a aaooooooa
ooooo
aaa aaaooa
aaaoooaa
aao aaaaa
.
.
.
.
a aaa aaata
aa a oaaa
Calculate the actual distance befween two points and the area of
on a map and vice versa.
aaoa oaaa
a aaa aaoaa
El4qp!s?!.
1
2.
A map is a scale drawing of the actual shape of a piece of land. The area of the land
on the map is many times smaller than the actual area.
Tht
scale
of a map is usually given at the bottom corner of the map. The scale is
the ratio of the distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground.
=rI0 I 2
0
3 4 5
2
6km
Lttl
Chapterl:Proportion
J.
It means that 1 unit length on the map l'epresents rl units t'rtl actuul ground.
E.g. A rnap is drarvn to a scale of 1 cm to 5 km. This scale catl be expressed as
: 500 000 or
*k
c,
E.g. A scale of I : 25 000 means that I cm is used to represent li l)(x) cm.
Similarly 1 mm represerrts 25 000 mm and I m lepresellts li (X)() 1ll . etc.
tR.P.r ot
4.
,.
is
,*
of
l.
I
300
: 200.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
A map is diawn to a scale of 5 cm to 2 km. The distance between two schools on the map
is 8 cm. Find
(a) the scale of the map in the form 1 : n,
(b) the actual distance, in km, between the two schools,
(c) the distance, in cm, between two stadiums on the map if the actual distance between
them is 6 km.
SOLUTION:
(a)
Scale of map
 5 cm
zkm =W
=5cm 2x100000cm
=5cm 200 000
=1cm 40 000 cm
cm
*1ffi
*s.*l
40 000
.'. The scale of the map is 1 :40 000.
(b)
Mao
Actual
40000 cm
cm
+
I crn
u.4 Km
l.e. 1cm+0.4km
* 0.4 km x 8 = 3.2
8 cm 1
1..:
:r
,:,I&tB0
km ii${ii{i**
}}*ditr
.'. The actual distance between the two schools is 3.2 km.
(( Z ))
\/
Mathematics Tutor
24
Ltd
(c)
Man
Actual
0.4 km
lcm
I
1km
0.4
cm = 2.5 cm
2.5cmx6=l5cm
6km
.'. The distance between the two stadiums on the map is 15 cm.
..i
{lr
ei&i!i{!r;..ei'.eiri{*.u;jt
1m=l00Cm
: 1 f::1?99::109999":
6*"{'o.
woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
The scale of Map A is 1 : 20 000.
The distance between tr.vo villages on Map A is 12.5 cm.
(a) Find the distance, in cm, betrveen the two villages on Map
I
(b)
B lvhose scale is
: 50 000.
SOLUTION:
(a\
Actual
20000cm
1cm
Find the actual distance between
the two villages flrst.
i.e. 1 cm
0.2 km
+
12.5 cm O2kmx I2.5 =2.5km
.'. The actual distance betrveen the tr,vo villages is 2.5 km.
Man
Actual
clrl *
50 000
i.e.
0.5 km
Map B
1 Cfl1
 1
lkm*
2.5km+
cfil
!.*=2cm
0.5
2cmx2.5=5cm
.'. The distance between the two villages on the Map B is 5 cm.
(b)
Man B
crn
8cm
1
Actual
0.5 km
0.5kmx8=4krn
km
Mao A
1cm
I
Chapterl:Proportion
E)4relqq4.
The area scale of a map is the square of its linear scale.
,i
If
i.e. I : ,,'.
E.g. If the scale of a map is 1 cm to 3 km, then I cmt on the map rvill
(3 km)'] or 9 km2.
.'. The area scale is
%.
represent
is 1 cm to 3 km.
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 40 000. A nature reserve is represented by an area of
80 cm'z on the map. Calculate the actual atea,inkm2, of the nature reserye.
SOLUTION:
Actual
Mao
1
1.e.
i.e.
 40 000 cm
cfi1
I cffr
*
(1 cm)'? +
0.4 km
(0.4 km)z
cm2
80 cm2
*
0.16 km2
0.16 km2 x 80 = 12.8 km2
)
%'
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
A map has a scale of 1 : 50 000.
(a) Find the actual length, in km, of a river which is represented by 9.8 cm on the map.
(b) What is the area,incrtf ,on the map represented by an area of 7 km2 on the ground?
SOLUTION:
Mao
(a)
cm
cm
9.8
cm
i.e.
Actual
>
50 000 cm
0.5 km
0.5 km x 9.8 = 4.9 krr,
Actual
0.5
km
Mao
>
lkm(1 km)r
lcm
I
0S
"*
=2cm
(2 cm)2
4cm2
4cm2x7=28cm2
WORKED EXAMpLE
O:
MapA.
(a)
Find
(i)
(ii)
(b)
SOLUTION:
(a)
2.5 cm
6cm
(i)
=I'l cm
MaoA
i.e.
1CfiI1cfillTcm+
Actual
400 cm
4m
4mx17=68m
(ii)
= 15 cm2
Mao
i.e
Actual
4m
lCm
(l cm)2 +
(4 m)'
*
16 m2
I cm2
15 cmz +
16 m'x 15 =240
Actual
5m
lm(l m)' +
i.e. I m2 +
240
m2
m2
rrt.
Mao B
1cm
*I
5
cm=0.2cm
(0.2 cm)2
0.04 cm2
0.04 cm2 x240 = 9.6 cm2
Chapter
l: Proportion
zAr
\/
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
A rvildlife santuary has an area of 22.5 km2.It is represented by an area of 7.5 cn)t on
a map.
(a)
(b)
(c)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Area scale =
=
Linear scale
l.)
cm
1cm'
r.
22.5 km2
9 kmr
 {ICm
,t9 km
=
= lcm
3km
1cm
F;
300 000 cm
b_v
2.5
+1km=100000cm
300 000
(b)
map,r
40
5km40m=5I(XX)
km=5.04km
Actual
Map
3km
lcm
lkm _;cm
5.04
km
,**
.)
cm x 5.04
1
1.68 cm
Actual
Map
9km2
1cm2
.l
lKm Cm
9
t
25.Zkm) *> I cm'x25.2=
9
2.8 cm2
,;.\
{\r
( 6 jl
&sq
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
n
Direct Proportion
1.
2.
In direct proportion,
).
I=kx or !;k
(a)
(b)
the graph of y =
(C)
:l\.,
)':
r,
= !
'\''
where (x,,
0f
),)
r.vhereftisacoustantandft*0.
pl is a straight line
v,
:!
rrt
\'.
x2
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The table shows the number of hours of rvork (0 and the amount of rvages ($r') earned by
Marc.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
10
20
30
40
50
180
360
540
720
900
Chapter l:Proponion
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
10
20
30
40
50
180
360
540
120
900
v
t
18
18
18
18
18
Since
Since
t =
18
)=l8r
(c)
(i)
= 18/
.)'
When t = 62,
= 18(62)
= 1116
_v
(ii)
= l8r
,y
When
=225,
l8t
225 =
225
t18
12.5
t
tt:
rll'i ,':
r]1: 'i,l
(d)
'i
Sca}
l";l
;::..
t ,i
ri
t
,.
: 
,,i i
t+
,.ir
t;
.t;
t:l
rl
:.;;;
'+m
l j;
il
,lI :lil,
:ir
I'l
+t
1
=:=
1l
f't
i
'f
f:i
il+
.]
'l i'
t*
ll
++ iii
i t:
i'i:
i.':+
1:i
.* i''j
l ':t I1
.+i.j
t_
ri1
','
t.
.,/
ii
._.,./_.........
1.7trl: i:
I ir i
l1
_:_
tl
,ll
r1.l
',t
.,,],,.
nt:l
{!l!
Mathematics Tutor 2A
..1,;
..1...t.
i,i
i::
i Il
S })
{{
\\*.f/
ir
.,,_
',:t,
/^
.:1
i
1Rr
ri+
.,1
i;t t.
i'l I'i
i rl:
tl
l,_
i, t '
"i
:'.
i:i
:i
^.a
'l_: i
,/,1
1)"t1
1,.: ,r"
r i
=i,i
lr
f.
.:
illi .;
,j:
.A,
,1.
ir
i:'l
rrr
t'i+
.
tl
.,,.ir
:i
t,,1..,"
::
i,.L.=
il
'i'
.'t.
n
r.
@ Ctrsco Public:ations Pte
Ltd
Rs
woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Given that y is directly proportional to r, flnd the values of
10
15
21
and q.
SOLUTION:
p _6
1510
P=
o
[Jse
x15
3 =9
21 6
!\,ja
= :rl ri
q
use
10
)r
.)?
\,
nt'
6
_ +J
/<

'tt = "r'
):
:.p=9andq45
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
In each of the follolving, state which two variables are in direct proportion.
(a)
(b)
2x2
,l^1
(d) y'=rx
),
3) =
(c) I = Vr
5,
(e) .I=x+l
(0 l
SOLUTION:
(a)
(c)
(b)
2x)
Since I =2isaconstant,then
r)t3
proportional to x2.
is
directly
],
t =
)'=
(d)
v;
3v
5,,r
Since
.y
i.aconstant.then
is directly proportional to x.
.,'=
]..
a
Since
{x
lisaconstant,then
proportional to {i .
y is directly
(e) )'=.\'+l
r' l r
51r."
(y
'1
,}'2
ffl
L =]
.\' 
lraconstant,then
t=1
"'" */ r\ = I isaconstant,then
$ince
then
proportional to,r.
'
\t
= 1 is a constant,
1) is directly
Since
1,
is directly proportionat
Chapter
to 1 .
zAr
l: Proportion K 9
\r'l)
"Eu
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
It is given that
Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
.r'
an equation connecting
and
1,,
SOLUTION:
(a) !=kx
 4,)'
When.t
12,
12 = k(4')
,12
o=T
3
.'. ) = 3r
(b)
(c)
When,r = 3,
y = 3(3)
) /,t
La
_o
Wheny=24,
1.*

tt
r=8
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
It is given that
(a)
t,
Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
SOLUTION:
32 = k(2)2
.
k,_
3).
8
(ii)
8x2
"' I =
When r = 5,
r'= 8(5)
= 200
(iii)
When
'12
! =72,
8x2
x'=9
@:,
x=*Jg ffi
=*J
w#ffi
,;"\
,Jd{
\\
i{ 10 };
Q) Casco
(b)
Qq'
rt
origin.
WoRKED EXAMPLE 6:
Given that
find
(a)
(b)
(c)
.y
and
)'
= 6 rvhen
r
= 2J ,
SOLUTION:
(a)
v=
kli
a constant
lirst.
Whenx=2J,)t=6
6 = k1,lz1
6=3k
l _a
^L
..,lr/
.. y  . !a
(b)
When r = 125,
y = 2l.[tzs
Substitute x
125
r/
into r'= 2^ V.r.
?r5l
=10
(c)
When ) = 18,
18 = 2{i
l.\ 
if.
i8
2
Vx =9
ol
 7)O
(S)'=,
Chapterl:Proportion
WORKED EXAMPLE 7:
y is directly proportional to x3. It is known that y = 48 for a particular value of x.
Find the value of y when this value of x is halved.
SOLUTION:
!=kx3
For a parlicular value of x, y  48.
48 = kr3
t.__ 48
J.
When
is halved. i.e.
rr i
. _ tt
Ala't\z
l
]r
'
rnO
t=
a?
( 48 )ft
/\
Z )tE^ )
=[
6
%*
woRKED EXAMpLE
B:
The extension of a spring, e cm, is directly proportional to the weight, w kg, attached to
it. If the extension of a spring is 3 cm when a weight of 8 kg is attached to it, flnd an
equation connecting e andw. Find the extension of the spring when a weight of 50 kg
is attached to it.
SOLUTION:
e = h,,t
When w  8,e
3 = ft(8)
L_
=3,
I
J
=W
tJ
When w = 50,
c
= :t{'(50)
=
8.75
,*&\
l( tZ3
'**s/
Mathematics Turor 2A
Ltd
WORKED EXAMPLE 9:
The mass of a sphere is directly proportional to the cube of the radius. A sphere with
radius 5 cm has a mass of 525 g. Find the mass of a similar sphere with radius 2 cm.
SOLUT!ON:
Let the mass of the sphere be m g and the radius of the sphere be r cm.
nt = kr]
When r=5,m 525,
)l)
n
.]
= k())
5r5
115
= 4.2
.'. nt = 4.213
When
= 2,
nt = 4.2(2)3
= 33.6
.'. The mass of the sphere is 33.6 g.
Chapter l:Proportion
2.
In inverse proportion, r.vhen one quantity increases, the other quantity decreases.
When one quantity decreases, the other quantity increases. However, the product
o[ the two quantities is a eonstant.
(a)
(b)
xy: k or )= a
{
whereftisaconstantandk*0.
(c)
the graph of
_y
against 1 is
x
)
Since
I
,r
r{ r+J
to 1
x
ffiwhere(x,,y,)and(x,,y,)areanytwopairsofva1uesofrandy.
*$ts:l:ir:Tl#461*qi4}
Ltd
q*
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The table shows the time taken (r hours) by a motorist to travel from Tor'vn A to Town
,B at various speeds (v km/h).
sl}eed {v l{nvnl
20
30
50
60
90
Time taken (/ h)
4.5
)
1.8
1.5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(i) / against u,
(ii) ragainstl.
SOLUTION:
(a)
Speed (v km/h)
20
30
50
60
90
4.5
)
1.8
1.5
vt
20 x 4.5
30x3
50
=90
=90
=90
1.8
60
1.5
=90
90x1
=90
vt=90
90
v
(c)
When v = 40,
r=4
40
))<
.'. The time taken is 2.25 h.
Chapter 1: Proportion
({ rs
.V
Jl
(d)
(i)
20
30
50
60
90
4.5
)
1.8
i.5
a = o.os
v.
/#L\
i{ to }.
Marhematics Tutor 2A
= 0.0333
= o'oz
= 0.0167
= 0.011
Lttl
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Given that y is inversely proportional to .r, find the values of
36
20
.y
t6
and s.
SOLUTION:
20(r) = l$(5;
s(16) = 3615;
36x5
36x5
t6
20
o
t
.'. r=9 and.s= 11.25
\u
11.25
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
In each of the following, state which two variables are in inverse proportion.
(a)
),=
(b)
(e)
(c)
.',.t=
1
'[
,=;'
SOLUTION:
t
(a) )'= =
(b)
= 3 is a constant, then
y is inversely proportional to x'.
sm.lr'y
(c) y'=1
,=*
Vr
Since
Jiy
= 5 is a constant, rhen
y is inversely proportional to .uf
6;
(d) )'=
' r
)'
is inversely proportional to
xt.
(e) !=4x
Since
I =4ory[) =+ir"
proportionat to 1
x
Ltd
Chapterl:Proportion
%'
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
Given that y is inversely proportional to ;r and ) = 6 lvhen
(a) an equation connecting,r and y,
(b) the value of rr rvhen x = 9,
(c)
the value of
when
= 3, flnd
= 4.5.
SOLUTION:
(a) j=; k
When.r = 3, v = 6,
lr
''
L
U
=)
fr=6x3
_ IO
t(l

l8
'r
(b)
(c)
When r =9,
'9
When
18
= 4.5,
l8
4.) r
l8
2
4.)
+
..,
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
If
r.,
(a)
(b)
(c)
and
if
.1,
= 3 rvhen
= 4, find
I = I .5.
SOLUTION:
(a) l'= k
J;
When
x=4,y=3,
lJn
___l
k=3xJ4
1v)
A
 t,
..v 6r
i{ tS })
MathematicsTutor2A
Ltrl
(b)
(c)
Whenr=9.
When}'=1.5,
6
l.) = v.rr
v//()
6
v\ 
=
')
6
r5
ft
!.\ +
r = :lt
=16
WORKED EXAMPLE 6:
l6lvorkers take 45 hours to paint a house. Horv many workers are needecl to complete
the job 5 hours earlier?
SOLUTION:
More rvorkers will take less hours to complete the job. So the
number of workers is inversely proportional to the number of hours.
l6
45 hours
r.vorkers
.155=40hours
r rvorkers
rx40=tr6x;15
16x45
't 
J()
ro
t()
Alternative method:
Let the number of workers be w and the number of hours be ,.
k
t
When
w=16,t=45,
k
lb=
45
k=16x45
=720
.',W=720
t
When
t=455=40,
120
40
=18
.'.
9
Ltd
(1)
Linear Scale
1.
2.
ZO
(a) 1 cm:5 m
(b) 2cm:90m
(c)
cm: 240 m
(d) 5cm:1km
(e)
cm:
(0
20 km
4 cm:25 km
}'
(a) 2cmto5km
(b)
(c)
(d) 4mmto8m
cmto
12 m
Marhematics TuLor 2A
1.5 cm to 0.6 km
(a)
t.
(b) 19 cm
3.6 cm
Two towns arc 24 km apart. Find their distances apart, in cm, on a map drawn to a scale of
(a) 1.2 cm to 10 km
(b)
0.5 cm to 2.5 km
(a)
Find the actual distance, in km, of the following distances on the map.
(i)
(b)
5 cm
(ii)
12cm
Find the distance on the map, in cm, for each of the follorving distances on the
ground.
(i)
Z.4km
(ii)
8 km 50 m
*
i
Chapter
l: Proportion
{Z
\i::ry},
f
6.
(c)
is 2.8 cm,
the length, in cm, of a road on the map r,vhich is l4 km long.
A map is drarvn to a scale of I : 800. Two petrol stations are 260 m apart.
(a) Finc'l the distance, in cm. betr,veen the trvo petrol stations on the map.
(b) A fbotball field is 118 m lone and 90 m rvide. Find the perimeter, in cm. of the fouball
fleld on the map.
B.
9.
,A il
\w
\{ 22
(a)
(b)
The distance betr,veen two railway stations on the map is 2.1 cm.
Find their actual distance apart in kilometres.
'il
Ltd
It
is drawn to a scale
of l : 150 (XX).
3.7 cm
2.5 cm
The diagram belor,v shows the plan of a papaya plantation. The actual perimeter of the
plantation is
(a)
(b)
km. Find
the scale of the plan in the form I : n,
the distance, in cm, betrveen trvo huts on the plan
11
if their actual
8.zl crn
3.6 cnr
5
..
cnr
The scale of Map P is i : 50 000. The distance betrveen trvo srvimminu pools on Map P is 6 cm.
(a) Find the actual distance, in km, betr'veen the srvimming pools.
(b) Find the distance, in cm, betlveen the sr,vimming pools on Map Q rvhose scale is
1 :40 000.
(c) A stretch of road is 5 cm long on Map Q. Find its length, in cm, on Map P.
Chapterl:Proportion
(2)
Area Scale
14.
A map is drawn to a scale of 1 : 20 000. Find the actual area, in km2, of a plantation where its
area on the map is
15.
A map is drar.vn to a scale of 1 : 50 000. Find the area on the map, in cm2, r'vhich represents an
actual area
of
(a) 25knf
16.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(b)
64 km2
,;\L24
jl
"&vfr
Ltd
r7.
(a)
(i)
it *+*
Find the actual distance, in km, between two MRT stations rvhere their distance
apart on the map is 6 cm.
(ii)
(b)
Find the area, in cm', on the map which represents an area of 30 km2.
Ltd
Chapter I:Proportion
19.
20.
21.
(a)
(b)
(c)
I : 50 000.
Calculate the actual distance. in knt. represented by 1 cm on the map.
Find the actual length, in km, represented by 9.5 cm on the map.
Find the area on the map, in cmt. that represents an area of 30kmr on actual ground.
map.
(c)
MathematicsTutor24
cr*.
@,
,:
..
l
Ltd
Chapterl:Proportion
25.
l2 knr.
26.
(b)
(c)
(d)
21.
Find the distance betrveen tr,vo stadiums on the map, in cm, if their actual distance apart
is 18 km.
The actual area of a zoo is 16.2 krrrr. Find the area of the zoo on the map.
Write down the scale of the map in the fbnn I : n.
The diagram belorv shor,vs the plan of an orchard WXYZ in the shape of a trapezium.
It is drar'vn to a scale of 1 : 25 000. Find the actual area, in km2, of the orchard.
5.2 cm
6cm
,rji"ii:r
It 28 **j Mathematics
Tutor 2,A
Ltd
r
:;
'I
(b)
Giventhattheareaofthefieldis8.4cmz,findtheactuaiperimeterofthe fieldinmetres.
Ltd
Chapter l:Proporrion
3l
32.
A map is drawn to a scale of I : 250 000. A motorist travelled from Torvn X to Trnvn Irvhich
rvere 32 km apart. He visited a rambutan orchard in Torvn Y. The area of the orchartl on the
map is 1.6 cm2.
(a) Calculate, in crn, the distance betr'r,een the tr,vo towns on the map"
(b) Calculate, in km2, the actual area of the rambutan orcharcl.
(c) Calculate, in cmr. the area of the orciraril clrarvn on a second rnap lvhich iras a scale of
1 : 500 000.
33.
(a)
(b)
(c)
r,rn
.V H Marhematics Tutor 24
{( :O
5
(b)
(c)
km.
A durian plantation has an area of 16 cmr on Map A. Caiculate. in km2, the actual area
of the plantation.
An organic vegetable farm is represented by 7.2 cmt on Map A. Calculate, in cmr, the
area of the farm on Map B which has a scale of I ; 30 000.
'
l:n.
Ltd
Chapterl:Proportion
38.
39.
A plantation has an area of 12.5 km2. It is represented by an area of 0.5 cm'on a map,
(a)
(b)
(c)
is
I : 150 000.
40.
on the map.
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Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
Direct Proportion
Which of the following shows r and _rr in direct proportion?
(a)
(c)
l
(b)
10
15
50
100
r25
180
32
64
96
t28
"r
t6
18
24
32
2.6
6.5
1.8
rl.1
88
99
156
t76
(d)
(a)
i
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Chapterl:Proportion
(c)
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lj
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il
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i
.'.ij
In each of the following, state which two variables are directly proportional to each other.
(b)
4r'
(c) y=2Ji
(d) p=2(q+3)'
(e) )=8,r3
(fl x
,= I
(g) nt;ni)l1
(i)
i{.ro}
11\19,
Yt =
.,/
v+1=2(x1)2
(h) 3y=x+2
.l
0) l'= ;
ltd
6.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)
that
.1,
_v,
y
_y,
= 36 r'vhen x = 3.
Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
If
It is given
(a)
to x.
_l ,
> 0.
Chapter l:Proportion
47.
(a)
Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
48.
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
49.
ofy
_y
4'
= 18.
against
J;
Giventhat yisdirectlyproportionalto
JF
r=9.
i& 36
})
Ltd
5l.
(c)
51.
:1
_y
l
rvhen.tr = 8,
If yr is directly proportional to
13
where
> 0 and ,l = 54
'nvhen .r
r, r,vhen
r=5.
<1.
l6 when ,l  +
find
(a)
(b)
Chapter
l: Proportion
/F'
f$l
54.
56.
57.
1{
,y
particular value of
(a)
(b)
.r,.
_y
e.
It is given that _r, is directly proportional to (3x  4) and y = 28 when x = 2. Find the value of
r.vhen this value of _v is increased by 50Va.
:S }l
Mathematics Tutor 2A
"rr
5U.
If
59.
It is given that
(a)
(b)
50.
_r
is directly proportional ro
2r+l
and that
= 3 rvhen r = 2.
)
t2
17
(a)
tbt
rr
Shor,v that (r
Hence. erpress
Ltd
11.
2) is directly proportional to d.
l in terms of d.
Chapter l:Proponion
@)
61
Given that
.x
(a)
(c)
62.
(b)
tz
225
36
45
36
60
13.5
17t
18
t6
(d)
25
12
72
63'
Ji
(b)
(c)
\:w }
b.
18
(a)
(b)
{ 40
the value of a,
the values of b.
Mathematics Tutor 2A
kis aconstant'
3
72
Ltd
64.
65.
65
.l
,4
r6
22
It is given that p3 and (q  l) are in direct proportion. Some values of p and q are given in the
table belolv.
)
4r.5
1094.5
(a)
(b)
66.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Jx
and that
Chaoter
r\
l: Prooortion \{ 4l
'\fs
},
"d.
61.
(a)
(b)
(c)
2
18
50
MathematicsTutor24'
@ Casco
Pttblicaliot:'
.:
.3.
The table shorvs the number of litres of petrol (P) consumed by a car to travel a distance of
d km.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
a9.
tl
18
27
36
45
The table shor,vs the royalties earned, $R, by an author fbr n copies of books sold.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1)
Show that
10
20
30
40
50
t4
28
42
56
70
The table shows the volume of a sphere (Vcm3) ancl its radius (r crn).
(a)
(b)
(c)
)
33.52
113.13
268.16
905.04
Ltd
Chapterl:Proportion
71.
The pressure of water, P units, at a point belor'v the surface of the sea, is directly proportirrn.,
to the depth of the point below the surface, r/ metres. If the pressure is 400 units at a depth L6 m, calculate the pressure of rvater at a depth of 15 m.
72.
The cost of a pearl, $C, is directly proportional to the square of its mass, rn grams.
If apearlof mass l0gcost$240,find
(a) an equation connecting C andm,
(b) the cost of a pearl of mass 25 g,
(c) the mass of a pearl which costs $540.
73.
In a pond, a lilypad grows such that its area, A crri,is directly proportional to the square root
of the number of days, n,that has elasped. If its area is 24 crrt after 4 days, calculate
(a) the area ofthe lilypad after 25 days,
(b) the numberof days taken by the lilypad to grow to an area of 0.024 r*.
i{ 44
}]
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Lkl
.
In an experiment to test the braking system of a new car, engineers found that the length of
skid, s metres, is directly proporlional to the square of the speed of the car, v km/h. In one test,
the car skidded 32 m r.vhile travelling at 80 km/h.
Calculate
(a) the length of the skid when a car is travelling at 100 kmih,
(b) the speed of a car r,vhich skidded 40.5 m.
i.
The table shorvs the time taken (t seconds) by a ball being dropped fiom a vertical distance
(s metres) to hit the ground.
(a)
(b)
(c)
20
125
320
720
12
is tripled?
Chapterl:Proportion
(4)
Inverse Proportion
16.
(c)
17
shor,vs
l2
T7
27
18
21
)c
3.5
4.5
5.5
7.5
30
9.9
1.7
6.3
4.62
)
30
18
15
10
10
t4
1B
63
45
34
(d)
(a)
rrll
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ii
t
i,t
"1
l_
1_
t
:
In each of the following, state which two variables are inversely proportional to each other.
(a) ),= +
r
(b) .'r'= 2f
v.\
(c) l,=*
(e)
J' =
(t) i=
(g)
)'2
(i)
,tr
Vi
1
_r, 5 = x
(h) y=
0)
(x
 i)'
+
r
v = l,TV.r
Chapterl:Proportion
79.
(c)
18 when x =
4,find
= 50.
80.
81.
82.
(b)
(c)
83.
\d
r+.
(b)
(c)
{ 48
}r
,={
Ltd
81.
85.
It is given that
86.
87
88.
(a)
(b)
(a)
(b)
_v
and
= 5, find
7) and that
and.
1,
= 4 when x = 5.
that,] = 2 rvhen
r
= 2.
r.
11'
The cube root of .r varies inversely as the square of y and that x = 64 when y = J.
Find the value of x wheny  2.5.
s is
a certain value
of /. When
Ltd
Chapter
ze&lr
l: Proportion i{ +S }f
89.
(a)
(c)
90.
and q.
)
13.5
15
18
25
40
84
105
I2
10
16
2t
),
(d)
= ,+
V'\+5
r,vhere k is a constant.
(b)
(c)
i&
*1
59
30
t2
of
P,
q.
50 $l Mathematics Tutor 2A
@ Ctrst:o
91.
It is given that
(a)
(b)
1,
2)1 andr,
'
*200
rvhen x = 4.
1,
is
(a)
(b)
x andy.
Ltd
Chapter 1: Proporlion
(t5t,il
\!/
93.
(a)
(b)
(c)
20
5
8
tiit
oll
ugrinrt 1
1'.
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ri
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Ltd
91.
A train travels uniformly from Station A to Station B. The table shows the time taken, / hours,
and its speed, y km/h.
100
_.1
JJ;
50
25
20
)
Time (rhours)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
if the speed of
(i) / against v,
(ii) ragainstl.
95.
The table shows the volume (V cm3) of air inside a bicycle pump when the air pressure is
P units.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
)
90
45
30
22.5
t8
(ii)
1
Tagainst'P'
Ltd
Chapter l:Proponion
@,
96.
The table shor.vs the clepth of rvater, /r cm, and the base radius, r cm, of a cylinder when a jug
of lvater is poured into it.
Base radius (r cm)
I
l0
(a)
(b)
(c)
2.5 cm.
91.
The number of days, d. needed to assemble a car is inversely proportional to the number of
rvorkers, r.r,. if 6 lvorkers take 4 days to assemble a car, find
(a) an equation connecting d and rY,
(b) the number of days taken by 8 r,vorkers to assemble the car,
(c) the number of workers needed to assemble the car in 2 days.
98.
(a)
(b)
(c)
ffi
If
a pressure
of
Mathematics Iutor 2A
Ca.sco
99.
'frvo pulleys are belted together:. The number of revolutions per minute, /l rpm. is inversely
proportional to the size of the pulleys, .r cm. A 15 crn pulley running at240 rpm drives a 9 cm
pulley. Find the number of revolutions per minute of the 9 crn pulley.
100. The force, F newtons, between two particles is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance, d cm.lf the force is 1.5 newtons when the distance between the two particles is
4 cm, flnd
(a)
(b)
(c)
101
a law connecting
and d,
The weight w of an object above the Earth varies inversely as the square of the distance d from
the centre of the Earth. If an astronaut weighs 80 kg on the surface of the Earth, what would
this weight be at an altitude of 1000 km? Assurne the radius of the Earth to be 6000 km. Give
your answer correct to the nearest kg.
Chapterl:Proportion
102. Determine whether each of the following is in direct proportion or inverse proportion before
solving the rvord problems.
(a) 4 taps can flll a storage tank in 50 minutes. Hor,v long would it take I0 taps to
flll
the
(b)
(c)
(d)
If
George takes 40 minutes to drive from home to work at an average speed of 60 kmlh.
How long would it take him if he drove at an average speed of g0 km/h?
12 pages
half
an hour?
KS0)
\s/
(e)
A farmer has enough feed to last 40 cows 25 days. If he buys 10 more cows, how long
would the same feed last?
(f)
It takes l4 workers 56 days to build a ship. If another 2 workers were to help, hor.v many
more or less days would be needed to build the same ship?
1o\
A piece of rvire 22 cm long has a mass of 154 g. Find the mass of the same wire of length
8 cm.
Ltd
103. 60 lvorkers take I 50 days to renovate a museum. Assuming that all the r,vorkers rvork at the
same rate. find
(a)
(b)
104.
(a)
(b)
105.
the number of days taken to complete renovating the museum rvith 40 rvorkers.
horv many more r.vorkers are needed to complete renovating the museum in 120 days.
in l6
days.
build
a factorv.
If
ru,
for the
Chapterl:Proportion
i06.
a warehouse. They
107
,A
Qpfl
quilt blanket.
How many days will 4 women take to finish sewing the same quilt blanket?
How many days will 2 women take to finish sewing 2 such quilt blankets?
(a)
(b)
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
o
IlacRitchie
Rescn'oir
1.
l
Find
(a)
(b)
the actual direct distance, in km, between Bedok Reservoir and MacRitchie Reservoir.
2.
Map A is drar.vn to a scale of 1 cm to 2.4 m. The zirea of a fleld on Vlap A is 25 cmt. The area
of the held is 2.56 times bigger on Map B than on Map A. Find the R.F. of Map B.
3.
Ltd
Chapter t: Proportion ([ 59
4.
5.
6.
g.
R
If R is directly proportional to S and s =9.4,find the value of R when
S = 3.5.
Given that z is inversely proportional to /', find the value of n and then complete the table.
60
1.5
4
7500
below.
9.
It is given that
.t =
ffi
3
,1,,
and ,r = 4
64
21
1.6
MathematicsTutor2A
,r'
rvhen
10.
Ltd
Expansion and
Factorisation of Algebraic
Expressions
.
E"p"rd ,lg"brrt"
tlo
algebraic e.xpressions.
Quadratic
1
Quadratic expressions in,r are of the fbrnr ar' + br + r.', r,vhere o, b. c are constants
and a * 0. The highest power of r in a quadratic expression is 2'
2.
%*
rr
Br +
2 and 7,r +
z[
expressions.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simpl ify the tollorving.
(a) 5x2+9x7+6i4x+3
=5x'+6x'+9x4x7 +3 @
=f+5x4
q7
Mathematics Tutor 2A
3.
'e*,.
woRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplify the following.
(a) (.1.r2 ll.rr+(5r' 7.t_ 21
(b) (4r2 + 8x  4)  (6x'+ 9r  5)
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b) (af
4f
Rcmor e brucketr.
 (6*' + 9x  5)
+8x 4+6x29x+5
+ 8x  4)
@
=4f +6i +8x_9x_4+5 *___.ffiffiffi
=2fx+l
4.
%.
multiply
a quadratic expression
with an integer.
woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
Expand the lollorving.
(a)
(b)
2(3x2
SOLUTION:
(ir) 2(J.rr4.r+2)+lgr
= 6xt +
= 6f +
8i;
 4 + 3,r2 
3x2
3r + 6
+ 8x _ 3x  4 + 6
=3x' +5r+
(b)
7(2r2
,\'
.r' +21
rt)
ffi*#k&tqlsu
 2(42  ix + 1)
= 74x2
 7.r' 28 + 8.rr + 6x
+ 8x' 7x + 6x _ 28
= )2x)
,r 
= lJrr
2
 2 .
.CCl#fu*e.iraffi:
30
a(r + r,) = ax
* a)t
P.D
plpqrqo!
oJ
Lh.JLo{r.t
qr r'ryg
4tg"Etqit Etptttqo:tt
'Ib expand the product gf trvo algebraic expressions, lve multiply each term in the {irst
expression by each term in the second expression'
%,
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Expand each of the follorving.
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(.r + 2Xx + 3)
(3r + 2y)(x
4,t')
(3r 1)(2rs)
(2ryX3r5rr+
1)
SOLUTION:
(a)
=x)+5,t+6
(b)
(3.r
1x2r 
r,
=
(c)
ll,_ l;l;
(3x + 2t)(..r4y) =
(d)
':
6+: I
,''
(2x
.'\\
y)(ixiv
3,,r2
.t
12.11'+ 2r1'
10xr'
Br'2
8r'2
:n
\;tri:::,,s

