NEW WORLD DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH
(3d college ed. 1988) (defining "increase" as "growth, enlargement, etc[.]").
"Charge" means the price demanded for goods or services. See, e.g.,
OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY (2d ed. 1989) ("The price required or
demanded for service rendered, or (less usually) for goods supplied.");
WEBSTER'S NEW WORLD DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH (3d college ed.

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1988) ("The cost or price of an article, service, etc."). Nothing in the


definition of these words implies that the term "increase in any
charge for" should be limited to cases in which a company raises the
rate that an individual has previously been charged.

One can increase from zero


WORDS AND PHRASES, 7
(CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, 2007 Vol. 20A, 07, 76.

Increase: Salary change of from zero to $12,000 and $1,200 annually


for mayor and councilmen respectively was an increase in salary
and not merely the fixing of salary. King v. Herron, 243 S.E.2d36, 241
Ga. 5.

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Not Extend
Increase means to make greater excludes extending duration
Martinez, Justice for the Supreme Court of Colorado, 6
(SUPREME COURT OF COLORADO, 129 P.3d 988; 2006 Colo. LEXIS 395,
Plaintiff-Appellee: DOUGLAS BRUCE, v. Defendants-Appellants: CITY OF
COLORADO SPRINGS and KATHRYN YOUNG, City Clerk, in her official capacity
as election officer for the city, 2/27, lexis)

Turning, then, to the language of section (3), itself, we assess the plain
meaning of "tax increase" as it appears in that section.
[*995] In examining "tax increase" as it appears in Amendment 1, we look to
the intent of the voter as it is an initiated constitutional provision. See In re
Interrogatories Relating to the Great Outdoors Colo. Trust Fund, 913 P.2d 533,
538 (Colo. 1996) ("[A] court's duty in interpreting a constitutional
amendment is to give effect to the will of the people in adopting such
amendment."). We also consider how the typical voter would interpret "tax
increase," because our concern here is how the form of the election notice
affects a voter's understanding of a proposed measure. Accordingly, we
consider whether the practical, everyday meaning of "increase" is
synonymous with "extension." A tax "extension" suggests the
continuation of a tax, whereas a tax "increase" suggests a greater
amount will be taxed. Accordingly, a proposal to "extend" a tax implies
that neither the amount nor rate of the tax will change from its
current rate. Likewise, a tax "increase" indicates that the [**22] tax
burden borne by an individual taxpayer will be greater than its
present amount. The former indicates a continuation of the status
quo, whereas the latter suggests a change that will impose a
greater cost on the taxpayer.

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Impact Statutory Canons


Accurate application of statutory canons is the biggest impact
--- its the only way to determine the purpose and intent of
writing
Sentell Jr., University of Georgia Marion and W. Colquitt Carter
Chair in Tort and Insurance Law Emeritus, 1-1-91
[R. Perry, 1-1-91, Georgia Law Review, The Canons of Construction in
Georgia: "Anachronisms" in Action, Vol. 25, No. 2, p. 433-434, Lexis]

CONCLUSION
Because the consideration of written communication is the cornerstone of
the judicial process, the technique involved in that consideration has
intrigued the ages. That technique, judicial interpretation, [*434]
attempts a highly delicate balance. On the one hand, it acknowledges the
legendary imprecision of language. On the other hand, it seeks to
glean from that language the elusive signals of purpose, meaning
and intent. A "science" so inexact incessantly craves a semblance of
constants -- conventions assisting to impose order upon
understanding.
Roman law, and subsequently the English common-law system, sought to
appease this insatiable desire by offering up the canons of construction. The
canons, fundamental maxims of compositional meaning , have proved both
vulnerable and venerable. Their existence has provided an irresistible
historic target for a labyrinth of denigrating commentary. Yet the courts, the
construers themselves, have claimed the canons as their own, affording
them a determinative role in judicial decisionmaking which transverses the
spectrum of litigation. Accordingly, the critics are left with little choice
but to concede the canons' existence and shaping influence, while
pleading for caution in their invocation.
From the canonical mass, the most popular and powerful maxims of meaning
are perhaps the three here selected for treatment: Noscitur a sociis, Ejusdem
generis and Expressio unius est exclusio alterius. Although different, the
three precepts are also similar -- they counsel an analysis of associating what
is present with what is to be determined. The writer, they presume, meant
something by what he expressed; that expression, or at least a portion
of it, they insist, offers the best hope for resolving the ambiguity at hand.
As they occasionally broaden, frequently constrict and sometimes exclude,

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the maxims operate to propel the interpreter toward an intent, meaning or


purpose that will decide the controversy.

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Its

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Violations

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1NC Its Engagement with the PRC


A. Interpretation
1. Its means belonging to the thing previously identified
i.e. the US Federal Government
Oxford Dictionary
[its, Oxford Dictionary,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/its,
accessed 8-15-15]

its
Syllabification: its
Pronunciation: /its/
Definition of its in English:
possessive determiner
1 Belonging to or associated with a thing previously mentioned or
easily identified:
turn the camera on its side
he chose the area for its atmosphere

2. The is a determiner in the resolution is designates China


as the partner in engagement
Kosur, Language Learning Channel contributing editor & Illinois
State University Milner Library conservation technician, 9
(Heather Marie, 6-16-9, The Forms and Function of Determiners in English,
http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/36828.aspx,
accessed 9-7-9)

Definite and Indefinite Articles


The first grammatical form of the determiner in English is the
article. Articles indicate definiteness or indefiniteness of a noun.

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The definite article in English is the. The indefinite articles in English are
a and an. Both singular and plural nouns can take the definite article.
Only singular nouns can take the indefinite article. The following
italicized determiners are examples of articles:
* The baby drank a bottle of milk.
* An apron is often worn by bakers.
* The shih tzu is a popular dog breed.
Articles are sometimes referred to simply as determiners.

B. Violation The plan is not increasing engagement belonging


to the United States with the PRC the plan attempts to
increase engagement that is not belonging to the US and
with other countries.
1. The multilateral agreement is not solely in US control [insert
card]
2. Multilateral engagement involves different participants
Multilateral and bilateral engagement are distinct it changes
who we engage with
Milner, Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School Niehaus Center for
Globalization and Governance director and Politics and
International Affairs Chair, & Tingley, Harvard Kennedy School
of Government professor, 11
[Helen V. & Dustin, January, The Choice for Multilateralism: Foreign Aid and
American Foreign Policy, http://wp.peio.me/wpcontent/uploads/2014/04/Conf4_Milner-Tingley-17.01.2011.pdf, p. 2,
accessed 7-10-16]

In pursuing their foreign policies, countries may choose to engage


bilaterally or multilaterally. Bilateralism often refers to a set of
policies that are not coordinated with other countries and/or that
engage with one other country alone.2
Multilateralism implies adopting a coordinated approach among
three or more states. In much of the postWorld War II period, the US has

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pursued a policy of international engagement through multilateralism


(Kupchan and Trubowitz, 2007, pg. 158). We seek to understand the sources
of the publics support and opposition to multilateral engagement in the US.
We focus on the choice between bilateral foreign aid, which a donor country
gives directly to a recipient, and multilateral foreign aid, which a donor
country gives to a multilateral institution, such as the World Bank, which
pools funds from many countries and allocates aid to recipients.

C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Limits The affirmative interpretation legitimizes an infinite
number of multilateral engagement opportunities which
blows the lid off of the topic by letting any conference of the
week or deal of the weak be topical, making it impossible for
the neg to adequately prepare case strategies or win DA links.
2. Ground The heart of US engagement with China is bilateral
which means we should be able to say bilateral
bad/multilateral good. And, there plenty of options for affs
without adding multilateral permutations
Eisenman, University of Texas Lyndon Baines Johnson School of
Public Affairs professor & American Foreign Policy Council
China studies senior fellow, 16
[Joshua, 1-21-16, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs,
Rethinking U.S. Strategy Towards China,
http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/756,
accessed 7-10-16]

From Nixon to Obama: Four Decades of U.S. Engagement with China


How can the U.S. improve its policy towards China to avoid, and yet be
prepared for, conflict? Since the Nixon Administration, the U.S.
strategy towards China has been predicated on the assumption that
if the bilateral relationship is properly managed conflict can be avoided.
Many contend that through engagement the U.S. can shape China's
choices in ways that reduce the chances the U.S. and China will
come into conflict.
Whether a conflict occurs, the argument goes, depends on whether China is
dissatisfied with the prevailing international order, because as James

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Steinberg and Michael O'Hanlon have written: "only if it believes that it is


disadvantaged will China necessarily choose to use its newfound power to
create a world more to its own liking in potentially disruptive ways.1 Jeffery
Bader, who served as a top White House official in the first Obama
administration, agrees that China could play a more constructive
role than it would by sitting outside of that system.2 So the prevailing
wisdom holds and the thinking behind engagement goes, if China
participates extensively in the international system, then it will help create a
system it likes and not become revisionist.
According to Evan Medeiros, who stepped down in June 2015 after
six years as a top White House official on China, the U.S. and China
"agreed that we would develop our relationship defined by
cooperation on regional and global challenges while affectively managing
our differences.3 Medeiros explained in an interview with China's
official CCTV how this policy sought to avoid what IR theorists call
the Thucydides Trap:
Beginning when President Obama met President Xi for the first time
formally at Sunnylands... we agreed that we did not believe conflict
was inevitable between China and the United States, a rising power
and an established power, and we agreed that we would work to
make sure that rivalry didn't become inevitable. So that's the basic
framework for our relationship, and we think we've succeeded in
accomplishing that in recent years.4
To help make Beijing more cooperative, Washington can shape its
choices, according to Bader:
Underlying our approach was a clear understanding that our
political, security, and economic policies in Asia needed to be
grounded in traditional state-to-state relations and a commitment to shaping
the choices of emerging powers like China through our diplomacy
and deployments.5
But how to shape China's choices? To establish "a modicum of trust
between U.S. and Chinese leaders so that there could be political
incentives for cooperation," Bader recalls that Obama's Asia team built
a China strategy based on "three pillars," which can be considered the
pillars of engagement:6
(1) a welcoming approach to China's emergence, influence, and
legitimate expanded role;
(2) resolve to see that its rise is consistent with international norms
and law;

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(3) endeavor to shape the Asia-Pacific environment to ensure China's


rise is stabilizing rather than disruptive.7
The goal, according to Steinberg and O'Hanlon, is to shape "China's
interpretation of U.S. strategy" and its "leaders' assessments of U.S.
intentions." They argue that: "Washington can craft its own policies in
ways that will call forth reciprocal, positive Chinese actions.8
Chinese assessments range from one extreme that the United States is
determined to maintain its hegemonic position and resist China's rise. At the
other, they accept the argument that the United States is prepared to 'share
power.'"9 The chances to avoid hostilities can be improved if "U.S.
policymakers can reinforce the domestic political forces in China that are
likely to support constructive Chinese strategies." By empowering Chinese
moderates U.S. policymakers will reduce the possibility that more hawkish
leaders will push China toward aggression. Thus, by reiterating the U.S.'
willingness to share power with China Washington can reduce the chances of
conflict with Beijing.
In practice, this engagement-based China strategy means that
scores (if not hundreds) of U.S. policymakers in numerous
government agencies correspond regularly with their Chinese
counterparts across a wide breadth of issues. In September 2014,
President Xi Jinping said there were over 90 official mechanisms for U.S.China exchange.10

3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous


debate

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Its

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Possessive
Its means possessive
Macmillan Dictionary
[its, Macmillan Dictionary,
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/its, accessed 815-15]

Its is the possessive form of it.

1 belonging or relating to a thing, idea, place, animal, etc. when it


has already been mentioned or when it is obvious which one you are
referring to
The chair lay on its side.
We were eager to see Las Vegas and all its many attractions.
The bull had a ring through its nose.
Synonyms and related words
Determiners: a, an, certain...
Explore Thesaurus

Its means possessive


Random House Dictionary, 15
[its, Dictionary.com, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/its?s=t,
accessed 8-15-15]
its
[its]
Spell Syllables
Word Origin
pronoun
1.

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the possessive form of it


1.(used as an attributive adjective):
The book has lost its jacket. I'm sorry about its being so late.

Its means possessive


American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 11
[its, Free Dictionary, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/its, accessed 8-1515]

its
Also found in: Medical, Financial, Acronyms, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
its (ts)
adj. The possessive form of it.
Used as a modifier before a noun: The airline canceled its early
flight to New York.

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Belonging To
Its means belonging to a thing previously identified
Oxford Dictionary
[its, Oxford Dictionary,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/its,
accessed 8-15-15]

its
Syllabification: its
Pronunciation: /its/
Definition of its in English:
possessive determiner
1 Belonging to or associated with a thing previously mentioned or
easily identified:
turn the camera on its side
he chose the area for its atmosphere

Its means belonging to a certain thing


Merriam-Webster
[its, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/inter?
dest=/dictionary/its, accessed 8-15-15]

its
adjective \its, ts\
: relating to or belonging to a certain thing, animal, etc. : made or
done by a certain thing, animal, etc.
Full Definition of ITS

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: of or relating to it or itself especially as possessor, agent, or


object of an action <going to its kennel> <a child proud of its first
drawings> <its final enactment into law>

Its means belonging to thing mentioned


Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[its, Cambridge Dictionaries Online,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/its, accessed 8-15-15]

its
pronoun US

/ts, ts/

belonging to or connected with the thing or animal mentioned; the


possessive form of it, used before a noun:
The horse flicked its tail at the flies.
The movie has its flaws, but it is interesting nevertheless.

Its means belonging to


Collins English Dictionary, 3
[its, Free Dictionary, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/its, accessed 8-1515]

its (ts)
determiner
1.
a. of, belonging to, or associated in some way with it: its left rear
wheel.
b. (as pronoun): each town claims its is the best.
Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged HarperCollins
Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003
its (ts)

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pron.
the possessive form of it (used as an attributive adjective): The book has lost
its jacket. I'm sorry about its being so late.
[15901600; earlier it's= it + 's1]
usage: See me.
it's (ts)
1. contraction of it is: It's starting to rain.
2. contraction of it has: It's been a long time.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, 2010 K
Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All
rights reserved.
TranslationsSpanish / EspaolSelect a language:
its [ts]
A. POSS ADJ (with singular noun) su; (with plural noun) sus
everything in its place cada cosa en su sitio
it has its advantages tiene sus ventajas
the dog is losing its hair el perro est perdiendo el pelo
the bird was in its cage el pjaro estaba en su jaula
B. POSS PRON (el/la)suyo/a, (los/las)suyos/as
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005
William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 HarperCollins Publishers 1992,
1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005
its
su
Multilingual Translator HarperCollins Publishers 2009
It isn't holding its charge (US)
It's not holding its charge (UK)
No conserva la carga
Collins Multilingual Translator HarperCollins Publishers 2009

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Bilateral Engagement Distinct from Multilateral


Bilateral and multilateral engagement are distinct i.e. who
we engage with and how much we control differ
Milner, Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School Niehaus Center for
Globalization and Governance director and Politics and
International Affairs Chair, & Tingley, Harvard Kennedy School
of Government professor, 11
[Helen V. & Dustin, January, The Choice for Multilateralism: Foreign Aid and
American Foreign Policy, http://wp.peio.me/wpcontent/uploads/2014/04/Conf4_Milner-Tingley-17.01.2011.pdf, p. 6,
accessed 7-10-16]

Finally, once states make a choice among foreign policy instruments,


they then face the issue of whether to use those tools bilaterally or
to coordinate their action with that of other states, i.e., to act
multilaterally. Bilateralism often refers to set of policies that are not
coordinated with other countries and/or that engage with another
country singly.
Multilateralism, by contrast, involves both the coordination of policy
among three or more states, and coordination around a series of
generalized principles of conduct. As Ruggie maintains, multilateralism
involves principles which specify appropriate conduct for a class of
actions without regard to the particularistic interests of the parties
or the strategic exigencies that may exist in any specific
occurrence (1993, pg. 11)

Bilateral and multilateral are distinct in control multilateral


involves delegation to an intermediary
Milner, Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School Niehaus Center for
Globalization and Governance director and Politics and
International Affairs Chair, & Tingley, Harvard Kennedy School
of Government professor, 11
[Helen V. & Dustin, January, The Choice for Multilateralism: Foreign Aid and
American Foreign Policy, http://wp.peio.me/wpcontent/uploads/2014/04/Conf4_Milner-Tingley-17.01.2011.pdf, p. 6-9,
accessed 7-10-16]

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In principal-agent (PA) models, governments are principals who


have a choice of whether to delegate policy-making to agents,
namely international institutions (Hawkins et al., 2006; Nielson and
Tierney, 2003; Tierney, 2006). Multilateralism is associated with the
choice to delegate to an international institution and hence PA models
seem well suited to explain the choice for multilateralism. Principals have an
incentive to delegate because they do not have the knowledge, ability, or
desire to make certain decisions as well as the agent can. For delegation to
occur, the principals must enjoy some gain from reducing transaction costs
or improving their ability to resolve collective action problems.
Delegation, however, raises the issue of control since the principal
cannot observe or direct all actions the agent takes, and hence the
agent may make decisions that the principal might not desire. If
there is any divergence in preferences between the principal and
the agent, then this imperfect observation creates the possibility
that the agent does not promote the preferences of the principal.
This difference between the agents and the principals preferences that can
lead to undesired outcomes by the principal when monitoring is imperfect is
often termed agency slack. This situation creates a dilemma for the principal
and agent. The principal in order to minimize agency slack must either
appoint agents whose preferences are identical to his own, or find ways to
write a contract that motivates yet constrains the agent. The principal tries
to minimize his loss of control, while maximizing the contributions of the
agent. But the greater the constraints on the agent, the less the agent is
likely to invest in performing his duties well. This dilemma animates the
dynamics of support for and opposition to multilateralism. When there are
multiple principals delegating to a single agent, as is the case for
multilateralism in foreign policy, then it is almost certain that at
some point, the agent will make a decision that is not preferred by
one or more of the principals because the principals usually do not
have identical preferences.
The key tradeoff then involves the gain created by using the agent
and pooling resources versus the loss of control for the principal. A
crucial gain from delegation is burden sharing, but this of course involves
multiple principals (i.e., other countries) with their own preferences. Why is
burden sharing so important? If states are making decisions about the
provision of global public goods, there is a likelihood of under-provision as
each one tries to free ride on the efforts of others. Multilateral security
organizations, like NATO, and economic aid organizations, like the EU and

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World Bank, help countries to overcome such collective action problems and
provide greater amounts of public goods for more countries generally.5

Bilateral and multilateral differ in ownership of the policy


Milner, Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School Niehaus Center for
Globalization and Governance director and Politics and
International Affairs Chair, & Tingley, Harvard Kennedy School
of Government professor, 11
[Helen V. & Dustin, January, The Choice for Multilateralism: Foreign Aid and
American Foreign Policy, http://wp.peio.me/wpcontent/uploads/2014/04/Conf4_Milner-Tingley-17.01.2011.pdf, p. 10-12,
accessed 7-10-16]

PA theory makes clear the connection between the benefits from


burden sharing and the costs of such delegation, which involves a
loss of control. In aid policy, once the US delegates aid to the World
Bank, it loses some (of course, not all) amount of control over who
gets the aid, what projects are funded, and what conditions are
imposed on recipients. Indeed, control over multilateral aid
agencies has often been a concern for American policymakers. While
proponents of multilaterals highlight the benefits of burden sharing,
opponents respond with arguments that the US should retain
control over its aid dollars (Rubin, 1999). These concerns have echoed
across several decades. In 1972, a subcommittee of the House
Appropriations committee issued this missive to President Nixon: The
committee is deeply concerned over the trend to direct an increasing amount
of US foreign assistance through the multilateral institutions while at the
same time decreasing the bilateral aid program...The same degree of
detailed examination which is possible in the bilateral foreign
assistance programs is impossible in the multilateral assistance
programs. The Congress does not know when, where, or how the
budget requests will be disbursed by these multilateral
organizations because they do not justify their requests by specific
project" (House, 1972, pg. 33). A House minority report several years later
echoed similar concerns (Gwin, 1994; House, 1977, pg. 72-73). In the
1980s, some members of Congress were infuriated that loans from
the World Bank were flowing to China, and in the early 1990s they
objected to funds flowing to Iran. Between 1993 and 2000 the US was able to
convince other G-7 members of the Bank to vote against loans to Iran, but in

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2000 this coalition against Iran dissolved, leading to a flurry of Congressional


action and complaints about World Bank aid to Iran (Kirk, 2007; Sanford,
2008). Members of Congress have gone so far as to create a World
Bank Caucus, designed in part to extend greater oversight and
control over it (Wroughton, 2008). This suggests the important role
that control plays in the politics of multilateral aid.
Debate, however, continues about how autonomous international institutions
are from powerful countries and hence whether principal-agent models make
sense in international politics. Some scholars have argued that
multilateral institutions like the World Bank and IMF are largely
controlled by powerful states (Stone, 2002). Even if true, there are two
reasons why this position does not undermine our argument. First, a
number of scholars, including Stone, agree that these institutions
still have substantial leeway (Boas and McNeil, 2003, pg. 92). Most
analysts, such as Hawkins et al. (2006), Gutner (2005), Gutner and
Thompson (2010) and Boas and McNeil (pg. 23), view extreme claims
that multilaterals are either entirely controlled or entirely
uncontrolled by states as inaccurate. If international institutions are not
perfectly controlled by the largest power(s) in them, then this margin of
autonomy makes the principal-agent framework useful. The possibility of
agency slack creates a dilemma for both principals and agents. As the
institutions autonomy grows or as the preferences of other contributing
states diverge (Nielson and Tierney, 2003), the principals concerns over the
loss of control should grow as well. Second, political actors in the US
believe that such multilateral institutions take control of policy
away from national actors. Concerns over the loss of control through
multilateral aid giving have frequently been voiced in Congress, as
shown above. Whether true or not, the World Bank is believed to
usurp American control over aid policy, and this belief animates
domestic politics.
Principal-agent models thus identify the tradeoff between loss of
control and gains from burden sharing as the main dynamic that
influences the decision for or against multilateralism. By
participating, each donor country loses some ability to direct aid to
the exact recipient countries and projects it favors. But it gains from
the international institutions ability to overcome collective action problems
and induce a higher level of public goods provision through burden sharing
(Knack and Rahman, 2008). This process relieves some of the problems
associated with bilateral aid provision.

