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EXERCISE l(C)
Let the equation ofthe plane containing the line x - y - z - 4 = 0 = x + y + 2z - 4 and is parallel to the
line of intersection of the planes 2x + 3y + z = 1 and x + 3y + 2z = 2 be x + Ay + Bz + C = O.
IA+B+CI
11
..

Compute the value of


[Sol.

[Ans. 1]

A plane containing the line ofintersection ofthe given planes is

x-y-z-4 + A.(x + y + 2z-4) = 0

i.e.
(A. + l)x + (A. - l)y + (2A. -1)z - 4(A. + 1) = 0

vector normal to it

v = (A.+l)1+(A.-l)J+(2A.-l)k

.....(1)
Now the vector along the line of intersection of the planes
2x + 3y z - 1 = 0
and
x + 3y + 2z - 2 = 0 is given by

k
n== 2 3 1 = (6-3)1-(4-1)J+(6-3)k = 3(l-J+k)
132

As

ii is parallel to the plane (1)

Hence n'V =0
. (A. + 1) - (A. - 1) + (2A. - 1) = 0
2 + 2A. - 1 = 0 =>

A. =

-1

Hence the required plane is

~ - 3y _ 2z - 2 == 0

2
2
x - 3y - 4z - 4 = 0
Hence I A + B + C 1= 11
2

Given f2(X) + g2(X) + h 2(x):::; 9 and U(x) = 3 f(x) + 4 g (x) + 10 h(x). Ifmaximum value of U(x) is

.IN, then find


[Sol.

N
1125'.

Let VI =31+4J+IOk

[Ans. 1]
and

U (x) = VI' V2 =1 VIII V2 Icos

V2 ==f(x)l+g(x)J+h(x)k

IVIII V21

../9+16+100~f2 +g2 +h 2

= 3../125 =15..)5

If (x I Xz)Z + (YI - Y2)Z = a 2

(Xz x3)2 + (Y2 - Y3)2 = b2


and (x, XI)2 + (Y3 - YI)Z = c 2
Xl

then A. x 2
x3

YI
Y2

12
1

= (a + b + cXb + c - a)(c + a - b)(a + b - c). Find the value ofA..

Y3 1
[Ans.4]

[Sol.

First 3 equations are suggestive that


(x., YI) (~, Y2) and (x3, Y3) and the vertices of all BCA
1

Now

A ==

YI

xI

-I x 2 Y2 1 1
2
Y3

XI YI
4A 2 == x 2 Y2
x 3 Y3

x3

b
2

1
1

(xl,yl)B

4A 2 == 4s(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)


16A2 == 2s(2s - 2a)(2s - 2b)(2s - 2c) = RHS

and

=>A=4

c== 2i +2J. If VI is the volume ofparalle1opiped whose three


coterminous edges are the vectors Ii + b, b+ c, C+ Ii and V2 is the volume of tetrahedron whose three
b == 4i +2J+4k

Let Ii == -3i + J+k,

and

__
(Vj + V2 )
coterminous edges are the vectors Ii x b, b x c,cx Ii , then find the value of
72

[Sol.

We have

[a be] ==

-3 1 1
4 2 4
2

Now VI =2[a

b c] =72

and

[Ans.4]

36

V2 ==

"6If-La -b .,c]2

== 216

Hence VI + V2 == 288
5

If VI==i+J+k;

V2==ai+bJ+ck where ab.c s {-2,-1,0, 1,2},thenthenumberofnonzero

vectors V2 which are perpendicular to VI., is


18
[Sol.

[Ans.1]

V-V
I
2 ==a+b+c==O
but
now

a, b, c
(i)
(ii)

{-2, - 1,0, 1, 2}
if a == 1, b == -1, c == 0, number == 3! == 6
if a == 2, b == - 2, c == 0, number = 3! == 6

(iii)

.'
if a == 1 b == 1 c == - 2 number
,
"

(iv)

3'
== 3
2!

= ----=.

if a == - I b == - 1 c == 2 number == -3! == 3
,
"
2! Total == 18

_
_
2n
be such that I a 1= 3 and I b 1= 4 .
Let two non-collinear vectors a and b inclined at an angle

A point P moves so that at any time t the position vector

op

op

(where 0 is the origin) is given as

= (e' + e') a + (e t - e t) b. If the least distance of P from origin is .J2 ~.,J;;. b


[Ans. I]

where a, bEN then find the value of (a + b)/72.


[Sol.