Mathematics Tutor 2A
3r'
rr'
E
_
= 6x, + 5y, l3xy + 2x
(h..
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Expand and simplify each of the following.
(a) 3(x  2)(4  2x)
(b)
(c)
1zx'z ll1sr s;
(3x + Z)(5r2  4x + 3)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Bx
 8)
=6xt +21x21
(b)
(c)
(3x+2)(5x']*4r+3) = l5.rr
_ 12.i
=15r''_
{h.<3ih!
+9,r+ 10.rr8x+6
2i+x+6
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Simplify each of the following expressions.
(a) (2;r  3Xr + 4)  (,r + 1)(,r  2)
(b) (r + 4y)(3x  t,)  2(l  3rX4x * r,)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Remembertoaddbrackets.
(2r 3)(x+4)(,r+ ltrl 2)
f= 2x' + 8r 3x  12 _ 1.rr  2r' +.r  2)
=2x1 +5x12(r1_ x_ 2')
=Ztt+5x_ 72x2+r+2
=x'+ 6x 10
Remembertoaddbrackets'
rbl (r+4.\')(3r1)2(r.3r)(4rr.) r
= 3r2 .ry + 12x1,  4yt  2(4\  y'  l2x'+ 3ry,)
= 3rt + I 1xy  \,'  2(*1212 + 7xy = 3r2 + lxy  4,2 + 21x2  l4xy +
1,21
= 27.r':  3.n
Ltd
21,2
 2t'
flaD
\Qg
E)
(R
=&:
(a)
(c)
(b)
(d)
(r + 5)2
(3,r
,1)r
(2r + 3)r
()r
/'\')
SOLUTION:
3']
=4x2+l2x+9
(c)
(3.r
4)'] =
(3u)2 _
= 9t)
%.
25x2
2(3x)(1) + 1)
24l +
TOxr'
(a)
(cl
(e)
,,Ar
49y2
+ lXr
1)
1l.r5t(2.r'+.s)
(rl, + lXr.r'
\,1}l MathematicsTutor2,A
i{ 66
16
tr)
Q) Ca,sto
SOLUTION:
(a) (x+l)(x1)=x'l'ffi
=,r'*
(2x
5)(2r + 5) = 12xl  52
= h2 *25
(r .Yr ,1
(t
. l;r*{r'l;r)
{t rr
t:'
\/
)\/
r2
\
(d)
(3t')'
t,
9)'
4' 
(e)
(0
(x+,1'12)(x+Y*2)
= [(x + "]) + 2l [(r + _y)  2]
(x+ y)t2'
'%,.
woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
Use algebraic rules to evaluate the following.
(a)
(b)
6052
(c)
B9l2
30t
299
SOLUTION:
(a)
6052
= (600 + 5)'?
= 6002 + 2(600)(5) + 5'?
= 360 000 + 6000 + 25
Use(a +b)2=
+2ab+b1.
= 366 025
(b)
B9J2 = (900
3)'?
Use
(zz
_ b).
=
rf _2ub + b2.
= 804 609
(c)
= 3002
I)
12
=900001
= 89 999
Ltd
ffi)
\/
'e.*&",
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Simplify each of the following.
(a)
(b)
(2r3)2 +5r(4r l)
2,rXx + 2f)
SOLUTION:
(a)
 3)2 + 5x(4r  1)
=4:t l2r+9+20'125r
(2r
(b)
24x2
(3r'+
l'lx + 9
v)2
+ 7(x
= grt + 6r.v +
r.,t
21')(;r + 2,r)
 7lr'  (2t)tl
=2rt+6rv+2912
%,
woRKED EXAMPLE 5:
(a)
(b)
(c)
SOLUTION:
=f +y'+Zry
= (29) + 2(10)
=29 + 20
ffi
=49
.'. (r +
N')2
= 49
*y'=(xy)'+2xy
= 8r + 2(12)
= 64 24
Use(ab)'="'2ctu+i'
ffi
=40
.'.
x'+
)'2
= 4o
,A
l(9fl
 3y' = 231
MathematicsTulor 2A
Ltd
It
".ti"g
Crr" EeglglllBgyErrq_
1.
2.
E.g.
3(r
Erpansitrn
+,r)
3r
+ 3y
Factorisation
) .
4.
We
In this method, lve rer,vrite the expression rvith the common factors outside the
brackets. Remember that common f'actors of trvo or more terms are factors that
appear in all the terms.
%e.
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Factorise each of the follorving.
(a) 2r B
(ct zh.v  20r: + 6n':
(e) 2x(3x 1)7(3x
1)
(b)
(d)
(f)
3u + 2lab
,r''!'*
tr'tl't
5n(2n + 3)
3,r!t
2n
SOLUTION:
(a) 2xB
= 2(x  4)
2lab
= 3a(I + 7b)
(b)
3a +
(c)
Ltd
(d)
) L
l,
^L5
y
xy xy + Jx
=fy','x+3fy')
(e)
2x(3xt)7(3xt) @i;
 (3x  t)(Zx  1)
(f)
5n(2n+3)2n3
= 5n(2n + 3)  l(2n + 3')
 (2n + 3)(sru  l)
[D
]qqto.iqq4ql by
%*
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
"qqg
q 1\4"ltip1i.utiq"
Eryry.
Factorisef+5x+6
SOLUTION:
Step
@:
X
2
.T
of the multiplication
frame.
Step
@:
x2
or
@:
6:r
+ 1(r)
=6r+r
r;(6)
=Jx
qy
or
r
2
2r
3x
6
Check:.r(3) + 2(.t)
1..r)''
=5r /
O Casco Publication,s Pte Ltd
aw
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Factorise each of the following.
(b)
(d)
(a) rrr 12
(e) b.rx15
2lr25x+3
x2
4x + 21
SOLUTION:
(a)
3x
.'. x'
(b)
1r
=r {
 12 (x + 3)(,r  a)
x
1
2x
2x)
2x
3x
l
)
r2
+
Check:2.r( I) + (3)(t)
=5x
2x
X
3,r
6x2
9r
5
10r
15
,7
x
)
Check:
l
15
(3x
J,{
5rt2.r.1
10r"
=.r/

5X2r + 3)
Check: (r)(7) + 3(r)
7
2
3x1.r1
= 9.r 
= 7.r +
_4i t"
Jx
3.r:
21
,A
qy
*Gs$%.
woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
Factorise each of the follorving.
=l5fZx+1 *ffi
 (3r + l)(*5r + 1)
5x
3x
l5x
3x
5x
Check:3x(1) + 1(5r)
=
3.r
1/
= l\
(b)
rt+r.\'_
= (.r
12)''
3_v)(.r
+ 4r)
.t
3y
3.rr'
5.,r
r'
41t
4x1
72v'
Check:x(4t') + (3,r')(x)
)...
 ^.. Jlv
=rl /
 +tl
(c)
8a'cl6abc+6b2c
= 2c(4a2  8ab + 3b2\
= 2c(2a  b\(2a 
*;
3b)
;ffilffi:lfi;;
2u
3b
2a
4a'
6ob
b
2ob
3b'
=Bab
A72
\:w)
it
Mathematics Tutor 2A
2al:t
1.
!qe!tit,.!
(a+b'f=o'+2ab+b)
(a bf = 02 Zab + b)
(o+b)(ab)=atb'
2.
^
a.+2ab+b=1a+b),
I
,)
^ ,
o taD+D
l.oo),.)
,,
I
rl
crb(cr+b)tub)
We use the above algebraic identities to factorise algebraic expressions that can be
expressed in one of the above forms (i.e. the lefthand side of the equation).
A%,
WOHKED EXAMPLE 1:
Factorise each of the following.
(a) f+2x+l
(d) 4i 8x + 4
(b)
(e)
+ l0r + 25
1x) + ZOx + 25
x2
(c)
,1'261'+9
(0
9x)_
12x1,+41,2
SOLUTION:
(a) x2+2x+l
=,r2+2(.r)(1)+1r
* (t + 1)l
(b)
.r2+10r+25
I
.^
)
=.t'+Z(.rX))+1.)
=(.r+5)
(c)
 6r'+ 9
= r,' 21y113; + 3.
)''
= f1, 3)r
(d)
4r2Br+4
= 4(r)  2x + 1')
 4l.r' 2(rX l) + 1']1
= 4(t
(e)
Use rrr
h) +20r+25
9x'=
l2xy,+
13x)z
= (3x
2,tb + b' = (a
ht:.
1)2
= (2x)2 + 2(2x)(5) + 52
)
 (rr + ))
(f)
412
2(3x)(2y) + (2y)'
2y)z
ffi*
,A\
\rw
r{ 73 !l
Gro,
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Factorise each of the following.
(a) f
(c)
(e)
ze
zxz  50
p'  (q + ,)'
(b)
(d)
74v'
(0
8lr;a
b =
la + bl(u  bl.
1612 .r2
49y2
1,t
SOLUTION:
(a)
x'
36
=i6'
=(x*6Xx6)
(b)
  4y'
=lr_(zy),
.ffi
_ffi
 (1 + zy)(I 2y)
(c)
(d)
2rr
50
= 2(r)
16xryr
'
25)
49t1
= yt1l6r'  49;
= r't[(4.r)t  7']
 t,'(4jr +'t)(4x
7)
81,r4
)'
= 19xt)t +
=
(.'tt)'
Urc
aj
ef y\ef y')
=of +y')[(3*)'y'l . &&imiry*#":&ffi
=0,f+y';13x+yX3xy) ffi
/64\
\\r'll) Mathematics
(t Z+
Turor 2A
Cnscr.r
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Use algebraic rules to evaluate each of the following.
(b)
(d)
(f)
(h)
(a) 292+58+1
(c) 882 + 352 + 4
(e) 1052  25
(g) 68x9585x68
812
162
17'232
59.52
78
40.52
x 22 + 182
SOLUTION:
(a) 292+58+l
=292 +2(29)(t) +
= (29 + 1')2
= 302
= 900
(b)
+I
= 8122(81Xl) +
= (81 * 1),
812
t1
1r
162
= 801
= 6400
(c)
+ 352 + 4
= 88r + 2(BBX2) + 2l
= (88 + 2)2
B8r
ffi
= 90r
= 8100
(d)
7'7) _ 232
= (77 + 23)(71
= (100x54)
= 5400
(e)
(0
l05r  25
= 105t  52
= (105 + 5)(105
= (110x100)
= 1l 000
59.5r
ffi
s)
40.52
+ 40.5)(59.5
=
(100)(19)
=
(59.5
 23)
40.5)
= 1900
Lt.l
/A
i{
ZS
\4
68x95*85x68
= 68(95  85)
(g)
= 68(10)
= 680
78x22+18)
(h)
= 78(22 + 7B)
= 78(100)
= 7800
%*
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
(a)
(b)
Factorise l9.
Use youranswerin part (a) to flndtwo factors of 1591,otherthan 1 and 1591.
SOLUTION:
(b)
1591
(t + 3)(.r
3)
= 1600  9
=4Ot_ 3'
= (40 + 3X40
Use
a2
112
3)
= (43X37)
.'. The tr,vo factors are 43 and 37.
(h_==ilh\
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
Given thatx2 y'= 28 and
xy
SOLUTION:
t Y' =28
(x+y)(x!)=28
(x+yX8) =28
Substitute
r:
.y
8.
28
{*v =.
.1
"2
^1
J.x*Y=3
,i;;*.
i{ 76
\Yt;r'
}f
Mathernatics Tutor 2A
Lttl
Rt,,
woRKED EXAMpLE 6:
Factorise
Z"y
* y'  r'.
SOLUTION:
.r' z.ry *.t't
a'
= L(r
r'.1
+:lli.r'
r)
=(xf'+:X.r]':)
E>
regloliqetiqq
:1
plqrqqpils
Expressions containing four or more terms can be factorised by the method of grouping.
In this method, the terms are divided into groups such that the terms in each group have a
common tactor. We then extract the common factor to factorise the expression.
a.r + (/'r' + b.r + by = r,1, + y) +
b{r +
r')
=(x+y)(a+b)
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Factorise each of the following.
(a) 5x+5y+ax+ay
(c) ax+ay+xy+f
(b)
(d)
3px9ry4q,r+l2qy
l5ntxZny 3nx +
10n21'
SOLUTION:
(a)
5r + 5y + ax + ay
= 5(r +
,v)
+ a(x +
1')
(x+y)(5+a)
(b)
(c)
0x + a,f +
r] +.r
=ax+a]+x'+x1'
= a(r + rr) + r(r + ,y)
= (,r * 1')(a +.r)
(d)
15mrZny'*3m+ llmy
= 15ntx  3nx + l\my  2n_v
= 3x(5rrt * n) + 2y(5ru  n)
ffi)
\:/
(b)
(c)
(d)
7rt
.r' : I +Jr
3(2
(r
5r,)r
8 + 20r'
2r)(5:r +
3,r)
(x
2yXr
5r,)
SOLUTION:
(a)
10(2r
t')
p0' 2x)
ix3x2_
r+7x *ffi
=rt(7r
1)
2 1
=lxX+lXl
=(7x
(c)
 t)
+ l(7.r
1)
1X,r']+ 1)
3(251,)r8+20.r'
=.1(l 5.rt:4( l5rr
 5,1.'.
(d)
("r
2,1,)(5x
+ 3t')
(.r
= (r  2_r,)(5r + 3r,.r +
= (.rr  2y)(4x + 8,y)
= ,1(_t  2.r,)(_r + 21,)
21,)(r
51,)
51,)
il
Tutorial
(1) QuadraticExpressions
l.
(b)
ll+3viv'5+y" 2',
(c)
(r2 + 3r
(d)
(62' + 72
4) + (3rt
4)
5x + 1)
110rr
32, 1)
(fl
1
5(2x2 + 5x + 1) + 4(2r)
Ltd
2,r + 3)
3.
Subtract 8(2rr
4.
Subtract 2(9x
5.
Adcl 2(.r2
lg 80
$l
\h**,0{'
+;r
11
,5(7 x
1) from 2(6r
 +fl fromthe
+Jr
sum of
.r
+ ,r';.
4.r').
3x2
7x + ll
and 8(4x
Mathematics Tutor ?A
315r'?
 5i).
4).
Ltd
(a)
3(7a
(c)
4(2x + 5y)
(e)
2.r(3x
5x(,r
(i)
4r(2x2
1)
1)
6"'b(
5::
5(6  t')
(d)
(.2x
(0
x(7 + 4x)
(h
7.r)
ft)
,,b +
"yX2)
U) ro(_i,
1)
lot  it)
rrr i,,
zq,
 p,)
[t, +' *)
,;A&
l
Ltd
l{,S, }1
']}r9:'
(m) 5r 
(o)
3rry
2(x
2x(y
3r,)
(n)
lOx + 3x(,r
(p)
51,2
3)
(2x
4)
3yX3y)
(r)
*7(4a
(s)
2x(5x + 1)  (8
(0
(u)
21\e
(v)
2(3r
(r)
{3,r
A
(ru) I2r 
+ kl(e
*2x)(t)
fl  2e(cl +J)
{3y412x7(xr')l}
,;$*iL\
i{ 82 3j Mathematics Tutor 2A
1b)
* 8(3a + 2b 
2y) + [5(r
1)
1')
4y) + 8y]
Q) Casco
(a)
+ lXx + 4)
(b)
(,r + 2)(r + 3)
(d)
(t + 5X.r
2)
(e)
(0
(x + 3)(r
3)
(h)
(3r + 2')(x  4)
C)
(3r
(l)
(t
(x
(x
2)(x
2)
(.r+ 1)(2,r+3)
&
of Tlvo Expressions)
(i)
(2x + 3Xr +
(k)
(2r
4)(5
Ltd
3t)
1)
2)(4x
5)
4x)(7 + 2x)
,A
K83ll
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(b)
1.rt + .r
(c) (2x+1)(3xr+r3)
(d)
(3r
_r)(
(e)
(r + 2)(x + 3)  5r
(f)
5r)
(2r
1)(r
(g)
3.r
(h)
(r
2)(r
3) + 6(.r
(i)
1r(2r
(j)
(2x
(k)
8.r2
(l)
(5x
 2')(2x + 3)  2(2"r 
(a)
(x + 2)(x']+ 3r + 1)
2(r
1X3r
 l)
 1)  8(;r  1X,r + 1)
12r
1X3.r + 2)
211x
1.1
i  3r 
,'r
1)
1)
5)(2r  1)  (r + 3)(.r
3)
lX"r
3)
(4)
9.
(a)
(x +
2';2
(c) (, +)'
(e) le  1'
\3t
\=4
(,
8)'
(d)
(4
r12
(f)
(3,r+ l)r
(g)
(Zx + 7)2
(h)
(1
(i)
(8r
3)2
(j)
(6r + 7)2
(k)
(2r +
31')r
(l)
(3,,
t \'
(n) (t\'
l3xiy
(m)
i{ S0 })
)'
(b)
l**rY)
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v)'
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(o)
2(21'_
(q)
3r(5.r
(s)
(run
(p)
5(4r + l)']
(r)
10r(3r + 4)
t\2
(u) Ilx+:x,/
(v)
(z**!\'
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(x)
1;2x2
(z)
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r))
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rx
y )
Ltd
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+ 2at'1)
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10.
(b) 5r(2.rl)2
(e)
9r(2x + 1)  (2.r 
5)l
(2r1)']3jr152r;
(i)
,^.
lQy,
(5.r
4)r
2(x
Mathematics Tutor 24
t)2
(f)
(2x+3)2
4x(1x)
(h)
(.3x
(r
2(.r+3rr+31.r31r
2)1
(2x
7)2
Ltd
(5)
11.
 1)
(b)
(a)
(r
(c)
(B + v)(8
(e)
(g)
(i)
("r
(k)
(.2r
+ lXr
(s
_r')
4\/t
tL_r_ 1)
s/
[r 57[r
3y)(r + 3r")
5yX2t + 5y)
(r + 4Xr  4)
(0
(3x + 2)(3x
(h)
(5t + 4X5r
C)
(.2r + 7y)(2x
(1)
(a'
2)
4)
7,v)
b)(a' + b)
,3**:i
. Casco PubliccLtions Pte Ltd
(m)
(Zpq + 1)(2pq
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(p) [l * ,r,'
lntil  5tr\
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(s)
(.3a + 2b
(u)
(x +
(rv)
(a
(x)
(t +9'
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lo't
Jlt'+1.'J[:'
l)(r
+ 1)(3a  2b 
A. }) MathematicsTutor2,A
i{ 90
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1)
l)("r'] + 1)
2b)(a +
2b1@2
(r)
(2r 
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(v)
(2
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+ 3)(2x ,v  3)
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9r')
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(c)
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(,r + 2r:)(x
,A }) Mathematics Tutor
(10000+1X100001)
{f 92
(n)
x)(3 + x)
r)
2.vXrt + 4r,')
24,
(ro
(d)
rr
(0
(2x + 3.y)r
(r + .r,'11, 
r,'1
(2r + y)(2r
,v)
*.v')
Ltd
(a)
(3r
(b)
(2.r
1) crn
ABCD is a square.
(d)
(4x6)
(5x
4) cm
ABCD is a trapezium.
pt + p)(n  p).
+ 3) cm
cm
Simplify n'
(.r
(2;r + 3) cm
(5.r + 7) cm
ABCD is a rectangle.
(c)
i. (a)
(b)
3) cm
89 552
x89
544.
16. (a)
(b)
11.
Simplify:
(i) rr  (r + 2)(x * 2),
(ii) {r  (,r + vXx  t').
Use your answers from part (a) to r.vrite dolvn the value of
999992  100002 x99996.
(a)
(b)
18.
9872
25 990 x 25 984.
,5gt) ,l
(b) t2nx2+nt[j,,*,J
(c)
\bfl
(3x + 2r,):
(3r + 2r)(3,r
Mathematics Tutor 24
2,v)
19. (a)
Giventhat(r,y)'=50
and
(b)
(c)
Given that
yt
(d)
Given that,r2 +
),'t
(e)
Given that
,r2
,)'2
(t)
Given that
x2
12 =
(g)
Given that
r + J'
r2
45 and x
= 19 and t 
.y
12 +
tt
y'
 I.
,'t')t.
2y)2
,r'1r.
lz
1!.
,A,
( SS })
\*4
20.
Given that 4f +
21.
If
22.
,r2
(a)
(b)
If
9y2
))',
(, 
v)'.
.r + y =
2
of
'..1k\
i{ 96
}i
Mathematics Tutor
2,A.
Ltd
(a)
3x +
(c)
xt
(e)
6ntn
(b) ll  llx
15
(d)
94, +
(f)
12r1, r1,;
(h)
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4r3 + I0.rry
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9a'br,'
9x
rcr) +
8mp
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Ltd
36r,'
4r1:
27
abc
Expressions
'l*"ri\
rr."
i\l:f?,
lga3b3
(n)
25x3
(o) 2ab+6ac+\ad
(p)
3p'
(q)
8m'
(r)
Zry
 ry'+ 3r2y
(s)
x3
+ 10x3y _ lr'y'
(t)
p'q  ptq'
(u)
(v)
ga'bt
(rv)
612
(m)
\3}
30a2b2
6rn'
 r(3y
Mathematics Tutor 24
4mt
l2)
rs
l0x2z
6p +
\pq'
pq'
l5a2b^
+ l2ab2
Ltd
(7') Factorisation
24.
x2+3r+2
x2+7x+10
x2+2x*15
x'
6;r
x2 _
x20
3x2+5x*2
Ltd
/d6\
,U5,
(i)
x2+14x+45
U) a'  5a _ 24
(k)
.rr + 3x
(1) v' 7v  60
(m)
2xr
+ 1lx +
(o)
2r2
t OO
})
12
10x + 8
(q) 6rrr
i{
28
(n)
3rr + l3r + 14
(p)
2r2
*Jx
(r)
4x2
+6
l3x +
(s)
2y2
y  l0
(0
3x2+ 11r20
(u)
612
(v)
8x2
23x + 21
Mathematics Turor 2A
+ 26x +
15
Q) Casr:o
25.
(a)
8x2
(c)
12x2
3Ox
27
l7x + 5
(e) 3 4x64x2
(f)
3xt
(g)
(h)
6xy'+
15p2
+ 2pq 24q2
(k)
@ Casco
(b) tp12p2
3s2t
Publications Pte
Ltd
..
2x),*
8r,r
16xy
U) r+rl0.i)
(l)
,'.rtz
6r
16xyz + 642
(8)
26.
(a) i+6x+9
(e) 2x2 
l2x + l8
(g)
(i)
at
(k)
Or'
*za'b
(b)
ntz
(d)
4x2
lt
Bm
16
+ l2r + 9
(0 f,**'r,
(h)
+ ab'
+ 3n, +
4x'
l2x1
91,'
rryrSrv+ 16
(l)
xt
2x1,t +
y'
.,46q*.
({tOZ}
Marhematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
21
(a)
fg
(d)
,'*
(g)
25nt2
(b) x' 
 4n'
(c)
25
(e) i.,'
(h)
81,12
I00 y2
(f) 4f  y'
100
.o
{l) +r 2.5 '
1'
.A
0t 9u' nb'
(k) 3.r' 48
(l)
2;r3
(m)
3nt2
lZnta
(o)
l8m3
(p)
25x2y2