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[Note PA theory = In principal-agent (PA) models, governments are


principals who have a choice of whether to delegate policy-making to agents,
namely international institutions]

Multilateral policy reduces individual countrycontrol of policy


Braaten, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Political Science
lecturer, 12
[Daniel, 2-1-12, Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy in the Multilateral
Development Banks, http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?
article=1012&context=poliscitheses, p. 27-28, accessed 7-10-16]

In any study on multilateral institutions an important point to consider is


what benefits do states like the United States derive from multilateralism and
what effect do those benefits have on U.S. policy in multilateral institutions?
This is an important consideration since by definition operating through
any multilateral institutions requires states to give up some control
over policy. John Ruggie (1992: 568) defines multilateralism as,
coordinating relations among three or more states in accordance
with certain principles. These principles orientate particular
actions for participants that do not heed reference to the specific
needs of each individual participant. James Caporaso (1992: 602) claims
that multilateralism is differentiated from other forms of organization by
three factors, indivisibility, generalized principles of conduct, and diffuse
reciprocity. In other words, multilateralism is a form of organization that is
characterized by rules that proscribe state action for mutual long-term
benefit. Ruggie (1992) points out that the concept of most favored nation
is a particular example of multilateralism since under its rules it treats
countries that produce the same product the same. In addition, multilateral
institutions (such as the MDBs) are differentiated from international orders or
regimes because they have formal voting, or consensus, rules which embody
the principles of the institution (Ruggie 1992).

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TPP Not Its


TPP is not solely within US control
Romano, Americans for Limited Government senior editor, 16
[Robert, Net Right Daily, 5-16-16, Pacific Union threat to sovereignty in 12nation Trans Pacific Partnership trade deal,
http://netrightdaily.com/2016/05/pacific-union-threat-sovereignty-12-nationtrans-pacific-partnership-trade-deal/, accessed 7-10-16]

Article 27 of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade pact could


be the beginnings of a Pacific Union a governing body for
implementing the trade agreement styled after the European
Commission.
Entitled, Administrative and Institutional Provisions, it establishes the
Trans-Pacific Partnership Commission that will have the power to
promulgate rules pursuant to the agreement, implement those
rules, and interpret those rules.
That is, legislative, executive, and judicial powers all wrapped into one
unaccountable, multinational commission with no separation of powers
whatsoever.
Think thats insane?
The commission will be implementing the largest trade agreement
in world history regulating about 40 percent of the global economy.
When it comes to amending the agreement or allowing other
countries such as China to opt into the agreement, it is not very
clear whether that will require votes of Congress.
As noted by Americans for Limited Government President Rick
Manning in a statement last November, While the U.S. Trade
Representative provided a chapter summary on its final provisions
that it would take votes of Congress to amend the agreement and to
allow other countries to dock into the agreement, the text of the
agreement is not nearly so explicit, leaving significant concerns
about how the trade agreement will function and whether U.S.
representative democracy will be meaningful in its wake.

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Manning added, A chapter summary is not the agreement itself.


The danger of a runaway commission is too great for this to be
ignored.

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Economic Engagement

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Economic Engagement

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Long-Term
Economic engagement with Asia includes a breadth of
interaction
Rivkin, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business
Affairs, 15
[Charles H., May 14, 2015, US Department of State, Advancing U.S.
Economic Engagement in Asia,
http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/rm/2015/242411.htm, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

My testimony has only hinted at the breadth and complexity of our economic
engagement with the Asia -Pacific. It is as diverse and vibrant as the
region itself. Beyond the areas Ive discussed today we are engaged
on intellectual property rights, development finance, and sanctions,
to name but a few more issues. Through this all-encompassing web
of economic initiatives we and our regional partners are building a
stronger region that is even more vibrant and dynamic.

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Agriculture
Economic engagement includes investment in agriculture,
manufacturing, and service industries
Dr. Adelman, Center for Science in Public Policy Director, 5
[Carol C., Jeremiah Norris, Senior Fellow, Jean Weicher, Research Associate,
June 28, 2005, Americas Total Economic Engagement with the Developing
World: Rethinking the Uses and Nature of Foreign Aid,
http://www.issuelab.org/resources/19603/19603.pdf, accessed 7-3-16]

U.S. Private Capital Flows: This number includes foreign direct


investment and net capital markets in developing and emerging
economies, and is an important measure of U.S. total economic
engagement with developing nations. This category is most
indicative of the U.S. contribution to long-lasting economic growth
and prosperity in these countries. The number includes direct
investment by American companies in agriculture, manufacturing
and service industries that creates jobs and income for poor people.
It represents the involvement of U.S. companies and institutions in
foreign capital markets as well, investment that helps develop
permanent economic and social infrastructure in the developing world.

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Incentives
Economic engagement involves tangible incentives
Haass, Brookings Foreign Policy Studies director, 2000
[Richard N., Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign Policy, p.
5, Google Books]

Architects of engagement strategies can choose from a wide variety of


incentives. Economic engagement might offer tangible incentives
such as export credits, investment insurance or promotion, access
to technology, loans or economic aid. Other equally useful economic
incentives involve the removal of penalties such as trade
embargoes, investment bans or high tariffs, which have impeded
economic relations between the United States and the target
country.

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Trade & Foreign Aid


Economic engagement includes trade agreements and foreign
aid
Daga, Heritage Foundation visiting senior policy analyst &
Politicas Publicas para la Libertad (Bolivia) research director,
13
[Sergio, May 15, 2013, National Center for Policy Analysis, Debate
Backgrounder No. 7, Economics of the 2013-2014 Debate Topic: U.S.
Economic Engagement Toward Cuba, Mexico or Venezuela,"
http://www.ncpa.org/pdfs/Message_to_Debaters_6-7-13.pdf, p. 1, accessed:
7-5-2016, S.C.]

Economic engagement between or among countries can take many


forms, but this document will focus on government-to government
engagement through 1) international trade agreements designed to
lower barriers to trade; and 2) government foreign aid; next, we will
contrast government-to-government economic engagement with
private economic engagement through 3) international investment,
called foreign direct investment; and 4) remittances and migration
by individuals. All of these areas are important with respect to the
countries mentioned in the debate resolution; however, when discussing
economic engagement by the U.S. federal government, some issues
are more important with respect to some countries than to others.

Economic engagement includes development assistance


Dr. Adelman, Center for Science in Public Policy Director, 5
[Carol C., Jeremiah Norris, Senior Fellow, Jean Weicher, Research Associate,
June 28, 2005, Americas Total Economic Engagement with the Developing
World: Rethinking the Uses and Nature of Foreign Aid,
http://www.issuelab.org/resources/19603/19603.pdf, accessed 7-3-16]

Now that Official Development Assistance makes up a much smaller


part of the developing world economy and private flows of both
philanthropy and investment prevail, the way we measure and think
about foreign aid must change. In short, ODA is the handout of the last

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century. It is America's total economic engagement with the


developing world that creates prosperity.

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Trade & Financing


Sino-US economic engagement includes trade agreements,
support for firms and infrastructure support
GAO, government agency for auditing, evaluation, and
investigative services for the United States Congress, 15
[Government Accountability Office, August 2015, Report to Congressional
Requesters, SOUTHEAST ASIA: Trends in U.S. and Chinese Economic
Engagement, http://www.gao.gov/assets/680/671988.pdf, accessed July 2,
2016 //SL]

The United States and China are furthering economic engagement with
ASEAN countries in several ways.
Trade agreements . The United States has a free trade agreement (FTA) with
one ASEAN country, Singapore, while China has an FTA with all 10 ASEAN
countries. The United States and China are each party to separate
regional trade agreement negotiationsthe United States through the
Trans- Pacific Partnership and China through the Regional
Comprehensive Economic Partnership. Chinas existing FTAs do not
address aspects of trade addressed in the U.S.-Singapore FTA, such as
intellectual property, the environment, and labor rights.
Support for firms . From 2009 through 2014, U.S. agencies provided
approximately $6 billion in financing for U.S. firms in ASEAN
countries. China reports billions of dollars more in financing than the United
States worldwide, but data on Chinas financing in Southeast Asia are
unavailable.
Support for regional integration . In fiscal years 2009 through 2013, U.S.
agencies provided $536 million in trade capacity building assistance to
ASEAN countries. China has promised tens of billions of dollars for
infrastructure development through new funds and multilateral
institutions like the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, expected to
begin operations in 2015.

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Foreign Direct Investment


Economic engagement includes foreign direct investment
Daga, Heritage Foundation visiting senior policy analyst &
Politicas Publicas para la Libertad (Bolivia) research director,
13
[Sergio, May 15, 2013, National Center for Policy Analysis, Debate
Backgrounder No. 7, Economics of the 2013-2014 Debate Topic: U.S.
Economic Engagement Toward Cuba, Mexico or Venezuela,"
http://www.ncpa.org/pdfs/Message_to_Debaters_6-7-13.pdf, p. 6, accessed:
7-5-2016, S.C.]

Foreign Direct Investment


Another way countries engage economically is through the transfer
of wealth. Specifically, individuals and businesses in one country
may transfer wealth to another country by investing in its business
enterprises; this kind of wealth transfer is called foreign direct
investment.

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Tech
Economic engagement is tech assistance, market-based trade,
and investment
Delury, Yonsei University Graduate School of International
Studies Chinese Studies professor & Global Studies Chair, 12
[John, 4-26-12, American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National
Committee on American Foreign Policy, Volume 34, Issue 2, Triple-Pronged
Engagement: China's Approach to North Korea, p. 71-72, Taylor & Francis.]

Economic engagement includes state-backed assistance, marketbased provincial trade, and long-term strategic investment.
Assistance includes technical assistance, knowledge sharing and
human capacity building in effect, educating North Korean counterparts
on the China model of market transition and authoritarian capitalism.

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Economic

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Commodities
Economic means relating to commodities
Random House Dictionary
[Dictionary.com Unabridged, Random House, Inc. 04 Jul. 2016, Economic,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/economic, accessed July 3, 2016 //SL]

adjective
1. pertaining to the production, distribution, and use of income,
wealth, and commodities.

Economic means related to transfer of goods


Merriam-Webster Dictionary
[Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary, no date, Economic
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/economic, accessed July 2, 2016
//SL]

Simple Definition of economic


: relating to an economy : relating to the process or system by which
goods and services are produced, sold, and bought

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Industry/Resources
Economic requires relation to industry or material resources
Merriam-Webster
[Merriam-Webster.com, n.d., Economic, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/economic, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

4: having practical or industrial significance or uses : affecting material


resources

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Production
Economic means relating the economy, specifically production
Random House Dictionary
[Dictionary.com Unabridged, Random House, Inc. 04 Jul. 2016, Economic,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/economic, accessed July 3, 2016 //SL]

3. pertaining to an economy, or system of organization or operation,


especially of the process of production.

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Trade, Industry, Wealth


Economic means relating to trade, industry and money
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, Economic,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/economic, accessed:
July 2, 2016 //SL]

relating to trade, industry, and money:


economic growth/policies

Economic means relating to economics trade, industry,


wealth
Oxford Dictionaries
[economic,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/economic,
accessed 5-16-16]

economic
Pronunciation: /eknmik/ /knmik/
ADJECTIVE
1 Relating to economics or the economy:
the governments economic policy
pest species of great economic importance
More example sentences
Negotiations have been complicated by court rulings over economic policy.
The two political leaders conduct their argument on the margins of economic
policy.
Getting the public finances back into balance must be a key objective of
economic policy.
Get more examples

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1.1 (Of a subject) considered in relation to trade, industry, and the


creation of wealth:
economic history
More example sentences
Economics and lessons from economic history suggest that this may well be
the case.
This book can be used with profit to grasp the essentials of British financial
and economic history in these years.
Ethnic relations in Saint Lucia are a product of the economic history of the
island.
Synonyms
financial, monetary, budgetary, fiscal;
commercial
View synonyms
2 Justified in terms of profitability:
many organizations must become larger if they are to remain economic
More example sentences
The recipe of conditions that will make collaboration economic must have not
yet come together.
It is, of course, part of the problem that we do not have an economic
immigration policy.
2.1 Requiring fewer resources or costing less money:
solar power may provide a more economic solution
More example sentences
Many car parks are going because high land prices make building flats more
economic.
Synonyms
cheap, inexpensive, low-cost, economical, cut-rate, discount, bargain
View synonyms
Usage

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Economic means concerning economics: hes rebuilding a solid


economic base for the countrys future. Economical is commonly used
to mean thrifty, avoiding waste: small cars should be inexpensive to buy
and economical to run.

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Profitability
Economic means justified in terms of profitability
Oxford Dictionaries
[Oxford University Press, Economic,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/economic,
accessed: July 3, 2016 //SL]

2 Justified in terms of profitability:


many organizations must become larger if they are to remain economic
More example sentences
2.1 Requiring fewer resources or costing less money:
solar power may provide a more economic solution

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Relating to the Economy


Economic means relating to the economy
WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
[Economic, WordNet 3.1, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=economic, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

S: (adj) economic, economical (of or relating to an economy , the system of


production and management of material wealth) "economic growth";
"aspects of social, political, and economical life"

Economic is related to the economy of a particular country


Macmillan Dictionary
[economic, Macmillan Dictionary,
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/economic,
accessed 5-15-16]

economic - definition and synonyms


ADJECTIVE
/iknmk/

economic pronunciation in American English


economic pronunciation in American English

/eknmk/
Contribute to our Open Dictionary
Related words
economic cycle NOUN
economic migrant NOUN
economic indicator NOUN
Black Economic Empowerment NOUN
leading economic indicator NOUN
economic/medical aid
economic/moral decline

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financial/economic ruin
economic/industrial growth
economic/financial independence
political/financial/economic clout
peace/economic/trade/nuclear accord
economic/social/health consequences
financial/economic/political crisis
social/economic/racial/sexual inequality
an economic/political/employment situation
economic/political/moral/intellectual climate
from an economic/legal/political etc. standpoint
economically depressed/devastated/disadvantaged
a moral/political/economic imperative
more dictionary definitions
CollocatesNouns frequently used with economic

1 [USUALLY BEFORE NOUN] relating to the economy of a particular


country or region
Economic growth is slowing down.
factors that hinder economic development
Synonyms and related words
Describing or relating to economies and economic systems: aggregate,
ailing, antigrowth...
Explore Thesaurus
a. relating to business, industry, and trade
an attack on the governments economic policies
New opportunities will emerge as the economic climate improves.
Synonyms and related words

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Describing or relating to economies and economic systems: aggregate,


ailing, antigrowth...
Explore Thesaurus
b. relating to money
Such projects offer social and economic benefits to our local communities.
Synonyms and related words
Relating to money and possessions: financial, economic, fiscal...
Explore Thesaurus
Collocates: economic
Nouns frequently used with economic
activity, crisis, development, downturn, growth, policy, recovery, reform,
slowdown

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Engagement

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Violations

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1NC Engagement Requires Quid Pro Quo


A. Interpretation 1. Engagement requires the provision of positive incentives
Haass & OSullivan, Brookings institution of foreign policy Vice
president and fellow of foreign policy, 00
[Richard Haass & Meghan OSullivan, Brookings Institution Foreign Policy
Studies Program, Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign
Policy, p. 1-2, Google Books]

The term engagement was popularized amid the controversial policy of


constructive engagement pursued by the United States toward South Africa
during the first term of the Reagan administration. However, the term itself
remains a source of confusion. To the Chinese, the word appears to mean
simply the conduct of normal relations. In German, no comparable
translation exists. Even to native English speakers, the concept behind the
word is unclear. Except in the few instances in which the United States has
sought to isolate a regime or country, America arguably "engages"
states and actors all the time in one capacity or another simply by
interacting with them. This book, however, employs the term
engagement in a much more specific way, one that involves much
more than a policy of nonisolation. In our usage, engagement refers
to a foreign policy strategy that depends to a significant degree on
positive incentives to achieve its objectives. Certainly, engagement does not
preclude the simultaneous use of other foreign policy instruments such as
sanctions or military force. In practice, there is often considerable overlap of
strategies, particularly when the termination or lifting of sanctions is used as
a positive inducement. Yet the distinguishing feature of engagement
strategies is their reliance on the extension or provision of
incentives to shape the behavior of countries with which the U nited
S tates has important disagreements.

2. That means the plan must be a quid-pro-quo


De LaHunt, Colorado College Environmental Health and safety
services assistant director, 6

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[John, Assistant Director for Environmental Health & Safety Services in


Colorado College's Facilities Services department, July-August, Journal of
Chemical Health and Safety, Perverse and unintended, Science Direct]

Incentives work on a quid pro quo basis this for that. If you change
your behavior, Ill give you a reward. One could say that coercion is an
incentive program do as I say and Ill let you live. However, I define an
incentive as getting something you didnt have before in exchange for new
behavior, so that pretty much puts coercion in its own box, one separate
from incentives. But fundamental problems plague the incentive approach.
Like coercion, incentives are poor motivators in the long run, for at least two
reasons unintended consequences and perverse incentives.