(OP) = (e' + e-ti (af + (et-e-tp (b)+2 (et+ e-t)(et-e-t) (a'b)

Wehave

((a)2

=l a 12= 9, (b) =1 b 12= 16 and

~ Iop12 = 9(et + e-tp + 16(et - e-tp + 2(e2t


Now -d
dt

'-1
op

= 0 ~ 26e 2t - 10e-2t = 0

a 'b=1 a lib [cos 2;)

e- 2t) . 3 4

(-~) = 13e2t + 5e-2t -

=> e4t = -5 so e2t =


13 '

14

J5
r;;:;

,,13

.. lopl:," ~ 13(~)+5[ '5I)-14 ~ IO{m =2./65-14

o-

=>

loplmin =.J2~.J65-7=.J2~.,J;;.-b,

Hence (a + b) == 72.
7

so a=65,b=7

If a, band C are unit vectors, then find the maximum value of


12a-3b12 +\2b-3c!2 +12c- 3a

I2

[Ans. 1]

57
[Sol.

~
1 +12c-3a
Let y = 2a-3b~ 1 + I 2b-3c
2

I2

~ y = 3(4 + 9) -12(a'b+ b'c+c'a)


=>y=39-12(a'b+b'c+c'a)

.... (1)

~ Ymax = 39 + (12)(%) = 39 + 18 = 57
(\

-"2 ]

Now y will be maximum if value of La' b is minimum i.e. equal to

The plane denoted by ill :4x+7y+4z+81 ==0 is rotated through a right angle about its line of
intersection with the plane

n 2 : 5x + 3y + 10z = 25 . Ifthe plane in its new position be denoted by n, find

the distance ofthe plane from the origin is


[Sol.

Jk where kEN. Find

k
53'.

[Ans.4]

Equation of the plane P is


4x + 7y + 4z + 81 + A.(5x + 3y + 10z - 25) = 0

(SA. + 4)x + (3A. + 7)y + (10A. + 4)z + (81 ~25A;) = 4x + 7y + 4z + 81 = 0

Now 4(5A. + 4) + 7(3A. + 7) + (10A. + 4)4 = 0


TI

(20+21 +40)A.=-(16+49+ 16)


~

81A.=-81

A.=-1

equation of the plane


- x + 4y - 6z + 106 == 0

II

TIl

4x+7y+4z+81=O

25x+3Y+10z-2S=O

II

106
(53)(2)
p = "'1+16+36 = .J53 = "'212

k= 212

In a regular tetrahedron, the centres of the four faces are the vertices of a smaller tetrahedron. The ratio
m

of the volume of the smaller tetrahedron to that of the larger is - , where m and n are relatively prime
n

..,
F' d h
I
f (m14'
+ n)
positive Integers. In t eva ue 0
[Hint: V = -1 [-a -b -]
c
I

1 1 - -b -]
. V = -'-[a
c
' S 6 27

Vs

[Ans.2]

Hence '1= 27 = or

I
n
..
m and n are relatively prime
further hint for

-=-=k
27
1

=?
k = 1, (m + n) = 28

GI~

G b + C~G ii+b
2---Y-

..

10

Let a, b ,and c be three non zero non coplanar vectors and

15, q

4---y

G3

-+
Y

and r be three vectors defined as

p=a+b-2c; q=3a-2b+c and r=a-4b+2c


If the volume of the parallelopiped determined by a, b and c is VI and that of the parallelopiped
determined by
[Sol.

Given [a

[p

b c]

15, q

and r is Vz then Vz = KV I implies that

[Ans. 1]

= VI

1 1
q r] = 3 -2
1 -4

-2

+1
[a
2

Vz=(-5+20)V I=15VI

11

15 is equal to

b c]
=?

= [1(-4+4)-1 (6-1)-2(-12+2)]V I
K=15

Let a j , I.
= 1, 2, 3, ......, n denote the integers in the domain of function f (x) = log 1 (4X-25J
- x-21
2

where a j < a i+1 ViE N. Ifthe line L:

2x-a l

y+a l

z-a 3
= - - meets the xy, yz and zx planes atA,

4
az
as
Band C respectively, and if volume of the tetrahedron OABD is V, where '0' is origin and D is the
.
. then fi10 d the value of 35""'
90V
Image
0 f'C!In the x-axis,
[Sol.