(q)
lr)
Ltd
54xs
6x3
,r2
r00
50x
2mn)
II
rl
r,;s{'
.ttOli,
\$
28.
(b) 1 
16ra
(d)
(r + y)' z'
(e) 4(2x+I)2
(0
a'*1b+3y'
(g)
(x + 7)2
(x
 3)'
U) x'6x+94)2
(k)
i{104}j
x2
+ 2rr' +
y'
(1) 1,r2+10.ry25y'?
Ltd
29.
(a) 392+78+l
(c)
(d)
8012
(0
212
(g)
(h)
751
750 + 25
(i) 79'21'
9t'90'
(k)
(t)
8.62
812
162
3l) +222+9
9052
95r
Ltd
fi02 + I
192
16
1.42
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1.036'z
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982
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1.
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375'
125'.
Mathematics Tutor 2A
(p)
2252 252
(r)
88882
ft)
(v)
8889'z
 3832
213'  212',

4612
@t
30. (a)
Given
(b)
Giventhatr+
(c)
lt
f '!'
(d)
If
(e)
!=17 andxy=l,findthevalue
=72 and x 
value of
of
xy.
f y'.
l3,flnd
the value
of
(1,  ir)'
i{l07}]
\ef/
31
. (a)
(b)
Factorise
,'
.)''.
32. (a)
(b)
Given that
812
Given that
2022
33. (a)
(b)
Factorise x'gUse your answer from part (a) to flnd two factors of 891.
l(l08p
'\ry9'
Mathematics Tutor 2A
1942
Ltd
(a) 3x+6+xy+2y
(b) 3p4qpq+12
(c.) ob+b2ab
(d)
x1'
(0
px + 3py 3qy
(e)
3xp
6rq
2py
+ 4qy
Saxt,+10aYx2
(i) 2m)+8mmn4n
Ltd
+ Za.r'
31:
6ax
 q,
25bx
0) mqnq+nm
ItOOJ
{
Jl
35.
(a) *tnm'p8p+8n
(c)
4p' + 6p'q'8ptq
(e)
1r
 r)'
3x +
lZpq'
3v
(8ry)'52(8xt)
(i)
(3,r + 8y)(x
Ltd
4y)
(.x
4y)'
(b)
9x:r'
(d)
l5a3bc
(t)
(h)
Jx21x2
12a3b3 _ 30ac
1)
4(r'?+
+24ab2
8.v
1)2
3tt(2xy)7b(6x3y)
l}j
36.
,t I l2 j
(a)
25
x18 + 25 x
22
(c)
L7
x285
(b) 38x15+38x85
(d)
49 x399
(0
(g)
777
(h) 28x72+282
(i)
96x39 43x78
185
17
Mathematics Tutor 24
8e(33
49 x299
8) + 11(33
 8)
Ltd
2 ,r(#,,X*+t)
=a,' 
3.
4.
5.
lf
Ltd
l2y
tt
2x2y
x1''
3ry' + 3v''
l '
,'ff\,
13i
6.
77 777 777
(b)
(c)
(a)
7.
Q7111 119
l)
576 000
(b) rfq(lq=
8.
*;*
(*
8902
I27
 lo2 8892,flnd
the value of x.
if x > 0.
n l)(m+ n + I)  l.
tl l4Ji
Mathematics Tutor 24
Ltd
9.
10.
1l
(b)
(9y
(.)
32roy2
1250v6
(d)
8lxa
 (r' ,r)'
re)
9r I
4.r'.tr41r+3.t2
(0
11.r2
+ 1ly'
Factorise
. (a)
(b)
gxoo
(r),)"0
7)' + 1441,3 
22xt'
112y2
99
9y"'81.
l.{ tSJ,
'*ry(:.i
12.
13.
\*/
3x2
+ 27y2 + 5z'
tSxy
302
125
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Solving Quadratic
Equations
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ! a ! a a a a a a a a a a a a a
ffi
Tarsets
tW#
\d
.
l3:D
b:c
+ c = 0 r'vhere
a,b
anda+0.
2.
To solve a quadratic equation, lve need to hnd the values of r that satisty the
equation. The values of r are also called the roots of the equation.
).
(c)
Quadratic fbrmula
In this chapter, lve will learn to solve quadratic equations by factorisation. We lvill
learn the other trvo methods in Book 3,A.
4.
Step 1 : Write the equation in the general form, i.e. put all terms on
the lefthand side r.vith only 0 remaining on the righthand
side of the equal sign.
Step 2 : Factorise the lefthand side of the equation.
Step 3 : Set each factor equal to 0.
Step 4 : Solve the nerv equations from Step 3
.
ffi
Q='a
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following equations.
(a) x(x2) =$
(c) (x+3)(x4)=0
(b)
(d)
3r(2r
+ 1) = Q
(3x
1)(5r
7) = 0
SOLUTION:
(a)
r(,r
.'.
2) =
r=0
.r= (J
x2
or
or
lar'toriscti. !o ttr
=0
S1311
e.
*a
Il tivo factors
(b)
3,r;(2t
+ l) = 0
.'.3.t=0
.\.=0
.r =()
(c)
or
2x+I=0
or
L^
or
l
1


(x+3Xr4)=0
.'.x+3=0
x =3
(d)
a" _
or
or
x4
r
=0
=4
(3x1)(5x7)=0
.'.3x1=0
3x=l
*=
or
or
or
5x7 =0
5x =J
r= 25
1
%,
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplily the fbllorving.
ffi
Mathematics Tutor 2A
(b) x'25 =0
(d) 5x2+13x6=0
(0 @+2)(3x1)=10
'e
(.'cLsto
PubliL:utiott.r Pte
t,ld
SOLUTION:
(a) 4f 3x=0
x(4x3)=0 *.,W:
.'.r=0 or
r=0 or
(b)
0
r =4
.1r3
.1
.r' 25 = 0
.rl5r =0
(.r+ 5)(x 5) =0 +
=(a+b)('t
r5 =0
Usea:
or
or
b2
b)'
Alternative method:
rt25=o
I
r'
_
)\
  l'ti
=+)
5 tlr
.'. .r =
(c)
2r)+5r3=0
(2rl)(r+3)=0
.'.2r1=0
r=
(d)
r=5
or
2
OI
x+3=0
.x=3
5.rt+13t6=0
5,rr13r+(r=0
(5.r3Xr2)=0
.'.5.r3 =0
T=
or
or
t2=0
.._,
2x
2x2
6r
1
J
3
5x
)r
10x
J
),t
1
JT
rl
tr
3.r
2x
.5
3rr = r +
(e)
3r2x
2=0
(3x+2)(.r1)=0
.'.3r+2=0
, =32
Ltd
or
.r 1 =0
or
 _ I
t  I
(f)
(,r+2)(3tl)=10
3r2,r+6r210=0
3rt + 5r  12 =0
(3rztX.r+3)=0
.'.3r4=0
,=113
(g)
or
x+3=0
or
,.1
r
al
l
3x
JX
9.r
4x
12
2x
1
Zx
4x'
6x
J
6x
3
f.1r=.114.r.1..1
4,r2=72r9
4r)12tr+9=o
(2x3')(2x3)=0
r)r'ltr(l
\.'
.'.2r3=0
2.r=3
*=t+
(repeated)
%.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Given that 5 is one of the roots of the equation3f + px + 10 = 0, flnd
(a)
(b)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Given that 5 is one of the roots of the equation, substitute r = 5 into the equation.
3f+px+10=0
When x = 5,
3(5)'z+ 5p +
i0
=0
75+5p + 10 =0
(b)
zf  rtx+
5P
=85
=I7
1o =
(3x 2)(x5)
=o'lt'+r*+ffi$ffi9;
*:*,Y:.ffi$*W&
.'.3r2 =0
_t=23
or
or
t5=0
X
3"rr
x
:2
1X
a"
5
15x
10
.\J
i, ,, =
1
zffi"r
i(l4ojJ
Mathematics Tlrtor 2A
Ltd
%,
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
lf
2a2 +
ab
4b2 = 0, where b
O,
SOLUTION:
2a2
0
0
0
2a b
+7ab*4b2
(2ab)(a+4b)
.'. 2a b
2a
b
a
b
ffi
or
a+4b
OI
1
0
a =
a
or
4b
i 4
CI
=2
If
C"*..
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Find two consecutive positive integers such that the sum of their squares is equal to 145.
SOLUTION:
Let the flrst integer be x and the next consecutive integer be x +
1.
2x2
or
or
r =8
r+9 =0
r = 9 (rejected
since
is a positive integer)
Whenr=8,r+1=9
.'. The two consecutive positive integers are 8 and 9.
Check answer: 8' +
92
= 145
/
,4.
i{r+r}
.**,
cach term by 4.
(.r3)(r+61) =0
.'..r3 =0
(:)r
r=1
OT
.r+61=0
r =
61 (rejected
sincc length
cannot be ncgative)
=132m)
%*
(80 x 36)
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
The diagram shorvs traPezium ABCD in rv5ieh 4pr = (5.r. 3) cm. BC = 2r cm anci
BE = (x + 2) cm. Given that the area ol thc trlpezitrm is 7.i cmt. find the sum of the
lengths of the parallei sides.
_
(5,r 3) cm
'ffi
\/
Lttl
SOLUTION:
Area of trapezium ABCD = /,\ cnt (Ulven)
I
=75
:(7t3)(r+2) =75
(7r3Xr+2) = 150
Jx2+l1*3r'_6 = 150
'7r) + 11r 156 *t)
Multiply both
(7r+39)(..r4) =0
.'. 7r + 39 0
., =5
(rejected since
sides
by 2.
x4=0
()r
x=4
is positive)
When r = 1, AD = 5(4) 3 = l7 cm
When r=4,8C =2(1) = 8 cm
Sum of length of parallel sides
=AD+BC
=17+8
=25cm
Check ans\Yer: Area of trapezium
I
 ) r25rr6t
=J5cm) /
'
[tLl.
(1)
t.
(b) 3r(2x 1) = Q
=0
(d)
(2r
5)(3.r
(g) 3x2+9x=0
(h)
4r2
3,r = 0
(i)
xt = 6x
0)
3r2 =
8r
(k) + =,
llt
2rt =
(*) r'9=0
(n) r'25=0
(a)
x(lr
(c)
+ 2) =
r'r7
.5
(e) (3r
ffi
r)
r,(+,r)
Mathematics Tutor 2A
+ l) = 0
=o
)
Q) Casco
(o)
9.tr
(p) I 
,1 = 0
(r)
4r2+5=14
,25
(t)
,,"t =
t{l
(u) 4r =;27
I
(rv)
(.r + 3)2
(y)
(2x
25
+ l)2 =
=0
(q) ""'1=u
(s)
16.12
100
81
(x)
(2r
1)' = 19
(z)
(3x
212
= 64
ffi
(a) x'8x+15=0
(b) ,r'2x48=0
(c) 2x2+7r4=0
(d) 10t2r3=0
(e) _r2+2r+3=0
(f) 12r,r'=0
(g)
r'6,r+9=0
(i) 6x
l2r2 =O
(k) Brt10r3=0
,'ffi
\/
Mathematics Tutor 24
(h) 3rr+10,rB=0
(l)
4r2_
9=0
lt+ l=0
lrn) 2r213r+6=0
(n)
6,rr
(p)
r'
(q)
(r) 2x2+B=l1x
612= l1r+35
+ 14r
12 =
l7r+60=0
(s) r'=3r+4
(t) xt"lx+6=4
(u) f5=6x14
(v)
Ltd
10x
10
=l9x*f
l[147]
.w?
J.
(a)
x(.Zr + 3) = 5
(c)
2x(x
(e)
(r
5) = 5r
 l)'
(;r
18
1) = 6
(2.r+3Xr1)=6
(i) (r4)t='1.r11
,4,
\/
({r+s})
Marhematics Tutor 2A
(b)
r(.r
(d)
(.r
7) = ]Q
3)' =
3r
11
(f) (r3)(,r1)=
15
(h)
(2,t
(j)
(2r
 \)(r + 3) 
5)(3.r + 4)
15
l0
=0
Cctsc'o
r
I
"10
(a) xt+!x=3
(b)
(c)
"r(5
(d) 5 
(e)
xt_ x+0.25=0
(0
(.r
(g)
(h)
(2x
(i)
3(x
(2r
 r)
lS
4Xx +
Ltd
l) = 4(.x 
1)
i\l1=
3x2 = r(3,t
13)
112
1x
2)1
3)(.r + 2) = 5(2.r
3)
ffi
(k) lf lb
+ 1) = 5r
(l) zf *!rr =t
l
,,
ifl
(m) '
r)
(o)
(2x
(q)
(3"t
=x+2
\4
(n) ==
r'+3r2
l') +
1
(r)
=I
= 3(2x
3(2x + 1)(2x
3)(z
x)
1) = 5[x(x
2) +
l)
Ltt.J
'
Given that
6.
(a)
Factorise
(b)
Hence
p)c1
12p
17
= 3.
20; 23x + 6.
solve 20rr2 *Z3x + 6 =0.
7.
If
3x2
8.
If
3p2
5pq2q' = 0, where
Ltd
values
of
f)
4i 
9.
If
10.
11.
lf x =3is
of
f,
x'
x' + px + 12 =0, flnd the value ofp. Hence find the other
12.
one of the roots of the equation x2  5,r + k = 0 is 2, find the value of /r. Hence find the other
root of the equatiorr.
If
3.
14.
Theequation2x2
/A
(t.w
SZ]j
Marhematics Tutor 2A
CcLst:o
#
E
(2) Solving
1,).
Find tr.vo consecutive positive integers such that the sum of their squares is equal to
16.
The sum of the squares of tr'vo consecutive positive odcl integers is 103 more than the product
of these tr,vo integers. Find the integers.
The product of tr.vo consecutive positive even integers is B more than fbur times the sum of the
trvo inte_ters. Find the integers.
ll3.
f
I
I
&
I
I
I
I
I
I
11
18.
Find three consecutive positive odd integers such that the sum oftheir squares is equal to 155.
Lt(l
,A
l[] 53jl
\w
19. (a)
(b)
20.
2l
The leneth of a rectangle exceeds its breadth by 3 m. If its area is 504 mt, flncl the
perimeter of the rectangle.
The area of a rectangle is 2,1 cmr and its perimeter is22 cm. Fincl the length ancl the
breadth of the rectangle.
Marc is 3 times as old as his brother. John. The sum of the squares of their ages two years
ago was 178. If John is.r years old, fbrm an equation in,r and shor.v that it reduces to
5,r' Bx  85 = 0. Solve this equation to find their present ages.
The product of three consecutive positive integers (.r  I ). r and (r + I ) is 65 times the ir sum.
(a) Use this information to fbrm an equation in r and shorv that it reduces to
,r3 196r=0.
{b}
Fautorisc cumplerely
.r'
zG,
it l54p
\!ez
Mathematics Turor 2A
22.
ABC is
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
t9I
r.
(x3)cm
(2.r
23.
+ 1) cm
Thediagrambelowshowsarectangle PQRS.PQ=@2)cm,QR=(2x+3)cmandthearea
of the rectangle PQrtS is 39 cm2.
(a) Form an equation in x and show that it reduces to 2x2  x  45 = 0.
(b)
(c)
(x
2)
cm
Ltd
(2x + 3) cm
21.
The area of a rectangle is thrice the area of a square of side (.r + 1) cm. The length ancl the
breadth of the rectangle are (.2.r + 7 1cm and (2x  6) cm respectively.
(a) Form an equation in r and shorv that it reduces to,rr 'l.r _'l5 = 0.
(b)
25.
DC
(5x
(2;r
(3x+5)cm
+ 8) cm
1) cm
.6il+\
1{
(2r + 3) cm
21.
The base and the height of the parallelogram :rre 2r cm anci (r  1) cm respectivelr. The trapezium hets the same tie ight as the parallelograrn. The length of the parallel sides of the trapczirrrn
are (3r  4) cm and (5r 8) cm. Given that the area of the trapeziurn rs 10 cnl n.rore thaii the
area of the parallelograrn, find the vaiue of ,r.
(5x
(3x
 4) cm
8) cm
(x1)cm
2,v
'@),Casco
cm
,^
W
28.
The length and breadth of a rectangle are (;r + 6) cm and x cm respectively. The perimeter of
the rectangle is the same as the perimeter of a square.
(a) Find the length of each side of the square.
(b) Given that the sum of the areas of the rectangle and the square is 41 cm2, flnd the value
ofx.
29.
(a)
(b)
6) cm respectively.
Find the value of x if the area of the square is twice the area of the triangle.
Find the values of x if the area of the square is 37 cm2 more than the area of the triangle.
(t
lx*
\z
,) "*
6)cm
2(x2)
fG
\r/
MathematicsTutor24
cm
Ltd
30.
The diagram shor,vs a rectangular flou,er bed rvith a footpath ziround it. The length of the florver
bed is (.r + l) m and its breadth is (r  2) rn. The rvidth of the footpath is I m.
(a) Write dorvn an expression jn tcrnrs of r, for
(i) the length of WX,
(ii) the length otXY.
(iii) the area of rectansle WXYZ.
(b) Given that the area of rectangle WXYZ is 180 mr, rvrite dorvn un equation in.r ancl shor'v
(c)
are a
(,r+1)m
(1 _)m
Flo*
rr'
hed
31.
A rectangular container can be formed by cutting out squares of side (x  3) cm from each
corner of a piece of rectangular cardboard measuring 12 cm by B cm.
(a) If the area of the base of the completed box is 32 crrf , write down an equation in x and
show that it reduces to x2  16x + 55 = 0.
(b) Solve this equation for x and flnd the volume of the container.
12 cm
Ltd
ffi
2.
2
.d
(a)
(b)
x*
,/r
r+llJr.r,2ruf.+:r =:'
\.J/
2.ra +
(Q)
()tL.yr.o
3.
In an office Christmas party last year,a gift exchange was conducted. Every employee was
required to buv a present for each of his fellow colleagues. If 600 presents were collected on
*.Le
sa3 rrt the paq.. horv many employees were there in the office?
1.
The length of a rectangular plot of land exceeds its bre aclth by 6 rn. \\iheu rts length is iucreased
by one third and its breadth is decreased by haif. its area is clecreased b1 111 nr , Fnrl thLoriginal perimeter of the plot of land.
.@ Casco
5.
The diagram shows a pendant made up of three circles. The smallest circle, centre O, has
radius o cm. The largest circle, centre O, has radius b cm. The three regions are formed usiltg
gold, silver and platinum.
(a) Find the radius of the medium circle in terms of a and b.
(b) Write dorvn an e.xpression in terms of a and/or b and r for the area of the regions formed
by
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Al62rl
{t
\/
platinum,
silver,
gold.
Given that the area of the eold region is tr'vice the area of the silver region. rvrite dor,vn
an equation in terms of a and b and shorv that it rcduces to 5a2  6ub + ltt = O.
Factorise 5ot  6ab + bt.
Solve tlie equation 5ct)  6ttb + bt = 0, expressing b in terms of n.
Find the fraction of the area of the pendant that is made of silver.
Mathematics Tutor 2A
@:
Ltd
Graphs of
Quadratic Functions
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
Targets
.
a
of quadratic graphs:
positive or negative coet{icient of rl
 maximum
 symmetry
iZD
1.
2.
! = cLxl + br + c
quadratic graplrs.
a parabola.
The examples belor.v shor,v some qrradratic graphs.
,r

i:::::l::l
]\iulut
.
iti
i:
;\,'r:rr i::tk,
\i I
+++ri:,\:
:i:::ttr'L
,t:..:
1it"
,
':tf:
r'
i/8,
ii\. v
il
,ll
15
i.],r
i,Ii,
i:lirf'
t^
Y=x x/.
3.
t'
t'
I
'j
il:
i:::r::::
 t+
::t::t:
I:ll
l',:
,ff
\'
rl;,lr
i; i
,1
i.L
t,
''.1..::.
,,
f
r..
.:
l:
rl
l.l,
'^r''
,:t0
::l::ll:::
+l
:
.:
..t.r.l,
)'=2x21x+9
!=f+5x4
Ltd
:j
il
:i
4.
5.
The line of symmetry is a vertical line that passes through the maximum or the
minimum point of the curve.
6.
(a)
.
.
.
has a
minimnm point.
Line of symmetry
y=x24x5
(Here a = i.,t
y=ar2+bx+
a>0
,rintercept
xintercept
)intercept
Minimum point
(b)
.
.
.
ha.s
meximrrm point.
'
Maximumpoint.
Maximum point
( i l,
li6+ 8'
J=at2+br+c
a<0
!=
2x2  3.r + 5
(Here a = 2.)
Tl
Line of symmetry
,&r
I(164fi
&g
Mathemarics Tutor 2A
Line of symme
W1
Ltd
(c)
)'= ort + br
t'=rz,rt+Dr
(0, c)
(0, c)
(a.rt +
(urt + bx +
br + c'  0 has
no solution.)
The graph of
1,
= a,rr (a
O')
y=ax'+bx
point of intersection
2 points of intersection
= 0 has
(.ax)+bx+c=0has
c'
1'axis.
E.g.
j.it,l,tl
Chapter 4: Graphs
ol Quadratic Functions
,4,
,&fy
The srnaller the numerical value of a, the x'ider the eraph opens.
!=Lx2
'l'
B.
l
= _t
$
'
The scale used on the xaxis does not have to be the :ame as the
yaxis. The scale chosen should allow for the largest possible graph to
be drawn. The bigger the graph, the more accurate sill be the results
obtained from it.
Plot the points on a graph paper and join them up to form a smooth
curve.
i{:i
,il
.r..i)
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
(a)
(b)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Y=x2+2
,A
({
\/
oO}
Mathemarics Tutor 2A
J
11
1
l
1
) ' .: r.:ialueSOfr
 ': j_ .:i itn to find
:.
)
l1
_
:
to f'orm a smooth
curve.
Renrembe;:
t. l:rbcl
1'oul greph.
(b)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
q.,e",
rvhenr  1.7,tt=4,.9,
the minimum point is (0,2),
the equation of the line of symmetry is .u = 0.
(The _r,axis is the line of symmetry.)
WORKED EXAIVIFLE 2:
(a)
(b)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
L:
.i'
I .6,
1,
t' +
,r.
2.
SOLUTION:
(a)
)'=r)+'r2
4
3
10
v
1
a
1
\ =(+)
10
+(+.)
j
=10
Rerner.nber
to iabel
vour sraph.
Do not drarv
a straielrt
line betrveerr
ii. .2) antl
(0.
ll.
Choose suitable scales lbrr ancl .r'axes to iLarv the li.,rrest possihle glaph
otr rhe graph paper. This rvill incrcase the accurac, oithe solutions.
(b)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
,Up
whenr=1.6,y=2.2,
wheny =5,x= 3.2 or x =2.2,
the smallest value of y is 2.3,
the equation of the line of symmetry is x = 0.5.
Mathematics Tutor 24
r(li
\a
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
ie
tr for
3<r<5.
J
J
t4
1
,)
1
(b)
(c)
(ii)
(iii)
(ir,;
cm to represent
unit
SOLUTION:
(a)
3
14
7
1
t)
,,
)
,)
7
14
(c)
%,
*  I .6, lr =
4.B ,
(i)
rvhen ,r
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
= 2.8,
=9,r = 23or,r= 4.3,
the gleatest value of .r is 2 and it occurs rvhen r = 1.
the equation of the line of symmetrv is ,t = 1 .
'rvhen x = 3.2,
_r.
r'vhen,r'
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
The diagram shows the graph of y  f  zx  8. The graph cuts the raxis at the points
and B, and the yaxis at the point C.
(a) Write dor,vn the coordintrtes of A, B and C.
(b) D is the minimum pornt of the graph.
Write down the coordinates of D.
(c) Write dorvn thc equation of the line of
symmetry of the curve.
SOLUTION:
(a) J=x22r8
= (x + 2)(x
+)
*.ffiffiffi
At the .raxis.,r' = 0.
x*2 =0 or x4
x=2 or
=0
x=4
.'. A
.Attheyaxii"x=
),=or2(o)8=8
Whenx = 0,
.'.
(b)
c
(0,8)
2+4
Substitute
and B.
r = 1 into,), = rr 
,l:= 1r2(l)8
9
.'. D (1,9)
,([9
ofA
1
(c)
0.
2x
8.
Mathematics Turor 2A
*
Line of symmetry
12>
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
The total surface area of a solicl prism A is given by A =
(a)
(b)
Drawthegraphof A =4r.'_
5r+2for0<.r<2.
(r1r2
5r
+ 2) cm2
SOLUTION:
(a) A=4,r)5,r+2
x
0.25
0.5
0.75
1.25
1.5
t.15
0.5
0.5
3.5
5.5
j+
i,
Pte Ltd
(b)
(i)
(ii)
rvhenA=5cmt,,r= 1.7cm.
.'. Whcn the total surface area is
%,
5
cm2. r
= 1.7 cm.
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
(a)
(b)
(c)
\ r
1.rt
22 * ]., *
r
!\+o,em'
(4
*x)
cm
,rcm
SOLUTION:
(a)
BE =BCEC
=(2x+3)x
=(x+3)cm
Area
BC=AD
= (2_r + 3) crn
of LBED
=)"BasexHeight
=
) "BExCD
= ) r@ +3)x(4 ,
)erx2 + 123x)
=){*'+x+Lz)
=
,A\
((tZZ)
\\.//
Mathematics Turor 2A
A=!*'+
2
l"+o
(b)
,ii
r:L
4
)
)
0
1
)
4
I:
::l
,t,
rtal
rto
,l l.
ir:;.
 ril
j.ir
it
i:
,i
ii:
. r..r...i..
:
l,
I
:::i
;/
'i'
'i
'tI
r:i
l..r
i'
i'rt
il
t:
i
i
:i l
':
:.
lr
* ,
il
::riil,:
5 il
I
.
;,
l\ :iii
i:r
ir
li'
ii
\:i\
f:
1':
A'=i. .n?'+t4* r
t\ .i l: i
_t:\...i
f
l
,/,
i1
Ij'.1
"4
.,
rl
t:
:'
l
.:
,iir
ri
, lii
:i
rl
,i,
_:
:l
'i
.',1
:i
l:
rl,
l,i
l::i
:i,,\
::
,.:.;
,'
:iiL
)l .1i
/
/I:
.:"
i
i:
r :t
l, l ri:'
i
,,i
illl
lrl
ll'
:;
'
rl
jj
/l
II'
_:,:1.
:l
(c)
:,
_
ii
','
'.
.l
iil
:,lr
:ti
ll
f,
::"i
r.l
l
l
;:
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
When an object is throrvn upr,vards from the top of a tower, the height, /z metres, ol the
object from the grouncl after r seconds is given by the formula ft = 10 + l0r 5rr.
The table belor,v shor'vs some values of / ancl the corresponding values of il.
0.5
It
30
33.75
(a)
(b)
1.5
2.5
3.5
15
3.15
10
10
+ 10r
5rr
for
to represent
< t < 4.
Functions
ffi
(c)
SOLUTION:
h=30 + 10r5t2
t
0.5
1.5
2.5
)
3.5
30
33.75
35
33.75
30
23.75
15
3.75
10
(b)
i
l!
l
I l=
ical
i::
.:;
r .i l.
I.i
rXi
{ ari
..
'lo )rm
llr
i"
.1
l,
rii...i
;.
._l'
:
!,
j
t.
..
r+il
iir
i.
,+
 :.
t:
tr
rl;
rl
::
il
:l
,i
.
':l
ii
l r;
:
i,l
tl:
t= 5,'
;'
l.
*',
"
:l:]
i:
+I
l'
\,
t,
i,
i
l
,i:
l
lli
ii:l
Ii :l