B. Plan isnt a quid pro quo it only does


C. Reasons to vote
1. Limits --engagement is a strategy if the topic allows the
aff to just be doing stuff with China it becomes massive and
unlimited, destroying education
Haass & OSullivan, Brookings institution of foreign policy Vice
president and fellow of foreign policy, 2K
[Richard N. Haass formerly a senior aide to President George Bush, is Vice
President and Director of Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution;
Meghan L. OSullivan is a Fellow with the Foreign Policy Studies Program at
the Brookings Institution. Together, they are editors of Honey and Vinegar:
Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign Policy; Terms of Engagement:
Alternatives to Punitive Policies; Survival, vol. 42, no. 2, Summer 2000, pp.
xxxx The International Institute for Strategic Studies;
http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/articles/2000/6/summer
%20haass/2000survival.pdf) CJC

The term engagement was popularised in the early 1980s amid


controversy about the Reagan administrations policy of constructive
engagement towards South Africa. However, the term itself remains a
source of confusion. Except in the few instances where the US has
sought to isolate a regime or country, America arguably engages states and

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actors all the time simply by interacting with them . To be a meaningful subject of
analysis , the term engagement must refer to something more specific than a
policy of non-isolation. As used in this article, engagement refers to
a foreign-policy strategy which depends to a significant degree on
positive incentives to achieve its objectives. Certainly, it does not preclude
the simultaneous use of other foreign-policy instruments such as sanctions
or military force: in practice, there is often considerable overlap of
strategies, particularly when the termination or lifting of sanctions
is used as a positive inducement. Yet the distinguishing feature of
American engagement strategies is their reliance on the extension
or provision of incentives to shape the behaviour of countries with
which the US has important disagreements.

2. Ground QPQ locks in core generics like soft power and


foreign politics DAs, counterplans to add or remove a
condition, and critiques of diplomacy

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2NC Violation Extension


Conditional engagement is distinct from appeasement (must
be tied to specific policy changes, must reward after
behavioral change, and must be contingent on follow-through).
Litwak, Woodrow Wilson International Scholars Centers
Division of International Security Studies director, 7
[Robert S. Litwak, Director of the Division of International Security Studies at
the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, former director for
nonproliferation on the National Security Council staff, 2007 (Strategies for
a Change of Regime or for Change within a Regime?, Regime Change:
U.S. Strategy Through the Prism of 9/11, Published by JHU Press, ISBN
0801886422, p. 117]

Conditional Engagement
The conditional engagement strategy is conducted on the
government-to-government level and requires reciprocity by the
target state on essentially a contractual basis. It is typically focused
on a discrete issue but can be broadened to encompass a range of
issues in a "grand bargain" (as some have proposed in the case of Iran).
"Conditional reciprocity" is a form of conditional engagement, elucidated by
George, in which meaningful changes in behavior by the target state would
be explicitly linked to each concession or benefit bestowed by the United
States.45 The engagement of an adversary under conditional
reciprocity has three key features , which clearly distinguish this strategy from
appeasement . First, the inducement must be tied to specific policy changes
in the target state's behavior, not general expectations of improved
behavior. Second, the reward should come only after the specific change
in behavior. If the reward is provided in advance of behavior
modification or is not linked to a specific behavioral change, it may be
legitimately criticized as a bribe . And, third, such an approach
depends on mutual adherence to the specific conditional reciprocal
steps in the sequence. If the target state does not fulfill its
obligations, the process can be halted and the benefit withdrawn .46

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2NC With Extension


With means a conditional approach
Indeglia, Rhode Island Supreme Court Judge, 00 Gilbert V.
Indeglia, Judge on the Supreme Court of Rhode Island, Manuel Rezendes v.
American Insulated Wire, 4-17,
https://www.courts.ri.gov/Courts/SupremeCourt/OpinionsOrders/pdf-files/99125order.pdf
In support of his argument that he complied with the notice requirement
seven years after commencing his light-duty job, Rezendes asserts that ' 2833-18.2 does not contemplate a time frame for giving notice. In the absence
of such a specified period, we construe the notice requirement to be
performed within a reasonable time. Such a construction is consonant with
the plain language of ' 28-33-18.2. The Legislature specifically provided that
an employee may be offered suitable alternative employment as agreed to
by the employee and employer with written notice to the director. Section
28-33-18.2(a). (Emphasis added.) The preposition with is defined
inter alia as expressing * * * accompanying conditions. The Oxford
Dictionary and Thesaurus 1765 (American ed. 1996). We construe the
language of the statute to mean that the Legislature intended that notice to
the director accompany mutual assent, or at a minimum, be given within a
reasonable time from accepting an offer of a light-duty job.

With requires an exchange


MacMillan 16 MacMillan Dictionary, with,
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/with
2 used for saying that people share or exchange things
She shares her food with all the family.
Most countries had already stopped trading with South Africa.

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1NC Engagement Is Not Conditional/Quid Pro Quo


A. Interpretation Engagement is unconditional conditioning
runs counter to engagement
Smith, London School of Economics foreign policy Professor
and director, 5
[Karen E, May, Engagement and conditionality: incompatible or mutually
reinforcing?, Global Europe: New Terms of Engagement,
http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/484.pdf, Pg. 23, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

First, a few definitions. Engagement is a foreign policy strategy of


building close ties with the government and/or civil society and/or
business community of another state. The intention of this strategy is to
undermine illiberal political and economic practices, and socialise
government and other domestic actors into more liberal ways. Most cases
of engagement entail primarily building economic links, and
encouraging trade and investment in particular. Some observers
have variously labelled this strategy one of interdependence, or of
oxygen: economic activity leads to positive political
consequences.19 Conditionality, in contrast, is the linking, by a
state or international organisation, of perceived benefits to another
state (such as aid or trade concessions) to the fulfilment of
economic and/or political conditions. Positive conditionality entails
promising benefits to a state if it fulfils the conditions; negative
conditionality involves reducing, suspending, or terminating those benefits if
the state violates the conditions (in other words, applying sanctions, or a
strategy of asphyxiation).20 To put it simply, engagement implies ties, but with no
strings attached; conditionality attaches the strings. In another way of looking at it,
engagement is more of a bottom-up strategy to induce change in
another country, conditionality more of a top-down strategy.

B. Violation The plan utilizes a form of conditionality using a


carrot or inducement approach specifically, it conditions the
relationship upon the PRC agreeing to
Inducements are not tools of engagement
Celik, Uppsala University Eurasian Studies M.A. student, 11

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[Arda Can, Economic sanctions and engagement policies,


http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/175204/economic-sanctions-andengagement-policies, p. 11, accessed 7-10-16, via read this e-book
preview]

Economic engagement policies are strategic integration behaviour which


involves with the target state. Engagement policies differ from other
tools in Economic Diplomacy. They target to deepen the economic relations
to create economic intersection, interconnectness, and mutual dependence
and finally seeks economic interdependence. This interdependence serves
the sender state to change the political behaviour of target state. However
they cannot be counted as carrots or inducement tools , they focus on long term
strategic goals and they are not restricted with short term policy changes.
(Kahler&Kastner,2006) They can be unconditional and focus on creating
greater economic benefits for both parties. Economic engagement targets to
seek deeper economic linkages via promoting institutionalized mutual trade
thus mentioned interdependence creates two major concepts. Firstly it builds
strong trade partnership to avoid possible militarized and non militarized
conflicts. Secondly it gives a leeway to perceive the international political
atmosphere from the same and harmonized perspective. Kahler and Kastner
define the engagement policies as follows It is a policy of deliberate
expanding economic ties with and adversary in order to change the
behaviour of target state and improve bilateral relations.(p523-abstact).It is
an intentional economic strategy that expects bigger benefits such as long
term economic gains and more importantly; political gains. The main idea
behind the engagement motivation is stated by Rosecrance(1977)in a way
that the direct and positive linkage of interests of states where a change in
the position of one state affects the position of others in the same direction
Although, much of the literature focuses on the effectiveness of economic
sanctions, economic engagement strategies have rapidly gained momentum
and gathers more and more attention(Kahler&Kastner,2006). Kirshner(2002)
states that handful of studies examine the Hirchmanesque effects of
economic relations and engagement policies therefore engagement policies
are newly emerging alternative strategies against the economic sanctions.
This literature is a composition of liberal and realist approaches. Liberals
underline that Effectiveness of engagement policies are valid and ascending.
On the other hand, Realists criticise the potential of engagement policies and
does not give credits to the arguments of engagement strategies.
Liberal Approach

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Literature of liberal school points out that economic engagement policies are
significantly effective tools for sender and target countries. The effectiveness
leans on mutual economic and political benefits for both parties.(Garzke et
al,2001). Economic engagement operates with trade mechanisms where
sender and target country establish intensified trade thus increase the
economic interaction over time. This strategy decreases the potential
hostilities and provides mutual gains. Paulson Jr (2008) states that this
mechanism is highly different from carrots (inducements ). Carrots work quid
pro quo in short terms and for narrow goals. Economic engagement
intends to develop the target country and wants her to be aware of the long
term benefits of shared economic goals. Sender does not want to contain nor
prevent the target country with different policies. Conversely; sender works
deliberately to improve the target countries Gdp, trade potential, exportimport ratios and national income. Sender acts in purpose to reach important
goals. First it establishes strong economic ties because economic integration
has the capacity to change the political choices and behaviour of target
country. Sender state believes in that economic linkages have political
transformation potential. (Kroll,1993)

C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Neg Ground The affirmative interpretation steals core
negative ground like appeasement and deterrence
disadvantages as well as pressure or conditions counterplans.
Makes testing the method of the affirmative thoroughly
impossible.
2. Debatability The plan explodes the negative research
burden by forcing us to research negative strategies against
both hostile and non-hostile engagement with China and
justifies an infinite number and combination of plans that can
simply be bidirectional maneuvers that may be qualitatively
significant and even have advantages but prevent the negative
team from preparing for a rigorous and in-depth discussion of
the plans merits.

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3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous


debate.

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1NC Engagement Is Not Military


A. Interpretation Topical engagement is distinct from military
engagement
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 29, NVM]

The Obama administrations rebalance in the Asia-Pacific region is


in line with broad and longstanding U.S. interests. Contrary to the
skeptics noted above, the president and his advisers seem to be
committed to the robust engagement in the Asia-Pacific. The main
uncertainty to watch is whether or not the United States can support the
costs of military plans involving the Asia-Pacific. Although the sequestration
cuts are nontrivial, the Obama administration is making the rebalance a
strategic priority, and it is likely to move ahead with successful
implementation of its Asia-Pacific initiatives. The administration might not be
able to do everything it would like to do under ideal circumstances, but a
superpower can do a lot even when it is somewhat constrained. The
arguments that the Obama administration is unwisely confronting
China are countered by the U.S. governments efforts since late 2012
to direct the focus of the rebalance in ways that are less offensive
to China and by the apparent U.S. success in 2013 in establishing
closer, more constructive engagement at top political, economic,
diplomatic, and military levels between the two governments.

B. Violation- The affirmative plan is military engagement all


of the components of the plan involve the militarys practices
which is military engagement
Department of Defense Annual Report to Congress, 15
[Military and Security Developments Involving the Peoples Republic of
China 2015,

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http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2015_China_Military_Powe
r_Report.pdf, p. 16, accessed 7-8-16]

Chinas military engagement with other countries seeks to enhance


Chinas presence and influence abroad by improving relationships
with foreign militaries, bolstering Chinas international and regional
image, and assuaging other countries concerns about Chinas rise.
PLA engagement activities assist its modernization through the
acquisition of advanced weapon systems and technologies, increased
operational experience throughout and beyond Asia, and access to foreign
military practices, operational doctrine, and training methods.

C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Limits Allowing military engagement explodes the topic
and dilutes effective policy analysis
Haass & OSullivan, Brookings Institution Foreign Policy
Studies Program Senior Fellows, 00
[Richard & Meghan, Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign
Policy, p. 5-6]

Architects of engagement strategies have a wide variety of


incentives from which to choose. Economic engagement might offer
tangible incentives such as export credits, investment insurance or
promotion, access to technology, loans, and economic aid.2 Other
equally useful economic incentives involve the removal of penalties, whether
they be trade embargoes, investment bans, or high tariffs that have impeded
economic relations between the United States and the target country. In
addition, facilitated entry into the global economic arena and the institutions
that govern it rank among the most potent incentives in todays global
market.
Similarly, political engagement can involve the lure of diplomatic recognition ,
access to regional or international institutions , or the scheduling of summits
between leadersor the termination of these benefits. Military
engagement could involve the extension of International Military
Educational Training (IMET) both to strengthen respect for civilian authority

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and human rights among a countrys armed forces and, more feasibly, to
establish relationships between Americans and young foreign military
officers.4 These areas of engagement are likely to involve, working with
state institutions, while cultural or civil society engagement is likely to entail
building people-to-people contacts. Funding nongovernmental
organizations, facilitating the flow of remittances, establishing
postal and telephone links between the United States and the target
country, and promoting the exchange of students, tourists, and other
nongovernmental people between the countries are some of the
incentives that might be offered under a policy of cultural engagement .
This brief overview of the various forms of engagement illuminates the
choices open to policymakers. The plethora of options signals the flexibility
of engagement as a foreign policy strategy and, in doing so, reveals
one of the real strengths of engagement. At the same time, it also suggests
the urgent need for considered analysis of this strategy. The purpose of this
book is to address this need by deriving insights and lessons from past
episodes of engagement and proposing guidelines for the future use of
engagement strategies. Throughout the book, two critical questions are
entertained. First, when should policymakers consider engagement? A
strategy of engagement may serve certain foreign policy objectives better
than others. Specific characteristics of a target country may make it more
receptive to a strategy of engagement and the incentives offered under it; in
other cases, a country's domestic politics may effectively exclude the use of
engagement strategies. Second, how should engagement strategies be
managed to maximize the chances of success? Shedding light on how
policymakers achieved, or failed, in these efforts in the past is critical in an
evaluation of engagement strategies. By focusing our analysis , these
questions and concerns help produce a framework to guide the use of
engagement strategies in the upcoming decades.

2. Debatability they shift the topic from diplomatic


mechanisms to military strategy which is a different literature
base, eliminates topic specific education and DA & counterplan
ground based on diplomatic and economic lit
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate

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1NC Engagement Is Not Cultural


A. Interpretation Topical engagement is distinct from cultural
engagement
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 29, NVM]

The Obama administrations rebalance in the Asia-Pacific region is


in line with broad and longstanding U.S. interests. Contrary to the
skeptics noted above, the president and his advisers seem to be
committed to the robust engagement in the Asia-Pacific. The main
uncertainty to watch is whether or not the United States can support the
costs of military plans involving the Asia-Pacific. Although the sequestration
cuts are nontrivial, the Obama administration is making the rebalance a
strategic priority, and it is likely to move ahead with successful
implementation of its Asia-Pacific initiatives. The administration might not be
able to do everything it would like to do under ideal circumstances, but a
superpower can do a lot even when it is somewhat constrained. The
arguments that the Obama administration is unwisely confronting
China are countered by the U.S. governments efforts since late 2012
to direct the focus of the rebalance in ways that are less offensive
to China and by the apparent U.S. success in 2013 in establishing
closer, more constructive engagement at top political, economic,
diplomatic, and military levels between the two governments.

B. Violation- The affirmative plan is cultural engagement all


of the components of the plan involve cultural practices
cultural engagement, not diplomatic or economic
Lee, Ohio State University Arts Administration, Education, and
Policy Ph.D. candidate, 13

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[Da Hyun, Relational Approaches to US International Cultural Engagement:


Promoting National Good and Mutual Understanding through Cooperative
Cultural Exchange,
https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?
accession=osu1385737907&disposition=inline, p. 11, accessed 7-10-16]

In this study another term, international cultural engagement, is used


to describe the relational approaches to cultural diplomacy that
have emerged in the US. Unlike the term cultural diplomacy , which implies
culture being used exclusively at the service of a countrys foreign
affairs, international cultural engagement is a more inclusive term that
does not entail political association . Instead, it connotes active participation and
interaction among the involved constituencies, commitment of all involved
actors, and activities attractive to both parties. It aims to involve broader
and deeper interactions and result in a range of international connections
(Wyszomirski, 2010a). Based on these goals, international cultural
engagement can tentatively be defined as flows of cultural activities
that include ideas, values, information, arts, and other aspects of
culture, initiated by either public or private actors from two or more
countries, in forms of exchange or collaboration of artists, cultural
presentations (such as exhibitions or performances), cultural projects (such
as preservation of cultural heritage), or building the infrastructure of the
cultural sector. The existing terms such as cultural diplomacy and cultural
exchange continue to be used here, but this study adopts international
cultural engagement as an overarching term since it can embrace a wide
range of international cultural activities oriented towards relationship
building.

C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Limits Allowing cultural engagement explodes the topic
and dilutes effective policy analysis
Haass & OSullivan, Brookings Institution Foreign Policy
Studies Program Senior Fellows, 00
[Richard & Meghan, Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign
Policy, p. 5-6]

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Architects of engagement strategies have a wide variety of


incentives from which to choose. Economic engagement might offer
tangible incentives such as export credits, investment insurance or
promotion, access to technology, loans, and economic aid.2 Other
equally useful economic incentives involve the removal of penalties, whether
they be trade embargoes, investment bans, or high tariffs that have impeded
economic relations between the United States and the target country. In
addition, facilitated entry into the global economic arena and the institutions
that govern it rank among the most potent incentives in todays global
market.
Similarly, political engagement can involve the lure of diplomatic recognition ,
access to regional or international institutions , or the scheduling of summits
between leadersor the termination of these benefits. Military
engagement could involve the extension of International Military
Educational Training (IMET) both to strengthen respect for civilian authority
and human rights among a countrys armed forces and, more feasibly, to
establish relationships between Americans and young foreign military
officers.4 These areas of engagement are likely to involve, working with
state institutions, while cultural or civil society engagement is likely to entail
building people-to-people contacts. Funding nongovernmental
organizations, facilitating the flow of remittances, establishing
postal and telephone links between the United States and the target
country, and promoting the exchange of students, tourists, and other
nongovernmental people between the countries are some of the
incentives that might be offered under a policy of cultural engagement .
This brief overview of the various forms of engagement illuminates the
choices open to policymakers. The plethora of options signals the flexibility
of engagement as a foreign policy strategy and, in doing so, reveals
one of the real strengths of engagement. At the same time, it also suggests
the urgent need for considered analysis of this strategy. The purpose of this
book is to address this need by deriving insights and lessons from past
episodes of engagement and proposing guidelines for the future use of
engagement strategies. Throughout the book, two critical questions are
entertained. First, when should policymakers consider engagement? A
strategy of engagement may serve certain foreign policy objectives better
than others. Specific characteristics of a target country may make it more
receptive to a strategy of engagement and the incentives offered under it; in
other cases, a country's domestic politics may effectively exclude the use of
engagement strategies. Second, how should engagement strategies be
managed to maximize the chances of success? Shedding light on how

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policymakers achieved, or failed, in these efforts in the past is critical in an


evaluation of engagement strategies. By focusing our analysis , these
questions and concerns help produce a framework to guide the use of
engagement strategies in the upcoming decades.

2. Debatability they shift the topic from diplomatic


mechanisms to cultural exchange, which is a different
literature base, eliminates topic specific education and DA &
counterplan ground based on diplomatic and economic lit
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate

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1NC Engagement Is Not Hostile


A. Interpretation Engagement is not hostile
Engagement, in the context of China, is not hostile
Capie, University of Wellington Political Science &
International Relations Associate Professor, & Evans, Asia
Pacific Foundation of Canada Executive Committee Chair, 7
[David, Paul, The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon (Updated 2nd Edition), p. 118,
Google Books, S.C.]