For domain of f (x) we must have log 1 (4X - 25


- x-21
2

4x-25

0< x-21 ::;;1

J;: : 0

[Ans.8]

X E

[~, 2:J

Integers in the domain are 2, 3 , ....., 6.


a l = 2, ~ = 3, ...., as = 6
..

x-I
y+2
z-4

L: -2- = -3- = -6- = r (let)

=>

At xy plane, put z = 0
..

A(2r+l,3r-2,0) = (-l,-4,0}

At yz plane, put x = 0
..

=>

-1

r=
2

2r + 1 = 0

7,IJ

B(0,3r-2,6r+4)=(0, -2

=>

At zx plane, put y = 0
..

-2

r=
3

6r + 4 = 0

(~,0,8)

C(2r+l,0, 6r+4)=
.)-

=>

3r - 2 = 0
=>C'

2.,-1/3
0 .

-4
-7/2

6 7/3

0
_1
8

"3

r=

(~,0,-8J
1

Volume of the tetrahedron OABC' = V = -[a b c]


6
V=

0(0)

A(:.1_

3'

O)~--;~---7 C'

(t, O,-~)

,
7

B(O'-2,1)

I I

=-2

98

Hence 90V = 280

120MB If the coordinates of the point where the line x - 2y + z - 1 = 0 = x + 2y - 2z - 5


intersects the plane x + y - 2z = 7 is (a, ~, y), then find the value of ( I a I +1 ~ I + I y I).
[Ans.7]
[Sol. The required point is the point of intersection of the three planes.
x + y - 2z = 7
(1)
x - 2y + z = 1
(2)
x + 2y - 2z = 5
....(3)
:. From (3) - (1)
=>
y =-2
From 2 x (2) + (1)
=>
3x - 3y = 9
=>
x= 1
So, from (1) , z =- 4
Hence the point is (1, - 2, - 4)
= (a, ~, y)
Hence I a I +\ ~ I + I y I = 11 1+ 1-21 + 1- 41 = 7 ADS.]
13

Let

If the vector BxC can be expressed as a linear combination


where x, y, z are scalars, then find the value of
[Sol.

We have BxC= xA+yB+zC

Dot with BxC gives

BxC

(100x + lOy + 8z)


..
101

[Ans.1]

....(1)

(BxC}(BxC)= x[A B C]

=> x =

(BxcL
[A B e]

xA+yB+zC

B2 2 -(B 'C)2

[A B c]

lilly Dot with

Cx A gives

y=

and dot with

Ax 13

z=

[A B c]

Now

We have

gives

(13 xC)(Cx A)
[A 13 c]
(BxC)(AxB)
[A 13 c]

1 -2 3
= 2 1 -1 =1(1+1)-2(-2-3)=12

13 2 C2 -(13 C)2 = (6) (2) -

(0) = 12

12
x= - = 1
12

y=

Ig:g g:11 I~
12

I ~~

3
-1
0-(-6)
12
=
It

~'~I 1-3 61

2" and

z= CA CB
+1 0 = 0-(6)=2
12
12
12
2
Hence 100x + lOy + 8z = 100 + 5 - 4 = 101
14

Let ABCD is any quadrilateral and P and Q are the midpoints of its diagonal.
-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

If AB + BC + CD + DA - AC - BD = APQ ' then find the value of A.


[Sol.

-2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2
-2
We have AB +BC +CD +DA -AC -BD =APQ
(b-a) +(c-b) +(d-c) +(a-d) -(c-a)2-(d-b) =A(PQ)
on simplifying gives
= a 2 +b 2 +c 2 -2ab-2bc+2ac

(a + c- b)

C':

.....(1)

0'

again

- a+c
- b
P=-2- ; Q=2";

(PQ) = (a+c-b)
4
from (1) and (2)
1.,=4

.....(2)

[Ans.4]

15

x-7 y-7 z-3


x-I y+l z+1
Consider two lines L I : -3- = -2- = - - and Lz : -2- = -4- = -3-' If a line L whose direction
ratios are < 2, 2, 1 > intersect the lines LI and Lz at A and B, then find the distance

AB

9 .

[Ans. 2]

(2,2, 1)

[Sol.

3A- 2f..L+6 = 2A-4f..L+8 = A-3f..L+4


2
2
1
On solving we get f..L = 0 and A= 2
Hence A(13, 11,5); B(1, -1, - 1)
AB = .J144+144+36 = .J324 = 18

16

Sol.