i':
ii
:i
;l.
1."
'L
:l' '
.l
t
rliti
I
rl:l
r...1
,l:
i +.
rIl t,
t:
rlj
t+ +
I :1.
i;
i:
i
i_
\r'
174})
.,]
Mathematics Turor 24
lll
' il
l.
l
:
l'i
i.
.t,
tii
+tt
+
Ir
i
.;
Lrtr
\'
,l' J
ri
'l
a :
iTj
1{
:r
,l:
,.li
i.iii
i,rl
it].r
a\
liiI
t
1.
]rj
ii:
,i
I'1,
il
,.
*a
rir
lit:
IJ
\l
rli
.,':.t
, ii
+.t'
.[;
i l
\ ;l
li
,,
l::i
,;
'0
rt=
j
:ir:l
:j:r l
*:
:'it
,:ii
t,li
i. i
lr
\t'r
I.r
l
(e) Co.st:o
PLtblications Pte
Lttl
(c)
(i)
u,hen / = 0, /r = 30.
lvheni=0./=3.65.
(ii)
.'. The time r,vhen the object hits the grouncl is 3.65
(iii)
r,vhen /u
s.
= 25, t = 2.4.
.'. The object will be 25 m from the ground after about 2.4
(iv)
A%,
s.
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
The variables of r and )) are connected by the equation
values of r and y are given in the table belolv.
a
I
(a)
(b)
(c)
t'
1
1
1
12
2r
1.
Sorne cclrresponding
(i) r2xl=0,
(i, x'2*
unit
1 = 3.
SOLUTION:
(a)
=,rr  2,t  I
(/=(l) 211tl= 2
__)
ir(5)1f5)1=14
.\"/\,
r
Functions
(b)
i1.
ill
;ti
j'l
..
.i
irl
tt t:ti
/ r l
ti
+i
1
;l
;i
!:
ii
li
il
ti
li
ll
:l
ili
ili
i,
Ii
i:
::,
i
l
it
;
r1
+t)
l,
!
t
:f llli
:;
:'
''
ir
ri
rl
ii:
lj
il
i
il
l;i
ri i:
1
l
',t_i'
l:.
{:
lt
ti
irl
l.
til
*li
il
il
::
(i)
ii
:'
1...l
l;"
iI
r
ir
;,
/2
\ +,
i
..
4
ll
i
':'f
1l
ri
'li"
:i
itii
'i i il
(c)
l
i,
'i
j*
ll
1....!..
I 'li'
iil
.ax
ir.
ir &
1i
,9
l:
lll Ir
1rlFi,
Z{.
)' = 0. Any points that sirtisfy both these equations rvill also satisfy
the equation x2 2x  1 = 0.
From the graph. you can see that x)  2x  I = 0 when the curve
 0) giving the solutions x = 4.4 or x = 2.1.
(ii)
(\s
2x
 I = 0.
Mathematics Tutor 24
Lkl
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
The table belorv shows the values of x and
!
(a)
(b)
I
.)
3
')
1
)
5.5
5.5
1.5
+ 6.
t^
)'= ;.r'+6l'or4<r<4.
(c)
(d)
Ur" y"ou, graph to hncl the maximum value of y for 4 < x < 4.
Write down the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph.
(e)
I ,r' + 6 = t
SOLUTION:
(a) ,=1
2
\.t+6
,,=l2 (J)'+6=
1.5
tr= !r4)'+(r=2
2
6h
\q
at
(b)
i(
l78ll
(c)
(d)
(e)
Mathematics Tutor 24
orx:
3.15
ll(l
Each of the equations in the table represents one of the graphs fiom
letter of each graph in the correct place in the table.
Equation
A to F. Write
dor,vn the
Graph
Y=x2+2
!=lx^1
1^
!=x zx3
^l
.,_ 1
'2 ".:
!
= 2x2
2.
).
The curve
(a)
(b)
4.
ffi
rr + 4,r 
The curve J'= rr x + 6 cuts the raxis at the points A and B. and the,laxis at the point C.
D is the maximum poirrt. Write dorvn the coordinates of A. B, C and D.
MathematicsTutor2A
G) Casco PrLblicr$iorts
Ptc Ltd
The diagram sholvs the graph of ,r' r' 3r. The graph passes through the origin and crosses
the .raxis at the point P.
r a)
Find the cooordinates of P.
(b) Write clor,vn the equtrtion of the line of symrnetry of the graph.
{c) Find the coordinates of the lorvest point on the graph.
(d) Find the coordinates of the point Q on the graph. other than the point (0.0), rvhere the
1.
.O
(a)
(b)
(c)
r:.
1)(,r'
8.
),
= .rr +
rr
+ ft.
i+x+k
9.
10.
= (.r * 1)(2
 r)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
A( 1 . r) and B(s. 3) are points on the curve \i  J + 3r  rt. Find the values of r and s.
The graph ) = ax) passes through the points (1,5) and (.2,b) Find the values of a and b.
The curve
1'
r{ 182 }l L,{athen'ratics
\k\tE#,,
,8J
lutot 2A
Ltd
ll.
2
< r < 4.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Ltd
Functions
t2.
1,
r'
+ r  3 for
3
fbllorving.
(a)
(b)
Write dor.vn
(i)
(ii)
ffi
Mathematics Tutor
2,A,
Cu.sr:o
(d)
If the point
l,l
,;,
..r....:....i..
,,
l:,
:ll
:,
i:r
r:l
t:
i1
1!+
l
f
*l
:i
: i
,_.t
'l
l:,
t:
ll
 t :
:i
:i,1":
]:
i..:.
l
t,
i
.*',,.i'.
li
\l
:
l
:
l
'i
1
..
.1.
]
:*
la
!ii
ti
=t
!:
,:
l,
:
r
l
j:,
ll
t,
,l
fi
t:
t:
i:
\:
'.
.r,
:
li i'
",
:i
i
i
ri
*
'i!"
:i
I
L
.l
lLl
l
Ltd
i,:l
l
..i...]....
tr
ii
:i
!L.
i
ir.1
ii
/:l
it
:]
I
;i
t::
t:
:i
r'
r/
1,,,,
i: i
lLl
i!
:!
tI
rl
.+
:]
I'
,]
'I
,l
l
::
ti
,i
Li
i
Chapter 4: Craphs
ol Quadratic Functions
'@
t4.
(a)
1
(c)
v
(b)
.rt
 4r + 4.
16
I cm to represent I unit on
(ii)
(iii)
15.
(d)
(a)
J
(b)
(c)
16.
(a)
J
x2
 ,r 
1
'7
5.
5
)
4
J
(b)
1'
)
1
l'
 2  2r
1
4
unit on
< x < 2.
2
6
)
I unit
r' fbr
y22xx'
for4<x<2.
(c)
,A86ll
lU
\7
Mathematics Tutor 2A
A) Casr:o Publicatiott,s
Pt( t ld
t7.
3
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
1
13
1
r)(,r
unit on
3).
4
5
a
(b)
(c)
The variables,r and J' ilre connected by the equatior 1'= 2r2
values o1'x and r are given in the following table.
7.r:
0.5
1.5
2.5
)
3.5
4.5
10
+A
5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
@,:Citsco
l
forr = (1 
J
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
19.
(ii)
(iii)
18.
* l.
(a)
20.
1
t5
J
= 2x2  5x
3. Some corresponding
0.5
6
5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
2t.
r
v
(a)
(b)
1 ._
x';. Some corresponding
 1(cx
1
l
{t
l
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
22.
4
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
,A
V
3
.A
z+
,,'
.):
= .l 8 + 5l 
1
.l
18
20
16
10
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
24. (a)
(b)
5
2t
*3
25.
.
1
11
,l
J
units on the ,vaxis, ciralv the graph of ,t' = 2,rt + ,i.r 9 for 5 < .r <
From your graph, find
(i) the rcoordinates of the points on the curve rvhere,I = 10.
(ii) the .ycoordinate of the point on the curve where r = 2.5.
(iii) the equation of the line of symmetry,
(iv) the solutions to the ecluation 2x2 + 4x  9 = 0.
v
(a)
(b)
)
1.5
1
0.25
,,)
i.
0.5
2.5
{r
5
5
3.75
by the
(d)
(e)
equation
)
.,)
lor2<x<3.
(c)
units on
 2.r) r h  9.
5
(c)
5
2x
Write down the least value of y and the corresponding value of x when it occurs.
Write down the equation of the line of symmetry.
Given that the points (1.8, q) and Qt,q) iie on the curve, find the values of p and q.
Furctions
26.
of
J
(c)
(d)
1
3
J
(i)
(ii)
3.5
 5.5
l1
)
28. (a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
{.5
(e)
3.
I unit on
(c)
(d)
(a)
(b)
29.
y
.r
(a)
(b)
27.
and
!=2r) 
2r
 3 = l.
Write down
(i)
(ii)
ll
x'
3 = 0.
(i) 35xx'=A,
(ii) 35xx'=5.
30.
/F
The total surface atea,A,of a solid cone is given by l= (;2x2 3x + 5) cm2
(a) Drawthe graph ofA =2x' _ 3rr+ 5 for0 <x< 2.
(b) From the graph, find
(i) the minimum total surface area of the cone,
(ii) the value of x when the total surface area is 6 cm'.
\\
l[ 190]l
\/
',,@:Casco
31.
AE=(r+2)cm.
(a)
tbr
(c)
Drarv theuraph of
2) cm, BC =
(ll 
2r) cm and
(1,,' + :j .+ O) .,r'.
Use your
area of the trapezium.
(x2)cm
(1L
32.
2x)
cm
a rectangular enclosure.
rm
(a)
(b)
(c)
33.
If
the rvidth of the enclosure is ,r m, sholv that the area, A. of the enclosrrre is given by
 (5.r,rt) mt.
A steel factory manufactures a range of cylindrical oil tanks. Each tank has the san're
The volume, 7 m', of a tank ivith radius, r miltres. is given by the formula V = 1r'
heiuht.
(a)
(b)
(c)
2"5
t6
25
3.5
4
61
Draw the graph of V = 4r2 for 0 < r < 4 using a scale of 2 cmto represent 1 m on the
raxis and 2 cmlo represent 10 m3 on the Vaxis.
Use your graph to estimate
(i) the volume of a tank with a radius of 2.4 m,
(ii) the radius of a tank with a volume of 60 m3.
Ltd
Funclions
i($fl
34.
A stone is thrown fiom the top of a cliff into the sca next to it. The height, /r metres, of the stone
above sea level / seconds after it is throrvn is given by the equation h =JO + 14t 5f.
Some corresponding values of r and /r are given in the table belor,v.
l
1
10
19
18
67
46
15
(a)
(t,)
(c)
(ii)
(iii)
the length of tjme that the stone was more than 75 m above sea level,
the time taken fbr the stone to hit the water.
Mr Lim ordcrs chairs fiotn a factory to sell. When he orders a batch of r chairs, the cost of each
chair, $r', is given by J, =.tr  14,r + 80.
(a) Drarv the graph of r'=.rt  14x + 80 fbr0 <,r < lr1.
(b) From your graph, find
(i) the number of chairs in a batch Mr l,im needs to order so that the cost per chair is
minimum,
(ii) the number of chairs in a batch he needs to order so that the cost per chair is less
35.
than
36.
During a festival, firer,vorks rvere launched vertically upr,vards at a speecl of 30 m/s. The
height, ,1' metres. of the fire.,vorks above the ground after ,r seconds is given by the formula
t = JU.r' 5r'.
iul
(b)
)t.
$215.
(a)
(b)
(c)
second
The perimeter of a rectangle is 12 cm and its length is.r cm. Shor,v that the area,A cmt,
of thc rectangle is given by A  (6r *,rr) cm'.
Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 cm on the .titxis and 2 cm to represent 1 cmr on the
Aaris. dran,the graph of A = 6.r .rt fbr 0 < r < 6.
From your graph, fincl
(i) the area of the rectangle r,vhen r = 4.8 cm,
(iil the dimcnsions of the rectangle r.vhen its arca is ,l cmt,
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
/A\
({tSZ}i
\./
38.
A shop sells between 5 and 13 bottles of wine daily. The daily profit, $y, earned from the sale
of r bottles of wine is given by y = f + l8x + 168.
(a) Drawthegraphofy =f + 18x+ 168 for5 < x<13.
(b) From your graph, flnd
(i) the number of bottles of wine the shop needs to sell to maximise its daily profit,
(ii) the daily maximum profit.
39.
Marc dives off a diving board at a height of 3 m above the water. His height, ft metres, after
/ seconds is given by h = (3 + 2t  afi m.
(a) Using a scale of 2 cm to represent 0.2 seconds on the /axis and 2 cm to represent
1 metre on the haxis,draw the graph of h = 3 + 2t  4f for 0 < t < 1.4.
(b) From your graph, flnd the time when Marc touches the water.
40.
= Qx  2) m and
QR = (5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(3x
2)
(5
Ltd
2x) m
@
\!y',
2.
y
pr + 21 is r = ,1.
)
_'\'=arr+b.r+c
J.
(b)
)'=
,A\
tQp
2r)
'1r
I6
Simple Algebraic
Fractions
c i a a a c a a a a a a a a a aaaa
a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a a a a a t
&1a.\
.lL
lEZ rarsets
.
a
rc
E.g.
2.
zrrb x*1
;. ffi
and
3x+2
ff
f,
0.
To manipulate algebraic fractions, treat them like numerical fractions i.e. the same
rules associated with numerical fractions are applicable.
The value of the fraction remains the same if we multiply or divide both the
numerator and denominator by the same nonzero expression.
3.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify each of the following.
(a)
(c)
l2at b'
3a'b'

2x?.  8x
r'16
MathematicsTutor2A
(b)
(d)
n2
+ 3mn
x'+x6
TJxJs
"@ Casco
SOLUTION:
o
(a)
14ot'
4u
b
5mn (n + 3iit')
(b)
fl @+.Mi
= 5ttt
(c)
2l)
.rt
zx94
8x
(x +
16
 51 = (u + b'l(u bi"
.rt 16 =rt 41
Use ct
4)p;4J
= (,r + 4)(.r _ 4)
).
=t,4
(d)
x'+x6 g*s\(xz)
2x  15 .e+l1tx  sl
x' 
x2
=x5
Cancellation is done only after both the numerator and
denominator have been completely factorised.
Correct method
2rt:
 1u
,t'*1
ltr (rr  I
(a+2)(.a*21
^l
lLt
 +(l
=ot 2
%ru"
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Simplify each of the following algebraic fiactions.
(a)
2:2 ,r
lt
(b)
a,r3a)'+2bx6b)'
trn + 5rr.r r
z[lr.t
+ lOhi
SOLUTION:
(a)
2x1
x6
r
+r
(2r + 3)(r
2)
(2+t)(2r)
.tl
ATL
Ltd
Chapter 5: SimpleAlgebraic
Fractions
(b)
ax3ay+2br6b),
Lr, + 5rD'+ 4b, + l}b!
a(x
3y) +
2b(r
3.y)
a(2r+5,r')+20(2r+51)
(2r+5r')(a+Zb)
= 2tr3)+ 5r,
[m>
1.
2.
To
as
numeric tiactrtrn:
Step 1 : Divide
Step 2 : Muitiply the terms that are left in the numerator and multiplr
the terms that are left in the denominator.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify each of the fbllou,ing.
r l,
_(l D
ld,
ir'
3.''
(b)
6ub
6x'
l8,rr
5xzy
8,r'l
2xtt
/..r
tL l
1r+J
9.t
Lrl
.r'r.\' l
SOLUTION:
'2o'' b
lr'
(b)
fr
612
lt,'
5r,l'
5a
trlt
18.12
8r,2
2lr'
0..' ..2(9r241
ln'
.lt2J
6,r
lr'
ffi
\/
)r'
(3.r + 2y,)
l?xZi\
f
6.r(3r + 2r')
}.
Mathematics Tutor 24
(c)
9.rr I
2r+4
'
l.i'  .r'.r'2
tx+Zi
jxr1"
i3x+ f13x
(x
1)
 II
($*5
_ 2(3x  1)
x1
).
4.
Algebraic fiactions are divided the serme way as nurneric fractions" To divide
fraction is the same as multipilring it by its reciprocal.
To divide two algebraic fractions:
Step
r
s I
Fo
"'s'.\' + b  .\' *
/'
(t
Step 2 : Multiply the terms that are left in the numerator and multiply
the tenns thilt are lefi in the denominator.
Any trvo numbers r'vhose product is I are called reciprocals of each other.
F..g. Thc reciprot'rl of 2
Tlte rcciprocat
,,f
is j tincc
].rzi, I
xj
I
cl
(a)
(c)
o'b'
%*
2a3bo
(b)
k'
uiL
a'2a+1
(3 r)' .9 *'
S.r,t; 10,1y:
3a+6
a1
az,/0
tobc 21
.9 e ^ 2)ubn'
C
6ab
(b)
(3x)' _9*'
8y'z l}xyz
lAqz
9x2
(3  x)'
X
8y'z
(3
5t
 x)''
^ (3+x)!3'r)
o.J1
=
(c)
... u+2
o'
5x(3
x)
4yz (3 + x)
3ct+6
)t+1
tt7
)fr ryz
,,
(a
* r)"
x_:a.=i
3W2)
I
3(a
5.
t)
a c
b',1
0{'ocl
aat
bdancl 
{lxc
b'.,!
=ltdlst
axd
bxc
itr>
1.
2.
%,
have learned to find the highest common factor (HCF) and the lorvest common
multiple (LCM) of integers in Book lA.
We
In this chapter, we will find the HCF and LCM of algebraic expressions. We flnd
the HCF and LCM of algebraic expressions as we do for numbers.
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Find
(a)
(b)
and. 36x3y
,rq\
{,[200]
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
SOLUTION:
(a) Bx'y'z'
x'x y'x7'
l2x3yz2 =2'x3 xxr x ! Xz2
20t1,'23 =22 x5 xr x Y'xz'
.'.HCF =22x x xy x7'
=23
4rjz,
2(i,n'l:'
r
cio so
if
possible.
]:
slx 2
t 2
Jl'
c. .+
J)i
=4xxxyxz2
=
(b)
+XIZ.
2x2
=2 x
x'
24x2=23x 3 xx2
36x3Y
=22
32
xx3 xY
.'.LCM=23x32xx3xy
= 7Zx3y
lIr
rrrirnlrer ir ntrt
diliiiblc.crtrl
il ottlo
LCM of 2f ,24x'
=2x2
ol
1's.
and 36x3y
x6xZx3xy
72x3y
rc&
1.
2.
Step 1 : Find
as numeric
fractions.
lirst.
as equivalent fractions
rvith the
sume denominators.
'&*"*'
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Simplify each of the following.
(a)j2 r *
(c)
)
,L
2.r'
+_
.\'.\'
2
(d)
^L
54
2x4y  3x6y
SOLUTION:
(a)
x*2tt

x!
=2(x+2y)3(xy)
6
2x+4l 3x+3y
6
r
+'7y
6
(b) *.*
2(4_r,)
+ ,r(3x)
12xy
8y
3x2
12xy
(c)
l2
,J + r,
_ 3(r2)+2(rl)
(r  l)(r  2)
3x6+2x2
(rlXr2)
5"ru
(,rl)(x2)
/4.
x202'l\ Mathematics Tutor 2A
\.q
(d)
2y)
6(x
2y)
l(
x I
36
l.t5
(h)
2r
t+3 r 9
IU
'
35 +2x3 x+2
x4
I
.
2x'xl
x1
SOLUTION:
(a)3 xl
1.r
5
2t.r
 lt
t.l.r
5l
2x23x+5
3x
= 6
(b)
_+
.l
xf
5(2r
(2x3)(x+2)
3x+6+10x*15
(2r3)(x+2)
3(r + 2) +
1
2.r
13x
3)
(2r3)(r+2')
(c)
x2"d
(r+3)(t3)
x6
(r+3)(:r3)
(o)
x4
1
x4
2*r_*_1* *=ex+l)(4l)
*rt
_ x4+(2x+1)
(2x+1)(xt)
_ 3x*3
(2x+1)(x*l)
g*"5
(2x + t) (7"f
3
=32x+l
ffi
We solve equations involving algebraic fractions in the same way as lve solve
equations r,vith numeric fractions.
2.
Step
''@&
woRKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following equations.
,\t
(a)
''u
x1 r3
(b) ;+i=l
3
(c) 6,=o
x+2 2xl
.
(d)
5r4
x3
3+
x3
SOLUTION:
)+r
\
q./
_rr
2+r=3r
,.
f . _
1
2
a
t
ffifl
Mathematics Tutor 24
.' 1
t)
(b)
r'
1
'_l
2ix l) + 3(\'.1)
=6
2.r2 +.1.t'9 =6
5.r
17
1
f=J:
(c)'
86
()
r+2 2.rl =
8i2r l161r+2)=0
16r8 6r 12 =0
10x20 =0
l0r = 20
._')
(d)
5r zl
' 3 a
.r
 l
.1'
1
,5.rzt=3(t3)+1
5.r4=l.r9+
5x3r=8+4
1 _
zt,_
q*
I
a
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
Solve each of the follor'ving equations.
(a)
(c)
*{
x5
8r
2x5
(b)
'
^aL
'
i s  ,r3
x2
2xl
.lrl
0
\u/T=
.\rl
.1 {
l
SOLUTION:
I
(a)
.'.
i
Cct.sco
r
./4
(+)
2
r=J
5=
ttr
or
x5=2
x =3
6m
\\ &/
\:Y/
2r5.. x2
(b)
(2r
r+2'o''?,r:l
  ) = (r  2)(x + 2)
5)(2r
2x10r+5=.r24
3rt_ l2x+9=0
x'_ 1x+3=0
,4x2_
(r lX"r  3) = 0
.'.rl=0 or x3=0
t=1 or r=3
8.r
(c)
L
\'9
8.r
ar;x.'31
 .\' J =()
s
=l)
8r5(.r+3)=0
B.r5x15=0
3.r
15
r=5
(d)
1
6r6=2xt4x6
2rr10.r=0
2 r'lr' 5\ = O
.'.2r=0 or ,r 5=0
r=0 or
.t=5
ffi
ffi
Step 1 : Use
,/ff\
\/
({206}
Mathemarics Turor 2A
Ltd
Q**a'
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Tr.vo consecutive odd integers are such
that
SOLUTION:
Let the tr,vo odd integers be x and .r + 2.
3rl \
5\.r/ .r'*2
3 *_* l
I
tr'*''r
3(.t+2)=5.r
3r+6 =5r
6 =2x
j_f

)
.'rl(
i(l)
!.,
t
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
A and B are 280 km apart. Andrerv drove from Town A to Tolvn B at an average
speed of r km/h.
(a) Write down an expressit'rn. in terms of r, fbr the time. in hours, taken by Anclrerv
to travel from Tolvn A to Tor,vn B.
(b) On his return journey, his average speed r,vas increased by 10 km/h. Write dorvn
an expression, in terms of ;r, for the time. in hours. that he took for the journey.
(c) Given also that the difference in time betr,veen the trvo journeys is 30 minLrtes,
form an equation in r, and shor.v that it reduces to,rr + l0r  5600 = 0.
(d) Solve the equation and find the total time that Andrew spent travelling.
Tor,vns
SOLUTION:
(a)
(b)
(c)
'\
t?:,ffi:ff::
travered
A*.,g" tr"d
Time taken
#% ,
280 280 I
.t
560(x + 10)
560.t + 5600
r' + 10r
I
280
rime taken 
.ttl0
+602
30r
30min=h=:h
(d)
:r2+ l0r,5600=0
("r70)(r+80)=0
.'.r70=0 or r+80=0
r =J0 or
r = 80
(rejected since
r is positive)
.'. .r = 70
2lt0
, 290
. 'r+10
280 280
10'80
f
zl+ l:2
_l
l h
=
F.t>
l.
quantities.
2.
E.g.
A=ntr)
A is the subject of the formula.
8.e.2 P=2(l+b')
P is thc pcrimctcr of a
rcctan.glc
ol
3.
The subject of a formula is a single term that appears on the leflhand side of an
equation and nor,vhere else.
4.
To make a variable the sr,rbject of a fonnula. we rearrange the torn"rula so that only
that particular variable appears on the lefthand side of the formula. This process is
called changing the subject of the formula.
\,/
2,A.
Lkl
5.
In the formu tu S =
?,
^D
,\=T
sr=D,W
.'. D
D=ST
D
'P4l.;de kith"tides bY
t. f = 2
,s
i."
of the formula.)
WoRKED EXAMPLE 1:
Make
(a) t^
1r'Jr'=r
(b)
=1r'
r,
SOLUTION:
(a)
l^
1.r .tr' \
fr'5+1,'
.rrJr
2.\
r = 2(5 +
3l') +
2.
.r'=10+6.r'
(b)
'
r2 lr'
I
r2
lr'
3
,. )_
t 
l1,

i
1
r.
+2
'%,
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
Make the shaded letters the subject of the formula in each of the following.
(b)
(a)
A=lhta+b'l
2
ffi
_tlt
(d)
*=lll'I
12x
(c)
a(x+b7+x=c
Y+J
SOLUTION:
(a)
A= +h@ + b)
b)
2A= ho + hb
2A = h(n +
Multipiyiboth sides by 2,
ha=2Ahb 
o= 2Ahb
h
(b)
a(x + b) +.rr = c
ar+ab+r=c
ttx+x=cab
,r(n+1)=cab
cab
a*l
"
(c)
].',
1(x
 l2x
r+3
+ 3) =
 2x
xy+3y= l2x
x!*2x= l31'
r(v+2)= 1*3v
13v
j
,,r?
_t'
tl
(cl) +Llv
7
1
j1
LI
v f
l"
1
LI
1
v
J,
t.t
vf
T
tu
1,
'.1
i{210}l
Mathematics Tutor 2A
@ Cusco
wORKED EXAMpLE 3:
(a)
(b)
Given that
r'
^
!r:,"
= ^El
SOLUTION:
(a)
E+2,
= \l\b2c
nzb+2c
b2c
a'(b2c)b+2c.
ertbzatc=b+2c
2c+2a)c=atbb
c(2+2a))=a'bb
atb b
2a'+2
(tbt
r'
tn.r' q)l
a
tV.\'_ p.\_q
r
q+{}'=pr
sr\[
p
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
The formula to find the volume, V, of a cone of radius r and height
t.
V= : ltrlt.
/z
is given by
1
(a)
(b)
Express
Vif r=2.1cm,/r
'1 = 8 cm
r in terms of V, r
anrJ
ancl
o= ?.
h.
SOLUTION:
(l)
l
V rttr'lt
l
When r
=2.1.h=
V=!xllrl.ltxS
31
(bl
B and
o= 
1^
V=:nr'h
3V __z
ith '
root
, =* @ ."ffiS
trn
us&'Siies.,
\
i"6;
.":
= 36.96 cm:'
Casco Publications
Pte
Ltd
%,
woRKED EXAMpLE 5:
l?j'
(a)
Given lhat p =
(b)
Given that s =
(c)
Given that iu = i/
!r,1tI
[+2r
*
! r
.r
SOLUTION:
lr_
(ar P= \l)q+l
When P = 3,
21
r = \2q +
27
' 2q+l
I _ Zq+l
921
a'7
2a+l=!
'9
2q+l=3
,,
4.,
LCl L
^ _1
q1
r:
(b) s r/11+r'
When s = 6,
f
6=,lll+t'
36=ll+f
f=25
fake
7=*J25
=+5
E+2"
(c) w= i(zxy
When w
=2
andy
3,
 ,Ei*,6V 2x3
*x+6
 2x3 &*
B(2x3)=x+6
l6x24=x*6
15r = 30
,A
Kp]
r =)
Mathematics Tutor 24
'.@,.Casco
1t
(a) 1/8r'.
(D)
4x) l
(d) +
(e)
4n
(s) 
l rlrn r'
(n) _:
36ry'
\ n'
{c}
(2x\2
(m) 63ur.
35ti
'
r'r,'
..
{l)
(1.)
(n) 60xrI:l5.tt'':'
to,
1t
74mn2
2lmn
5 r'r
8x
I 1.r'r,:*
.. :;.
(l)
)).n.
, '.;rco
6ult
10b.'
c1
20
u'
r,
l,
)ta
Da
93alt),')
108(,'rr, )l
48ab'
';:
1 2ub:
a
,'
l,t
1(l
l)
(q) (1.1
rJ /.n'
(r)
(2r2 v\3
l
_
t_
( \rr
b\'
(4tlt'\'
+
15ab
12'tat'
(t) :
34ah
(u)
"
5ry"
../
2gq,i /,,
lWl
18
p'q(2
trt3
t1a
(2
3q)'
N,lathematics Tutor 2A
3q)'
(v)
"
20(x
y)
)
5(x
9xs
(2x +
),)
y)s
':@:.Casco
(a)
.
(b)
2r
"
J.t  .t
.r'' +
l.rt'
6,r
(e)
(s)
"
(t)
13,rr'
.:.1'
l.r'r'' 
rr'
36x+9xr
l5r
)
. 5x (I)
8;ri
15ry
(d)
Ltd
(h)
0)
nltl
.
nt
tltT
.L
9.r ll
rr'
3m2 + mn
l2mn + 4n'
,3
^2
+x
Jx
.;'z\ )
..
0)
30rrl
(rn) 18nt
.'' 
16r
(o)
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,A
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5D,(_)', 2)
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Lat otb6ab2
1a3
(a)
ax+bx+a'+ab
ax*bxa2 ab
(b)
_;
3ac+abbc
4a'ab4ac+bc
(d)
(2x+)t)2 _ 922
l4r2 +7xy+2lxz
(fl
+4ab+4b2 L ^)
a'+Zac+(:2 4b1
(h)
3a2
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(e)
(e)
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a2
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"
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x' 
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r'
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i(zrsl)
\*/
(2)
5.
(a)
(c
J ,r2
_x
,1r''
9a'.r
1bi'
(b)
l2 :
i,a
2l.r'
(d)
18ry
abl
tl,
^2
.Jrv
xv
Y,
l5c*r/3
2 ]
rrv
....:=,...:
/ l3
4{v
T;*6
l6r'y'
9'xV
.
ir'
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(n)
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1
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l_
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Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
r)
t
6r
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(m) :
x_:_
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22
J)'
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,\
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i
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b:
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r^\
IOI
tnt
m3n
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6mn
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5a1'^ 4x:  3.ry
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6p: +2pq
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3pq
p'q'3pq
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(l.r'X2y:t
4(2r'+1.1
9x:
'
1)
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nmn
^
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n'np
nm*mp
tnl
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6x+12
8
2rr
i;&\ \\
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i{222}]
Ltd
.:\ 3rr5x2
lrl
r+2
9x2_ l
2x+4
t^
(l)=.Y + lxy
. rt3r+2
xlr6
(m)
3 " *''2
(o)
(p)
x+1
ir+)'
xy
r'r+5r
x+3
x'25
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rnl:_Y___
1+t
r5
3xr
1_1.r
l
Ltd
)^l
.r'+x\'2r'
,{223ii
'\d
7.
8.
(a)
6p2q,21pq2
(b)
l2x2y2,1Sxyt, l5xy2
(c)
(d)
6ai,l1a2b),20a)b3
(b)
2ab,5ac,l0bc
(d)
latbo,ga'b' , l4abc'
(c)
i{224}l
6r2y, 8rr2,
l5,rrl
(3)
9.
. .r + .r5
(a)
r
3
(c)
(e)
Io)
(i)
3,r +
I
36
.lr+l
f ?r'
.
9t
4,
2r +
r
s
rbr 6:1