Second, engagement is sometimes used in a slightly narrower sense


to describe the political relationship between specific states. Here
there are two distinctive usages: first, engagement can be described as
a kind of loosely defined informal association or relationship. The
example that has received the most attention in the literature on
Asia-pacific security is that of the United States engagement of
China. In this sense, engagement connotes a relationship of
dialogue and involvement, and is often contrasted with
containment or isolation.13 Joseph Nye has said the attitude
that engagement implies is important. He claims the United States
decision to engage China means that [it] has rejected the argument that
conflict is inevitable.14 A related use of engagement is to describe
formal state policies or strategies. For example, the Clinton
administrations Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement and
policy of Comprehensive Engagement with China. Different parts of
the government often take very different attitudes to engagement. Robert
Sutter notes that under the George W. Bush administration, there has been
an institutional gap between the Department of Defense and other US
departments as far as interaction and engagement with China is
concerned.15

B. Violation The plan includes punitive measures which are


non-engagement approaches in both the diplomatic and
economic contexts
Maller, MIT, Security Studies Program, 9
[Tara, 2009, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:511536, The Dangers of
Diplomatic Disengagement in Counterterrorism,

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10576100902888479?
journalCode=uter20, pg. 512, accessed: July 8, 2016 //SL]

Different forms of non-engagement have been employed throughout


history. Haas and OSullivan define engagement as a foreign policy
strategy which depends to a significant degree on positive
incentives to achieve its objectives.2 They also correctly point out that
an engagement strategy does not mean there cannot also be concurrent
military pressure and sanctions. The present author adds to their definition
the notion that engagement also tends to entail diplomatic relations
with a state, a diplomatic presence in that state and a substantial
amount of interaction between high and low level diplomats. Building on
their definition of engagement, the present author defines nonengagement as a foreign policy strategy that depends to a significant
degree on punitive measures , a lack of positive incentives , and a general
aversion to diplomatic interaction with a state to achieve foreign policy objectives . Nonengagement strategies typically are characterized by punitive
strategies across the military, economic, and diplomatic realms. This
article will focus specifically on the diplomatic component of nonengagement, which is characterized by severing formal diplomatic ties with a
country or significantly downgrading ties from the normal level of diplomatic
activity for foreign policy purposes.3 It is also worth noting that in most
cases of U.S.-initiated diplomatic sanctions, there may also be economic
sanctions aimed at the economic isolation of the target state. In addition,
once diplomatic ties with a state have been severed, the United States still
faces choices about the degree to which it is willing to engage with a severed
or downgraded state. Third party state actors may be used as a diplomatic
go between for states without diplomatic relations and there may be very
little face-to-face interaction between U.S. officials and officials of the target
state. In some cases, certain types of diplomacy may be permissible (i.e.,
multiparty talks), whereas other forms of direct talks are not (i.e., bilateral
talks). Regardless of the acceptable threshold for communication, cutting
diplomatic ties with a state and opting for diplomatic
disengagement sends a strong signal about U.S. willingness and
desire to communicate and creates substantial barriers to doing so.

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C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Neg Ground The affirmative interpretation steals core
negative ground like appeasement and deterrence
disadvantages as well as pressure or conditions counterplans.
Makes testing the method of the affirmative thoroughly
impossible.
2. Debatability The plan explodes the negative research
burden by forcing us to research negative strategies against
both hostile and non-hostile engagement with China and
justifies an infinite number and combination of plans that can
simply be bidirectional maneuvers that may be qualitatively
significant and even have advantages but prevent the negative
team from preparing for a rigorous and in-depth discussion of
the plans merits.
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate.

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Engagement Definitions

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China Contextual Not Hostile


Engagement, in the context of China, has assumed the political
relationship between the states, and is not hostile
Capie, University of Wellington Political Science &
International Relations Associate Professor, & Evans, Asia
Pacific Foundation of Canada Executive Committee Chair, 7
[David, Paul, The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon (Updated 2nd Edition), p. 118,
Google Books, S.C.]

Second, engagement is sometimes used in a slightly narrower sense


to describe the political relationship between specific states. Here
there are two distinctive usages: first, engagement can be described as
a kind of loosely defined informal association or relationship. The
example that has received the most attention in the literature on
Asia-pacific security is that of the United States engagement of
China. In this sense, engagement connotes a relationship of
dialogue and involvement, and is often contrasted with
containment or isolation.13 Joseph Nye has said the attitude
that engagement implies is important. He claims the United States
decision to engage China means that [it] has rejected the argument that
conflict is inevitable.14 A related use of engagement is to describe
formal state policies or strategies. For example, the Clinton
administrations Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement and
policy of Comprehensive Engagement with China. Different parts of
the government often take very different attitudes to engagement. Robert
Sutter notes that under the George W. Bush administration, there has been
an institutional gap between the Department of Defense and other US
departments as far as interaction and engagement with China is
concerned.15

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China Contextual Cooperation


Engaging China includes various forms of cooperation
Easley, Kim, and Glaser; MIT International Security Journal, 16
[Leif-Eric Easley, Patricia Kim, Charles L. Glaser, International Security,
Volume 40, Number 4, Spring 2016 Correspondence: Grand Bargain or Bad
Idea? U.S. Relations with China and Taiwan, pp. 178-191, Published by The
MIT Press]

Kim and Easley prefer the United States current policy to a grand
bargain. Both recommend some modifications designed to reassure and
engage China , including joint participation in humanitarian missions,
naval cooperation on counter-piracy operations, deepening of
economic interdependence via the U.S.-China bilateral investment
treaty, and support of initiatives that would increase Chinas role in
international organizations. As I argue in my article, there is much to like
about the current U.S. policy toward China and East Asia more broadly. If the
United States adheres to this policy, then many of these recommendations
would be useful refinements.

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China Contextual Bilateral


US engagement with China is bilateral
Eisenman, University of Texas Lyndon Baines Johnson School of
Public Affairs professor & American Foreign Policy Council
China studies senior fellow, 16
[Joshua, 1-21-16, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs,
Rethinking U.S. Strategy Towards China,
http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/articles_papers_reports/756,
accessed 7-10-16]

From Nixon to Obama: Four Decades of U.S. Engagement with China


How can the U.S. improve its policy towards China to avoid, and yet be
prepared for, conflict? Since the Nixon Administration, the U.S.
strategy towards China has been predicated on the assumption that
if the bilateral relationship is properly managed conflict can be avoided.
Many contend that through engagement the U.S. can shape China's
choices in ways that reduce the chances the U.S. and China will
come into conflict.
Whether a conflict occurs, the argument goes, depends on whether China is
dissatisfied with the prevailing international order, because as James
Steinberg and Michael O'Hanlon have written: "only if it believes that it is
disadvantaged will China necessarily choose to use its newfound power to
create a world more to its own liking in potentially disruptive ways.1 Jeffery
Bader, who served as a top White House official in the first Obama
administration, agrees that China could play a more constructive
role than it would by sitting outside of that system.2 So the prevailing
wisdom holds and the thinking behind engagement goes, if China
participates extensively in the international system, then it will help create a
system it likes and not become revisionist.
According to Evan Medeiros, who stepped down in June 2015 after
six years as a top White House official on China, the U.S. and China
"agreed that we would develop our relationship defined by
cooperation on regional and global challenges while affectively managing
our differences.3 Medeiros explained in an interview with China's
official CCTV how this policy sought to avoid what IR theorists call
the Thucydides Trap:

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Beginning when President Obama met President Xi for the first time
formally at Sunnylands... we agreed that we did not believe conflict
was inevitable between China and the United States, a rising power
and an established power, and we agreed that we would work to
make sure that rivalry didn't become inevitable. So that's the basic
framework for our relationship, and we think we've succeeded in
accomplishing that in recent years.4
To help make Beijing more cooperative, Washington can shape its
choices, according to Bader:
Underlying our approach was a clear understanding that our
political, security, and economic policies in Asia needed to be
grounded in traditional state-to-state relations and a commitment to shaping
the choices of emerging powers like China through our diplomacy
and deployments.5
But how to shape China's choices? To establish "a modicum of trust
between U.S. and Chinese leaders so that there could be political
incentives for cooperation," Bader recalls that Obama's Asia team built
a China strategy based on "three pillars," which can be considered the
pillars of engagement:6
(1) a welcoming approach to China's emergence, influence, and
legitimate expanded role;
(2) resolve to see that its rise is consistent with international norms
and law;
(3) endeavor to shape the Asia-Pacific environment to ensure China's
rise is stabilizing rather than disruptive.7
The goal, according to Steinberg and O'Hanlon, is to shape "China's
interpretation of U.S. strategy" and its "leaders' assessments of U.S.
intentions." They argue that: "Washington can craft its own policies in
ways that will call forth reciprocal, positive Chinese actions.8
Chinese assessments range from one extreme that the United States is
determined to maintain its hegemonic position and resist China's rise. At the
other, they accept the argument that the United States is prepared to 'share
power.'"9 The chances to avoid hostilities can be improved if "U.S.
policymakers can reinforce the domestic political forces in China that are
likely to support constructive Chinese strategies." By empowering Chinese
moderates U.S. policymakers will reduce the possibility that more hawkish
leaders will push China toward aggression. Thus, by reiterating the U.S.'

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willingness to share power with China Washington can reduce the chances of
conflict with Beijing.
In practice, this engagement-based China strategy means that
scores (if not hundreds) of U.S. policymakers in numerous
government agencies correspond regularly with their Chinese
counterparts across a wide breadth of issues. In September 2014,
President Xi Jinping said there were over 90 official mechanisms for
U.S.-China exchange.10

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Non-Military & Non-Cultural


Allowing military or cultural engagement explodes the topic
and dilutes effective policy analysis
Haass & OSullivan, Brookings Institution Foreign Policy
Studies Program Senior Fellows, 00
[Richard & Meghan, Honey and Vinegar: Incentives, Sanctions, and Foreign
Policy, p. 5-6]

Architects of engagement strategies have a wide variety of incentives from


which to choose. Economic engagement might offer tangible incentives such as
export credits, investment insurance or promotion, access to technology,
loans, and economic aid.2 Other equally useful economic incentives involve
the removal of penalties, whether they be trade embargoes, investment
bans, or high tariffs that have impeded economic relations between the
United States and the target country. In addition, facilitated entry into the
global economic arena and the institutions that govern it rank among the
most potent incentives in todays global market.
Similarly, political engagement can involve the lure of diplomatic recognition ,
access to regional or international institutions , or the scheduling of summits
between leadersor the termination of these benefits. Military
engagement could involve the extension of International Military
Educational Training (IMET) both to strengthen respect for civilian authority
and human rights among a countrys armed forces and, more feasibly, to
establish relationships between Americans and young foreign mffitary
officers.4 These areas of engagement are likely to involve, working with
state institutions, while cultural or civil society engagement is likely to entail
building people-to-people contacts. Funding nongovernmental
organizations, facilitating the flow of remittances, establishing
postal and telephone links between the United States and the target
country, and promoting the exchange of students, tourists, and other
nongovernmental people between the countries are some of the
incentives that might be offered under a policy of cultural engagement .
This brief overview of the various forms of engagement illuminates the
choices open to policymakers. The plethora of options signals the flexibility
of engagement as a foreign policy strategy and, in doing so, reveals
one of the real strengths of engagement. At the same time, it also suggests

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the urgent need for considered analysis of this strategy. The purpose of this
book is to address this need by deriving insights and lessons from past
episodes of engagement and proposing guidelines for the future use of
engagement strategies. Throughout the book, two critical questions are
entertained. First, when should policymakers consider engagement? A
strategy of engagement may serve certain foreign policy objectives better
than others. Specific characteristics of a target country may make it more
receptive to a strategy of engagement and the incentives offered under it; in
other cases, a country's domestic politics may effectively exclude the use of
engagement strategies. Second, how should engagement strategies be
managed to maximize the chances of success? Shedding light on how
policymakers achieved, or failed, in these efforts in the past is critical in an
evaluation of engagement strategies. By focusing our analysis , these
questions and concerns help produce a framework to guide the use of
engagement strategies in the upcoming decades.

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Definition of Military Engagement


Exchange of military information is military engagement
DOD Dictionary of Military Terms
[military engagement, DOD Dictionary of Military Terms,
http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/, accessed 7-10-16]

military engagement
(DOD) Routine contact and interaction between individuals or
elements of the Armed Forces of the United States and those of
another nation's armed forces, or foreign and domestic civilian
authorities or agencies to build trust and confidence, share
information, coordinate mutual activities, and maintain influence.
Source: JP 3-0

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Presidential Level
Engagement must be sustained through bilateral or
multilateral efforts at the presidential and cabinet levels
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 15, NVM]

The rebalance entails a significant enhancement of U.S. diplomatic


activism in the region. The Obama administration has been engaged
at the presidential and cabinet levels, its engagement has been
intense and sustained, and its efforts have entailed a range of
bilateral and multilateral efforts. U.S. goals include regional security
and stability, free and open economic exchange, and political
relations and values involving human rights and accountable
governance.
Insufficient U.S. engagement would run the risk that Asia-Pacific
states and regional groups would fail to create and sustain norms
consistent with the inclusive, transparent and liberal international
order long fostered by the United States that emphasizes collective
security, free trade, and open societies.
Misaligned U.S. engagement would run the risk of regional states,
most of which closely watch American involvement in the region,
viewing U.S. policy as focused excessively on competition with
China and deterrence of Chinese assertiveness and expansion, or
focused excessively on accommodation with China at the expense of
other regional states and their interests. The ability of the United
States to strike the right balance in relations with China has
implications that extend far beyond the U.S.-China relationship.

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Interdependence
Engagement is limited by a three pronged test (a) status quo
involvement must be low, (b) the material need of the target
must be high, and (c) the target must perceive the engager as
the solution for that need
Resnick, Yeshiva University Political Science professor, 1
[Evan, 2001, Journal of International Affairs, Spring, 54(2), Defining
Engagement,, https://www.jstor.org/stable/24357749?
seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents, pg. 560-561, JSTOR, accessed July 5,
2016 //SL]

This definition implies that three necessary conditions must hold for
engagement to constitute an effective foreign policy instrument. First , the
overall magnitude of contacts between the sender and target states
must initially be low . If two states are already bound by dense contacts
in multiple domains (i.e., are already in a highly interdependent relationship),
engagement loses its impact as an effective policy tool. Hence, on could not
reasonable invoke the possibility of the US engaging Canada or Japan in
order to effect a change in either countrys political behavior. Second , the
material or prestige needs of the target state must be significant . As
engagement derives its power from the promise that it can fulfill
those needs. The greater the needs of the target state, the more amenable
the engagement by the US dramatically increased in the wake of the demise
of its chief patron, the Soviet Union, and the near-total collapse of its national
economy.28
Third , the target state must perceive the engager and the
international order it represents as a potential source of the
material or prestige resources it desires. This means that autarkic,
revolutionary and unlimited regimes which eschew the norms and
institutions of the prevailing order, such as Stalins Soviet Union or Hitlers
Germany, will not be seduced by the potential benefits of engagement.

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Limited Definitions Good


Our focus on means rather than ends for foreign policy holds
the topic to a predictable size
Resnick, Yeshiva University Political Science professor, 1
[Evan, 2001, Journal of International Affairs, Spring, 54(2), Defining
Engagement,, https://www.jstor.org/stable/24357749?
seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents, pg. 561, JSTOR, accessed July 5, 2016 //SL]

This reformulated conceptualization avoids the pitfalls of prevailing


scholarly conceptions of engagement. It considers the policy as a set
of means rather than ends , does not delimit the types of states that can either
engage or be engaged, explicitly encompasses contacts in multiple
issue-areas, allows for the existence of multiple objectives in any
given instance of engagement and, as will be shown below, permits the
elucidation of multiple types of positive sanctions

Our interpretation is key to differentiate between policies of


engagement versus appeasement or isolation because it sets a
bright line to distinguish between them prerequisite to good
policy
Resnick, Yeshiva University Political Science professor, 1
[Evan, 2001, Journal of International Affairs, Spring, 54(2), Defining
Engagement,, https://www.jstor.org/stable/24357749?
seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents, pg. 566, JSTOR, accessed July 5, 2016 //SL]

In matters of national security, establishing a clear definition of terms is


a precondition for effective policymaking. Decision-makers who invoke
critical terms in an erratic, ad hoc fashion risk alienating their constituencies. They also
risk exacerbating misperceptions and hostility among those the policies
target. Scholars who commit the same error undercut their ability to
conduct valuable empirical research. Hence, if scholars and
policymakers fail rigorously to define engagement , they undermine the
ability to build an effective foreign policy.

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The refined definition I propose as a substitute for existing


descriptions of engagement is different in two important ways: Frist,
it clarifies the menu of choices available for policymakers by
allowing engagement to be distinguished from related approaches such as
appeasement , containment and isolation. Second, it lays the groundwork
for systematic and objective research on historical cases of
engagement in order to discern the conditions under which it can be
used effectively. Such research will, in turn, help policymakers acquire
the information necessary to better manage the rogue states of the
21st century.

The lack of a consistent definition of engagement has


destroyed the efficacy of debates on US foreign policy
Resnick, Yeshiva University Political Science professor, 1
[Evan, 2001, Journal of International Affairs, Spring, 54(2), Defining
Engagement,, https://www.jstor.org/stable/24357749?
seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents, pg. 551, JSTOR, accessed July 5, 2016 //SL]

While the term engagement enjoys great consistency and clarity of


meaning in the discourse of romantic love, it enjoys neither in the discourse
of statecraft . Currently, practitioners and scholars of American foreign
policy are vigorously debating the merits of engagement as a
strategy for modifying the behavior of unsavory regimes. The quality of
this debate, however, is diminished by the persistent inability of the US
foreign policy establishment to advance a coherent and analytically
rigorous conceptualization of engagement . In this essay, I begin with a brief
survey of the conceptual fog that surrounds engagement and then attempt
to give a more refined definition. I will use this definition as the basis for
drawing a sharp distinction between engagement and alternative policy
approaches, especially appeasement, isolation and containment

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Modify Perspective
Engagement is direct talks used to change a countrys
perspective and modify it
Crocker, Georgetown University Strategic Studies Professor, 9
[Chester A., 9-13-9, Terms of Engagement,
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/14/opinion/14crocker.html?_r=1, NYT,
accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

Lets get a few things straight. Engagement in statecraft is not about


sweet talk. Nor is it based on the illusion that our problems with
rogue regimes can be solved if only we would talk to them.
Engagement is not normalization, and its goal is not improved
relations. It is not akin to dtente, working for rapprochement, or
appeasement.
So how do you define an engagement strategy? It does require direct talks. There is
simply no better way to convey authoritative statements of position or to hear responses.
But establishing talks is just a first step. The goal of engagement is to change the other
countrys perception of its own interests and realistic options and, hence, to modify its
policies and its behavior.

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Positivity
Engagement is continuance and promotion of positivity
Sheen, Seoul National University international security
Assistant professor, 2
[Seongho, Spring 2002, The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol XIV, no.
1, US Strategy of Engagement During the Cold War and Its Implication for
Sunshine Policy, Pg. 211,
http://www.kida.re.kr/data/2006/04/14/seongho_sheen.pdf, accessed 7-3-16,
ZT]

Can the sunshine policy really bring positive changes within the North Korean
regime and peace to the Korean peninsula? The logic behind Kim Dae-jungs
policy is a refinement of one of the major strategies of economic statecraft
and military competition. In his discussion of US economic statecraft towards
the Soviet Union during the Cold War, Michael Mastanduno provides a useful
framework for understanding President Kims engagement policy towards the
North. In general, engagement promotes positive relations with an enemy as a
means of changing the behavior or policies of a target government. It accepts the
legitimacy of that government and tries to shape its conduct.
Engagement also requires the establishment and continuance of political
communication with the target. In engaging the enemy, the state sees
political polarization with target or isolation of the target country as
undesirable.