System of equations x + 2y + z = 0, 2x + 3y - z = 0, (tan e) x + y - 3z = 0


has non trivial solution then number of values ofB in .[-1t, 21t] is
For non - trivial

3 -1 = 0

[Ans.3]

tane 1 -3

tans 6/5
number of solutions in [-1t, 21t] is 3

o
17

Let a, b ,e be the three vectors such that


a.(b+e)= b.(e+a) = e.(a+b)=Oand lal= 1, Ib'I=4, lei =8, then la+b+el is
[Ans.9]

Sol

a.(b+c)= i).(c+a) = c.(a+b)=O


~a.b=b.c

= Ga = 0
I a+ b+ GI = ~I a 12 + Ib12 + I G12 + 2 (a .b+ b. G+ C . a)
= .Jl+16+64+2.0 =9
18

ABCD is a tetrahedron with pv's of its angular points as A(-5, 22, 5); B(1, 2, 3); C(4, 3, 2) and
D(-I, 2, - 3). Ifthe areaofthetriangleAEF where the quadrilateralsABDE andABCF are parallelograms

IS

[Sol.

S
.JS then find the value of 55'

~
~ ~
pvofM= -2- = -3i+12j+k

a+d

lilly

a+c

pv ofN = - - =
2

Now the .ilAEF is as shown


I
j k
S=.l2 0 6

2
5 1 5

1 ~ 25,: 7 ~
+-J+-k
2
2
2

--I

[Ans.2]
A(-S,22,S)

2 i +OJ + 6

Is! =1- 31+IOJ+ k1= Ji10


19

Let ii be a vector on rectangular coordinate system with sloping angle 60. Suppose that
geometric mean of Iii I and
to

[Sol.

F
(-2,23,4)

E
(-7,22,-1)

S = 110

..

u- 21

where 1 is the unit vector along x-axis then Iii I has the value equal

(a+b)3 +(a-br
.Ja -.Jb where a, bEN, find the value ~---"._-'-----".
14

r;:;

Iii-iI is

[Ans. 2]

Iii I = 2x, x > 0

Let

ii =xi + v'3xj;

now

Iii I I u- 21 1 = I ii - 11

21 x 1 ~(x-2)2 +3x 2 = [(x-If + 3x2]


21xl J4x 2-4x+4 =4x2-2x+I
4IxIJx2-x+I =4x2~2x+I
square
I6x2(x2 - x + 1) = I6x 4 + 4x2 + 1 -I6x3 - 4x + 8x2

I6x2 = I2x2 + 1 - 4 X

4x2 + 4x-I = 0

'. ,
0.
.

;;

x=

-44..Ji -I..Ji -(I+..Ji)


or
2
882

-4~I6+I6

..Ji - l o r - ( ..Ji + 1)
IuI = Ji -1 = Ji -.Ji =>
2x =

hence

~ rejected

a = 2; b = 1

(a+b)3+(a-b)3=27+1 =28

20

Given three points on the xy plane on 0(0, 0), A(1, 0) and B(-I, 0). Point P is moving on the plane
satisfying the condition

(I> A .P B) + 3 (0 A 0 B) = 0

If the maximum and minimum values of PAil PB are M and m respectively then find the value of

(.
[Sol.

[Ans.2]

17

Let P be (x, y)

PA = (l-x)1-yJ;

PB = (-I-x)1-YJ

..

(I> A . PH) = (c x -1) 1+ YJ) . (c x + 1)1+ YJ) = (x2 -

also

3(OA'OB)

hence

(I> A .P B) + 3 (0 A .0 B) = 0

1) + y2

31(-1) =-3

x2
- 1 + y2- 3 = 0 = 0
x2 + y2 = 4
....(1)
which gives the locus ofP i.e. P move on a circle with centre (0,0) and radius 2.
2
2
now
AI = (x - 1f + y2; BI = (x + 1f + y2

Ip

Ip

P(x,Y)

2
2
Ip AI pBI == (X 2 + y2 1

2x + 1)(x2 + y2 + 2x + 1)

== (5 - 2x)(5 + 2x)
l

Ip AI PIi
1

and

2
Ip AI PIi

mm.

== 25 - 16 == 9; (when x == 2 or - 2)

2
p 2
Ip AI 1BI \max. == 25 -

3 S;

subject to x2 + y2 == 4

== 25 - 4x2

l 1 .

[using x2 + y2 == 4]

0 == 25 (when x == 0)

Ip AIIPIiI S; 5

hence M == 5 and m == 3

:::}

M2 + m2 == 34

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~7

r , C~?