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f,
sl
2u 5L: r'
3r
Ltd
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il]
2t
r:
.11.r
l) + 5( r
I
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lnr2r,8*
.\'
2.t
x
4
.l.r
lrr
(k) xz3. *1
(l) I 2
(m)
,hl
r
2t+l
3x2
(o)
,y  y,
(q)
2r+3 2x+l
(s)
3xx
x*2 x2
I
2x
l4
1
f,
3(x+2) x5
3r'
(r) .j*
lV
x*2
.
x'
)v_ 7
2x+3
,,n.\
{ZZO}, Mathematics Tutor 2A
\*J/
Ltd
(a)'
(c)
(e)
_53
_ i
xl
r'2x
x'_ l
9./A  3r+t
(b) 23
"rr.+r (r_J)
(d)
.+x'4
(I)
2.r
5
3x5  9r'25
2r
(h)
y7ry
0)
(x2Xx+3)  x+3
4x+2
,n"j)
\"7
r+l
(at ^t _
xl
(C)
tcl
ip,
'c'
(b)
.l1 11'
1'
ldt
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+2.r
l.r3
6r zl
l+ 
.r 2
2rlr'
3+t'
9r'
J
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6
9.t
t2\
.rf I
vrl
3.r'+
.rl
2,A
lrl
(h)
#.
23:r'49r.1
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(j)
(i)
(k)
(m)
5105
(.r l) T.T(Jrl)r
6y
rt
+,ry
2y'
'a
(.tl)'
2t
r' +
2.r1'
(1)
(n)
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11 +
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ll_l
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tl
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t

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.r
6r'
f_
f,
I :t
Fractions
(4)
12.
(b)
r2
(c)3=4
(e)
(ol
\b'
f\
x+2
l.r
(d)2=3
(o*
=o
5r
=5x+4
53
3x x+2
(i) * *t=
fA
v
*20 =
x
5x
6
0)
!*l=n
Ltd
.3x
(l)
(k) 6+?!l=,
(m)
lnl=l
5
",r)  _1
L
l0 
x+2 2x1
35
(n) .1r+l_5x6 _,
74
2r+l
3.r+7
(p) .l+ 4r'5
t5 = 6
s3
(q) Y?
4x3
"*;t'
(s) ),{
='Z+l=A
x 3x
x+3
46
=,
(t) z,r
3(xl)
5x
19
,.r
',ty
(a)
*=4+
(c) 1  5
.r*l
.rl
=o
(b) l+
.t
(d)
^
(fl
6r
(gl '.+
,!
(r)
r a
t 
r
4 o
l4
=l
5
rl
=0
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5
.r*1 *
=0
3 =l
2x+2
(h)
u)*
_1
r:+l '
,#N(\
it232$t
Ltd
(k) r.J
al=l
r)
(o)
6q
x'4
x2
=()
(nr 9l
.r*1
(p)
,rtl
x2
9
x2
n+l
.r l
tl
t5
]
,1
(o) 2r_ l=
'
(s)
2r
r+)

l'r.
.lr+.5
x+J
Lr+6
(a)
(c)
(e)
,n,
'99
(3r1)(x+2)
5x
(2x+l)(x4)
I
+ x+2
=o
(b)
23
x4 =2x+l
(d)
2x7
r1 . (x3)(2"r+l)
Mathematics Tutor 2A
17
2x+l
(Ii^tll
4 _3_ l
2x: x ' x  2xl
8+r ^
_',
x'4
il*
1
I
x+'2
*_r, =r_l
Ltd
(5)
15.
One number is five times of another number and the difference between their
reciprocals
.1
t.
i'.
16. A
17
24
18.
Marc and Benson work parttime in the same company. Marc earns $x per hour while Benson
earns $3 per hour more than Marc. In a certain week Marc and Benson each earned $162. If
Marc worked t hours more than Benson that week, flnd the value of x and the number of hours
that Benson worked that week.
,A
1ky
19.
The denominator of a fraction is 2 more than its numerator. When both the numerator
'^)]
Fincl the
original fraction given that both the numerator and denominator are positive integers.
20.
A cyclist travelled fiom his home to the library at an average speed of 10 km/h. He
then
travelled the same distance to reach the post office at an average speed of 8 km/h. The total
time he took for both parts of the journey was
)
home'l
2r.
A motorist travels from Town P to Town Q which is 75 km away at an average speed of .r km/h.
If he increases his average speed by 10 km/h, he would have reached Town Q 15 minutes
earlier. Find the value of x.
/_:::,
i{236}l
Mathematics Tutor
2,A.
Ltd
22.
r'
(x3)cm
(3.r
1) cm
(r+1)cm
(r+2)cm
Find
(a)
(b)
13.
petrol.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Ltd
24.
The price of a bottle of jam tarts was $"r. During the festive season, the price of each bottle of
jam tarts increased by $2. Mrs Lee found that she would get 4 fewer bottles of jam tarts for
$160 during the festive season.
(a) Form an equation in x and show that it reduces to I + 2x  80 = 0.
(b) Solve this equation to find the value of x.
25.
A shopkeeper bought some phonecards for $108. He paid $x for each phonecard.
(a) Find in terms of x, an expression for the number of phonecards he bought.
(b) He gave away 2 phonecards to his sons and sold the remainder for $2 per card more
than what he paid for it. Write down an expression in terms of x, for the sum of money
he received.
(c)
it reduces to
+ l2x 108 = 0.
Solve this equation to flnd the number of phonecards he bought.
x2
(ii)
26.
Mrs Rani spent $96 on some caps and Tshirts for her children. A cap and a Tshirt cost $14.
(a) Let the cost of a Tshirt be $r. Write down an expression in terms of x for
(i)
(ii)
(b)
If
if
she spends
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.(238,
\>riz
Mathematics Turor 2A
?7.
A motorist travelled the flrst part of his journey at an average speed of 45 km/h, He then
increases his speed to 55 km/tr for the rest of the journey. If he travels 245 krr. in 5 hours, f,nd
the distance travelled in the first part of the journey.
18.
A motorist travelled from Town A to Town B which was 40 km apart, at an average speed of
x km/h.
(a) Write down an expression for the time, in hours, that he took for the journey.
(b) He returned by the same route but at an average speed that was 20 kmlh less. Write
down an expression for the time, in hours, that he took for the return journey.
(c)
(d)
1500 = 0.
(i)
(ii)
f,
zAr
(6)
29.
(a)
k(lt
(c) a(br d
ct
v*
di:,
@#
La=2x ffi
(et
xy
(i)
J,t
k
=,
="
(e) A!=c'
(b) @#
m) = n
(f)
'
x+a
Q=o
pqr
=s
,;i$::i
=n ffi
0) ;lL
I.X
..{*qi}\
i{z+O}
Mathematics Tutor 2A
@)
(l) ax'b=c
2*.
(m) a"
+q,
(o)
ax
bY
=3
1r + r,
(q) il
:"'
"##
2x
ffi
Ltd
riis
;{^
(r) y=#1v+?
x+
J*
(u) 1*1=l
xy
(n) 1*t'=rt
^1&
2p+3
.
(S)
D*a=
'a
'ffi
t.*:
I
"
(t) s=ut+;at'
AAt*,
;P*
,e\
V41};
\w,,
(a)
p=o**
ax
''x
(d)
,'=
(0
!=a+.6+1
U)
o=u*$
ffi
.3
(e)
,f =p+q
(g)
r=zofi
ffi
Mathematics Turor
2,A.
 a' = bx  b2
ff
.,.i't,
t.:.c.l.r
.r'';r:.i:
v/
(b)
2x+1
(c)
,/A\
:tZqZll
,ii::,
:111a.;1l
@ Casco
(k)
pq=
(mt
(o)
nt
(q)
5a =
(s)
T = Ztr
pz. PQ

zo E >'
=TV
;
2ah
= 117;
V
(l)
xft
,={';
.s
(n)
ffi
1.*!=1
x+l
Y
16
b2
.ra
'q
3c
(p) L+Z=?
yxy
ffi
12b+c12 +3
(r) o 4
y
x( vzw2)
(r) .::'rl:=61'
t'+k'
uL
2gt
2JA
(u) p= 3
(v)
pJi+q=r+rJi ffi
'lq
Ltd
,,^
\/
:{Z+l},
31.
Giventhaty= I
(a)
(b)
32.
rvhen b
It2443l
_y
when
express r in terms of
Giventhat,y=
33.
 #5,
=2
+.
ol)
and
GiventhatA =
2 and: = 1,
:.
S,expressaintermsof band,y.Hencelindthetivovaluesof
r'=
_y and
12.5.
+c)h.hncl
Mathematics Turor 2A
h=
15.
t:+.
Given thata=
r5.
Given that
36.
Given thatp
Q!t{,
21 3v
* +q
p=3,r=3
 +3,
ands=
Ltd
ofp
express 4 in terms of
when 4 = 2, r = 8 and v = 3.
p,
1.
\\d'
37.
38.
(a)
(a)
(b)
D= BC,express
2a+b=c[(xO't)
(b)
39. (a)
(b)
Given ttru,
*7p * iq
Hence solue
I64+ {
2
and c = 3.
10.
/i;6;\
i{246$l
Ltd
40.
Given ,nu,
41.
Given
42.
3a
5b
2a5b
5r  3l
)x
that ,t1'+
t = iJ . find the value of
. 4m+3n
(ilven that
2m9n =
.\'
1m
L5 find the value of 4n

Lttl
,A
Ky
x
Qx + l)(6x
2.
6
Ifp= 3r+2
J.
If ;
3) when 'r = 99
999 '
and pq
:+
9r'4. . find q in terms ol'r.
of
"r +
x)'
2],
".::}
l[248]l
r.tr::}.,
If,r= 1+
I + 1"*rr"r,
ttl;t''.r
I ir,"r*, of u,banilc.
a',(l+b)'
ctb i b
ir. fincl
.1
iI
,,
terms of rtt
at'td
n.
s.
]
'o =,.(\\ [. llrl
I 2')
@ Casco
8.
rt p
g.
:;i
and q
express q in terms of x.
9 , = ry
6t
5+a
ra.
!) Mathematics Tutor 2A
\/
iI250
i3.*,
r+v
1'+rl '
l
.'+nI
y
_
11
8"r7
11.
Three sisters won a lottery prize rvorth $(880.r  Ui). Theresa, Pauline ancl Anne decicled
to share the price money in the ratio 2r +  : 3r : 3r  4 respective ly. If Thcresa received
li(2;t0r + I 6)" hor,r, much rvas the prize money ? (x is an integer.)
t2.
A shopkeeper sold 800 flles in x days. The next day he sold 19 flles.
(a) Find in terms of r, the average number of files he sold per day for
(i) the flrst x days,
(ii)
(b)
theflrstx+1days.
If the average number of flles he sold per day altogether is
MathematicsTutor2A
le)
[,kl
Linear Equations in
Two Variables
! a a a t t a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aa a a a a a a oa a a aa aaa a a to a a a a a t a a a o a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
Targets
.
Soh'e simultaneorrs linear ecluaticlns in tu,o variables using the graphical method.
.
.
Solr'e simultaneous linear equations in trvo variables using the elimination methocl.
Solve simultaneous linear equations in trvo variables using the substitution method.
f 6J >
2.
dra'nvn using
2 : Choose
a suitable scale.
The scale used on the.raxis does not have to be the same as the r'aris.
The scale chosen should allorv for the largest possible graph to be drau.n.
The bigger the graph, the more accurate r.vill be the results obtainecl irrrm it.
the points.
/.a\
ttZlZ'l)
\/
of the line.
.i,l
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
(a)
(b)
=
From l,our graph, find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
,r,
2r
1.
y'
2x
1.
SOLUTION:
(a)
5
l
2r
)=2t1.
ir
ii
fi
t:
tsca
tC
li
?i fr
rrl
Ir
(1
;/,,:
ri
.
:
f 4,
1
il
rl
,/
,fi
..1.
l
!l
ir
y',
:l
_1
../.t
r
ll
.J
(b)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
rvhen.r =2.1.i'=3.2.
when rr = 3.8, r = l .4.
r,vhenx = 1.5,p =2.
Ltd
,A
&*q
J.
il
1
r
ii
_1
!
i:f
lii
li
i:
lij
il:l
"Tlar
'i.
l ! i1
't
'],.:
: I
l
,.
il
,,
i1
;=11
ti
tt l. li i,
l
ri
tl1
+
i
i
,,',,,,,.
.1I
ii.L
t_.
= c is zero.
.x=.4
E.g. The graphs of x = 3 and x =
Z
,r rj,l
l
i.
_1.
il
t
t:
t'
j:
I
,'1,,
l
__.:
I
I iT
TI
iii
ii
iir
I Gzau r+]{ +:
...1...
I
{i:
: rlrii : o
li
ii
,t
':
.J t
lt'i
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q2141
''\*4
Malhematics Tutrrr 2A
Ltd
5.
The graph of a straight line passing through the origin, (0,0) and r.vith gradient m
is of the form:
l
)=ntx
m<0
where misaconstant.
.
.
6.
. lr is negative
the line slopes upwards to the right . the line slopes upwards to the lefi
nt is
positive
The graph of a straight line that cuts the laxis at the point (0. c) and has gradient,
ru. is of the fbrm:
)'= ttlx + c
m>0
(0, c)
Y=mx+c
m<0
t
l.td
/n\
l(2753j
When the value of rz remains the same rvith r: taking on different values. the eraphs
are parallel lines cutting the 1,s1it at the points (0. r').
1.
E.g.
.'
''.'
ii
/,
il
:
;<
'
.1'
1 .
.t'
1,
/aI
a
t..
.'
'.1
4h
l
.1_
Tv,
+ Ii
i,
i
t:
_L
"r
;':'r
=
Ix
?'
i .; :
't'
,7
t1 )),
r:li
4
,.' )z
i r:
i'l
n
ru is a constant value
of
* 0 andb *
l,
+i
lr
: , 
r'
:i
]iI
j: i,
ii
:/ t2:
t:
1
_". .,.t. 
! r
*
7 , I
.1
li
t;
+
:l
iar
L
tI
tt
i..r..
i...
..t..
ti
ti'*
!l
l'.i
:i
.''. li
ili
:.,..i...:... I.
.i
,1
r_;:l
Filr : .
ri
:r
:i
iL
li '
li
,
a^7
F=
,.
f _l't'
,,i
il
l.
:
;i
'i *
t_
line
L
a
and the,taxis at
f,
ax+by =ft
bY =ax + k
ak
) =;x*;
bD
ax+ by
m
t
a
b
,A\
,qp
Mathematics Tutor 24
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WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
(a)
Drarv the graph of each of the follorving equations on the same axes.
(i) x+2=0
(ii) 1'= Irxl
(iii) 2y'+3r*6=0
(b)
b_r
SOLUTION:
Drar.v a
.rarir
x =2
I
(ii) y=;x1
Z
,)
(iii) 2y+3r*6=0
2)'=3x+6
l^
\'rr+.i
I
lf
0 r.
1
.
l
raN
r.urit
uiut
ii \
r1.
tl
.il
ol
i:
i
ii
il
:.
,:
f
:,'
tr
5X,
=0,
.''
dn
*
:l
.:I
jli'1
:i
.+
.
.:
l
i:
i:l::ii
,l
i
:
ffi
(b)
 a2 x8x4
=
Area of
16 unitsl
4
units
l xBur.xHeight
2'
1
  xRx4
2
'e.,se."
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
(a)
(b)
(i)
14. 5 t..r'
riir
(1.7).r.=ol.r
= 2r
l
If (o,a + 9) is a solution
of
,r'
SOLUTION:
(a) (i)
J'
= 2,t
When.t = 4.
1, l\ _]
..
t  /l+,
=J
rr
 2,r  3.
When,r = 2,
r =9 1t2l
)
8
 .r.
(b)
)'
t =9 ; t
3,r+ 5,substitute
l=a andr=a+9
into the
.r'=.1.v+5
(cL+9)=3(a)+5
1, _,4
:tt
+
., _
.,,
,4^\
({zzA}
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Ltd
A linear equation in tlvo variables has tlo unknowns/variables rvhere each term's
degree is nclt more than l.
E.g.
2.
2r +
3.1r
5
Simultaneous linear equations are a set of equations 'uvhere variables are shared.
The example below shows a set of simultaneous linear equations in trvo variables.
E.g.
3.r
2: =4
r+3v =5
,).
The solution to the set of simultaneous linear equations consists of one pair of
values of r and 1'rvhich satisfy both equations simultaneously. This solution is
unique.
E,.g. The solutionto
"
.
and,t =
l.
4.
There are three common methods to solve a pair of simultaneous lineau ecluations.
5.
,*:,: Read off the values of the variables at the point of intersection of the
lines. (The coordinates of the point of intersection gives the solution of
the simultaneous linear equations.)
e.
Variabl.,
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Solve the following simultaneous equtrtions graphically.
r*21'=8
3r .t' =
SOLUTION:
Construct a table of values for each equation.
3xy3
! =3x3
x+2y8
2Y=x+8
n=!r+4
'2
x
l
_J
Choose a suitable scale and plot the graphs of r + 2r = 8 and 3r .t
f:
I
1'
ii
i
:l
rl
"r
r'
'i''
,r
il l
:J
rf
I
\
*i
,rf
r;i
tl
,1,
/"
'i
!
'seeiic
.':
:i:i
rJ.
f.
t+.i
i1'ti
',]l
lr
v
rl
'l
I,
:*
rl
1l
:l
'''t'
i11'=l
+iir
I :T {i
.
l' ,l
i.
ii
+
t:
+_
i:1i
rli
t+
+
_t:
I
l*+
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tffip
l
]
Ii lTr
Mathematics Turor 24
T
f+
i..
ii,
t
ilcal
jiax
\
1'..
i
'.:
!
)
I ;i;+
1 ;ic
ih
liln
I
t:
_i
i
;.
l
l
:@:Q61s66
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Solve the follorving simultaneous equations graphically.
.r+2.r,6
2l+{t,4
SOLUTION:
2x+$,4
.r+2r'=6
1._
zl

,.,
t t /:
t,
','1'*,
1)'=2x+1
t'=lr+l
1
'
)
.r
')
..i
:i
': f
i!
ri
]i
]l:l
1l
l1
n:f
rl
I :t
1 'l
: 1..1...i.,..
iil
,:l
tlli
.i
li
i
!l
iiir
rll!
:i
]..
il
il:
Ltd
\\
:)
iil:
i+ i I
i ,iLf,
il
]i
Teaclrer's
::
'it.
il
li
l
::
rl
'i i
^*:
.l,
:i
ti
\ll
:i
2,1'
= 6 and 2r + 4y =
zl have
no solution.
"%,
woRKED EXAMPLE 3:
Solve the following simultaneous equations graphically.
2x
3Y
=)
4x=6y+18
SOLUTION:
2x
4r=6r,+18
3y =)
3Y =2x9
6,v =
MM
ffi:ltltlffi
y=?x3
4;r
18
y=lx3
1
The two lines are identical, i.e. the two lines coincidc.
.'. There are inflnite sets of common points that satisli
bolh cquations.
... The simultaneous equations 2x
.v
solutions.
A\
@)
Ltd
6.
an
une solutron
Eo
E.g.
E.g.
bY=3
2xy=4
2x+1t=3
2r 1,=
).'r.,
Solution:1
2xy =3
2xy=!
Zxy
=4
4x2y=$
=Ispd,y=2
In this method. rve first eliminate one of the two variables. Either one of the variables
can be eliminated flrst. Pick the one that is easier to eliminate.
2.
If
they
If
(a)
(b)
,r:*: Solve the resulting linear equation in one variable. Find the value of
this variable.
*t:
Substitute the value obtained into any of the original equations to solve
Check that the values you have found for both variables satisfy the
original equations. You can check mentally or by writing down on paper.
Ltd
Variabl".
(m
\/
If
10 to
li.+ iu = 78 )
Jr = 3.t' +
2.r
3.r'
tr()
"l,r + 2r, = 28
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Soive the simultaneous equations:
2x+3v=3
x*3Y=$
SOLUTIO[tl:
2x
(l)
3 (1)
 6 (2)
lhc roefhcient,r
r
+ (2): 3x = 9
x=3
Substitute x = 3 into (1):
2(3)+3y=3
6 +3Y =J
3Y=3
I
J_
.'. x = 3 and y
l
equations.
into (1):
=63
_a (/
)
Substitute x
x3Y =33(1)
=3+3
=$ ,/
a
Alri,,;ryg cirecir iliat y{}rrr ansl\,ers siitisry 'Lhe original eriu:if ions
by substituting tlrenr inlo ltri.: origin;ii e!,ltrilti()ns.
,A l)
{t 284
\/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
dor,.,l.i lis
ii
rnenlaliv.
Ltd
WoRKED EXAMPLE 2:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
2r,+3,t'=ll
2t5r'=3
SOLUTION:
3.y
5,v
(1)
= l1
(1)
=3 (2)
 (2): 8r 
)'=1
Substitute r, =
I into (1):
2x+3(l) =lI
2x+3 =Ll
2x =B
x =4
.'. x = 4 and y = 1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations.
R*'
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Solve the simttltaneotts
eq
uaticlus:
?. r'. Q
a.. ,.
rJ
\Frt ,
SOLUTION:
3x+
2x+
(1) x
(3) 
(1)
(2)
3: 9x + 3y =){  (3)
(2): 7x =7
x =l
3(1)+Y =3
) =5
.'. x =
and y
equations'
Variabl.,
%,
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
2x5Y
=l
3x+4Y
=i6
SOLUTION:
2x5Y
=l (1)
3x+4Y =36
(Z)
3: 6x  l5y =J (3)
x2: 6x + By =72 (4)
(a)  (3):
23y = $9
!=3
(1) x
(2)
irrultiirl)' ( i,)
b.,,
2x5(3) =l
2x15 =7
2x =16
x =8
.'.
*e\e*
woRKED EXAMPLE s:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
xy+ a
:
23 =3
x
45! =4
SOLUTION:
x
1
x
4
(1)x6:
(2)x20:
+;vJ  3 (1)
_l 4 (2)
5
3x+2y =l$
5x4y =$g
11X.
r\,iir1t.ii;11 a!ir i!
Il,1,,:,:,r,.i:
rql;, j,,
;;,,:,'
(3)
(4)
(3)
3(4)+2Y=18
12 +2Y = 18
2Y =30
)=15
.'. The solution is x = 4,
6t
MathemaricsTuror2A
= 15.
,@'Casco Publications Pte Ltd
WORKED EXAMPLE 6:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
x+2y
3x4Y
3:
(3)  (2):
(1) x
5 (1)
=J (2)
15 (3)
10y = lg
3x + 6y =
! =l
x+2(l) =5
x*2
=5
x =3
.'. The solution is x = 3, y =
t&.
1.
WORKED EXAMPLE 7:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
5(x
1)
4Y
=l
3x+2(3y)=8
SOLUTION:
5(x1)4Y =l
3x+Z(3)) =8
From(1): 5(r 1) 4y =1
5x5 4Y = 1
5x4Y =$
From
(2):
(1)
(2)
 (3)
3x + 2(3
 1,,) = 8
3x+62Y =8
jx 2Y =)
(4) x2:
(s)  (3):
Substitute x =
(4)
 (s)
2 into (3):
5(2)4Y =6
I04y =6
4Y = 16
! =4
.'. The solution is x =
E Casco Publications Pte Ltd
2,! = 4.
Chapter 6: Linear Equations in Two Variables
In this method, ."ve solve one of the equations for one variable and substitute this
expression into the other equation to solve fbr the remaining variable.
2.
of the equation.
2 : Substitute this expression into the other equation to obtain an equation
lvith only one variable. Solve this equation to flnd this variable.
3 : Substitute the solrrtion into the expression frorn step I to find the second
variable.
4 : Check that thc values obtained satisfy the original equations. Again you
can do a quick mental calculation ornvrite it dorvn on paper.
%.
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
2.r'+ r = 25
3r4rt=l
SOLUTION:
2x+y
3x4y
From
(i):
=25
(1)
l
17)
\/
75?r'
tl)
3x*4(252x)  t I
3x 100 + 8x  1
IIx oo
x o
Substitute x = 9 into (3):
?5
2(q)/
\..
1
{{zss})
\/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
r = 9,I
= 7.
Q) Cast:o
2x+Y=2(9)+7
=18+7
_
_LJ ")< V/
Substitute x =
3x4Y=3(9)4(7)
=Zl 28
=l /
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
2x+3y=$
5x+9y=12
SOLUTION:
=$
l)
2x+3Y
(1)
(2)
5x + 9Y =
From
(1):
2x = 6 3y
t(?)
30
15y
+ey=t)
+ l1y =){,
3Y
=6
y L
Substitute
! = 2 into (3):
6
Ar,)
3(2)
6
.'. The solution is x = 6,
Ltd
! = 2.
Variabl.t
\d
ffiZaO})
'4",:e.
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Solve the simultaneous equations:
9,r5.t,=20
3r+_r'0
SOLUTION:
=lg
3x+.r'0
9.r5,1,
Frorn
(2):
(1)
(.2)
(l):
9t
5(3.r) = 20
9r+15r =20
24r =20
5
Strb:tittrtc..
\'
/s
=ll:
\6/
r
l
= 2!
2
... The rolution ir.r.
,A
([290]
= I6')'. '1'
,
.v.
.l :
\b,
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
A cnstomer bought two cups of coffee and three cups of tea at a total cost of
1i3.80.
Another customer bought four cups of coff'ee ancl five cups of tea at a total cost of $6.90.
Fjnd the cost of a cup of coffee and a cup of tea.
SOLUTION:
Let
of one cup of coffee and $l' be the cost of one cup of tea.
=3.8 (1)
4t + 5y = $.!
(2)
2r+3y
(1) x 2:
(3)
4x + 6t,
(2):
Substitute
r,
._r
= 0.7 into
=J.6 (3)
= 0'7
l):
2r+3(0.7) =3.8
2r+2.1 =3.8
2r =1"1
r = 0.85
.'. The cost of a cup of coffee is $0.85 and the cost of a cup of tea is $0.70.
Check
Ltd
Variabl.,
%.
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
A group of 50 people siened up lbr a tolrr to an orchid farm organised by the Bishan
Town Residents' Contntittee. The senior citizens rvere given a 20o/c discount. Altosether.
$i678 rvere collected from the 50 people. Horv many senior citizens rvent on the trip if
the price fbr each regular person rvas $15?
SOLUTION:
Let .r be the number of senior citizens
.r*.r'=50
(l)
l)
 (2):
0.2r =
''Y=
.1.8
4.8
0.2
=21
.'. 2zl senior citizens went on the trip.
%,
woRKED EXAMpLE 3:
The difference between two integers is 12 and twice the smaller integer is one more than
the larger integer. Find the two integers.
SOLUTION:
Let the smaller integer be x and the larger integer be y.
)'x
=12
(1)
y+I (2)
! =12+x (3)
2x
From (1):
Substitute (3) into (2):
x = 13
Substitute.r = 13 into (3):
,t,
= 12 +
=25
13
25.
,A.
{(ZSZ}
Marhemarics Tutor 2A
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
A tiaction is such that rvhen both the numerator and the denominator are each increased
hv I  it becomcs
becomes
I . If both
each decreasecl by I . it
6'" *""' the numerator and denominator are
SOLUTION:
Let the original fraction be
x+I
r
)"
'
= .
xl
yl
4
)
x+l
From (1):
5
y*t
(l)
(2)
,><;
y+
....
Cross+nqlaiPtr'
6(r+1) =5(Y+1)
6x+6=5y+5
6x  5Y = l
(3)
xl
From (2):
)lz
L .""piq:.ry@lrl
"."."\r_
15
5(x1) =40r)
5x5 =4y4
5x4Y =l (4)
(3) x 4:
(zl)x5:
(6)
24x20y
25x20y
=y' (5)
=J (6)
.r =9
(s):
6(9)5t,l
54*5,ir
Original fraction
=1
55 =
5.1,
,)'=
11
,r
=I'
(]
=
11
rs in
Two variables
Tutorial
(1)
1.
Complete the table. Then plot the coordinates and drar,v the graph of each eciuation on
the axes provided.
(a) .v=x+2
..)
x
v
t+
r.ii