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Positive Incentives
Engagement involves the use of positive incentives to alter
another states behavior
Borer, Naval Postgraduate School Department of Defense
Analysis Associate Professor, 4
[Dr. Douglas A., 7-4, Problems of Economic Statecraft: Rethinking
Engagement, Chapter 12, U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security
Policy & Strategy, p. 169, NVM]

The policy of engagement refers to the use of non-coercive means, or


positive incentives, by one state to alter the elements of another
states behavior. As such, some scholars have categorized
engagement as a form of appeasement.21 However, I concur with
the view articulated by Randall Schweller that, while engagement can be
classified in generic terms as a form of appeasement, an important qualitative difference
exists between the two : Engagement is more than appeasement, he says:
It encompasses any attempt to socialize the dissatisfied power into
acceptance of the established order. In practice engagement may be
distinguished from other policies not so much by its goals but by its
means: it relies on the promise of rewards rather than the threat of
punishment to influence the targets behavior. . . . The policy
succeeds if such concessions convert the revolutionary state into a
status quo power with a stake in the stability of the system. . . .
Engagement is most likely to succeed when the established powers
are strong enough to mix concessions with credible threats, to use
sticks as well as carrots. . . . Otherwise, concessions will signal
weakness that emboldens the aggressor to demand more.22
Schwellers account provides the basic parameters of how
engagement should work in theory, but what can theory tell us about
how engagement works in practice? When the carrots fail to produce
change, can theory help to explain why an established power fails to use the
sticks mentioned by Schweller? In this case, how can theory help us
explain the first Bush administrations ongoing practice of granting noncoercive, positive trade incentives to Iraq in the face of overwhelming
evidence, before its invasion of Kuwait, showing that Iraq had not changed
its pre-engagement behavioral profile and was continuing to act as a rogue

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state? In other words, why did the United States not use its significant power
over Iraq?

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Avoid Conflict
Diplomatic engagement involves communication to avoid
conflict
Maller, MIT, Security Studies Program, 09
[Tara, 2009, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:511536, The Dangers of
Diplomatic Disengagement in Counterterrorism,
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10576100902888479?
journalCode=uter20, pg. 512, accessed: July 8, 2016 //SL]

In general, the concept of diplomatic severance or non-engagement is


somewhat counterintuitive and paradoxical given the inherent
purpose of diplomacy. Conventional wisdom on the purpose of
establishing an American diplomatic presence around the globe would
suggest that the general aim of U.S. diplomacy is both to promote the U.S.
image abroad and improve the United Statess understanding of
developments in other countries. After all, the practice of diplomacy
essentially consists of communicating both agreements and disagreements between
states , conducting negotiations and handling affairs between states.
Diplomacy is aimed at seeking to avoid conflict or ameliorating
potential conflicts when they might arise, which would seem to imply
diplomatic relations would be all the more necessary and valued with
problematic regimes.

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Involvement
Engagement requires involvement
WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
[engagement, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=engagement&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=
&o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=, accessed 5-15-16]

Noun
S: (n) battle, conflict, fight, engagement (a hostile meeting of opposing
military forces in the course of a war) "Grant won a decisive victory in the
battle of Chickamauga"; "he lost his romantic ideas about war when he got
into a real engagement"
S: (n) date, appointment, engagement (a meeting arranged in advance) "she
asked how to avoid kissing at the end of a date"
S: (n) betrothal, troth, engagement (a mutual promise to marry)
S: (n) employment, engagement (the act of giving someone a job)
S: (n) engagement, booking (employment for performers or performing
groups that lasts for a limited period of time) "the play had bookings
throughout the summer"
S: (n) engagement, mesh, meshing, interlocking (contact by fitting together)
"the engagement of the clutch"; "the meshing of gears"
S: (n) engagement, participation, involvement, involution (the act of
sharing in the activities of a group) "the teacher tried to increase
his students' engagement in class activities"

Engagement is involvement
Macmillan Dictionary
[Engagement, Macmillan Dictionary,
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/engagement,
accessed 5-15-16]

engagement - definition and synonyms

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NOUN /nedmnt/Word Forms


Contribute to our Open Dictionary
Related words
engagement ring NOUN
constructive engagement NOUN
a prior arrangement/engagement
1 [COUNTABLE] a formal agreement to get married
break off an engagement (=end it): Miranda has not met any other man
since she broke off their engagement.
Synonyms and related words
Engagements and weddings: bachelorette party, bachelor party, banns...
Explore Thesaurus
a. the period during which two people are engaged to be married
a long engagement
Synonyms and related words
Engagements and weddings: bachelorette party, bachelor party, banns...
Explore Thesaurus
2 [COUNTABLE] a formal arrangement to meet someone or to do
something, especially as part of your public duties
Official engagements take up about 50% of his time.
Im afraid I have a previous lunch engagement.
Synonyms and related words
Official meetings and conferences: AGM, annual meeting,
appointment...
Explore Thesaurus
3 [COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE] FORMAL a battle between armies
Heavy engagements are reported between rebels and government forces.
the rules of engagement
Synonyms and related words

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Wars, battles and military maneuvers: drawdown, overwatch, exfiltration...


Explore Thesaurus
4 [UNCOUNTABLE] the action of parts of a machine when they connect with
each other
Synonyms and related words
Engine and machine behavior: backfire, burn up, cut out...
Explore Thesaurus
5 [COUNTABLE/UNCOUNTABLE] FORMAL an arrangement to employ someone
or to use their services
Synonyms and related words
To employ someone: employ, appoint, take on...
Explore Thesaurus
6 [UNCOUNTABLE] FORMAL the feeling of being involved in a particular
activity
engagement with: Participants assess their level of engagement
with their childs feelings.
Synonyms and related words
Involvement and participation: involvement, participation,
intervention...

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Agreement
Engagement is an agreement
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 1969
[engagement, 3rd edition, edited by James A. Ballentine,
http://citizenlaw.com/pdf/e.pdf, accessed 5-16-16]

engagement. An agreement; a contract; an agreement consisting of


mutual promises to marry.

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Diplomatic Relations
Engagement is diplomatic relations
Maller, New America Foundation National Security Studies
Program research fellow, 5-29-09
[Tara, 5-29-09, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, The Dangers of Diplomatic
Disengagement in Counterterrorism, p. 512, Vol. 32, Iss. 6, Taylor & Francis]

Different forms of non-engagement have been employed throughout history.


Haas and OSullivan define engagement as a foreign policy
strategy which depends to a significant degree on positive
incentives to achieve its objectives. 2 They also correctly point out that an
engagement strategy does not mean there cannot also be concurrent
military pressure and sanctions. The present author adds to their definition
the notion that engagement also tends to entail diplomatic relations with a
state , a diplomatic presence in that state and a substantial amount
of interaction between high and low level diplomats. Building on
their definition of engagement, the present author defines nonengagement as a foreign policy strategy that depends to a
significant degree on punitive measures, a lack of positive
incentives, and a general aversion to diplomatic interaction with a
state to achieve foreign policy objectives. Non-engagement strategies
typically are characterized by punitive strategies across the military,
economic, and diplomatic realms. This article will focus specifically on the
diplomatic component of non-engagement, which is characterized by
severing formal diplomatic ties with a country or significantly downgrading
ties from the normal level of diplomatic activity for foreign policy purposes. 3
It is also worth noting that in most cases of U.S.-initiated diplomatic
sanctions, there may also be economic sanctions aimed at the economic
isolation of the target state. In addition, once diplomatic ties with a state
have been severed, the United States still faces choices about the degree to
which it is willing to engage with a severed or downgraded state. Third party
state actors may be used as a diplomatic go between for states without
diplomatic relations and there may be very little face-to-face interaction
between U.S. officials and officials of the target state. In some cases, certain
types of diplomacy may be permissible (i.e., multiparty talks), whereas other
forms of direct talks are not (i.e., bilateral talks). Regardless of the
acceptable threshold for communication, cutting diplomatic ties with a state
and opting for diplomatic disengagement sends a strong signal about U.S.

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willingness and desire to communicate and creates substantial barriers to


doing so.

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State of Being Engaged


Engagement requires the state of being engaged
Merriam Webster
[engagement, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/engagement,
accessed 5-20-16]

a : the act of engaging : the state of being engaged


b : emotional involvement or commitment <seesaws between obsessive
engagement and ambiguous detachment Gary Taylor>
c : betrothal

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Does Not Require Reciprocation


Engagement is the act of engaging or being engaged
Oxford Dictionaries
[engagement,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/engageme
nt, accessed 5-15-16]

The action of engaging or being engaged:


Britains continued engagement in open trading
the engagement of the gears
More example sentences
China's engagement in space scientific experiments and technical tests is
entirely out of peaceful purpose, it also represents a contribution to the
science of humanity and to the cause of peace.
Besides my amusement in actually relating a current writing to Plato, I think
the column astutely voices a deficiency of student engagement in classes.
Mutual obligation is therefore seen as a social or political value that can be
enforced without reference to whether it involves engagement in a reciprocal
economy.

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Obligation
Engagement is an obligation
Black's Law Dictionary Free Online Legal Dictionary
[Black's Law Dictionary Free Online Legal Dictionary 2nd Ed., What is
ENGAGEMENT? definition of ENGAGEMENT (Black's Law Dictionary),
http://thelawdictionary.org/engagement/, accessed 5-16-16]

What is ENGAGEMENT?
In French law. A contract. The obligation arising from a quasi contract
The terms obligation and engagement are said to be
synonymous, (17 Toullier, no. 1;) but the Code seems specially to apply the
term engagement to those obligations which the law imposes on a man
without the intervention of any contract, either on the part of the obligor or
the obligee, (article 1370.) An engagement to do or omit to do
something amounts to a promise. Rue v. Rue, 21 N. J. Law, 309. In
English practice. The term has been appropriated to denote a contract
entered into by a married woman with the intention of binding or charging
her separate estate, or, with stricter accuracy, a promise which in the case of
a person sui juris would be a contract. but in the case of a married woman is
not a contract because she cannot bind herself personally, even in equity.
Her engagements, therefore, merely operate as dispositions or appointments
pro tanto of her separate estate.

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Unconditional Generic
Engagement is unconditional conditioning runs counter to
engagement
Smith, London School of Economics foreign policy Professor
and director, 5
[Karen E, May, Engagement and conditionality: incompatible or mutually
reinforcing?, Global Europe: New Terms of Engagement,
http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/484.pdf, Pg. 23, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

First, a few definitions. Engagement is a foreign policy strategy of


building close ties with the government and/or civil society and/or
business community of another state. The intention of this strategy is to
undermine illiberal political and economic practices, and socialise
government and other domestic actors into more liberal ways. Most cases
of engagement entail primarily building economic links, and
encouraging trade and investment in particular. Some observers
have variously labelled this strategy one of interdependence, or of
oxygen: economic activity leads to positive political
consequences.19 Conditionality, in contrast, is the linking, by a
state or international organisation, of perceived benefits to another
state (such as aid or trade concessions) to the fulfilment of
economic and/or political conditions. Positive conditionality entails
promising benefits to a state if it fulfils the conditions; negative
conditionality involves reducing, suspending, or terminating those benefits if
the state violates the conditions (in other words, applying sanctions, or a
strategy of asphyxiation).20 To put it simply, engagement implies ties, but with no
strings attached; conditionality attaches the strings. In another way of looking at it,
engagement is more of a bottom-up strategy to induce change in
another country, conditionality more of a top-down strategy.

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Unconditional Only Positive


Unconditional engagement is only positive action conditions
undermine philosophy of engagement
Sheen, Seoul National University international security
Assistant professor, 2
[Seongho, Spring 2002, The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol XIV, no.
1, US Strategy of Engagement During the Cold War and Its Implication for
Sunshine Policy, Pg. 211,
http://www.kida.re.kr/data/2006/04/14/seongho_sheen.pdf, accessed 7-3-16,
ZT]

Second, a unconditioned engagement strategy adopts exclusive


and unconditional engagement. The strategy is based on the belief that
positive engagement can be used to induce or reinforce desirable
changes in the domestic or foreign policy of a target. Proponents of
the strategy argue that to produce such effects, engagement need
not, and should not, be conditional. The unconditional expansion of
positive engagement, such as economic aid and socio-cultural
exchange, even with a potential adversary, can enhance a
sanctioning states security by restructuring the choices, the
incentives, and ultimately, the behavior of a target government.22

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Non-Punitive
Punitive measures are the opposite of engagement in both
diplomatic and economic contexts
Maller, MIT, Security Studies Program, 09
[Tara, 2009, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:511536, The Dangers of
Diplomatic Disengagement in Counterterrorism,
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10576100902888479?
journalCode=uter20, pg. 512, accessed: July 8, 2016 //SL]

Different forms of non-engagement have been employed throughout


history. Haas and OSullivan define engagement as a foreign policy
strategy which depends to a significant degree on positive
incentives to achieve its objectives.2 They also correctly point out that
an engagement strategy does not mean there cannot also be concurrent
military pressure and sanctions. The present author adds to their definition
the notion that engagement also tends to entail diplomatic relations
with a state, a diplomatic presence in that state and a substantial
amount of interaction between high and low level diplomats. Building on
their definition of engagement, the present author defines nonengagement as a foreign policy strategy that depends to a significant
degree on punitive measures , a lack of positive incentives , and a general
aversion to diplomatic interaction with a state to achieve foreign policy objectives . Nonengagement strategies typically are characterized by punitive
strategies across the military, economic, and diplomatic realms. This
article will focus specifically on the diplomatic component of nonengagement, which is characterized by severing formal diplomatic ties with a
country or significantly downgrading ties from the normal level of diplomatic
activity for foreign policy purposes.3 It is also worth noting that in most
cases of U.S.-initiated diplomatic sanctions, there may also be economic
sanctions aimed at the economic isolation of the target state. In addition,
once diplomatic ties with a state have been severed, the United States still
faces choices about the degree to which it is willing to engage with a severed
or downgraded state. Third party state actors may be used as a diplomatic
go between for states without diplomatic relations and there may be very
little face-to-face interaction between U.S. officials and officials of the target
state. In some cases, certain types of diplomacy may be permissible (i.e.,
multiparty talks), whereas other forms of direct talks are not (i.e., bilateral
talks). Regardless of the acceptable threshold for communication, cutting

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diplomatic ties with a state and opting for diplomatic


disengagement sends a strong signal about U.S. willingness and
desire to communicate and creates substantial barriers to doing so.

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AT Sanctions Are Engagement


Sanctions are disengagement
Maller, MIT, Security Studies Program, 10
[Tara, 2010, The Washington Quarterly, 33:3 pp. 61-79, Diplomacy Derailed:
The Consequences of Diplomatic Sanctions, https://csisprod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fspublic/legacy_files/files/publication/twq10julymaller.pdf, pg. 61, accessed July
8, 2016 //SL]

The U.S. government has recently begun to emphasize the need for
greater engagement with problem states. Proponents of this approach
argue that diplomacy is necessary, even with these regimes. Critics,
however, maintain that engagement with these regimes is tantamount to
appeasement and signals acceptance of behavior that ought to be
condemned. In their view, there is little to be gained by talking to these
states. Thus, diplomatic sanctions or sanctions characterized by political
disengagement are seen as a low-cost means of isolating and
delegitimizing regimes.

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Conditional Negative & Positive


Conditional engagement has negative and positive actions
Sheen, Seoul National University international security
Assistant professor, 2
[Seongho, Spring 2002, The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol XIV, no.
1, US Strategy of Engagement During the Cold War and Its Implication for
Sunshine Policy, Pg. 211,
http://www.kida.re.kr/data/2006/04/14/seongho_sheen.pdf, accessed 7-3-16,
ZT]

Yet a state can take two different strategies in engaging its enemy to
influence the behavior or policies of a target government in positive way.
First, a government may condition or calibrate engagement according to
changes in target behavior. Conditioned engagement strategy rewards good
behavior by promoting engagement and punishes bad behavior by restricting
engagement. To be effective, the engaging state must employ both positive and
negative measures in order to maintain credibility . Positive engagement can
bring concessions only if the target is convinced that it will be
removed if the concessions are not forthcoming.

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Conditionality Generic
For the aff to use conditionality effectively they must prove the
following four things:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ensure Benefits to the engaging state


Clearly state how to earn them and follow through with the deal
Make clear the conditions of which the benefits can be withdrawn
Ensure the legitimacy of itself

Smith, London School of Economics foreign policy professor


and director, 5
[Karen E, May, Engagement and conditionality: incompatible or mutually
reinforcing?, Global Europe: New Terms of Engagement,
http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/484.pdf, Pg. 23, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

In the case of policy towards the EUs neighbours, a mix of engagement and
conditionality is unlikely to be effective because of the double standards
problem: some neighbours will want to know why they are subject to
conditionality while others are merely engaged. And it is clear that the EU
cannot just engage with several of its neighbours, precisely because it would
be seen as rewarding bad behaviour but also because engagement is
unlikely to work in practice given conditions in some of the neighbours
(Belarus is arguably the most obvious example here). Creating ties without
strings is infeasible and impractical. Therefore, to try to avoid the pitfalls of using
conditionality in its neighbourhood policy, the EU could do the following: 28
Global Europe
1) Ensure that the benefits on offer are desirable to the neighbours. All but institutions
should mean what it implies , and the EU should be much more generous and
open than it has so far indicated it will be. At the very least, this entails
promising additional aid, softer visa requirements, and freer trade in
agricultural products. Not only could this inspire reformers to
undertake hard political and economic choices, but the benefits
themselves once extended could reinforce processes of reform,
because such engagement can help create the basis for lasting change. The
Neighbourhood Policy has been launched because the EU is trying rightly
to reduce the effects of exclusion, of leaving out countries from the
enlarging EU. This means minimising the importance of the border between
the enlarging EU and its neighbours - as it stands, the Neighbourhood Policy
does not yet do this sufficiently.

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2) Be clear about what neighbours must do to earn the benefits on offer and then
follow through with extending them . This means setting clear benchmarks, to
use the European Commissions original language. This will also require the
EU to be much clearer about all of its policy priorities with respect to
particular neighbours including the promotion of human rights and
democracy, and the fight against terrorism, organised crime, the
proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, or illegal immigration.
Better yet, the EU needs to think about how best it could combine such
policy objectives so as to avoid having them cancel each other out. For
example, the fight against illegal immigration should not entail the violation
of the human rights of presumed illegals on the EUs periphery.
3) Just as the conditions for the benefits on offer need to be made clear, so do the
conditions for having such benefits withdrawn or other negative measures taken . And
again, the EU must follow through. It does not make sense to insert New
Terms of Engagement 29 human rights clauses in all the EUs agreements
with its neighbours and then not utilise them when human rights violations
occur. Of course, this means that all of the member states and the
EU institutions - will need to agree to use negative measures in
certain circumstances, and such agreement in an enlarged EU could
continue to be quite difficult. Yet if the EU is to derive leverage from its policy
instruments, then it must be firmer in its demands on third countries
including the southern Mediterranean countries, where until recently the EU
was very hesitant to insist on political and economic reform. As the European
Security Strategy promises, the EU should not hesitate to withdraw benefits
if conditions are not fulfilled. Needless to say, it should ensure that it
acts consistently, that all countries are treated similarly.
4) Finally, any actor that seeks to impose conditionality should ensure that its own house is
in order . The treatment of third country nationals and asylum seekers within
the EU, the democratic deficit, the failure of member states to implement
EC laws on time and in full all of these do not help to give the EU legitimacy
when making demands on its neighbours. And without legitimacy, the
EUs influence will suffer.