/-

o...~ ~

.~.') 7... /t-7

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t~
-- )

t.~') =-

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~ 7~~) .
1

c-o.. po.

-7

~x

,.,

Jj

(filL
A..

Ot
A
~

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~,
t:;..

=-J

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y t, ::-,

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A trt 'L- t ~'-::;.- \


2/) ~"e-~

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.'

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=-0'

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.--"'l

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,& v-: ~I1)'L

Attw;rh~

._- 'r- ..-

~
(

{\

..l-.+-k .

y r-\
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t-\

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rv~~

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;; .)--e? Ko,J)

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(7

~ 1-6+1 ~ ~a'L
~

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c
tt-+-~ ~)

A-1b IX GV
. --" J
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(4i) \ t [oJ

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1.

~ {i.;J7 ~

oJ t 'l u.tt -I- y~ J'


f}

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1'\

.D

--')

/"\

j
j
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1:\.
j
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A-P::c

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~

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t(j

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4L

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bL ~J

J&t;'-. J'El./

i
I

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r-J

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CC(j? iJ J:? ~

LC o:.

.--)

k/ ))

Ht ""1

Cnia]

=='j

[ti ~ JJ ~

[C--~~J

7-

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C<
:_00

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['.-

tt',

< l o? II ~) {

0 =- \CA\ l ~1~~ J.

F'

SL'

/t-CI\})'j(fl!.6(?k7 Y

C-J

CC:::X>/"j~L)/_

Z t.)

f l:Jt J .y I -Z-)

PA-- 'L1- (~'L r f C


( -~

c::;-'

c- (?l.- Xl)

.:

'l-

2- C'j- ':)1)

""L

~ lZ-.--y)L

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::::-

:;1.'1.-

:3Y-<--

+ J '7C'

~Lk~
~

cJ.-)..AV\,

-'2-

~ ?lIlA

~ x}-)

'2--l~)o -} CZ-I.j,~

L -

(<2- L()'L
,

7.-

ll\. )L1

)(

+ C~ G-, ~

'j J z.

(t.e..A.~

-(-2-~Al)
2.x.>

~ ~ (-L

2~,)
~

2K3

"Z::
X~~)(l
1...

, }

'-j :::- ?

~J
-.

;}

C-L~ 0

----~

2-1\)

2-=:-<::;7

tn>e:-o.

.".

53

Wz. r\A-

do~

I L~c!?( ci{) ;,;1/

:=

l ,'2. c ZD~ M?) ]


If C?, ~
.

<

~o
~

'Y)

-:=c

(}

J ..

.'f\

&, 4:-l\-

&~,

:::3)
~

df)

L ~ - rf\

..L~o
M

:=--f\

..

I. ,

~-::::-l~k~~&-

~~

~'O?r t.: ~

::=

~ttIl

~ (fZ" i'D): p;f;

:=

.~ J
~

~~ (~(1U~~(J/l<-'~\~

"

j
j
j
j
j
j
))

'=- {
5~r

.-)/1

1I 1:=:'
r'1

" ~
b cit c s }

I OJ.> K +-

j
j

ltj-L~
!\

YI--L z: ~ .-'t-J

1-1)Ill\,

j
j
j
j
j
j

C-,

A-'Vj 1-2.-'2\

?C~t;""LZ~5

il

2- A --

z..

-:=:-.

j
j
j
j
j

:::::')

VJ "'- ~:x..:- 7
~

j
j

--=

?? x- 7

'2

j
j

---~--- ---~---~~-.~- ~~-~-_:_-~~~ ~ -

--

-- -

- -

------ -

~- ~ -:....._---

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.-

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--

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-----_.--

Jl-:=:- ~

.
t

t4.),<e

A +.1;\-7.
7-

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~'2... (<.a-C) =-7

~)

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rt

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+- Ct

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rr:

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--

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fu.tM~'~~ ~ ~

~() ti bU. ~~ tr( O:~~ 4-\ ~uJ'L


'"
~ J- d-b ~ ~ D'6 W!( b; r(-o..~_~
.. . . .

J-nW ~e. et~ ~hl n.. )7-1


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rA.

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CetJ-~ oJ- ~ '& ~


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~~.