:i
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r.]
,l'
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:,
l!i
rlr
t iE ,..
i:l ti.
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:l
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I'rl
rl
1.,.
.,
.l l
 + ll
(c) !=xl
rll.
.: I
t*l
:i
::L
(b)
.\ = 2x
i.
il:l,l
tl,
il,.11
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ia
_f tiE
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=
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t@
On the axes provided belorv, dralv and label e ach of the follor,ving graphs
(a) r=2
(b) )=1
i
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+
1
i:
l:;
ftiil
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MathematicsTutor 24
:
Ltd
'
(c)
(b)
(a)
v
= 4l, + c r.vhere
(a) m>0,c>0
(b)
<0,c <0
(c) nt=0,c>0
(d)
<0,c =0
Variabl".
5.
Each of the equations in the table represents one of the graphs from
letter of each graph in the correct place in the table belorv.
Equation
A to I. \\'rite
dor,vn the
Graph
!=x
! =2x
y3=0
!=2x+3
x+y+5=0
2(r+1)=3(r4)
\r'
{ffi
MathemaricsTuror2,q
Ltd
':
.\:
of
(a) y = r,
(b) )'=r2,
(c) ,)'=3r.
)=x+3
Thediagram shtt1vsthelinesg'ithecluaticlns!=
Match the equation corresponcling to each line.
@'
! =2x
@.
!=4
)=Bx
s.
&'
o
a
,=\*z
A
qp
B.
(b)
9.
tF\
,W
(a)
(b)
A. B and C.
Write dor,vn the coordinates of the points P and Q.
On the axes belolv, drar,r, the graphs of the lines .)' = 0, r = 6 and _l = r + I .
Calculate the numerical value of the area of the triangle boundecl br. the lines
,t = 6 and t,= ,f + 1.
r,
= 0.
1), (a)
*3
)'=2x + 5, complete
)
(b)
(c)
(cl)
1 (a)
(i)
(ii)
 2r + 5'l
J
v
(d)
(a)
(b)
(c)
t2.
3,r
4,r,
v
(b)
(c)
 4r'
of h.
13.
(d)
The graph 3.r  4v  12 = 0 intersects the raxis at the point A and the .rraxis at the pornt
B. Find the area of triangle AOB r'vhere O is the origin.
(a)
,)
+,v
14.
of 3,r + r,' = 0.
1) is a solution to 3.r +,t'= 0, find the value of p'
(b)
(c)
If (1. p 
(a)
(i) .r=6
(ii) )'=,r+
(iii) 2y' 3r = 6
1
(b)
Lt(l
bl
Variabl",
15.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
16. (a)
(b)
(c)
17
" (a)
(2,4)
Draw the graph of each of the following equations on the same axes.
(i) x=l
(iii) ! = 2x
19
Draw the graph of each of the following equations on the same axes.
\e4
!l
3
(1r) ! = r*
(iv) y= )x6
In each of the fbllorving, state rvhether the ordered parr is a solution of the equation.
(b)
(c)
(d) (3,3),7x8y+3=0
. (a)
(b)
it302
(ii) x=2
(iv) y=2x+8
1(rr1) !1x+tt
18.
(i) y=)*++
(b)
(c)
and
li,r),4x+yo
(10,3),3x + 5y = lJ
Write dor'vn the equation of the vertical Iine that passes through the point (3 , _2) .
Write dorvn the equation of the horizontal line that passes through the point (ll, 8).
Mathematics Tutor 24
Ltd
 r. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
ll
tt.
The points k/, 0), (0, c) and (a,fl lie on the line 5r
(a) Find the values of cl, e and.f .
rhr
ll
4,1'
= 8.
State rvhethcr
Theequationof asrlaishthnelis
of h.
Lt(l
1y+41'11.If
thepoint(2.h+ 1)lieson/,findthevalue
Variabl.,
21.
The point A is the rintercept of the line r + 3y = 10. Find the coordinates of A. Another point B
is the r'intercept of the line 3t  5_r, = 15. Find the coordinates of B. Hence. Iind the numerical
value of the area of triangle AOB, r,vhere O is the origin.
(2)
25.
ffi
MathematicsTutor2A
=x
5.
Ltd
(b)
3.r+r'=7
r'=.t
t6.
(a)
3)'=
18.
1'
=l
1
1
'
f

='
=
[,il
r+
,1:i
i
l" r+
5i,
:i
1t
(b)
2,r+3r'= llJ
r3i =9
.
The graph of l' 2r*6 is shorvn. Drarv on the same axes the graph clf _r 21' = 6. Use your
graph to solve the simultneous equations:
27.
y=2r6
r2t,=6
(a)
28.
(i) r'=:r'+7
(ii)
(b)
(c)
_r,=_t+4
.r
t)
.v
({:00})
Marhematics Turor 2A
29.
(d) 2r+\'+6 =0
I
'
lo\
\5,
t"
lr'7r'9
),l .r
C)
4r+, =12
l.
Y +=
1'
+
(m) 2.t+_y4
,Y=,r+5.5
(b) l,=r8
(c) r2t'=4
(e) r=)'2
x2! +2=0
(f)
(h) 7r+11'=)g
'11' 3r  4
(i) .r+3rr+5 =0
(k) 3)'.r+6 =0
(l)
3:;+v5
 10r = 0
x+2t, 12
2r3,r'+
=0
3x8y=l)
x5y+3=0
6y2r =15
(n) rr= I
)r'+r'+10
3r
(o)
41 1 51' =
7.r +
?[
$'=21
,&
Variabl.t ',(:OZ$
\/
(a)
30.
_\'
=2
1
.)
v
(b)
r,
)'=2x'
From your graph, find
(i) the vnlue of r'r,vhen r =
(ii)
(c)
the value of
u,'hen,),= 1.8.
x
v
(d)
(e)
2.5.
Drarv and label the graph of _1, = 2t + 3 on the sarre axes
Hence, find the solution to the simultaneous cquations:
as
part (b).
3r+3,r,=6
2l+t'=3
(a)
31.
2r'
3r
v
(b)
0<x<Band3<y<10.
(c)
The graph of 2y  3x + 6 = 0 cuts the raxis at the point A and the yaxis at the point B.
Find the area of triangle AOB where O is the origin.
(d)
Onthesameaxes,drawthegraphofy=
2y3x+6=0andy=
32. (a)
1r+4.Hence,solvethesimultaneousequations
J
lr++.
0ls
ll0
v
(b)
(c)
()
"v
(d)
.#\,
It30S,il
\./
Mathematics Tutor 2A
'.@
Ltd
(e)
r+2r.'=10
,t3y=0
(0
Calculate the numerical value of the area enclosed by the lines with equations:
,r = 0,r + 2y
33.
l0 = 0.r
3r
(b)
(ii)
(i) ,),=2r1,
3.Y+r=24.
(i)
(ii) y=x+2
_r,'=r+2
..yL.\r
_ )..
3y+x=24
.i'.:'
.i.....i....i...
:
t:
f
t,
ii
,.
: i'
rlii
!il
Ill
+
itl
l
ti ll
:l
't'
l:
t
i:
ir
,:
_I:
iril
iiil
i iq
iri
I,::l
i!
;:
i.;
iiil
l,
:i
:.
'
l:
i'.., i
!;.;
']
ll
1_
ti.
tl
L t
ti_
+
il I'
ri
lr
::
+
'+.,'j
lt t'tl
:
li
lr
*l
!
,l
i
t:
ii
,,
rr:
.1.,
i t^
t,,
IL!
I
....1....
_l
I'i
,:,
.'2.
*
.r
:,)+o:
ii.i
:i
ll
l:
il
t:l
il
.I
I
't'l
il
l
]L
'i
.:
"1"
T"]"
l=.J
f.....i.
ll
ii
,]
i'
it:
:l'
::]
i.1..
li
rr
:l
r i.i;
f:ii
=:
it
.i
,:
il
;
ili
..
.
i
I
Irl
l'.
.l
l
I
Variabl..
ii
ii
m
&w
(3)
34.
Use the
(a)
3r+y=3
(b)
xY =4
(c)
(e)
2x+7y=J)
5.r3y= 
4x+3y=lQ
(d)
2x +9y =$
(0
4x+7y9
2x+3y=l)
2x5y =J
3x5y=J
7x2y
3r
=ll
ll
10y =
,4,
{(:
'v
tO)
(g)
2x+3yl
(h)
2x3y=l$
3x+2y=l
4x
5x+2y=$
(i)
9"r+5y=13
3x
(k)
2y
fl
6x+7y=J
2y = 16
0)
7y
)
3x5y2
5a+ab=3t
7x
+o + sb
=3i
35.
(a)
Jr+4y22=0
(b)
4,r+5_r,37=0
(c)
3x=2yI0
2,r5r,
(d)
6x5y =J
Y=2xl
0.5r
)
)
=l
0.4,1'
0.2_v+ 1.5"r=2
4x+y+nf, 0
(e)
.Y + 11'=
(f)
tv
34
2x+y
8
,zA
((: lZ)
\\**//
..gY
Lt(l
(g)
?v+1rr3
3x _! _6
(h)
aa
(i)
x+y _ xy
52
i*tr+t2=0
(i)
Z(x
3)
4x
+ 5y = 12
7Y = )
l.
4(.;
1.^
5)= J(3y)
7x+4y15=0
9x!6y=15
(k)
lx+zy10=0
(1)
3x+2(5
))
11
2(x1)3y =2
36.
(c)
.r+2y3
3x*1'* l6
(b)
3r+2v=19
(d)
r5_v
(e)
rr
8r3y=
,A
',U#/
Mathematics Tutor 24
)'=2rJ
7v2x= 19
(0
10
1
5t+i,7
5
).
3x21,
2x=3y5
21,+3x=5
t'@',Casco
(g)
2x+3t=5
(h)
(i)
?r'=
1r
5ri;81
C)
J
xy^
2xy =2
Ltd
2x1t=1.7
lr' .5r'=)1!
* l
=O
(l)
+1
]a\b=41
5a+3b=0
3.r+4,v=8
!x+3y+9=0
I'"2=o
Variabl.,
37
Use either the elimination nlethod or the substitution method to solve the fbllorving
simuItaneous equrtions.
(a)
2x+3y=)$
(b)
2x
Zx+5y=l$
(d)
2Y=3x5
5x*6y= lQ
.1
2x3y = L1
(f)
7x+7y +8 =0
2x3y+13=0
3ry17 =0
(c)
6x+7y
(e)
={
3x=2y
qt I
3y =Q
3x+2y=J
Ltd
(g)
5r6.y =_6+
(h)
2.r5y=
fr2r'=, '21
(i)
3r+2v=0
(i)
5rlr'19
(k) I+l=+l1A)
3rY = 3
]=6x+9
3.2r2.5,r'=:l
0.8t
(ll
11
1.5r'= 8
x+]
23
)v
36
tl
(m) 2r 
(o)
3t'
3,r
5r'
x+y 3x+y
=
3x+4y=4
52
(q) :..
l!
)3
 +xY
K3tA)
\srrz
=16
5
(n)
(p)
(r)
3(2x
y)  2(x + 2Y) = lQ
5x 9Y  12 =0
;.1 =Jr+3r+26=0
la.
3y) = 3(2y
3x
* l) = x + v + 2
=14
MarhematicsTutor 2A
Ltd
:,
All
(3,r
['+
6) crr
(3r
l) cm
"
,4
/:rr)
 ,
\z
(5.r +
_r'
+ 7) cm
(r + 2_r'+ 2) crn
ABCD is a rectangle.
(c)
(d)
tcm
B
ABCD is
.r,) cm
(3,r
,r.) crn
parallelogram.
39.
If
= 3 and
rr =
I
I
i
I
I
I
40.
4l
If
r=2andr=l
GiventhatAr2 +
arethesolutionsof theequation
!
1
rt +pr+(l=O,flndthe
values
of pandtl
8A + B =20.
Given also that.r = I and ) = 1, form another cquation in A and B.
Hence solve the pair of simultaneous equations to llnd the value of A and the value of B.
{{320}}
\/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
(4)
rl.
is 20 ye ars
Paula is r years old ancl her olcler brother. Marc is I years old. The sttm clf their ages
ancl the diffbrence betr'veen their ages is 4 years'
Form t',vo equations connecting.r and 1''
(a)
(b)ontlresameaxes,drar,vthegraphsofthesetrvoequations.
(c) From vour graph. find thc age s of Paula and Marc'
43.
The concert tickets for two adults and three children cost a total of $48 '
(a) Using $x to represent the cost for an adult ticket and $y the cost for a child ticket, show
that2x+3Y={3.
(b)
(c)
44.
The same concert tickets for one adult and two children cost a total of $28. Write down
another equation involving x and y'
cost for an
Solve the two simultaneous equations graphically and hence write down the
adult ticket and the cost for a child ticket'
Jonathan sat
'\#
dm
45.
The diagram shows a regular hexagon ABCDEF. Given that AB = (3r + 2y  7) cm,
3g = (5x  3)' + 17) cm and the perimeter of the hexagon is 540 cm, find the values of x and _r.
otB
(3,r +
21
7) cm
i
i
4(t.
In the diagram, ABCD is atrapezium.BC =(2x 4r,) cm,4p =(4x +l') cm,AE= 3 cm.
BE = 4 cm ancl the area of the trapezium is 54 cmr. Fincl the values of x and r,.
(,1,r +
y) crn
I
I
i4cm
(2.t
47.
4.r) crn
Sandra pays for a dress that costs $125 using fivedollar and tendollar notes. She uses 16 notes
altogether. How many notes of each value does she use?
/:G.
{{:ZZ})
&4{/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
+g.
rvillbe tr'vice
+9.
Mr McDonald has some ducks and goats in his farm. If he counted a total of 94 legs
50.
A marine tish exhibition is held at the Singapore Expo. The entrance fees tor 5 adults and
6 children are $70 rvhile the entrance fees for 4 adults and 7 children are 567. Hou'much
and
30 heads. find the number of ducks and the number of goats in his farm.
5l
and $5
The excursion fees fbr adults antl senior citizens for a tour to an organic farm r'vere $9
total
If
the
men.
respectively. Onethird of the adults and trvofifth of the senior citizens were
total number
cost of the excursion fees were $751 and '15 men rvere in the tour group' find the
of people ',vho 'nvent for the excursion.
Ltd
52.
The sum of tlvo integers is three times their clifference. Thrice the smaller integer exceeds the
Iarger integer by 4. Fincl the integers.
53.
The sum of the digits of a trvodigit number is 14. Trvice the tens digit increased by trvo equals
fbur times the units digit. Find the number.
5r1.
A trvo digit number is such that the sum of its digits is oneseventh of the number.
rvill be decreased by 36. What is the number?
If
the di.eits
55.
1
'ffi
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
56.
hecomes
tl f
.1! .
decreased by
5'/
Uottr the numerator and the denominator of the same fraction nr.
9
11
. the
.*.t
Three cyclists Andy. Brizrn and Charles cycled from Torvn A to Tori tl B u hich u its
Andy cycled at zrn average speed of x km/h.
(a)
(b)
(c)
friiction
km apart.
Brian cycled at r km/h slor,ver than Ancly. The journey took him JS mlnuie .. \\'rite clou'n
and simplify an equation in terms of .r and )' to represent thts infornlatiott.
Charles cycled at 1, km/h faster than Andy. The journey took hirn 3l rnjnutes. Write
down and simplity an equation in terms of ,r and )' to represent this itttormatitlu.
Solve the tr,vo equations for r and 1 and find how long Andy took to cvcle iror.n Tou'n rl
to Tor.vn B. Give your answer correct to the nearest minute.
t
$
$
:.!.9::,
C as
P ub li c ati on
s P t e Lt d
58.
Q=p*Qn,
where z is the number of units of time durine r,vhich the hanclphone is used.
Marc has to pay $54 if he uses 300 units and $78 if he uses 500 units.
(a) Write dorvn trvo equations in terms of p and c1.
(b) Solve these simultaneous equations to find the values of p and q.
(c) Find the number of units r"rsed by Marc if he htrs to pay 568.40
59
The number of diagonals . D , that can be drarvn in a polygon is given by the formula
D=Xnz+Yn,
where n is the number of sides.
(a)
of diagonals
3X+Y=0and8X+2Y=1.
(b)
(c)
A
Qpl
Mathematics Tutor 2A
I.
Ltd
{ook at the diagrams belor.v and lind the values of ,r and l'.
/,k r'\
r,k ft l:
x
xg>:;\ )(,__i1
A,:\
A^
()Zll
l:_.ry:::
erz4\ e9r
2.
x+2
(a) y_ 3=, I
xL 2
vE 5
(c)
(b)
43
x+
2x5
3y+l 
84
x+y + xy
103
x+y
xy
Ltd
+rJ

tI  f1')

3.
24b2 =98
57a3 28b1 =393
l9ct3
4.
When the digit 6 is r'vritten to the right of er twodigit number to make it a threedigit number,
the nerv number is 888 more than the orieinai twodigit number. Find the original nurnber.
5.
Tr,vo positive integers are such that their difference, their sum and their product are in the ratio
I :2:6.lrind
ffi
the integers.
MathematicsTutor2,+
Ca
6.
r km/h for 30 minutes and y km/h for 20 minutes. He found that he had
covered a distance of 20 km. Peter travelled 40 km at x km/h and 45 km at y km/h. Peter took
Daniel travelled
1
i)
2
3
59
Variabl
B.
9.
l(::o))
\E/
Mathematics Tutor 24
Ltd
Gongruence and
Similarity
aaaa
aaaaaaaaaaaaa
aaaaaaaaa
a aao
a a a a a a a a a aa aaa
aaaa
a aa ioa
a too
a a a a aa a a aaaa
a a aa
Targets
.
.
.
f?D
fi_rr"ri'e
Congruent Figures
l.
Figures that are congruent har. the same shape and the same size.
I A11 the figures belos are congruent.
E.e.
8.5.2
The figures below do not have the same shape, so they are not congruent.
The figures below have the same shape but not the same size, so they are
not congruent. (The two flgures are similar.)
E.g.
MathematicsTutor2A
@ Casco
t'{
rt
I
2.
and
r\ /\
(bl
X. *^t
o/
LA= LP
LB  L8
AB=PQ
.
Corresponding angles
arc equa l.
LC=LR
WE WritE
BC=QR
^n
l'
Corresponding sides
are equal.
AC=PR
AABC: APQR.
'=' means 'is congruent to'
J.
When naming congruent triangles, make sure that the vertices of one figure
correspond to the vertices of the other figure.
One lvay is to use the matching diagram to show hor'v the corresponding vertices
match.
LABC: LPQR
Llr
rll
or
LBCA: LQRP
or
AACB: LPRQ.
or
ABCA: APQR.
E.g.
6cm
Ltd
8cm
.{ =X=5l'l
 Y=90' I
B
_L
.'. LABC
.7
= LL='tl'O ,)
.Teacherts
f"
LABC: LXYZ.
1.
To decide ivhcther tlvo figures are congrllent. we can position one on top clf the
other by rnaking three different moves.
(a)
(b)
(c)
A slide is a translation.
A turn is a rotation.
A flip is a reflection.
Trtrnslation
Rotation
Reflection
transformation
2.
When we lrove
of the figure.
J.
4.
.\n object
A.
Translation
5.
In a translation, every point in the ligure slides the same distance and the same
congrllent under
translation.
direction.
6.
,4,
Wp
We use a slide aror,v (also called a translation vector) to shorv the direction and
distance of the movement.
Mathematics Tutor 2A
1.
In the diagram
M to l{.
E.g.
belor.v.
AA'=BB'=CC'=DD'=MN
AA, II BB, II CC' II DD' II MN
From the cliagram, we can see that ABCD is congruent to its image A'B'C'D' rnder
a translation.
B.
Rotation
8.
In geometry, rotating a figure means turning the figure at a point. This point is
called the centre of rotation. The flgure is rotated in a clockwise or anticlockwise
direction through the same angle called the angle of rotation.
E.g.
l80o
From the diagram, we can see that LABC is congruent to its image LA'B'C' tnder
a rotation.
In general,
e
C.
Reflection
9.
10.
In the diagram,l\A',B',C',is the image of AABC under a reflection in the line X)'.
I unit fiom
the
From the diagram, we can see that AABC is congruent to its image LA'B'C'.
.e.&*
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
State rvhich of the following figures are congruent. giving a reason for your answer.
l,QJ9
Mathematics Tutor 24
Ltd
SOLUTION:
A,B,c andD
are congrlrent because they have the same shape ancl size.
ancl size.
can be obtainecl
G does not have the same shape as the rest of the triangles.
.'. G is not congruent to any of the triangles.
%,.
WORKED EXAMpLE 2:
,1
and angles.
cm
SOLUTION:
AB=PQ=23cm
QR=BC=4cm
PR=AC=3.1 cm
LC= LR = 35"
A=180"50'35"(L
=
95o
LP=LA=95"
LQ= LB=50o
Ltd
sum of
A)
If trvo triangles
A".
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
State whether the following pairs of figures are congruent.
If
(a)AP
5cm
(b)
(c)
5cm
SOLUTION:
80o
ZR = 180'
80'
40'
(L
sum of A1
= 60"
LA=LP=80"
LB = LQ= 40'
LC=LR=60"
AB = PQ = 4.40 cm
gC=eR=5cm
AC
PR = 3.26 cm
.'. Since LABC and LPQR have the same shape and size, AABC
,,r \\
LPQR.
.1;e;:
Ltd
(b)
LH = LI (base /s
180')
of isos. A)
120"
= 30o
LI
= LH =30"
LW = LV (base Zs of isos. A)
= 30o
LU = 180"  30' 30' (Z sum of A)
= 120'
LG =L[]=120"
LH = LV =30"
LI
= LW=30"
GH=UV=4cm
HI =
VW = 6.93 cm
GI:UW=4cm
.'. Since
(c)
LGHI
LJ = 780'  90'  36 (L
sum of
A)
sum of
A)
LGHI: LUWV.
= 54"
%.
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
In the diagram, AABC is congruentto LDCE. Given that LACB = 20o, LCDE = 50o,
AB = 2.68 cm. BC = 6 cm and DE ='7 .36 cm. llnd
(a) LBAC,
(b) LCED,
(c) LDCE,
(d) the length of CD,
(e) the length of AC,
(f't the length of AE.
Lt(l
,A
Wp
SOLUTION:
(a)
LBAC = LCDE =
(b)
50o
(:
t
+
(c)
(d)
CD = BA = 2.68 cm
(e)
AC = DE = 7.36 cm
(0
CE=BC=6cm
AE=ACCE
=1.365
=
II
1.36 cm
ln
a tessellation, a shape is repeated to cover a flat surtace. The shape must fit
together so that there are no overlapping shapes or gaps betr,veen the shapes.
Examples of shapes that tessellate are shor.vn beklnv
ffi
rectiutgles
reeular hexagons
equiltrteral triangles
rcgular octagons
\/
24.
circles
re
Similar Figures
1.
Two flgures are similar if they have exactly the same shape, although they may or
may not have the same size. If they have exactly the same shape and size, then they
are congruent.
E.g.
2.
l.
The diagrams belorv shorvs three arrolvs which are similar. The three arrows
have the same shape but are different in size.
LA= LP
LB=IQ +
LC=LR
then
Corresponding AB
anglcs are
equal.
PQ
BC
QR
AC
PR
Ratio of their
cone:ponding sidc:
are equal.
tt't
LXYZ.
gz'
A
cnrz/
,/
53"1
A'AAJ
) 1
l1cnr
.
+cm
I )n
L
8 cn'r
lA
= LX=53" )
B = 1Y=37o I
LC = rZ=90" )
1
AB 5 1)
xY l0 2t
BC4lI
Y7 8 t I
!
AC]II
xz62)
(h".. \&N
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
Given that LABC is similar to APQR, find
(a)
(b)
LQPR,
the length of AC.
a/
'?16\\ \c
SOLUTION:
(a)
(tll,PR_AC =t AB
PQ
AC
IJ
1.5
t2
=
AC=
_t
,^.
\4
f(:+23
x7.5
l2
CIn
5cm
Marhemarics Turor 2A
).
(bt
and
then
/A./D
t t
Lt

LB = tQ
AB IIC CD
^J an0
PQ = QR RS 
LC=LR
AD
Rt
/D = LS
4.
WoRKED EXAMPLE 2:
In the diagran, ABCDE
ancl
Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
LBCD.
the length of
the leneth of
pe.
,r________7,
,RS,
\\
(b)
LIIC:D = LQRS
= 45o
!9 = at?
AB BC
lQ_6
6fi
pe =
+sX
6cm
8cm
SOLUTION:
(a)
./ 1.5 cm
\1s
A B
lrlr^
l)
t.
Ittli
+++++
POR.!r
f "u
= 4.5 cm
.. ('ctsco Public:ctti.on.s pte Ltd
r\
RS_0R
(c)
CD
BC
RS_6
5.4 8
6
R,S=:x
5.4
tt
=
4.05 CIn
DE
(d)
BC
.sr
oR
1.5
DE;