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AT Negative Conditionality
Negative conditionality is bad; it ignores human rights
violations
Smith, London School of Economics foreign policy professor
and director, 5
[Karen E, May, Engagement and conditionality: incompatible or mutually
reinforcing?, Global Europe: New Terms of Engagement,
http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/484.pdf, Pg. 23, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

But there are serious drawbacks to using conditionality, and


negative conditionality in particular. New Terms of Engagement 25
Negative conditionality does not address the causes of human rights violations or other
illiberal political practices and can even worsen the situation. The assumption is that
governments can respond to outside pressure, but they may not be able to do so . And the
inconsistent way in which many Western states and the EU apply
conditionality diminishes its potency: some states suffer from sanctions more
than others, and the reason can often be traced back to their relative
strategic and commercial importance to donors.

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Can Include Military Pressure/Sanctions


Engagement can include military pressure and sanctions
Maller, New America Foundation National Security Studies
Program research fellow, 9
[Tara, 5-29-09, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, The Dangers of Diplomatic
Disengagement in Counterterrorism, p. 512, Vol. 32, Iss. 6, Taylor & Francis]

Different forms of non-engagement have been employed throughout history.


Haas and OSullivan define engagement as a foreign policy
strategy which depends to a significant degree on positive
incentives to achieve its objectives. 2 They also correctly point out that an
engagement strategy does not mean there cannot also be concurrent military pressure and
sanctions . The present author adds to their definition the notion that
engagement also tends to entail diplomatic relations with a state , a diplomatic
presence in that state and a substantial amount of interaction
between high and low level diplomats. Building on their definition of
engagement, the present author defines non-engagement as a
foreign policy strategy that depends to a significant degree on
punitive measures, a lack of positive incentives, and a general
aversion to diplomatic interaction with a state to achieve foreign
policy objectives. Non-engagement strategies typically are characterized
by punitive strategies across the military, economic, and diplomatic realms.
This article will focus specifically on the diplomatic component of nonengagement, which is characterized by severing formal diplomatic ties with a
country or significantly downgrading ties from the normal level of diplomatic
activity for foreign policy purposes. 3 It is also worth noting that in most
cases of U.S.-initiated diplomatic sanctions, there may also be economic
sanctions aimed at the economic isolation of the target state. In addition,
once diplomatic ties with a state have been severed, the United States still
faces choices about the degree to which it is willing to engage with a severed
or downgraded state. Third party state actors may be used as a diplomatic
go between for states without diplomatic relations and there may be very
little face-to-face interaction between U.S. officials and officials of the target
state. In some cases, certain types of diplomacy may be permissible (i.e.,
multiparty talks), whereas other forms of direct talks are not (i.e., bilateral
talks). Regardless of the acceptable threshold for communication, cutting
diplomatic ties with a state and opting for diplomatic disengagement sends a

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strong signal about U.S. willingness and desire to communicate and creates
substantial barriers to doing so.

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Engage

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Active
Engage is active
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 1969
[engage, 3rd edition, edited by James A. Ballentine,
http://citizenlaw.com/pdf/e.pdf, accessed 5-16-16]

engage. In the oldest sense of the term, to give as a gage or pledge; to


pledge property as security. To take part in; to be employed in, however
the employment may arise. Anno: 15 ALR 1283. To cooperate actively or
take part in an enterprise. Benefit Asso. Of R. Employees v Hayden, 175
Ark 565, 299 SW 995, 57 ALR 622. To embark; to bind by appointment or by
contract; to bind by promise of marriage. To enter into conflict with an enemy
or test of strength and athletic ability with an opponent.

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Attention
Engage is to keep attention
Macmillan Dictionary
[engage, Macmillan Dictionary,
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/engage,
accessed 5-15-16]

engage - definition and synonyms


VERB

engage pronunciation in American English

/ned/Word Forms
Related words
engage in PHRASAL VERB
engage with PHRASAL VERB
enter into/engage in a transaction
engage someone in conversation

1 [TRANSITIVE] FORMAL to attract and keep someones interest or


attention
A good radio script should be able to engage the listener.
Synonyms and related words
To make someone feel excited, enthusiastic or impressed:inspire, attract,
interest...
Explore Thesaurus
a. to start to employ someone or use their services
The company is to engage a new sales director.
engage someone to do something: A magician has been engaged to provide
entertainment.
Synonyms and related words
To employ someone:employ, appoint, take on...

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Explore Thesaurus
2 [INTRANSITIVE/TRANSITIVE] if a part of a machine engages, or if you
engage it, it fits into another part so that they work together
A microswitch in the gear shift automatically engages and disengages the
clutch.
The mechanism failed to engage, causing a fault.
Synonyms and related words
To make a machine or piece of equipment work:activate, actuate, coax...
Explore Thesaurus
Synonyms and related words
To work, or to start working (of a piece of machinery):operate, come on,
function...
Explore Thesaurus
3 [INTRANSITIVE/TRANSITIVE] FORMAL to start to fight with an enemy in
battle
Synonyms and related words
Fighting in a war and relating to fighting in a war:active duty, active service,
aggressor...

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Involve
Engage is to cause someone to become involved in an activity,
to fit one part of a machine into another so they move
together, to attack or begin to fight an enemy, and to arrange
to employ someone
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Engage, Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/engage, accessed 7-516, NVM]

engage verb (INTEREST)


[T] to cause someone to become interested or involved in an
activity, or to attract someones interest:
He wrote about things that engaged him.
engage verb (FIT TOGETHER)
[I/T] to fit one part of a machine into another so they move
together, or cause something to fit into and move together:
[I] The gears wont engage.
[T] You need to engage second gear.
engage verb (BEGIN FIGHTING)
[T] to attack or begin to fight an enemy in a military operation:
The marines engaged the enemy.
engage verb (EMPLOY)
[T] to arrange to employ someone; hire:
She decided to engage a personal assistant.
Her family engaged a tutor to teach her French.

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Engage is to employ someone, to interest someone in


something, to become involved with someone or something,
etc.
Cambridge Advanced
[Engage, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary & Thesaurus,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/engage, accessed 7-516, NVM]

[T] mainly UK formal to employ someone:


[+ to infinitive] I have engaged a secretary to deal with all my
paperwork.
We're engaging the services of a professional administrator.
More examples
We've recently engaged a cleaner.
She has been known to engage the services of a professional
shopper.
For these services he would otherwise have to engage a
psychotherapist.
A professional coach was immediately engaged.
240 stewards were engaged to ensure that the game went
smoothly.
C1 [T] formal to interest someone in something and keep them
thinking about it:
The debate about food safety has engaged the whole nation.
If a book doesn't engage my interest in the first few pages, I don't
usually continue reading it.
[I] formal to become involved, or have contact, with someone or
something:
She's an intelligent child but in class she doesn't really engage.
Just stay out of his way as much as possible, and don't engage with
him.
More examples

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The subject doesn't engage me.


For some reason the film failed to engage my interest.
We're always looking out for new subjects that will engage our
readers.
The debate fails to engage him intellectually.
He was examining his fingernails, one of which seemed to engage
his attention.
[I or T] to make one part of a machine fit into and move together
with another part of a machine:
When the large gear wheel engages (with the smaller one), the mill
stone will start to go round.
[I or T] specialized military to attack or begin to fight someone:
Enemy planes engaged the troops as they advanced into the
mountains.
Indian English [T] to teach someone, especially a class of children, or
to keep someone busy

Engage is to hire someone to perform a particular service, to


get and keep someones attention, and to start fighting
against
Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary
[Engage, Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/engage, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

: to hire (someone) to perform a particular service : to pay for (help,


services, etc.)
: to get and keep (someone's attention, interest, etc.)
: to start fighting against (an opponent) ( formal )

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Dictionary Lists
Engage is to occupy the attention or efforts of, to secure for
aid, to attract and hold fast, to attract or please, etc.
Dictionary.com
[Engage, Dictionary.com Unabridged,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/engage, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. to occupy the attention or efforts of (a person or persons):


He engaged her in conversation.
2. to secure for aid, employment, use, etc.; hire:
to engage a worker; to engage a room.
3. to attract and hold fast:
The novel engaged her attention and interest.
4. to attract or please:
His good nature engages everyone.
5. to bind, as by pledge, promise, contract, or oath; make liable:
He engaged himself to repay his debt within a month.
6. to betroth (usually used in the passive):
They were engaged last week.
7. to bring (troops) into conflict; enter into conflict with:
Our army engaged the enemy.
8. Mechanics. to cause (gears or the like) to become interlocked;
interlock with.
9. to attach or secure.
10. Obsolete. to entangle or involve.
11. to occupy oneself; become involved:
to engage in business or politics.
12. to take employment:

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She engaged in her mother's business.


13. to pledge one's word; assume an obligation:
I was unwilling to engage on such terms.
14. to cross weapons; enter into conflict:
The armies engaged early in the morning.
15. Mechanics. (of gears or the like) to interlock.

Engage is to secure the services of, to secure for use, to


involve intensely, to attract, to draw somebody into a
conversation, etc.
Collins English Dictionary
[Engage, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/engage, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. to secure the services of; employ


2. to secure for use; reserve: engage a room
3. to involve (a person or his attention) intensely; engross; occupy
4. to attract (the affection) of (a person): her innocence engaged
him
5. to draw (somebody) into conversation
6. (intransitive) to take part; participate: he engages in many sports
7. to promise (to do something)
8. (also intransitive) ( military) to begin an action with (an enemy)
9. to bring (a mechanism) into operation: he engaged the clutch
10. (also intransitive) to undergo or cause to undergo interlocking, as
of the components of a driving mechanism, such as a gear train
11. (machinery) to locate (a locking device) in its operative position
or to advance (a tool) into a workpiece to commence cutting

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Engage is to occupy or involve someones attention, cause


someone to be involved in, arrange to employ or hire, etc.
Oxford Dictionaries
[Engage, Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/engage,
accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1 [WITH OBJECT] Occupy, attract, or involve (someones interest or


attention):
he plowed on, trying to outline his plans and engage Suttons
attention
It will involve engaging their enthusiasm and interest.
Spectators had a diverse range of exhibits to engage their
attention and sheep dog trials generated considerable interest.
It consists in not taking an interest in whatever may be engaging
the attention of the general public at any particular time.
1.1 (engage someone in) Cause someone to become involved in (a
conversation or discussion).
We must engage them in discussions that involve their
experiences, their questions, and their standards.
I'd be happy to engage her in a discussion about the value of
advertising.
So we have to engage Beijing in a thorough discussion on this
matter.
1.2 Arrange to employ or hire (someone):
he was engaged as a trainee copywriter
Although we were totally different, we seemed to hit it off and I
made arrangements to engage him full-time on my return to
England.
They were not like the modern fairs but were where employers
went to engage workers and people went to seek jobs and also to
buy things.
His current part-time mechanic employee engages him 15 to 25
hours per week.

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1.3 [WITH INFINITIVE] Pledge or enter into a contract to do


something:
he engaged to pay them $10,000 against a bond
It is not reasonable that a solicitor should engage to act on for an
indefinite number of years, winding up estates, without receiving
any payment on which he can maintain himself.
[A solicitor] may be engaged to perform tasks which are connected
with the running of the affairs of his principal.
I mean you can engage to large corporations and you can advertise
to bankers and you can advertise to all sorts of wealthy people, but
to ordinary folks you cannot, and that sounds discriminatory to me.
1.4 dated Reserve (accommodations, a place, etc.) in advance:
he had engaged a small sailboat
One day Ramonti, the violinist, engaged the front room above.
P. T. Barnum had engaged the larger exhibition room to stage a new kind of
mass entertainment, against which painting simply could not compete.
2 [NO OBJECT] (engage in) Participate or become involved in:
organizations engage in a variety of activities
(be engaged in) some are actively engaged in crime
Eventually she becomes involved in drugs and engages in various
sexual escapades.
Each of the named individuals is a scientist who engages in
research involving animals.
He has been actively engaged in an open exchange on what Indonesia is
and should be.
2.1 (engage with) Establish a meaningful contact or connection with:
the teams needed to engage with local communities
They come to be a part of a network of people that they connect
with, engage with.
He provides a sweeping overview of the period and engages with many of
the ideas Europe is struggling with about its future.

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In essence her method of engaging with people and thus creating action can
be defined as a type of leadership that gains momentum from common
cause.
3 (With reference to a part of a machine or engine) move into position so as
to come into operation:
[NO OBJECT]: the clutch will not engage
[WITH OBJECT]: he engaged the gears and pulled out into the road
When a data cartridge is inserted into the data storage system, the
cartridge directly or indirectly engages and moves the shield from the first
position to the second position.
The Patrol has a part-time, four-wheel drive system, which can be engaged
on the move at speeds up to 40 kph.
I found a big sweet spot where the clutch lets the gears engage after raising
the pedal a few inches.
4 [WITH OBJECT] (Of fencers or swordsmen) bring (weapons) together
preparatory to fighting.
Engage your brain before you engage your weapon.
The sword darted out as he'd expected, engaging his dagger, and the knife
drove forward for his belly, but his left hand struck like a serpent.
Suddenly he lunged and engaged his opponent's sword.
4.1 Enter into conflict or combat with (an enemy).
When a unit is engaged by an enemy force, it is likely that the commander
will react by maneuvering forces to counter the enemy and, if possible, to
pursue any evading forces.
Our soldiers engaged hostile enemies in combat, preserved peace on
strange frontiers and symbolized American values both at home and abroad.
Mongol commanders would also send portions of their force well past and
around the enemy lines while the main body engaged the enemy army.

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And/Or

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And/Or

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And/or Either/Both
And/or is inclusive and can be one or both options
Adams, University of Pennsylvania Law Lecturer & Kaye, Cal
State University-Fullerton English professor, 7
[Kenneth and Alan, June 2007, St. Johns Law Review, And and or in legal
drafting, http://www.adamsdrafting.com/downloads/Ambiguity-And-Or.pdf,
p. 25-6, accessed 7-2-16, ZT]

AND/OR Drafters sometimes use and/or to convey the meaning of the inclusive or .
Judges and legal-writing commentators have fulminated against use of
and/or,75 but it has gained greater acceptance among general authorities.76
It does, after all, have a specific meaning X and/or Y means X or Y or
both . One could use Acme may dissolve Subsidiary A and/or Subsidiary B as
an alternative to [13b]. (X, Y, and/or Z means X or Y or Z or any two or more
of them).

And/or means either or both


The American Heritage Dictionary, 9
[American Heritage, And/Or, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/and%2For,
2009 update, access date: 3-20-13, MAY]

and/or (ndr)
conj.
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are
involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. Its use in
general writing to mean "one or the other or both" is acceptable but can
appear stilted. See Usage Note at or1

And/or means either or both


Brians, Washington State University, Emeritus Professor of
English

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[Paul, WSU Common Errors, And/or,


http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/andor.html, no date, access date: 7-616]

The legal phrase and/or, indicating that you can either choose
between two alternatives or choose both of them, has proved
irresistible in other contexts and is now widely acceptable though it irritates
some readers as jargon. However, you can logically use it only when you
are discussing choices which may or may not both be done: Bring
chips and/or beer. Its very much overused where simple or would do,
and it would be wrong to say, you can get to the campus for this mornings
meeting on a bike and/or in a car. Choosing one eliminates the possibility of
the other, so this isnt an and/or situation.

And/or is either, both


Dictionary.com, Based on Random House Dictionary, 13
[Dictionary.com, and/or, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/and%2For,
2013, access date: 3-24-13, MAY]

conjunction (used to imply that either or both of the things


mentioned may be affected or involved): insurance covering fire and/or
wind damage. Can be confused: and, and/or, nor, or (see usage note at
and)(see usage note at the current entry). Usage note The combination
and/or is used primarily in business and legal writing: All dwellings and/or
other structures on the property are included in the contract. Because of
these business and legal associations, some object to the use of this
combination in general writing, where it occasionally occurs: She spends
much of her leisure time entertaining and/or traveling. In such writing, either
and or or is usually adequate.

And/or means both or one


OxfordDictionaries.com
[ and, Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/and,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

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and/or
Either or both of two stated possibilities:
audio and/or video components
More example sentences
What's your favorite thing to eat (and/or drink) on the bike?

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And/or Not Both


And/or means and, or, but not both
The Language Log, 8
[Mark Liberman and Geoffrey Pullum from the Linguistic Data Consortium,
Legal uses of and/oror something, http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?
p=47, 4-17-08, access date: 3-26-13, MAY]

Mellinkoff concludes that it has several understandings (307-308):


It includes every possibility imaginable with and alone plus every
possibility imaginable with or alone.
It should best accord with the equity of the situation.
It includes some but not all of the possibilities of and and or (but
legal scholars disagree about which possibilities to include).
It means either and or or but it can't mean both.
It is meaningless.

And/or is used to only convey the or, means you cant do both
Adams, University of Pennsylvania Law Lecturer & Kaye, Cal
State University-Fullerton English professor, 7
[Kenneth and Alan, June 2007, St. Johns Law Review, And and or in
legal drafting, http://www.adamsdrafting.com/downloads/Ambiguity-AndOr.pdf, p. 26, accessed 7-2-16, ZT]
On the other hand, X or Y or both is generally clearer than and/or. And
drafters sometimes use and/or when the only possible meaning is that conveyed by
or : Acme shall incorporate Subsidiary in Delaware and/or New York.
On balance, it is best to avoid and/or.

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And

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Together

And means together or added to


Dictionary.com
[and, Dictionary.com, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/and?s=t, accessed
7-5-16, ZT]
and
[and; unstressed uh nd, uh n, or, esp. after a homorganic consonant, n]
Spell Syllables
Word Origin
See more synonyms on Thesaurus.com
conjunction
1.
(used to connect grammatically coordinate words, phrases, or clauses ) along
or together with ; as well as; in addition to; besides; also; moreover:
pens and pencils.
2.
added to; plus:
2 and 2 are 4.
3.
then:
He read for an hour and went to bed.

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Consequence
And includes a consequence
Collins English Dictionary 12 [ and, Collins English Dictionary
complete and unabridged, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/and?s=t,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]
and
/nd; unstressed nd; n/
conjunction (coordinating)
1.
along with; in addition to: boys and girls
2.
as a consequence : he fell down and cut his knee
3.
afterwards: we pay the man and go through that door

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Joined
And connects things that are meant as a joint statement.
OxfordDictionaries.com ND [ and, Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/and,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]
Used to connect words of the same part of speech, clauses, or sentences that are to be taken
jointly:
bread and butter
red and black tiles
they can read and write
a hundred and fifty

And is used to express logical modification, consequence,


antithesis, or supplementary explanation
Merriam Websters Dictionary ND [ and, Merriam-Webster,
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/and, accessed 7-5-16, ZT]
Full Definition of and
1
used as a function word to indicate connection or addition
especially of items within the same class or type; used to join sentence
elements of the same grammatical rank or function
2
a used as a function word to express logical modification, consequence,
antithesis, or supplementary explanation
b used as a function word to join one finite verb (as go, come, try) to
another so that together they are logically equivalent to an infinitive of
purpose <come and see me>

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Strengthens
And has to make the two added things stronger
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary ND [ and, Cambridge
University Press, http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/and?
q=And, accessed 7-5-16, ZT]
and conjunction (VERY)
(used to join two words, esp. two that are the same, to make their meaning
stronger ):
The sound grew louder and louder.

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Interjection
And is an interjection or question
OxfordDictionaries.com ND [ and, Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/and,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]
Used to introduce an additional comment or interjection:
if it came to a choice and this was the worst thing she would turn her back on
her parents
they believe they are descended from him, and quite right, too
More example sentences
2. 1Used to introduce a question in connection with what someone else has just
said:
I found the letter in her bag. And did you steam it open?