DE=
1.5
=2cm
%,
WORKED EXAMPLE 3:
Are
LABC
and
LMNL similar?
9.3 cm
Scm B
72 cm
SOLUTION:
LC = 180"  30'=
LM =
=
I 10'
(L
sum of
A)
(L
sum of
A)
r10"
180"
I10'
40"
30o
LA=LM=30"1
/ R = ,/ A/= ll0' !
LC = LL=40" )
l
MN 12 t )
AB  NL 9.l
\
t
BC 6:"''
ML 11.55 l ,
AC fi.1 I.I
LARC and LMNL have corresponding angles equal and corresponding sides in the sanre
ratio.
/A\
(:++)
\w
Mathematics Tutor 24
For trvo triangles to be similar, lve just need to shorv that all
corresponding angles are equal OR all pairs of corresponding
sides have the same ratio.
<H"
.:
5.
6.
side s
to be similar:
WORKED EXAMPLE 4:
In the diagram. APQR is similar to APIX.
Find
(a) LPR}.
(b) LPYX.
(c) the iength of QX.
SOLUTION:
12.,,/\','ot^
(a)
LPQR is similar
LPRQ =
=
to LPYX. (Given)
zpXIS$ffiffi
65"
. triangles.ate
Corr.
;qik,
.g*I.'.
ls
PQR
{++
ti
ttt
'
PYX
of .similar
tdanglesare'i4nai.
"
Chapter'
7:
PX PY
PR PQ
PX 27
812
PX=!1
xB
12
(c)
=18cm
QX = PX PQ
=1812
=6cm
%^
woRKED EXAMpLE 5:
In the diagram, AAPQ is similar to LABC. AQ = 12 cm, PB = 6 cm, BC = 12 cm and
QC = 4 cm. Find the values of r and y.
4cm
C
SOLUTION:
LAPQ is similar to LABC. (Given)
PQ _AQ
BC
.r
AC
12
=_
AP
ABAQ
AC
tl
16
x=9x12
16
=9cm
4]'=
3(,t,
+ 6)
4I=3)+18
.r
(6h
18 cm
Ltcl
_7_.4
2.
Scalc
lae
tor
of
:l
:ii'
I'
lr
l il
i'
:
lr 14.
ir
i:
:':l
ti
::
il
_: I
i::i
:l
:;
i...i
.lri
i'
\l
:lJr
:11
,il;
l:
i1
il
.t
:
; i
.ri
ii
ii
.'l
_:J
llil;rl
B, B,C,
AB BC
=_=_=
A,
E.g.2 P'Q'R'S'is
P,Q, _ Q,R,
PQ
il
;'
fi_eure.
QR
Ltd
lir
ii
,* ,,ll
A,C,
AC
a reduction of PQRS
R,S,
R,S
P, S,
PS
E.g.3
3.
/\.,
/"
B
A,B, B,C,
=
Scalclactot'.0= ng
A,C,
AC
an enlargement is greater
is
enlargcd.
is between 0 and
l.
the
irr,
age is
reduced.
an enlatgeiltcnt is equal
to I, thc image is
,#\
,(:+S],
\4',
(O Cusco
4.
In the example sholvn, notice that the orignal figure and its image have the
shape.
.'. A figure and its image under an enlargement are similar.
%,
woRKED EXAMpLE 1:
In the diaeram, LLXY is an enlargement of ALMN with a scale factor of
If LM = 6 cm
(a)
and LN
)
(b)
LX,
NY.
6cm
SOLUTION:
(b)
rr  S.ul" factor
I,N
LY3
5"2
LY
: x5
2
1
= 7.5 cm
NY = LY LN
5
7{
= 2.5 cm
E
Similarity
'%n,
WORKED EXAMPLE 2:
The diagrams belor.v are not drar,vn to scale. Parallelogram PQRS is a recluction ofparallelogram ABCD. AB = 12.5 cm. BC = 20 cm, AE = 10 cni and QR = 8 cm.
Find
(a) the scale factor of redLtction,
(b) the length of PQ.
(c) the area of parallelogram PQRS.
SOLUTION:
8cm
20 cm
(a)
Scale factor
QR
BC
PQ
(b)
AB
PQ
'208
=?s
12.5
,)
PO= 1x12.5
5
)
(c)
=5cm
Pr
 S"u1" factor
AE
PT2
105
)
PT= I xl}
5
=4cm
Teae$rer's
Tip
=8x4
=3lcm
MathematicsTutor24
.Arr:a
2
=Scale factor
tli'i;lr;rili'i,cgr"lnr ,.'l:+r 7
.,n
x i:lcillirt
/,"
/'
= IJase
= !;
';,..
ji
,;
",*,
f,f.,+&._r
,/
,..
E}
A scale drawing is an enlarged or reduced drarving of actual objects. W'e use scalc
drar,vings to sholv objects that are too large or too small to be shorvn in their actual
sizes.
E.g.
2.
The scale factor of a scale clrarving is the rtrtio of a length of the drarving to the
corresponding len9th of the actual ob.iect. We can also call the scale factor of a
scale drarving as the scale.
J.
WORKED EXAMPLE 1:
A model of the Merlion is made. If the height of the model is zl.3 cm and the
height of the Merlion is 8.6 nT, find the scale f'actot of the mode1.
actual
SOLUTION:
Scale factor =
Height of model
of Merlion
4.3 cm
1cm
1cm
1
Ltd
: 200.
,A
\rlz
%,
woRKED EXAMpLE 2:
A plan of a football lield is drarvn using a scale of I : 600. The actual dimensions of the
fleld is 90 m by 54 m. Find the perimeter of the field on the drarving.
SOLUTION:
Actual
600cm +
Plan
1cm
6m  lcm
lm
Length
*
oi
1.6
fielcl on drawing = g0
*I
cm
=15cm
Width ol'tield on drawinu = Jzt v
cm
=9cm
Perimeter of field on drawing = 2(Length + Width)
= 2(15 + 9)
=48cm
%*
woRKED EXAMpLE o:
The length and r,vidth of a rectangular clockface are 24 mm by 16 mm. A scale drawing
of the clockface is made. On the scale drawing, the length of the clockface is'12 mm.
Find
(a)
(b)
SOLUTION:
(a)
Scale of drawing
='72mm
24 mm
= lmm
:+
= lmm
mm
12
1
)
1
t.
f
) Actual
a +
lmm *
16mm
1
I : {.
J
Drawing
lmm
3mm
3mmx16=48mm
ff.3SZ)
\/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Lttl
%.
woRKED EXAMpLE 4:
The diagram shor'vs the floor plan of an apafiment, drarvn using a scale
3
crn
3.5
crn
of I cm to 2 m.
3.5 cm
2.5 cm
5.3 cnr
2.5 crr
2cm
(a)
(b)
(c)
Iength of Bedroom 2,
dimensions of Bedroom 3.
total area of the apartment.
SOLUTION:
(a)
=3x2m
=6m
(b)
=2.5x2m
=5m
Actual rvidth of Bedroom
=2x2m
=4m
.'. The actual dimensions of Bedroom
(c)
are5mby4rn.
=(3+3.5+3.5)x2n'r
= l0x2m
= 20
rrt
=5.3x2m
= 10.6 m
Actual area of the apartment
= 20 x 10.6
= 212 mr
P
rr
ll
i(:S#l
\3d/
@8"
WORKED EXAMPLE 5:
A rectangular flshing pond ABCD is such that AB = 30 m and BC
(a) Drarv a plan of the pond, using a scale of I : 250.
(b) Measure the length of AC on the plan.
(c) Hence, estimate the actual length of AC.
= l6 m.
SOLUTION:
(a) Actual
250cm 2.5
lm *
Plan
I cm
1cm
I a*
2..5
10
{ .,,
= 12cm
Width of pond orr plan = 16 x
* .
= 6.;l cnr
Fishing Pond Plan
D
16 rn
30m
Scale :
(b)
(c)
I :250
Actual
1cm*
2.5m
13.6cm
13.6x2.5m=34m
/A'
((:s+))
\/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Tutorial
1i
l.
Congruent Figures
Ale each of the follorving pairs of figures congruent? Give tr reason tor your answer. Determinc
rihich transtormation (translation. rotatiotr or reflection) shorvs that the trvo figurcs are
congruent.
, l.iico
,A\
,qy
2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Given that
LPQR: ARSI.
(i)
LRPQ:
riit
tiiit
ARfS =
(iv) AsrR:
AQPR =
(i)
AB=DE=cm
(ii)
BC=
=Cm
(iii)
CD=
=_cm
(iv)
LBAC =
(v)
LDCE =
(vi)
LDEC =
3cm
,^'
\/
({:SO)
(i)
AB = PQ=
(ii)
CD=
=_cm
(iii)
QR=
=_cm
(iv)
LBCD =
(v)
LPQR =
Ltd
.\re the following pairs of figures congruent? If so, state why and write dor.vn the statement of
J,rlgrueflce . If not, explain why.
4.7 cm
Similarity
ffi
1.
to LPQR. Find
(a)
(c)
(d)
a
1..5
(e)
(f)
A
5.87,/\,
,/\
gL)C
o
,^\
\4
K.tSS)
Mathemarics Tutor
2,t
Lt(l
(i)
U)
(k)
PR
12.6
cn
5.
In each of the following, ABCD: PQRS. Find the value of each unknorvn. A11 lengths
given in centimetres.
are
(b)
(d)
/A
i(:OO)
\.!{/
Marhematics Tutor 24
Ltd
N=Z
i\
,/
txl
i/ \l
ll
I
two congruent
re
ctangles
tw0 congruent
triansles
a)
ot
tour congruent
eight congruent
triangles
triangles
T
tr
tr
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
rf)
tr
tr
(A)
LABC,
(b)
LADC,
(c)
(d)
PQ,
050,
BC.
The cliagram shorvs the recycle logo. The cycle of arrows represents an endless reuse of
rnaterials. Describe the transformation (translation, rotation or reflection) that shows that the
three arrows are congruent.
ffi
G Cssco Publications Pte Ltd
Similarity
g.
In
thc
RS
(b)
CD =
11.
\/
(0
(ii)
L\TR,
the length ot PT.
3.1) cm.
find
LABC:,
ancl
((:oz}]
PQ=1.8 cm and
Find
(a)
(b)
40o,
11.,1 cm.
(a)
10.
Marhematics Tutor 2A
BAD
=60o..
ADC
20o,
D
.\C = 4 cm and
(a) LBGF.
(b)
90",
,.)
Find 1DCB.
5cm
5
cm, CE
=3
cm,
In the cliagram , ABCD is a rectangle and BEFD is a straight [ne. Given that LAEB: LCFD.
.\EB = LCFD = 90o, AE = 8.811 cm, BD = 17 cm. EF = 7 .06 cm, find the area of ABCF.
,rir.ing yollr answer correct to 3 signiltcant fieures.
Similarity
15.
In the diagram, LABC and A,AED are congruent. Given that AB = 12 cm,.BX = 8 cm.
DE = 35 cm, LDAC = 37o and LACB = 19o, flnd
A
(a)
(b)
16.
LAYE,
the area of LAXC.
In the diagram, LABE: LEFD,AB =7 cm,DE=24 cm, LBAE = 90o, and LABE =74"
Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
7cm
LEDF,
LBCF.
/";iilda\
1g
Ltd
In the diagram, triangles ABC, ADC and ADE are congruent. Given that LACB = LACD =
IAED = 90o, LBAE = 101.1o, AE = 6 cm and the area of quadrilateral ABDE is 36 cmt. find
ia)
(b)
'
1CDE,
the length of BD.
In the diagram,
AAEG, LDFG and LHBG are congruent. Given that LEAG = 30",
b)
IC)
I
I_EGF,
LBGH.
(2)
t9.
In each of the follorving, LABC is similar to APQR. Find the value of each unknor.vn. All
lengths are civen in centimel.res.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
*An
,L,\.
(e)
6
3
6m
trP:
B1
(f)
LQ
Mathematics Tutor 24
\ \x
2\\
L\
B3
(h)
1.2
(i)
.N
A
B3C
(l)
(m)
(n)
p
"
\o
5r 1 
20.
In each of the following, quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS. Find the value
of each unknown. All lengths are given in centimetres.
Brun
(e)a
12.5 
(h)
A
!rro
fsz' 95'\
tLr
.O\
t2
Mathematics Tutor 2A
)"
\__Y1
.9
i{3683i
Ltd
Find the value of each unknor.vn in the following pairs of similar objects belolv.
_siven in centimetres.
(a)
All
lengths are
(b)
*20.....
(c)
Similarity
22.
In each of the fbllorving. LABC is similar to AAPQ. Find the value of each unknorvn. All
lengths are given in cerrtimetres.
(a)
(b)
A/
9 86
(d)
(e)
ffi
MathematicsTutor2A
(f)
Ltd
(g)
(i)
C
0)
(1)
Ltd
Similarity
ffi
given in centimetres.
(a)
A
.8
\p
(e)
t(
ffi
MathematicsTutor2A
l+.
25.
Which of the following pairs of figures are ahvays similar'l Fill in the boxes with Yes / No.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(D
(e)
(h)
E
L]
E
E
E
E
[]
[]
The diagram shows a rectangle ABCD measuring 24 cmby 12 cm.It is surrounded by a border
of width 4 cm. Are rectangles ABCD and PQRS similar?
l2 cm
21 cm
ll
,:J@*'
1 CusCo Publications Pte Ltd
Similarity it373ji
.\*f,
21.
BC:QR=J:12.flnd
(a)
(b)
AD
P,S
llrl
BC
28.
29.
MathematicsTutor2A
are
ArB
:t
In the diagram, AABC is similar to LACD. Given that AC = 36 cm and AD = 18 cm. find the
length of DB.
C
l8 cm l)
31.
(a)
(b)
sv
UV
=
Find
)
T
32.
I0 cm,AB
12cm
= AC = 14 cm and
A
In the diagram, the shadows of a tree and a boy coincide. The boy is 1.5 m tall and his shadow
is 6 m long. The tree is 42 m from the boy. Given that APztB is similar to LPCD, flnd the
height of the tree.
34.
In the diagram, AABC is similar to LDCE. Given thatAB = 12 cm,AE = 9 cm, CD =8 cm and
DE = l0 cm, find
(a) the length of AC,
(b) the length of BC.
12 cm
35.
18
cm, flnd
(a) the ratio DE: BC,
(b) the length of BD.
12cm
36.
Find
(a) the length of AC,
(b) LBAD.
A,
({:zo})
\/
Mathemarics Tutor 2A
Lttl
37.
\.
(a)
(b)
(c)
of
$CA
18.75 cm,
BD = 15 cm and
39.
40.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Find ZIRS.
MathematicsTutor24
:@,
11.
ll.
(b)
the value of
(..t
I,zS
r.
"7.2cn
Ltd
is
43
vase
The trvo vases are similar. The height of the smaller vase is I 6 cm and that of the larger
is 20 cm.
(a) The base raclius of the smaltrer vase is 3 cm. Find the base radius of the larger vase'
(b) The circumterence of the top of the iarger vase is 40 cm. lrjnd the circutnterence tlf the
top of the smallcrr vase.
.4.
l(rcuancl
Intheiliagrarn,cylinclerszl,BandCare similar.Theheightsof cylindersAandBare
respectiYely'
cm
17.5
2:l cm respectively. The bese radir.rs of cylinclcrs A and C are 7 cm and
Find
(a) the base radius of CYlinder B,
(b) the height of CYlinder C.
^l.::__)
'...in,."]l
"'l[.=J lL_]
/cm
t7
45
(a)
(b)
bottle.
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\$rdl
Matlrematics Tutor' 2A
C.asr:o Publ.icrrtions Pt
Ltd
Find the scale factor in each of the foliolving pairs of similar figures.
All
centimetres.
(a)
(c)
(d)
(il.t.t
(r)
l
Ltd
ffi
47
48.
Drar.v an enlargement
19.
ri
II
;:
,
t+
'ii
!l
i.e
,A
il
:l
rl
il
:]
.+I
.:)
':i:
qp
,t: :l
'
Mathematics Tutor 24
;irI
ri.
I'
1
j.i
j i]
t:
t"
ii
.l
.i
.+
il'
1,,
Ir
I.r,l
. .t..
ii
rl
lr
:l
..t...
rl
lT'
..1.
ll
i]:i
il
rl
:i
rt1
.i.
il il
]l
ll
1.
i'i
rl
r,f
r'l
il
il :i
f'1'
ti
:'
11
ri
']
l+r
:ll
+,
,L
1l
il
f
i1l
I ,'
i'
i
.:::1
:
'i
.r
.i..
i ir
f.i
il
I
.fi
I
i.t:
Li
50.
i
.. Cas<:o
of
of
]2
52.
3.6
/ffi'
i(384$i
Mathematics Tutor 2A
54.
(al
(b)
55.
Iir the diagram, AABC is enlarged onto AA'B'C' usinu a scale factor of
(a) the length of AB,
(b) the length of B'C'.
2.5. Fincl
N.
\/
A.
\/+ s ,^
16
ffi
56.
Inthediagram,quadrilateralPQRSisreducedtoquadrilateralP'Q'R'S'
fr. Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
57.
usinga scalefactorof
(b)
,At
W
Mathematics Tutor 24
58.
Given that
59.
In the diagram, LLM'N' is an enlargement of LLMN r,vith a scale factor of k. Given that
LM = 4 cm. ML( = l0 ctn and LN= B cm. lind
(a) the value of k,
(b) the length of Ll{' .
Ltd
iL387jf
*f?
60.
In the diagram, pentagon ABCDE is enlareed to pentagon AB'C'D'E'. Given that AB = 18 cm,
BC = 11cm and B'C' = 27.3 cm.llnd
D,
(a) the scale factor of the enlargement,
(b) the length of BB'.
61.
In the diagram, triangle BED is enlarged to triangle ABC. AB = 10.8 cm, BC = 6.4 cm and
DE = 1.8 crn. AC intersects BD at X. Find
(a) the scale factor of the enlargement,
(b) the area of triangle BED.
10.8 cm
/2ffi
QS'
Marhematics Tutor
24
Ltd
62.
(c)
i6 cm
t ,I
6/ T
__'
lp
lJ.4 cm
63.
25.2 cm
10 cm
R
Ltd
Similarity
ffi
(4)
64.
In a photograph, the length of a sofh seat is 6 cm and its height is 2.5 cm. lf the actual length
of the sofa seat is 1.8 m, find the actual height, in m, of the sofa seat.
65.
(a)
(b)
66.
67
EEEt]
E[]EE
r_"$f
Mathematics Tutor 2A
68.
A garage is drarvn to a scale of 1 : 50" The length of the garage on the drawing is l5 cm. Find
(a) the actual leneth of the garage, giving )'our ans\ver in metres,
(b) the length on the drar,ving, in cm, of the garage drawn to a scale of 1 : 30.
69.
70.
(a)
(b)
(c)
of I
a rectangular
1 .5
: 200.
a rectangular
place.
(iii)
Ltd
ffi
7T,
The diaeram shorvs three of the rvorld's tallest buildings. The actual height of the Petronas
Torvers is 452 m. On a soale drar,ving, its height is 9.04 crn. 1
1.,1.Find
,"
i
j
ll the actual height of Taipei l0l is 508
find its height. in cm. on the same drawing
the,",,";;;;ffi;ffi,;";#
(a)
(b)
(c)
""''
.i
r
m.
as
thePetronasTowers.
ffi
;
&
ffi
ffi
ffi
W ffi
ffi ffi
ffi
ffi
ffi ffi ffi
ffi
ffi
ffi
m*m
ffi
ffi iffi'ffi
ffiffiffiffi
ffiffiffi
Sears'hrlr,el Tuipei
101
Pctronas To*'crs
72.
t3.
The ditrgram shorvs the floor plan of an apartment drar,vn using a scale of
(a) Find the actual dimensions of
(i)
(ii)
(b)
Bedroom l,
the kitchen.
3cm
(i)
(ii)
Balcony
 Cnl
Bechoom I
Bathroonl
/5 crrt
Bcdloonr 2
1.5 crn
Iir.'ing loom
oiqlng
room"
3cm
Mathematics Tutor 24
.) Cm
; 200.
0.75 crn
2.15 cm
,A
,qp
I .5 crn
II
Kirclen ll::*
lroom
2.5 cm
I.5 cm
1cm
Ltd
1,1..
The diagram shorvs the iloor plan of an apartmeilt drai,vn using a scale
The dimensions of Bedroom 1 on the plan are 3 cm by 2 cm.
(a) Find the actual dimensions of
(i)
(ii)
(b)
Balcony i.
Bedroom 2.
(ii)
of I to
4.5 cnr
Baicony
1cm
1.5 m"
1.5
cm
Kitchen
Bath
2.5 cm
foom
the apartmcnt.
2cm
Bedroom
a
2.5 cm
Bedroom, I
Liuing
,oo,
rlllL
I
Balcony 2
75.
The diagram shor,vs the floor plan of the ground floor of a 2storey bungaJon cLunn using
scaleo['l:250.
(a)
(b)
(ii)
1 cnr
cm
3cm
2 cn'r
1cm
the garage.
2.5 cm
5.5 crn
@ Ca,sco
Similarity
2.
perimeters in terms of k?
(b)
In how many ways can you drarv a straight line to divide a parallelogram into trvo
congruent parts'/
J.
Mr Tan put up three poles AB. C D and EF vertically in his garden. The heights of the poles are
in the ratio 1 : 3 : 7 .If he looks from the ground level. the top of the three poles are in line. If
the distance between Pole AB and Poie CD is 8 rn, find the distance betr'veen Pole CD and Pole
EF.
K:q+)
\,{u
Marhemarics Tutor
24
+.
The diagram shows squares macle up of 25 dots each. Find 8 different ways to divide the
square into 4 congruent parts. An example has been done for you.
(a).
(c).
(b).
aaaoa
aaoaa
ooaao
aoaaa
aaaaa
aaaaa
aaaoa
oaaoo
(d).
(e).
oaaaa
aaoaa
aoaaa
oaoaa
aoaao
aaooa
aooaa
aoaaa
aaaoa
aaoao
oaoaa
aaoaa
(0. . . .
5.
(g).
(h).
aaaaa
aaaaa
aaaao
aaaaa
oaaaa
aoaaa
aoaaa
aaoaa
aoaoa
aaaao
aaaaa
oaaoo
The diagram shorvs a roofing frame PpS made rrp of steel bars. The frame is shapecl like an
isosceles triangle and the vertical bars are equally spaced into 1B parts.If the height of PR is
2 m, find the sum of the lengths of all the vertical steel bars.
Ltd
6.
James wants to determine the distance across a river to the pier directly in front of him. He starts
at point X and walks along the edge of the river bank to point )/. 33 m arvay. Along the lvay, he
Pier
Not to scale
7.
'.i
"J,
Marc is on the beach r.vith his father. He spots a srvimmer drorvning. He shouts to his father
rvho is 50 rn due rvest of him. His father is l0 m nearer to the jetty than Marc. If his father runs
straight to the jetty and uses the boat to reach the srvimmer, he rvill travel a total distance of
161 m. At the same time. Marc spots a man ridine on a jetski. The man is 53 m further ar.vay
fr"om the jetty than Marc. The man on the jetski is due east of the sr,vimmer. Horv f'ar must the
man on the jetski travel to rescue the srvimmer'l
uo
.<6(i
1laU)
{i
At)?
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/A\
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MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper A
Paper
,,
Marks
/s0
Time: t hour
ALL
the questions.
Answer: (a)
k
l2l
Ansrver: (a)
l2l
(b)
t1l
(b)
It is given that r
a)
(b)
(
tur+b
],
= 2.r.
12)
and r' = 5.
, ffi
\\.ry//
).
4.
Anslver: (a)
t2)
(b)
l2l
It is given that ,y is directly proportional to the positive square root of .r and that
,)'
= 6 rvhen
x=4.
(a)
(b)
,A ]l
{[4
]8
\d
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ansr'ver: (a)
tzl
(b)
tll
@ Ca,sr:o Publication,s Pte
Ltd
(a)
rb)
c)
(
LACB,
the area of triangle ABC.
cm
Answer: (a) BC =
(b) LACB
Ltd
"ill
(c)
[1]
cm' ttl
/A
\s/
([+tO]J
6.
Ansr.ver: (a)
tll
(b)
t3l
(c)
l2l
In the diagram, quadrilateral ABCD is similar to quadrilateral PQRS. Find the values of
and
xo
1'.
Anslver: iro =
"
l2l
l2l
Ltd
8x31'={$
7x5Y={J
Answer:
t3l
32
(b)
,i).
6r'  1 x
:r' lx+2
l 
Ansr,ver: (a)
t2)
(b)
t3l
Answer: (a)
Lzl
(b)
I2l
'1
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,A
I K42l)
\g
11.
.5 cm
l2 cm
Answer: (a) BD =
cm
(b) AE =
12.
1X.r + h) = 2x2 + kx
[2]
cm l2l
Answer: h =
t_
A_
t3l
,*
i&422
$) Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
in the diagram, the curve y = rr  2.r + B cuts the xaxis at P and Q and,the vaxis at R.
(a) Write down the coordinates of P, Q and R.
1b) Find the equation of the line of symmetry forthe curve), = x2 2x + 8.
(c) State the coordinates of the maximum point of the curve.
Ansr,ver: (a) P =
O_
R_
tzl
(b)
t1l
(c)
t1l
MidYearExaminationA: Paper
MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper A
Marks
/s0
Paper 2
Answer
All
Time:
hour 15 minutes
ALL
the questions.
working must be clearly shown.
1.
A map is drawn to a scale of I : 20 000. On the map, the distance between two villages A and
B is 8 cm and the area of a lake is 300 cm2.
Calculate
(u) the actual distance, in kilometres, between A and B,
t1l
(b) the area, in square centimetres, which represents the lake on a second map with a scale
of1:50000.
2.
J.
(a)
Expand
(b)
1
Giventhatx+ 1 = 8, find the value of ,r2 +
x
Factorise
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(,.
t3l
l2l
+)'
2
Q5f  D' 9
Mathematics Tutor 2A
completely.
t2l
t3l
(a)
,
(Dl
1.r
=
93.r1
 l)
t3l
t3l
5.
(a)
(b)
is
r2
+ 22r  15 = O.
t3l
l2l
,A'
K+ZSI\
6.
(a)
Durians are sold in three different grades. Grade A durians cost $5 each, Grade B durians
cost $9 each and Grade C durians cost $16 each. Jonathan bought x number of Grade A
durians and thrice as many Grade B durians. He bought eight less of Grade C durians
than Grade A durians. If he spent $400 altogether, how much did he spend on Grade C
durians?
t3l
(b)
6,express
in terms of y.
t4l
1.
16,r + 3.
(a)
Factorise 5x2
(b)
t, (#
cm.Ii
( 5rt)
its base is
[ : ,* J cm.
A
$3p)
Mathematics Tutor 24
l2l
t4l
Ltd
S.
(a)
(b)
(2v+r+5)cm
(5,r
+y+
y) c
(3,r +
g.
_v
1)cm
+ 2) cm
equationsfor0<r<4.
(i) r=*fx+.t
(ii) zriy=6
(b)
t'11
Hence,solvethefollorvingsimultaneousequations)'=+.r+3
and3.r2r =6
graphically.
(c)
encloseclby the
12)
On the same axes. dralv the graph of .r  1 = 0. Hence, {ind the area of the triangle
linesr'=1r+3,3x
2.v=6andx
1=0.
MidYear Examination A
t2l
Paper
MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper B
Paper
Marks
ts0
Time: t hour
1.
3x'I7x+10
Ansr,ver: (a)
(b)
2.
tfl \\
(a)
(b)
l.t428}j
Simplify
r'
(,
+,yX;r
_**
tll
t3l
y).
Using your answerfrom part (a),evaluate the value of 38 9712 38 980 x38 914.
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Answer: (a)
l2)
(b)
I1t
Ltd
3.
Make
l.
I + ,ry:
 l.r2
Answer:
t3l
Answer:
l3l
x+2y + I =0
l,Zr*15)=3r'5
5
,&\
,,s
Ltd
x\
1 ip2glJ
\\#,/
\..5.2
5.
Given that y is inversely proportional to the cube of x and that , =  p when ,r = 2. Find the
4',
value of 1'when
r=
:.
I
Answer:
6.
i{430}j
(a)
(b)
civennat{
and
fi= I
t3l
5)''.
Answer: (a)
t3l
(b)
121
Ltd
7.
(a)
(b)
8.
5a2
(3jr
llob
y)2
12b2
9r2
Answer: (a)
t2)
(b)
tzl
Answer: (a)
tzl
(b)
t3l
(a) 3x'11r8=139x
3
(b)= 2r+l
l,
9.
r  J
cm l2l
'
(b) LPQM =
Lt(l
[1]
10.
In the diagram, flgure ABCDE is reduced to flgure APQRS. Given that Ap = 14 cm,
PQ= 16 cm and BC =36 cm, find
(a) the scale factor of the reduction,
(b) the length of BP.
Answer: (a)
I2l
(b) BP =
11.
cm
12)
t : 12 tm'. Calculate
the area on the map which represents the station, giving your answer in square centimetres.
Answer:
cmt
131
Ltd
Zr&q\
tl!
\\
[432Jr
Mathemarics Tutor 2A
t2.
(a)
One number is six times another number. The sum of their reciprocals is
2I
Find the
l
tr,vo numbers.
(b)
13.
(a)
l6 men took 9 days to build a lOkm railr,vay track. How long rvould it take 20 men to
build a 25km railr,vay track?
3
l2l
(b)
days [3]
7 = O.
3.5
x
Answer: (a)
Ltd
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/rq\
/d
\\
i&133}]
\\r**d?*
v
(b)
i{434$l
Mathematics Tutor 2A
x
7 = 0.
Ltd
(c)
2!rJ
2x+y
=0
I
Ansrver: (c)
@ Ctrst:o Publiccrtions
I'te Ltd
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/4,
, K]#,
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MidYear Examination
Specimen Paper B
Marks
/s0
Paper 2
ALL
the questions.
working must be clearly shown.
Answer
All
l.
2.
tzl
.
(b)
t3l
(a)
8r'r'
2 l.r r'=X
.rt  4r't
7r'
r''
24
2.n'
'
The diagram shows part of a floor plan of a house. The actual length of the living room is 9 m.
Find
2cm
3cm
(a) the scale of the floor plan,
t1l
(b) the actual width of the living room, t1l
(c) the actual area of the kitchen.
tzl
2.5 crn
,rard\
lf+:O})
'a.4'
Mathematics Tutor 2A
3.
4.
Given
thatr=
(a)
(b)
3r21k+ l)x+fr=0,find
t1l
L2l
tll
[1 ]
iScm
,ft.
L43U
5.
6.
(a)
Given that
(b)
(a)
l9A')
10,6 =
Itt
and c =
t4l
4.
t1l
34'rI
try;7i71,.1'
(b) (i)
(ii)
r'*d*\\
i{438
tll
3x' 4x  4.
Hence, solve the equation:
Factorise
13;_4rJ
(c)
tzl
3
Z_
1512
l2l
=o
x"
12x
* 10rry + 8y = Q.
t3l
Lrtl
7.
(c)
8.
t21
+9)cm
(7.r +
(6.r
Ltd
5y
1zl
crn)
(4x
MidYear Examination
,)') cm
B:
Paper
9.
! =t +2x+3.
x
1
5
5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
i{440})
.lW/
and
q.
t1l
for2<x<4.
From the graph, flnd
(i) the equation of the line of symmetry,
(ii) the coordinates of the maximum point,
(iii) theyintercept.
Use the graph to solve the equation f + 2x + 3 =
Marhematics Turor 2A
=x'+2x+3
t3l
t1l
t1l
t1l
t2l
1.
Ltd
;>
trPt
;zz
,a__,
rffi 3qrifr;
.
.
(1)
Chapter 1: Proportion
Chapter 2: Expansion and Factorisation of Algebraic Expressions
1.
2.
3.
Rewision E><ercise
Ltd
Revision Exercise
4.
The actual area of a park is 5.76 km'. It is represented by an area of 36 cm2 on a map. The map
is drawn to a scale of I cm to p km. Find the value of p.
5.
The scale of a map is I : 10 000. The dimensions of a rectangular field on the map is 8 cm by
6 cm.
(a) Find. in km. the actual perimeter of the fleld.
(b) Fincl. in kmr. the actual area of the iield.
6.
ffi
MathematicsTutor2,t
Lt(l
It is given that 2 cm on
(a)
(b)
(c)
8.
lZm.
of the courtyard.
3.6 cm
9.
40 000
'
Lkl
Revision Exercise
10.
11.
12.
: 20 000.
A map is drawn to a scale of 5 cm to 2 km. An oil palm plantation has an actual area of 52kr* .
(a) Find the area, in cr#, of the plantation on the map.
(b) Find the area,incm2, of the plantation drawn on a second map whose scale is 1 : 250 000.
Ltd
13.
14.
The actual area of a plot of land is 18 km2. It is represented by an area of 2 cr* on a map.
(a) Find the scale of the map in the form 1 : n.
(b) The length of a highway is 115 km 50 m. Find the length, in cm, of the highway on the
map.
(c) The area of a town is 0.4 cm'z on the map. Find the actual area, in knf , of the town.
RevisionExercise,
Proportion
(2)
15.
16.
)'=
(b)
y= ,
x'
(c)
y= 13Vi
(d)
Zxy
(e)
ylxl
(0
J.rr
45x
8
=9
as
_ry
r.
(c)
t].
y varies directly
(a)
= 300.
(b)
(c)
'&sP
 6 when r = 5. Find
Ltd
Ir rs
that,r' is directly proportional to
given
e)
(b)
9.
20.
and that v
128 lvhen r = 4.
Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(a)
(b)
(c)
It
an equation connecting
tl
and
.r = 2. Find
r,
(a)
(b)
(c)
21.
rt
45 when e = Z.Find
"
Itis giventhatp
Ltd
=Z.Findthe
Revision Exercise
,..;\
...".'
l[l23]
'\jz
22.
23
It is given thatyr is directly proportional to the reciprocal of r and that r'= 6 rvhen.r = 3. Find
the value of t r,vhen r = 12, given that l is positive.
Given that
rvher.r,
24.
t'
r
=2+.
= 5.
25.
Given that
./r
26.
r, rvhen
(a)
(b)
(c)
124}}
\\*"//
:{
,r'
1
,=
nuhen
l'=
l,=
9.
)
18
Marhematics Turor 2A
@) CcLsco
=
'::
::
E:
:::"::'::