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Slash

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Slash (/) Choice

Slash denotes choices


Merriam-Webster Online, no date
[Merriam Webster dictionary, slash, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/slash, NO DATE, access date: 3-28-13]

: the act of slashing; also : a long cut or stroke made by or as if by slashing


2 : an ornamental slit in a garment 3 a : an open tract in a forest strewn
with debris (as from logging) b : the debris in such a tract 4 : a mark / used
typically to denote "or" (as in and/or), "and or" (as in
straggler/deserter), or "per" (as in feet/second) called also
diagonal, slant, solidus, virgule

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Or

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Or Alternatives

Or joins two items and also rephrases


Collins English Dictionary 12 [ or, Collins English Dictionary
Complete and Unabridged, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/or?s=t,
accessed 7-5-16, ZT]

or1
/; unstressed /
conjunction (coordinating)
1.
used to join alternatives : apples or pears, apples or pears or cheese, apples,
pears, or cheese
2.
used to join rephrasings of the same thing: to serve in the army, or rather to
fight in the army, twelve, or a dozen
3.
used to join two alternatives when the first is preceded by either or whether:
whether it rains or not we'll be there, either yes or no

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Diplomatic Engagement

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Violations

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1NC Diplomatic Engagement Not One-Off


A. Interpretation Engagement requires the building of
substantive relationships gets the core purpose of diplomacy
and limits out one-off encounters
Wallin, American Security Project Public Diplomacy fellow, 13
[Matthew, 6-11-2013, American Security Project, "Engagement: What does it
Mean for Public Diplomacy? -,"
http://www.americansecurityproject.org/engagement-what-does-it-mean-forpublic-diplomacy/, accessed: 7-5-2016, S.C.]

What practitioners and policymakers should understand is that core


of public diplomacy is not really about undefined engagementit
is about building relationships.
By focusing on relationship-building, and eliminating engagement from
the PD lexicon, practitioners and policymakers may begin to better
employ the thinking that is required for better public diplomacy.
Rather than speaking about PD in abstract terms, emphasizing
relationship-building forces those participating in the PD debate to
consider the types of activities that are necessary to gain influence.
Rather than counting one-off twitter postings as engagement, practitioners should focus on
substantive, comprehensive and continuing dialogue.
One of the biggest problems in public diplomacy is that few
understand what it is, and the terminology itself doesnt help. Soft
power, public diplomacy, and engagement all need to be explained
in order to be understood. These terms have no immediate recognition
like war, peace, freedom or competition. For this reason, perhaps
building relationships should be used more often by those
exploring or explaining the subject.
In the end, building relationships gets to the core of how public
diplomacy should be geared, and serves to remind practitioners of
the types of efforts needed to exert non-coercive influence.

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B. Violation The plan is not diplomatic engagement because


engagement needs to be a substantive, comprehensive, and
sustained dialogue not a one-off encounter. Their plan is a
one-shot deal they only
C. Reasons to Vote Negative
1. Limits The affirmative interpretation legitimizes of the
week affs they could do isolated deal of the week, aid
package of the week, ambassador of the week, meeting of the
week affs which blows the lid off of the topic by letting tiny
inconsequential encounters be topical, making it impossible
for the neg to adequately prepare case strategies or win DA
links.
2. Debatability One-off encounter affs avoid the substantive
crux of the debate about engagement which is about building
relationships their interpretation makes it impossible to
rigorously test whether or not building diplomatic or economic
engagement is a good idea.
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate

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1NC Diplomatic Engagement Is Not Hostile


A. Interpretation
1. Diplomatic means relating to diplomacy
WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
[diplomatic, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=diplomatic&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&
o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=00000, accessed 5-16-16]

Adjective
S: (adj) diplomatic (relating to or characteristic of diplomacy)
"diplomatic immunity"
S: (adj) diplomatic, diplomatical (using or marked by tact in dealing with
sensitive matters or people) "the hostess averted a confrontation with a
diplomatic chenage of subject"

2. Diplomacy involves non-hostile negotiations and relations


between nations
State Department Diplomatic Dictionary
[Diplomacy, State Department Diplomatic Dictionary,
http://diplomacy.state.gov/discoverdiplomacy/references/169792.htm#top,
accessed 7-2-16, NVM]

The art and practice of conducting negotiations and maintaining


relations between nations; skill in handling affairs without arousing
hostility.

B. Violation The plan engages with the Peoples Republic of


China in a hostile manner because it

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C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Neg Ground The affirmative interpretation steals core
negative ground like appeasement and deterrence
disadvantages as well as pressure or conditions counterplans.
Makes testing the method of the affirmative thoroughly
impossible.
2. Debatability The plan explodes the negative research
burden by forcing us to research negative strategies against
both hostile and non-hostile engagement with China and
justifies an infinite number and combination of plans that can
simply be bidirectional maneuvers that may be qualitatively
significant and even have advantages but prevent the negative
team from preparing for a rigorous and in-depth discussion of
the plans merits.
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate.

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1NC Diplomatic Engagement Requires


Adjustments in Behavior
A. Interpretation Diplomatic engagement only involves
seeking adjustments in behavior
Takeyh, Council on Foreign Relations Middle Eastern Studies
senior fellow, 9
[Ray, 10-7-09, Council on Foreign Relations, The Essence of Diplomatic
Engagement, http://www.cfr.org/diplomacy-and-statecraft/essencediplomatic-engagement/p20362, accessed 7-2-16, NVM]

It is Obama's declared engagement policy that has raised the ire of critics
and led them to once more take refuge in the spurious yet incendiary charge
of appeasement. Columnist Charles Krauthammer recently exclaimed, "When
France chides you for appeasement, you know you're scraping bottom."
Acknowledgement of America's misjudgments is derided as an unseemly
apologia while diplomacy is denigrated as a misguided exercise in selfdelusion. After all, North Korea continues to test its nuclear weapons and
missiles, Cuba spurns America's offers of a greater opening, and the Iranian
mullahs contrive conspiracy theories about how George Soros and the CIA
are instigating a velvet revolution in their country. Tough-minded
conservatives are urging a course correction and a resolute approach to the
gallery of rogues that the president pledges to embrace.
Such views miscast the essence of diplomatic engagement. Diplomacy is
likely to be a painstaking process and it may not work with every
targeted nation. However, the purpose of such a policy is not to transform
adversaries into allies, but to seek adjustments in their behavior and ambitions. North
Korea, Cuba, Syria, and Iran would be offered a path toward
realizing their essential national interests should they conform to
global conventions on issues such as terrorism and proliferation.

B. Violation The plan is solely dialogue without an


expectation that the PRC adjusts its behavior.

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C. Reasons to Vote Negative


1. Limits The affirmative interpretation legitimizes of the
week affs they could do isolated deal of the week, aid
package of the week, ambassador of the week, meeting of the
week affs which blows the lid off of the topic by letting tiny
inconsequential encounters be topical, making it impossible
for the neg to adequately prepare case strategies or win DA
links.
2. Debatability Purely dialogue/encounter affs avoid the
substantive crux of the debate about engagement which is
about adjusting PRC behavior their interpretation makes it
impossible to rigorously test whether or not building
attempting to adjust PRC behavior is a good idea.
3. Topicality is a voting issue to preserve fair and rigorous
debate

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Diplomatic Engagement

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Adjustments in Behavior
Diplomatic engagement only involves seeking adjustments in
behavior and ambitions, not transforming adversaries into
allies
Takeyh, Council on Foreign Relations Middle Eastern Studies
senior fellow, 9
[Ray, 10-7-09, Council on Foreign Relations, The Essence of Diplomatic
Engagement, http://www.cfr.org/diplomacy-and-statecraft/essencediplomatic-engagement/p20362, accessed 7-2-16, NVM]

It is Obama's declared engagement policy that has raised the ire of


critics and led them to once more take refuge in the spurious yet
incendiary charge of appeasement. Columnist Charles Krauthammer
recently exclaimed, "When France chides you for appeasement, you
know you're scraping bottom." Acknowledgement of America's
misjudgments is derided as an unseemly apologia while diplomacy is
denigrated as a misguided exercise in self-delusion. After all, North
Korea continues to test its nuclear weapons and missiles, Cuba
spurns America's offers of a greater opening, and the Iranian
mullahs contrive conspiracy theories about how George Soros and
the CIA are instigating a velvet revolution in their country. Toughminded conservatives are urging a course correction and a resolute
approach to the gallery of rogues that the president pledges to
embrace.
Such views miscast the essence of diplomatic engagement.
Diplomacy is likely to be a painstaking process and it may not work
with every targeted nation. However, the purpose of such a policy is not to
transform adversaries into allies, but to seek adjustments in their behavior and ambitions.
North Korea, Cuba, Syria, and Iran would be offered a path toward
realizing their essential national interests should they conform to
global conventions on issues such as terrorism and proliferation.

Diplomatic interaction requires mutual concessions


Takeyh, Former State Department Advisor, 9
[Ray, Senior Fellow for Middle Eastern Studies, Council on Foreign Relations,
10/7/2009, The Essence of Diplomatic Engagement,

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http://www.cfr.org/diplomacy-and-statecraft/essence-diplomaticengagement/p20362, Accessed 7/3/2016, SNBE]

The United States will persistently confront crises that require the totality of
its national power. The tumultuous Bush years have demonstrated the
limitations of military force. Diplomatic interaction requires mutual concessions and
acceptance of less than ideal outcomes. Moreover, as the United States charts its
course, there is nothing wrong with acknowledging past errors. Instead of
clinging to its self-proclaimed exceptionalism, America would be wise to take
into account the judgment of other nations that are increasingly central to its
economy and security.

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Mutually Acceptable
Diplomatic engagement entails negotiations to find mutually
acceptable solutions
Azel, Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies Senior
Research Associate, 9
[Jos, 4-6-09, Information and Analysis from the Institute for Cuban and
Cuban-American Studies University of Miami, In Defense of Carrots and
Sticks, p.2, unsure of publisher, NVM]

Diplomatic engagement with an adversary rarely, if ever, succeeds by


merely appealing to the adversarys higher principles. It is an implausible
strategy with the likes of Ahmadinejad, Kim Jong-il, or Castro, where the
vigorous interaction of values and diplomacy are necessary. By definition,
diplomacy and diplomatic engagement are about negotiations to find
mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge. Giving away all U.S.
bargaining positions in return for nothing is not a mutually
acceptable solution. In negotiations, when an unconditional
concession is given, the other party pockets it and moves on to its
next demand. That is precisely what the Castro government would do with
the recommended giveaways. In the real world, if one arrives at the
negotiating table empty handed, one is sure to leave empty handed.

Diplomatic engagement entails a win-win outcome for both


countries involved
Sood, diplomat and expert on foreign affairs, 8-23-15
[Rakesh, 8-23-15, DailyO, Why Modi must end this theatre of the absurd
with Pakistan, http://www.dailyo.in/politics/india-pakistan-ties-nsa-talks-pdpbjp-kashmir-hurriyat-conference-saarc-2016-diplomacy-ajit-doval-sartajaziz/story/1/5824.html, accessed 7-2-16, NVM]

Any diplomatic engagement between two countries is a negotiation


and by definition, a negotiation can only be successful if the
outcome is seen as a win-win outcome for both sides. This requires
careful management of expectations and media handling.

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Relationship-Building
Engagement requires the building of substantive relationships
gets the core purpose of diplomacy and limits out one-off
encounters
Wallin, American Security Project Public Diplomacy fellow, 13
[Matthew, 6-11-2013, American Security Project, "Engagement: What does it
Mean for Public Diplomacy? -,"
http://www.americansecurityproject.org/engagement-what-does-it-mean-forpublic-diplomacy/, accessed: 7-5-2016, S.C.]

What practitioners and policymakers should understand is that core


of public diplomacy is not really about undefined engagementit
is about building relationships.
By focusing on relationship-building, and eliminating engagement from
the PD lexicon, practitioners and policymakers may begin to better
employ the thinking that is required for better public diplomacy.
Rather than speaking about PD in abstract terms, emphasizing
relationship-building forces those participating in the PD debate to
consider the types of activities that are necessary to gain influence.
Rather than counting one-off twitter postings as engagement, practitioners should focus on
substantive, comprehensive and continuing dialogue.
One of the biggest problems in public diplomacy is that few
understand what it is, and the terminology itself doesnt help. Soft
power, public diplomacy, and engagement all need to be explained
in order to be understood. These terms have no immediate recognition
like war, peace, freedom or competition. For this reason, perhaps
building relationships should be used more often by those
exploring or explaining the subject.
In the end, building relationships gets to the core of how public
diplomacy should be geared, and serves to remind practitioners of
the types of efforts needed to exert non-coercive influence.

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Engagement must both have a clear goal and a process


Capie, University of Wellington Political Science &
International Relations Associate Professor, Evans, Asia Pacific
Foundation of Canada Executive Committee Chairman, 07
[David, Paul, The Asia-Pacific Security Lexicon (Updated 2nd Edition), p. 117,
Google Books, S.C.]
In this sense, as Ruggie suggests, engagement seems to be a process as
well as a goal. One important element of the process part of the
debate about U.S. engagement one that is particularly relevant to
the Asia-Pacific has been the question of whether unilateralism or
multilateralism should be the presumptive mode of engagement
for the United States.11 While the United States has accepted the need for
multilateral institutions in the region for more than a decade, the use of
engagement often seems to be based on assumptions of American primacy.
The February 1996 National Security Strategy of Engagement and
Enlargement calls for American leadership and engagement in the world. It
argues that without active leadership and engagement abroad, threats will
fester and our opportunities will narrow, and concludes that the United
States must remain engaged in the world through U.S. leadership.12 In this
respect, it is interesting to contrast the American use of
comprehensive engagement with the Australian policy of the same
name set out in 1989, which explicitly stated that engagement was
a relationship among equals and partners.
[Note Ruggie = John Gerard Ruggie, Berthold Beitz Professor in Human
Rights and International Affairs at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.]

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Non-Military
Diplomatic engagement is distinct from military engagement
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 29, NVM]

The Obama administrations rebalance in the Asia-Pacific region is


in line with broad and longstanding U.S. interests. Contrary to the
skeptics noted above, the president and his advisers seem to be
committed to the robust engagement in the Asia-Pacific. The main
uncertainty to watch is whether or not the United States can support the
costs of military plans involving the Asia-Pacific. Although the sequestration
cuts are nontrivial, the Obama administration is making the rebalance a
strategic priority, and it is likely to move ahead with successful
implementation of its Asia-Pacific initiatives. The administration might not be
able to do everything it would like to do under ideal circumstances, but a
superpower can do a lot even when it is somewhat constrained. The
arguments that the Obama administration is unwisely confronting
China are countered by the U.S. governments efforts since late 2012
to direct the focus of the rebalance in ways that are less offensive
to China and by the apparent U.S. success in 2013 in establishing
closer, more constructive engagement at top political, economic,
diplomatic, and military levels between the two governments.

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Security
Security operations are diplomatic engagement
Reveron, Naval War College National Security Affairs Professor,
7
[Derek S., Aug 30-Sept 2, Shaping and Military Diplomacy, Prepared for
delivery at the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science
Association,
http://www.faoa.org/resources/documents/apsa07_proceeding_210193.pdf,
pg. 11, accessed 7-3-16, ZT]

While combatant commanders are not rogue commanders, proconsuls, or


viceroys, the 1990s shape-respond-prepare strategy gave rise to the
superpowers dont do windows argument. Some identified diplomatic
engagement by Generals Clark, Zinni, or Wilhelm in the 1990s or statebuilding missions in Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo as apostasy for an
organization that is supposed to fight and win the nations wars.
Largely a reaction to Clinton-era uses of the military, then presidential
candidate George W. Bush said: I'm not so sure the role of the United States
is to go around the world and say this is the way it's got to be. We can help. I
just don't think it's the role of the United States to walk into a country and
say, we do it this way, so should you.59 Once elected, the Bush
Administration attempted to rein in engagement activities through
largely symbolic acts. Engagement activities were recast as security
cooperation to emphasize the security dimension of these activities.
Secretary Rumsfeld reduced these leaders stature by preserving the title
commander-in-chief or CINC for the President alone. While largely symbolic,
these leaders reverted to their Title 10 designations, combatant
commanders, with an emphasis on the combat role they are supposed to fill.

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Military Cooperation
Diplomatic engagement includes expansion in military
cooperation
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 23, NVM]
Vietnam: Since the normalization of diplomatic relations between the
United States and Vietnam in July 1995, the two countries have
significantly expanded ties in trade and military cooperation.
Bilateral trade has increased ten-fold since the normalization of trade
relations in 2001, with Washington now serving as Vietnams largest trading
partner. Military cooperation has grown substantially, with joint
exercises and information-sharing increasingly common. Growing
Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea in recent years has concerned
both Vietnam and the United States, with Hanoi internationalizing its
sovereignty disputes with China by appealing to U.S. interests in freedom of
navigation and maritime security. Against this background, U.S. Secretary of
State Clinton stated in July 2010, that the Obama Administration is
prepared to take the U.S.-Vietnam relationship to the next level as
part of a strategy aimed at enhancing American engagement in the
Asia Pacific.48

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Military Relationship
Diplomatic engagement includes military-to-military exchanges
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 13, NVM]

17 As a result, the U.S. Department of Defense is increasingly looking to


engage its Chinese counterpart on issues of defense. In an address
to a Chinese military academy in September 2012, U.S. Secretary of
Defense Leon Panetta outlined his belief that Washingtons
increased engagement as part of the rebalance can promote
regional stability and deepen Sino-U.S. ties. Central to this ambition is a
more integrated U.S.-China military relationship : Our rebalance to the AsiaPacific region is not an attempt to contain China. It is an attempt to
engage China and expand its role in the Asia-Pacific. Its about
creating a new model in the relationship of our two Pacific powers.
Its about renewing and revitalizing our role in a part of the world
that is rapidly becoming more critical to our economic, diplomatic,
and security interests. And as Ive made clear, essential to all of these
goals essential to these goals is a constructive military-to-military relationship with
China. Leon Panetta, Speech to the PLA Engineering Academy of Armed
Forces, September 19, 2012.

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Diplomatic

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Management of International Relations


Diplomatic is of or concerning the skill of managing
international relations, showing an ability to deal with people
in a sensitive way, and, of an edition or copy, exactly
reproducing an original version
Oxford Dictionaries
[Diplomatic, Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/diplomatic,
accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1 Of or concerning the profession, activity, or skill of managing


international relations:
diplomatic relations between the United States and Britain
It will also enhance foreign trade and diplomatic relations with
neighboring countries.
The war induced the opening of New Zealand's first diplomatic
relations with foreign powers.
Henceforth UK interests were to be the concern of a British
diplomatic agent styled the British High Commissioner.
1.1 Having or showing an ability to deal with people in a sensitive
and effective way:
that was a very diplomatic way of putting it
Be a catalyst for change by letting your actions and voices be heard
in a diplomatic and tactful manner.
So it would appear that from now on I am going to have to be more
tactful and diplomatic in my meanderings.
Still, dealing with a complex issue such as this one requires a great
deal of diplomatic finesse.
2 (Of an edition or copy) exactly reproducing an original version:
a diplomatic transcription
All Herbert scholars will welcome Mario Di Cesare's stunning
diplomatic edition of the Bodleian Manuscript.

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Those seeking a true diplomatic edition/transcription should


consult the facsimile editions by Zupitza and by Kiernan et al.

Diplomatic relates to preserving or creating friendly


relationships between nations
Macmillan Dictionary
[diplomatic, Macmillan Dictionary,
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/us/dictionary/american/diplomatic,
accessed 5-15-16]

diplomatic - definition and synonyms


ADJECTIVE

diplomatic pronunciation in American English

/dplmtk/
1 relating to the profession or skill of preserving or creating friendly
relationships between countries
a diplomatic mission
diplomatic sources (=diplomats): According to diplomatic sources, elections
there have been canceled.
Synonyms and related words
Embassies and ambassadors: accredited, ambassador, ambassadorial...
Explore Thesaurus
Collocates: diplomatic
Nouns frequently used with diplomatic
activity, channel, initiative, link, mission, recognition, service, source

Diplomatic is involving the management of relationships


between countries and being able to control a difficult
situation without upsetting anyone
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Diplomatic, Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/diplomatic, accessed 75-16, NVM]

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politics & government involving the management of relationships


between countries:
He began the diplomatic discussions that resulted in the
establishment of NATO.
politics & government If you say that someone is diplomatic, you
mean that the person is able to control a difficult situation without
upsetting anyone:
Lawyers should be diplomatic in dealing with a judge.

Diplomatic is involving diplomats or the management of


relationships between countries and acting in a way that
doesnt cause offence
Cambridge Advanced
[Diplomatic, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary & Thesaurus,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/diplomatic, accessed 75-16, NVM]

C1 involving diplomats or the management of the relationships


between countries:
diplomatic negotiations
C2 approving acting in a way that does not cause offence:
Ask him nicely - be diplomatic.
More examples
Surely a diplomatic solution is preferable to war.
It's a new country, hoping for diplomatic recognition from the
international community.
The US severed diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961.
The governments have broken off diplomatic relations.
All diplomatic attempts at a peaceful solution to the crisis have
been fruitless.

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Diplomatic is involving the work of maintaining good relations


between the governments of different countries and showing
an ability to deal with people politely
Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary
[Diplomatic, Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/diplomatic, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

: involving the work of maintaining good relations between the


governments of different countries : of or relating to diplomats or
their work
: not causing bad feelings : having or showing an ability to deal with
people politely
Examples of diplomatic in a sentence
Negotiators are working to restore full diplomatic relations.
<a diplomatic attempt at preventing any hurt feelings>

Diplomatic is of or relating to keeping good relations between


the governments of different countries and not causing bad
feelings
Merriam-Webster
[Diplomatic, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/diplomatic, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1 : of or relating to keeping good relations between the


governments of different countries
2 : not causing bad feelings <a diplomatic answer> <a diplomatic
manager>

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Relating to Diplomacy
Diplomatic is of or relating to diplomacy, skilled in negotiating,
tactful in dealing with people, and of or relating to diplomatics
Collins English Dictionary ND
[Diplomatic, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th
Edition, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/diplomatic, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. of or relating to diplomacy or diplomats


2. skilled in negotiating, esp between states or people
3. tactful in dealing with people
4. of or relating to diplomatics

Diplomatic is of, relating to, or engaged in diplomacy, skilled in


dealing with sensitive matters or people, and of or relating to
diplomatics
Dictionary.com
[Diplomatic, Dictionary.com Unabridged,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/diplomatic?s=t, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. of, relating to, or engaged in diplomacy :


diplomatic officials.
2. skilled in dealing with sensitive matters or people; tactful.
3. of or relating to diplomatics.

Diplomatic is relating to or characteristic of diplomacy and


using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or
people
WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
[Diplomatic, WordNet 3.1, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=diplomatic&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&
o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

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S: (adj) diplomatic (relating to or characteristic of diplomacy)


"diplomatic immunity"
S: (adj) diplomatic, diplomatical (using or marked by tact in dealing
with sensitive matters or people) "the hostess averted a
confrontation with a diplomatic chenage of subject"

Diplomatic is of or involving diplomacy or diplomats, using or


marked by tact in dealing with others, of or relating to
diplomatics, and being an exact copy of the original
American Heritage Dictionary
[Diplomatic, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth
Edition, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/diplomatic, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. Of, relating to, or involving diplomacy or diplomats.


2. Using or marked by tact and sensitivity in dealing with others.
3.
a. Of or relating to diplomatics.
b. Being an exact copy of the original: a diplomatic edition.

Diplomatic is of or relating to diplomacy, skilled in negotiating,


tactful in dealing with people, and of or relating to diplomatics
Collins English Dictionary
[Diplomatic, Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged, 12th
Edition, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/diplomatic, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) of or relating to diplomacy or


diplomats
2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) skilled in negotiating, esp
between states or people
3. tactful in dealing with people
4. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) of or relating to diplomatics

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5. (Library Science & Bibliography) of or relating to diplomatics

Diplomatic is of or engaged in diplomacy and skilled in dealing


with sensitive matters or people
Random House
[Diplomatic, Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary,
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/diplomatic, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. of, pertaining to, or engaged in diplomacy.


2. skilled in dealing with sensitive matters or people; tactful.

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Diplomatic Officers
Diplomatic officers are designated by their governments
Ballentines Law Dictionary, 1969
[diplomatic officers, 3rd edition, edited by James A. Ballentine,
http://citizenlaw.com/pdf/d.pdf, accessed 5-16-16]

diplomatic officers. Ambassadors, envoys extraordinary, ministers


plenipotentiary, ministers resident, commissioners, charges daffaires,
agents and secretaries of legation. Ex parte Baiz, 135 US 403, 419, 34 L Ed
222, 227, 10 S Ct 854. Officers however denominated who possess the
functions, rights, and privileges as agents of their respective governments
for the transaction of diplomatic business abroad. 4 Am J2d Ambss 1.

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Diplomacy

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Non-Hostile
Diplomacy involves non-hostile negotiations and relations
between nations
State Department Diplomatic Dictionary
[Diplomacy, State Department Diplomatic Dictionary,
http://diplomacy.state.gov/discoverdiplomacy/references/169792.htm#top,
accessed 7-2-16, NVM]

The art and practice of conducting negotiations and maintaining


relations between nations; skill in handling affairs without arousing
hostility.

Diplomacy is the conduct of relations between states by


peaceful means
Collins English Dictionary
[Diplomacy, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th
Edition, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/diplomacy, accessed 7-3-16, NVM]

the conduct of the relations of one state with another by peaceful


means

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Government to Government Negotiations


Diplomacy is negotiation between nations by their
representatives
Black's Law Dictionary Free Online Legal Dictionary
[Black's Law Dictionary Free Online Legal Dictionary 2nd Ed., What is
DIPLOMACY?,
http://thelawdictionary.org/diplomacy/, accessed 5-16-16]

What is DIPLOMACY?
The science which treats of the relations and interests of nations with
nations. Negotiation or intercourse between nations through their
representatives. The rules, customs, and privileges of representatives at
foreign courts.

Diplomacy is the conduct by government officials of relations


between nations, the art of conducting such negotiations, and
skill in managing negotiations so that there is little or no ill
will
Random House
[Diplomacy, Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary,
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/diplomacy, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. the conduct by government officials of negotiations and other


relations between nations.
2. the art or science of conducting such negotiations.
3. skill in managing negotiations, handling people, etc., so that
there is little or no ill will; tact.

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Negotiations Between Nations


Diplomacy is negotiation between nations, skillful handling of
a situation, and wisdom in the management of public affairs
WordNet, Princeton University Cognitive Science Laboratory
[Diplomacy, WordNet 3.1, http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?
s=diplomacy&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&
o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=1&h=10000000, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

<noun.communication>S: (n) diplomacy, diplomatic negotiations


(negotiation between nations)
<noun.attribute>S: (n) delicacy, diplomacy, discreetness, finesse (subtly
skillful handling of a situation)
<noun.attribute>S: (n) statesmanship, statecraft, diplomacy (wisdom in
the management of public affairs)

Diplomacy is conduct of negotiations between nations


Dictionary.com
[Diplomacy, Dictionary.com, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/diplomacy?
s=t, accessed 7-3-16, NVM]
the conduct by government officials of negotiations and other
relations between nations.

Diplomacy is conducting negotiations between nations


Merriam-Webster
[Diplomacy, Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/diplomacy, accessed 7-3-16, NVM]

the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations


She has had a long and distinguished career in diplomacy.
The government avoided a war by successfully resolving the issues
through diplomacy.

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This is a situation that calls for tactful diplomacy.

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Managing Relations
Diplomacy is the activity of managing international relations
by a countrys representatives abroad
Oxford Dictionaries
[Diplomacy, Oxford Dictionaries,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/diplomacy,
accessed 7-3-16, NVM]

The profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations,


typically by a countrys representatives abroad:
the government should assign an ambassador-at-large to oversee
diplomacy in the region
Mr Chairman, Zambia has invested a lot in diplomacy and
international relations.
Summit diplomacy has become a very important component of
international diplomacy.
Bad mouthing the Germans in mid-bid probably wasn't the smartest
piece of international diplomacy.

Diplomacy is the management of relationships between


countries
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Diplomacy, Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/diplomacy, accessed 73-16, NVM]

the management of relationships between countries:


Quiet diplomacy is sometimes better than public threats.

Diplomacy is maintaining good relations between the


governments of different countries
Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary

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[Diplomacy, Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/diplomacy, accessed 7-3-16, NVM]

the work of maintaining good relations between the governments of


different countries
She has had a long and distinguished career in diplomacy.
The government avoided a war by successfully resolving the issues
through diplomacy.
This is a situation that calls for tactful diplomacy.

Diplomacy is the practice of conducting international relations


and tact or skill in dealing with people
American Heritage Dictionary
[Diplomacy, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth
Edition, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/diplomacy, accessed 7-5-16, NVM]

1. The art or practice of conducting international relations, as in


negotiating alliances, treaties, and agreements.
2. Tact or skill in dealing with people: Placating the angry customer
required delicate diplomacy.

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Relationships
Diplomacy involves strengthening alliances, building and
managing relationships, and deepening engagement
Brown et al, George Washington University Elliott School of
International Affairs Dean, 13
[Michael E., Timothy J.A. Adamson, Mike M. Mochizuki, Deepa Ollapally,
Robert G. Sutter, Elliott School of International Affairs Master of Arts
graduate, Elliott School of International Affairs Political Science and
International Affairs Associate Professor, Elliott School of International Affairs
International Affairs Associate Research Professor, Elliott School of
International Affairs International Affairs Professor of Practice, 8-13,
Balancing Acts: The U.S. Rebalance and Asia-Pacific Stability, p. 15, NVM]

Bilateral and multilateral initiatives: The strong record of Obama


administration diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific region has involved
strengthening U.S. alliances; building deeper relationships with
partners such as Singapore, Indonesia and India; deepening
engagement with Asia-Pacific multilateral institutions; and
managing the U.S.-China relationship.

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With the Peoples Republic of


China

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With

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Interaction
With requires some form of interaction
Random House Dictionary
[Dictionary.com Unabridged, Random House, Inc. 04 Jul. 2016, With,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/with, accessed July 5, 2016 //SL]

2. in some particular relation to (especially implying interaction, company,


association, conjunction, or connection):
I dealt with the problem. She agreed with me.

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Mutual Involvement
With means mutual involvement
Merriam-Webster
[Merriam-Webster.com, n.d., With, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/with, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

Simple Definition of with


used to say that people or things are together in one place
used to say that two or more people or things are doing something
together or are involved in something
: having (a particular characteristic, possession, etc.)

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Accompanying
With means to accompany in some way
Random House Dictionary
[Dictionary.com Unabridged, Random House, Inc. 04 Jul. 2016, With,
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/with, accessed July 5, 2016 //SL]

1. accompanied by; accompanying:


I will go with you. He fought with his brother against the enemy.

With means accompanied by


Oxford Dictionaries
[with,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/with,
accessed 5-16-16]

with
Top 1000 frequently used words
Pronunciation: /wiTTH/ /wiTH/
PREPOSITION

1 Accompanied by (another person or thing):


a nice steak with a bottle of red wine
More example sentences
It is accompanied with a golden vest and hair ornament hanging down to the
shoulder.
The tamarind provides a novel change to lemon as an accompaniment with
the prawn.
Stumped for a good red wine capable of accompanying duck served with a
bitter cherry sauce?

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Get more examples


Synonyms
accompanied by, escorted by, in the company of
View synonyms

With means in the company of


Ballentines Law Dictionary, 1969
[with, 3rd edition, edited by James A. Ballentine,
http://citizenlaw.com/pdf/w.pdf, accessed 5-16-16]

with. Close or near to. In the company of. In addition to.

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Cooperation
With implies cooperation
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, With,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/with, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

with preposition (TOGETHER)


used of people or things that are together or doing something together :
Shes in the kitchen with Dad.
Hes an impossible person to work with.
I think Ill have some ice cream with my pie.
Ill be with you (= I will give you my attention) in a moment.
Shes been with the magazine (= working for it) for two years.

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Transaction
With implies a transaction or arrangement
Merriam-Webster
[Merriam-Webster.com, n.d., With, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/with, accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]
2 a used as a function word to indicate a participant in an action,
transaction, or arrangement <works with his father> <a talk with a friend>
<got into an accident with the car>

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By Means Of
With means the subject achieves something by means of the
object
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, With,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/with, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

with preposition (USING)


using (something) or by means of (something ):
I bought it with my gift certificate.
The label on the box says, "Handle with care."
He caught the crabs with a large net.

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Support
With implies support
Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary
[Cambridge University Press, 2016, With,
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/with, accessed: July 2,
2016 //SL]

with preposition (SUPPORTING)


supporting (someone or something ):
If you want to go for a promotion, Ill be with you all the way.
Where do you stand on this issue are you with us or against us?

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Opposition
With requires opposition to the direct object
Oxford Dictionaries
[Oxford University Press, With,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/with,
accessed: July 5, 2016 //SL]

4. In opposition to:
we started fighting with each other
So much information has come up since my fight with Shirley and
none of it is good.
Teachers learned about the incident when Kyle was spotted fighting with the
boy.
He shows a teenage mother fighting with the father of her child about his
failings as a parent.

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Peoples Republic of China.

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Nation in Eastern Asia


The Peoples Republic of China is a nation in eastern Asia
WordNet 3.0, 12
[The Peoples Republic of China, TheFreeDictionary.com, Princeton
University,
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/The+People's+Republic+of+China,
accessed 7-2-16, ZT]
1.

People's Republic of China - a communist nation that covers a


vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in
the world

Peoples Republic of China is the official name of China


Oxford Dictionaries
[Peoples Republic of China,
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/people
%27s-republic-of-china?q=People%27s+Republic+of+China, accessed 5-1616]

Definition of People's Republic of China in English:


People's Republic of China
Official name (since 1949) of China.
For editors and proofreaders
Syllabification: People's Republic of China

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Government
The Peoples Republic of China refers to the government
BYU Law Review, 15
[8-17-15, BYU Law Review, Volume 2014 | Issue 3 Article 11, A Broken
System: Failures of the Religious Regulatory System in the Peoples Republic
of China, http://digitalcommons.law.byu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?
article=2934&context=lawreview, p. 754, accessed 7-10-16]

The Peoples Republic of China refers to the government structure of


China. It is notable that the constitution of the PRC stipulates that the
PRC is to operate under the leadership of the Communist Party of
China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought.
117 Therefore, while the PRC regulatory structure is the face of religious
regulation, it might be appropriately thought of as the body of religious
regulation in Chinainseparable from the mind (the CPC), but unable to
act absent command from the CPC. The PRC government acts as an agent of
the CPC leadership and the methods of CPC control will be outlined in this
section.

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Central and Provincial Governments


Peoples Republic of China means the central government and
all 23 provincial governments
Constitution of the PRC, 82
[Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, 1982, 12-4-1982, USC USChina Institute, http://china.usc.edu/constitution-peoples-republic-china1982#chap3 , Accessed 7-2-2016, SNBE]

The people's congresses of provinces and municipalities directly under the


Central Government , and their standing committees, may adopt local regulations ,
which must not contravene the Constitution, the statutes and the
administrative rules and regulations, and they shall report such local
regulations to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress for the
record.

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PRC Doesnt Include Taiwan


There are two views of China, the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in
the mainland, the resolution implies only mainland China is
topical
The Economist, 14
[ 8-25-14, Why China and Taiwan are divided, The Economist,
http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/08/economistexplains-16, accessed 7-8-16, ZT]

Taiwan was once a province of China. It is still officially regarded as such


by both governments. The problem is that neither side agrees on what the
"China" in question is: the Peoples Republic of China, ruled by the Chinese
Communist Party, or the Republic of China, ruled by the Chinese Nationalist Party
(commonly known as the Kuomintang, or KMT). The KMT ruled China for
more than two decades until 1949, when it was overthrown by
Maos Communist Party and fled to Taiwan. Since then the island has
retained the name Republic of China, even though the government there only
administers the island of Taiwan itself and a few other much smaller ones. In
Taiwan, there is an added complication to the use of the term "Chinese
province". Between 1895 and 1945 Taiwan was ruled by Japan, which had
seized it after a war with imperial China. Especially in the early years after
1945, KMT rule on the island was brutal. Taiwan has since become a
democracy, but resentment of the KMT runs deep among many of those who
were living on the island before the KMT took refuge, and the descendants of
such people. Their identity with greater China is weak. Some want Taiwan to
abandon any pretence of a link with China and declare independence.

Taiwan is a part of the ROC, which is specifically different then


the governing body of China, the PRC
Diffen.com
[PRC v. ROC, Diffen.com,
http://www.diffen.com/difference/People's_Republic_Of_China_vs_Republic_Of
_China, accessed 7-8-16, ZT]

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After the Kuomintang reunified China in 1928, most of mainland China was
governed by the Republic of China (ROC). The island of Taiwan was under
Japanese rule at the time. At the end of World War II in 1945, Japan
surrendered Taiwan to the Republic of China. In 1949, there was a civil
war in China and the government (ROC) lost control of mainland China
to the Communist Party, which established the People's Republic of
China (PRC) and took control of all of mainland China. Only the island
of Taiwan remained under the control of the ROC.

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PRC Includes Taiwan


The US recognizes Taiwan as a part of the PRC
Hsu, China Post staff writer, 12
[ C.C. Hsu, 12-26-2012, Taiwan is a province of China, just not the PRC,
China Post, http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/letters-to-theeditor/2012/12/26/365325/Taiwan-is.htm, accessed 7-8-16, ZT]

That is certainly true, but I would point out that the vast majority of the
countries that have diplomatic relations with the Beijing
government, at the time they established relations, almost
invariably also recognized Taiwan as a part of the People's Republic of China . Even
the U.S. at the time it set up official relations with Beijing acknowledged that there is
only one China and that Taiwan is a part of China.

Taiwan is part of the PRC


Winkler, Institute for European Studies European Foreign and
Security Policy Senior Associate Research Fellow, 12
[Sigrid, Brookings, Taiwan's UN Dilemma: To Be or Not To Be, June, 2012,
http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/06/20-taiwan-un-winkler,
Accessed 7-2-2016, SNBE]

Citing the resolution WHA25.1, which in 1972 expelled the ROC from the
WHO, the 2010 memorandum emphasizes the consequent obligation for the
[WHO] Secretariat of refraining from actions which could constitute or be
interpreted as recognition of a separate status of Taiwanese authorities and
institutions from China.[33] This provision constitutes Beijings bottom line
for Taiwans participation in the IHR: in the WHO, for all purposes, Taiwan is part
of China . Or rather, as the text specifies, the proper terminology to be used
regarding Taiwan is Taiwan Province of China. [34] With the official instruction
to call Taiwan Province of China, this document even goes beyond Ban Kimoons above statement, that for the UN, Taiwan is an integral part of the Peoples
Republic of China . Needless to say, for Taiwan, being called explicitly a
province of China is an important setback in its WHO participation. The
Taiwanese government launched an immediate protest to the WHO

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Secretariat. In addition to filing a formal protest letter with the WHO


Secretariat, the Taiwanese Health Minister Chiu Wen-Ta also used his speech
at the 2011 WHA to request the WHO to use the so-called WHA model for
Taiwans general WHO participation.[35] This would essentially mean to stick
to the wording Chinese Taipei for identifying Taiwan, and to refrain from
presenting Taiwan and China as one entity in the WHO. In May 2012, Minister
Chiu filed another letter with the WHO Secretariat to explain Taiwans stance
on the name issue. So far, however, none of these attempts to urge the WHO
to reconsider its policy toward Taiwan have received an official response.[36]