Gir en that
_r'
.r
56
and.
29.
)
18
2.88
,r)'2
q.
17
r.vhere
17
> 0.
32
10
Revision Exercise
30.
The leneth, 1, of a rectangle is inversely proportional to its breadth, b. trf its breadth is increased
by l00o/c. finci the percentage increirseiclecrease in its length.
31.
The cost of a train ticket, $C, is directly proportional to the distance, dl<rn, of the journey.
Given that C = $80 when d = 320 krn, find
(a) the cost of a train ticket from Singapore to Penang which are 581 km apart,
(b) the distance between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur if the train ticket costs $78.75.
32.
The cost each for a group of students to go for a science fair is inversely proportional to the
number of students in the group. Each student in a group of 85 needs to pay $12. Find the cost
each student needs to pay if 5 fewer students go on the trip.
33.
The length, / cm, of a simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square of its period,
/ seconds (i.e. the time taken to complete one oscillation). A pendulum with a period of
5 seconds is 620 cm long.
(a) Write down an equation connecting I and t.
(b)
fff^$;
\/
Calculate
(i) the length of the pendulum when its period is 3 seconds,
(ii) the period of the pendulum when its length is 155 cm long.
Mathematics Tutor 24
.
The height of a cone. ft cm, is inversely proportional to the square of its base radius. r cm. for
a given volume.If the height of a cone is 6 cm lvhen its base radius is 2 cm, find the heieht of
a coue rvhen its base radius is 3 cm. Both cones have the same volume.
li.
The energy. E units. stored in an elastic band is directly proportional to the square of its
extentictll.r cm. lf thc energy stored is 10,1 units rvhen thc clastic band is extended by 2 cm.
calculate
(a) the energy stored rvhen the extension is 3 cm.
(b) the extension u,hen the energy stored is 650 units.
36.
(a)
If
8 men can assemble 28 cars in one day. horv many cars can 20 men assemble in onc
day'7
(b)
i
I
:
=
e
=
=
E
Crzrct;
RevisionExercise
37.
It takes 12 rvorkers 64 days to build a greenhouse. If another 4 workers were to help, find the
number of days needed to build the greenhouse.
38.
(a)
It takes
39.
(a)
(b)
\YsZ
(b)
@ Casc'r.t
+0.
5 men can paint a boat in 4 days. Assume that all the rnen r.vork at the same rate.
(a) If one of the men did not turn up for rvork on the last day, horv many days rvould it take
the men to paint the boat?
(b) Horv long would it take I men to paint the same boat?
(c) Hor.v long would it take 2 men to paint 3 such boats?
4t.
(a)
.r,
lf
r
J'.
(b)
7 rvorkers take
(i)
(ii)
15
RevisionExercise,
(3)
42.
#fr\
{&
130}i
&ry
(a)
(2r:
(c)
(5rr')(r+3t,)
(e)
(r
(g)
(i"
(i)
(2x
(b)
 l)(2,r + 1)
2Xr'
3,r
Mathematics Tutor
1)
(;r + y)(x
2,A,
1)
(d) (1,.)(:.,.)
,)'
 y)' 
(2r + 5)(3x
y)
(f)
(2.r:
(h)
l9
5)l
 (l  2r)(5 + r)
43.
(a) 3r'
6)' + 24x.t2
(c)
2(cr + 2b:f
(e)
o.r + 3br
(g)
3ary
6ar
(i)
l\ap
3Qt + 2b)
 4ut' l2bt'
3v + 6
(d)
3o
6b
4(o
2b))
(f) t)pq2p+15q
(h) rnt+,nt4m4
U)
3rr.rr
3cr.r''
+ /r.r'
/r.t''
RevisionExercise
44.
(a)
81
(c)
45.rr
(e)
i28a5
(b) 4.t.1
),'
20r
8rrr
(d) I Slaa
(fl
9.rt
l'
1(X)
(h)
(i)
(;r+ l)'?*4
100t2r,2
I
1
:
=:
E:
(k)
x2
+ l4x + 1.3
E.
(l) rr6r+9
='.
:
E
E.
iE
,W#
Marhemarics Tutor
24
C
E
=
F
=,
(m) rt
(n) 3r+5r28
lLr  45
(p)
6.11
(q) ts 2xBf
(r)
15r' 26r + B
(s)
4,r2
(t) zf + ltrr,
(u)
1.2,r\,Jtz
18
(v)
t' +
+ 2.r  4
t,''
2rv
1'2
RevisionExercise,
45.
(b)
10961962
(c) 7Br+312+1
(d)
806 x 794
(e)
1.01120.0ilr
(f)
23r
3000r3005x2995
.
(h)
(a)
,4,
l[ I 34]J
9012
Marhemarics Tutor 24
138 + 9
47)
.
51
.ll
102 + I
Lkl
46.
41
(a)
(b)
. (a)
(b)
,18. (a)
(b)
2(5x
9x2
1)2 ,
+7 *(2x3)(4x+9).
Factorise r1 + 2x + 1 .
Hence, lactorise r1 + 2l +
Lkl
,3)
 u(2t' 
).
I  i'r.
RevisionExercise,
49.
(a)
Simplify
(i)
(ii)
(b)
(r
(x
6).
2a).
3351
50. (a)
(b)
Gil'en that ,rr  ,r't = 28 ancl .t  ), = 8, lind tlre value of 2r + 2_v.
If ,rr + .r't = 6rl ancl .n, = 1 8. find the value of (2x  2y)2
51.
that3p*Q=J
,f\
qy
Given
n
340
12 330.
Mathematics Tutor 24
and5p2q) =
l80,findthevalue(s)of
1Spr +2q2.
%*
Rewision E><ercise 2
(1)
1.
(a)
3xr
(c)
(..r
12r = 0
2l
=4
(e) llx21=l
, ^.]
(xJ)
4
9
Ltd
(b) 94,r2=0
(d) Zft+x+8=0
(h)
x(Zx + 5) =
RevisionExercise,
C) (2.r3Xr+5)=9
(k)
(l)
7y' = 5y
(n)
(2x _712 = 16
6x'
 73x = 9x  20
@) 2f +7x+3=0
(o) (5y+7)(3))=0
(p) 3f +lLx+6=3
(q)
(r)
612
14.t = 0
x(4x + 12)
=*g
,A
\r'
bsql)
Ltd
(t)
(u)
(5,r
2)2
= 8(5r
(V)
(.r
l)(,r;
4) = 40
2)
2(.2.t'
1.1
2(r
3)(r + 1) = 5("r  2)
(z)
(x
1)' = 5(.r  1)
Revision Exercise,
2.
(a)
(b)
3.
trf 2x)
4'.
If
,W
+ 4y2 =Q
25x'y:30"ry+9=0
9xz
5rr,
72xy
Mathemalics Tu(or 24
12
of
Ltd
i'.,,., p,r.trti, e inte gers is 3 and the product of these two integers is 108.
Fforl r$o consecutive positive odd integers such that the square of their sum exceeds the sum
c,{
. ' . ::.
:
6eir
squares by 70.
A positive integer is 3 more than fbur times its reciprocal. Find thc inte9er.
)n@
+ t).
RevisionExercise,
9.
The area of the rectangle is 53 cmt more than the area of the square. Find the value of .r.
,,
ll
10.
6terrr
(x5)cm
i
(2r
7) cttt
(r5)cm
The diagram shows a trapeziunr \BCD t'here 4p = (7r 31 cm, BC=(r +2)cmand
3g = (2x + 4) cm. Given thar the area of the trapezium is 60 cmr, lind the height of the
trapezium.
(1r
B
11.
3) cm
(,.+2)cm
A cyclist started his journey at 08 00. He crclccl at a constant speed of t km/h. After an hour.
he increased his speed by 5 km/h. He reached his destination at 12 00. Given that his average
speed fbr the rvhole journey rvas l9 kmih. hnd the value of r.
MathematicsTutor2A
Ltd
:: . Functions
_
=.,..i.Jr.
,i.
Erptm,sfficrra[b
:
''
Lrd
t'
r). Find
.)'
Revisiorr Exercise
u&r'\\
/,tr
l{ZSS }j
\ry/
14.
1'
rt + u.\ + b.
Find
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
15.
The curve
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
_t
=6+
3r
ft.
J'=o+J.r
,4.
{{zOO}
\\J/
Mathematics Tutor 2A
J.1
a.
, .i lllllletr\"
rrithe marimum point of the graph.
 : .:'Lpr;1
"31 lies on the curve and r < 0, find the value of r.
t '
Litious Pte
Ltrl
RevisionExercise,
17
of
).,
1
0.5
0.5
5.25
1.25
(a)
(b)
(c)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
the
the
the
the
3.5
4.5
1
t.25
5.25
18.
(c)
1
)
19
1
I
(a)
(b)
5x
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
t9.
2x2
)c
!
(a)
(b)
) =.{r 
1.5
a
1
,
,)
J
2
1
of l', where
1.5
1.15
the graph of y
=2_ 3r'
x2
for4.5<x<1.5.
(c)
(iii)
{::,
ig2623l Mathematics Tutor 2A
5
".1/
@ Cosco
r_...,.
.:
.,i oir
;s
','
\,.,i11 aarrri.ll(rnding
t)
 _..
i.i.
n_q
_..
:,
=: 
8r
+ 8 is shorvn belorv.
32
arrs. drar'v the graph of y = 2x2 Bx + 8 for the tange 2<
and label on the graph the line of symmetry of the curve.
dor,vn the coordinates of the turning point.
From your graph, find
( i)
the values of x r,vhen J' = 20,
(ii) the vaiue of y when x = 3.5.
< 6.
 .,rt
'\
ite
Lrn
corresponcling
(a)
(b)
r
.7
2.5
3.5
t.125
3
2.5
0.875
')
i
0.5
1.5
0.875
1.5
r.t25 2.5
of ., =+
(.r
Write down the greatest value of y urd ,n" corresponding value of r when it occurs.
Draw and label the equation of the line of symmetry.
Given that the points (0.1 , b) and (a, b) lie on the curve, {rnd the values of a and b.
Revision
Exercise,
23
t)
1
1
1
r,'
where
= ,{t
5.r
p and q.
Usingascaleof2cmtorepresentlunitoneachaxis,clrarvthegraphofy=r25.r+3
(a)
(b)
fbr0<.r<5.
Flom your graph,lind the minimum/maximum point.
Drarv and lvrite do'uvn the ecluation of the line of symmetry.
By clrar,ving another line. find the solutions to the equation xt
(c)
(d)
(e)
2.4.
3
IJ
'7
(a)
(b)
2
i8
1
5x + 3 =
'))
28
(c)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(d)
(e)
25.
(a)
tbt
(c)
Shor,v
(5
,r)
cm respectively.
Drarv thegraph
ofA
=].rt+ I l.t+.5
lor2<.r'S.5.
From your graph. flnd thJase unli tn. herght of the trianele that will give the maximum
area.
/4,
f,fr
ffi b rhom rry into tre air so that its height, fr metres, above the starting point after
{e ds is giren bl the formula h = l6t  4f
a,, L sing a scale of 2 cm to represent 1 second on the /axis and 4 cm to represent 10 metres
A
x
r
(b)
ing
its on

The diagram shorvs a rectangular sheet of aluminiurn of lcngth (.r + 8) cm ancl rvidth
rectangular piece r.vith dimensions (,r + 2) cm by.r cm is then cut ctut.
(a) Shorv that the area, A cmt, of the remaining sheet of alurninium is qiven by
4 = (40 + 3,r ,vt; cm'.
(b)
(c)
..
Ltd
cm. A
rllLlm
s Pte
5
(r
P,LiJ
+ ll)
cn.r
RevisionExercise,
(3)
28.
(a)
(b)
l2x''r.'3
;;
10.t
)
Sartt * 4urt
(c) ;;
4m  n'
(e)
6a2b
 8ab2
KW
(d)
x2
l6y2
3x2+2ry8y2
Zabc + 3bc'
(I)
Zab4a+3b6
Zbt')
3ar ..
X
4ht t''
9rlr
"
4a1b3c/\ 3bd2
,
,8a 't'
 5orl
(i)
(2p + 3q)')
l{266}l
Y'
'
to Pr
b^
^
2u('
+ 15cr
3pq,
3xv * 5r+2r
,
(h)
lo F 4r
6r',
at * ltt
3ab 5bt
 *;
u)
n " oar tot,'
Ltd
3n:
:
.t :. slnPlest
form.
(b) ^s6*6XX
2x
(c) 5.2
(e)
x2
(g)
)r 1
3,t+1
*
' . [,ttl
5.r
.
.Jr
(d)
.= * 4.t10
Ir+5

,D:,
u**:
Ltd
lrFll
r*lx18
3x
RevisionExercise,
(a)
.r+l
2x1
x3x
(C) =='
x+'2
(e)
l1
x xl
{c)
(i)
xI 
o
2.r +
r1
1
1
_t
lr..
' o
5.1 l
11
,A\
{(ZOS}
Mathematics Tutor 2A
iJ
(o
*. r*
(h)
* lt=,
(j) ,**
='
2,
x l
j'
. a=:==Z
3b+2c
(e)
'
4b5c
(g) p
Ptt Ltri
3n
,,,,
,,,ltltefoltlnla.
(h)
.rr:iaiar:,.
ti::t:oiaui
r:i:{it:
RevisionExercise,
32.
(a)
(b)
( 6'\
Simpliiy[z.r+iJ*rlri.).
t_)
1 + 31
\: ,. , 4
ExPrcss
u., a single
fraction.
.,
)
)
Given that
r
2ct
+ 3 ?ncl 1 =
67r
I . express
r'6
ffi
simplest form.
34. (a)
35.
Given thatZx=
(b)
Giventfrat
Given
ttut ffi
ffi
}f
; = l.nrathevalueof
f ,
of
r'
4
arvhen b=
and t = 2.
B
andc='1.
6il
l{270$j
Lt(l
=
i*d#i*t
YryJ
#^
Revision E><ercise 3
<x
J&.*=6&d
(1)
1.
Draw the graph of each of the fbllorving lines on the sarne axes. using a scale of 2 cm
to represent I unit on the raxis for 2 < "r ( 6 and I cm to represent I unit on the r'axis
fbr 4 S ,v ( 12.
(i)
2.
2,t.r'=0
(ii) r+)r3
(iii) J,=1
(iv)
,),=2
(b)
Name the frgure formed by these fbrrr lines. Hence. find the area of this f,gure.
(a)
axes.
(i) 1r=2r+5
3.
(ii) .r=2!
2
(b)
(a)
,1r
(iii)
v
= 2r
v
(b)
(c)
(d)
Given thatthe point(2p,2.1) is a solution to the equation.r + 41.= 11. finclthe r alue of p.
On the same axes. drar.v the graph of 3.r 2y = 1 . Hence solr'e the simultaneor_L_\ equations:
+ .t.
r+4r=12
3r2_y= I
6m)
\/
Mathematics Turor 24
Lttl
4.
(a)
r+y2.
(b)
3J
=u'
2r31,=24
'lr+t,=2
5.
(a) ,{*Yzf
2x1'=1
(b) !=2r+6
(c) 3r+,y6=0
(d)
5x,r'+ 14=0
Ltd
,=1r2
,3
4r
2r
= l0
l0r,= 35
5.y
RevisionExercise,
6.
(a)
(b)
(c)
The eqLration of the line i is 5t'+ 26 = Br. Find the value of k, qiven that the point
(l 2k,6) lies on the line 1.
Write dor,vn the equation of the vertical line that passes through the point (5. 5)
The line ,r, = 8 meets the r,axis at A. Write dor.vn the coordinates of A.
1.
The cliagram shows the lines r,vith equations 3)'= 2.r 9,2,)'+ { * 6, r'= 3.2.r =.r
3v + 2r = 9. Write dorvn the equation corresponding to each line.
8.
The cost of a mug and a plate are $.r and $r, respectively.
(a) The cost of two mugs and a plate is $15 r,vhile the cost of one mug and two plates is
$16.50. Form trvo equations connecting.r and r.
(b) Draw the graphs of these trvo equations on the same axes.
(c) Hence, Iind the price of a mug and the price of a plate.
,raft,
K+OOll Mathematics Turor 24
\\/,/
6 and
Ltd
9.
Marc and Esther order piz.zafrom Pete's Pizza regularly. Esther lives 5 km further from Pete's
Ptzzathan Marc does.In a certain rveek. Pete's Pizza delivered rl times to Marc and 3 times to
Esther. The total distance travelled by the cielivery man to each of their houses for that rveek
r.vas 36 km.
(a) Marc lives x km fi'om Pete's Pizza and E,sther lives 1 km tiom Pete's Pizza. Using the
information given. lvrite trvo equations involving,r and 1'.
(b) On the satne axes, drarv the graphs of'the two equations.
(c) From your graphs,lind the distance that Marc and Estlrer each live fiom Pete's Pizza.
10.
I6
of Brand B bulbs
r.vere
fbuncltfrat
of Brand
r'vas
the same.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Letting x and
Hence, Iind the number of Brand A and Brand B light bulbs Mr Smith bought.
Revision Exercise,
1l
Use the
(a) 3x2y * 3
1x5y9
(b) 2h+3k=22
(c)
(d) 7x5r8=0
 4y = 4,
6r+7r=Jl
3.r
(e) 2x+y=4
3xY=
(g)
W.}f:l
11
 13
3.rrly6=0
2x + 31'
3h+2k=28
4r=9y+23
(0 5r6t'=21
2r
 9i'=
15
Qt
12.
(a) 2x+31'=)
(b)
5,r1'=g
(c)
4.r
2y =
1*r',l
I
.r
(e)
[Q
 )' = 18
0.5r+2r"=19
(s) 3r + 2.r =
15.5
.ir3.r=6.5
P tr b
Iic
ati ott.s
t
(d)
te Ltd
y
14
3r ll
2.r+y
5
3r21'45
2.5r
2r:
(f)
51,+ 3.t =
25
2r=3),+4
(h)
9r + 4.1, 5
r 1r'=10
3'
Revision Exercise
.let:'
\d/
{(+O:}
13.
Use either the elimination method or the substitution method to solve the following
simultaneous equations.
(a) 3r7_y= I
5r 2t'= 8
(b)
(c)
3xy  4
3x+4Y=13
(d)
(e)
3x
2y
(f)
=6
Y ^1
262
0.2r
_ 0.5_r,
13
1=0
2,1,
7,r + 2(91' 4) = 0
ll.r  6r,= 0
3r
..
_*_=L_
1 5
(g) rl;,'\'=
+ 13
5,r+3r,=0
r =
5.r'
,,
14.2
5
(h) 6.r5(.rl)=?3
)tv+)tlr'J
i\.,
/
/16
i{+O+}) Mathematics Turor 2A
@ Cu.sto
14.
A piece of r.vire is bent to form a rectangle ABCD as shown below. Given Ihat AB = 3r cm,
BC=2(.:" + 1)cm. CD=(), +4)cmandAD=(3I2x2) cm,lindtheareaof rectangle ABCD.
A
(3.r
2.r
2) crn
3; cm
(._r,+,1) crn
2(_r'+
15.
6.
l) crr
The sum of the numerator and the denominator of a fiaction is 13. When 3 is subtracted from
the numerator. the fraction becomes
Thc surn of the digits of a trvodigit number is one quarter of the number. When the digits are
rer,ersed. the number lvill increase by I 8. Find the number.
Revision
Exercise,
dh
(2)
I7.
18.
ln the diagram. triangles ABC and CED are congruent. AB = 5.2 clm, BE = 4.3 cm.
EC = 5.2 crr and DF = 6.7 cm. IABC = 1CED= 78" and LBAC = 7lo. Find
(a) the length of EF.
(b) LFCD.
MathematicsTutor2A
106o,
LBDC
Ltd
19.
In the diagram, triangle PQT and triangle RQS and congruent. PQR is a straight line.
(a) Find
O 5.2 crn
(i) the length ol PQ,
(ii) the length of R,S,
(iii) LTQS.
(b) Write dor,vn the name of the special
trianele QZS.
lt).
In the diagram,WXYZ is a rectangle. The points A. B, C and l) lie on ltrlX, WZ, XY and YZ
that AX = DZ and XC = BZ.
ia)
(b)
ilch
Revision Exercise,
21.
[nthediagram,AABCiscongruentto\,DCB.GiventhatLBAC=90o, LACB=28o,AE=5..1
cm. BC = 17 cm, BD = 15 cm and CD = 8 cm, fincl
A
D
(a) LCBD,
(b) LBEC,
(c) LACD.
(d) the length of CE,
(e) the area of ABCE.
l7 cm
22.
ln the diauram, AADF : AHEC and thc parallel lines AH and CF are 8 cr.rr apart. Given that
LAHC = 20o. IADF = 110" and the area of AADF is 76 cmr. hnd
(a) LHCE,
(b)
(c)
(d)
23.
LDAF,
LEGF.
the length of CE.
t,
_r'o
and
:".
R;.,
l"'
,"\ on+I\P
Yf
ocmf \..*\ n")s
/
\
\Y
l"
/\R
Ago"
B' t
5cm
tWS
Mathematics Tutor 24
\n
L
Ltd

lri each of the following, AABC is sirnilar Io LAPQ. Find the value of each unknor'vn.
(b)
(a)
3 cnr
,r cm
9.1 cm
(c)
,r cm
)cm
P
te Lttl
Revision Exercise,
25.
26.
In the diagram, AABC is similar to ABDC. Given that LABC =LBDC = 90o. AC =25 cm and
BC = 20 cm. find the lensth of CD.
27
,1
/t\\
\w
K4t0J]
20 cnr
Lttl
l\.
13.5 crn
19.
(b)
Find
(i)
(ii)
Prr bI
ic'tLtions Pte
Lttl
RevisionExercise,
30.
fh) Find
Find
(b)
(l)
CD
==
Lh.
(ii)
(iii)
31
13
12 cm
The diagram shor,vs trvo similar cones A and B. The heights of Cone A and Cone B are  2 cm
and 8 cm respectively.
(a) If the base radius of Cone A is 5 cm, Iind the base radius of Cone B.
(b) If the base circumference of Cone B is 20.9 cm, Iind the base circumference of Cone A.
t\
(_)
,A.
qp
Mathematics Tutor 24
LJ
B
ltd
In the diagram below, AB is parallel to CD. Triangles ABE and DCE are similar. Find
(a) the length of AE,
(b)
(c)
9cm
B'C' = 24 cm,find
(a) the length of A'B',
(b) the length of BC.
thatAB=9cm
and
A,
>\
t/
l>.
z+cn
//
B,
34.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Ltd
RevisionExercise,
35.
(a)
(b)
(c)
of
Find
12 crn
7cm
36.
WXW.Find
13.5 cm
8.4 cm
it4143]
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd
l,cm
C5.2cmD
.':
7.8cm
drarving is 14 cm.
la) Find the scale of the drawing in the form I : n.
(b) If the actual r.vingspread of the butterfly is 10 cm, find the r'vingspread of the butterfly on
the drarving.
Ltd
RevisionExercise,
39.
The diagram shows the floor plan of an apartment. The scale used is 1 cm to 1.5 m.
(a) Find the actual dimensions of
the dining room,
1.5 cm
3 cm
2.5 cm
(0
(iil
(b)
Bedroom
1.
(i)
(ii)
Dirring
room I
Kitchen
Bedroom
the apartment.
Living
room
B.,lroo*
3cm
Bathroom
1.5 cm
40.
2.5 cm
,.;A:,
it4l6$l
Mathematics Tutor 2A
Ltd