1- tl ,}- '.lj'h -I- 'L. 2.-\


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..-

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->

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1

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1
1

~~ '1-

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r~)

(0++

~ ~ ~ f~
b~ ~~ ~ ~

1~~i k.""

~~~

P-N-

~~ ~ $(~,

bJ,
b{~

y,.J'~ ~

t:-

~J'--

r-)

"f ::- a. 1 + <1 1J(


...-, -)

1 .:- ell\.

{- <1

b~

~~~~

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.r

fl..-.

?l H

1.

r--))

r--)

CVi, x h

T'U'

(~i~~l

+- l.- 'L::- '2- 'S

r:

'LA.- +-L/j .... L +('L ~,


~,
'2- ::.-2-.Jl
~ ~~~

'l

, . ) l f-'j

'X "-.f'.J'L

+ +:t

+ ~ t VL

'L

2-Jl +

<{:-\.J 'L
.J

JL

1.-y + VL

-=- 13)

+-r tt +~ 7Ji

,.

'

~~

6'.-

~~ ~e.- ~ ~

CA-f\

l.0k~lS ~ ~ kt~

Of ~

ttJll1'

{).4~ ~kA~

~+ ~:~ =-Q'LD1

~J-- ~

+-1'-=-0'

".

(>VI

= -- ~(6

M~

.f 1 X- -T

1Jj jWM....

41l~

0:l t 4:-7l + L.4:- 2.D '

C~ ~ l-~)

~ 'Z -;, L-A

+ LJj
_ lG

l'

C
+-VL
f

-r

11.

., 't,

/{\

6'1'

It

g("I),)")

dis ~'1r 1 ~

JLkj+ z

;::::- )',
I'

(?''O~ll
...
~

l~;Y-()~=-

r-..._) or 'Y
-

1-

I'U

-~~

~$~

+f

. L

t;i ,-, '"0 J-( ~

.:
>1>0'
~"!:>
.

, y

" ,

-::::=.

<)

EXERCISE 3
1.

ABC is a triangle . AD , BE are cevians such that

I BD I

ICE I _ 1
and EA

IDC I= 1

I 1-"3 .

,,

. . IBP I
AD , BE meet at P. Fmd PE I'

\ !'__

........... ,

Sol

d = b+ 2C e = a +3c

,
D

3'
4
Eliminate c we get

3d-b 4e-a

--=-

2a+9a = 3b+8e
2+9
2+9
2a+9a 3b+8e _
11

BP
PE

-=

2.

Sol

11

(Dividing by 11)

=p

8
3

ABCD is a parallelogram . P , Q are the mid-points of


BC , CD respectively . Show that AP , AQ trisect BD .

Let M be a point which divides BD in the ratio 1 : 2


Now, we wil have to show that: M lies on AP
We how
2b+d
3

m=-

b+(b+a)
3

diagonals risect each other in a 11th gm

..

b+d a+c

--=-

a+(b+c)
3

a+2p

(b+c) _

=p

This shows that M lies on AP and divides AP in the ratio 2 : 1


Let N be a point which divides BD in the 2 : 1
Now, we will how to show that N lies on AQ
we how

A = 2b +2d = b+d+d

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a+c+d
3
a+2q
=-3

(c+d) _
2 =q

This shows N lies on AQ.


3.

In a 0 ABCD , AB II DC. P and Q are the mid-points


of AB and DC respectively .AC , BD meet at O.
Show that P , 0 , Q are collinear.

AP

Sol

"><0

L///

\B

."~~c

Let PC

="1

..

MPB - LillPC
AP

BP

-=-=

PC PO

We have

a+kc
l+k

b+kd
l+k

p-----

/h
.,

~U

By the principle of equal ratoos


_ a+kc+ b+kd

p=
2(1+k)

a+ b+k(c +d)

2(1+k)

2 iii. + 2n

2(1+k]
iii. + kn

= l+k

Hence p lies on MN and divides MN in the ratio k : 1

c:

4.

Sol

A , B , ... , F are points on a circle. Consider pairs of

triangles which do not have a common vertex, e.g. f! ACE and

f! BDF. ( There are ten pairs ). Take the centroid of one triangle,
and the orthocentre of the other, in every pair. Join them to
get twenty lines in all. Show that these are concurrent.

G p(j))

Now': 0(0) origin is the concurrent

h=a+c+d
_ 3g+1h a+b+c+d+e+f
p=
4
4
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expression is symmetric for a, ..,.. ,1


We can say all to 20 lines are concurrent at p

(p)

5.
Sol

ABCD is a tetrahedron. Prove that the principal medians


(four in all ) and the lateral medians ( three in all ) are concurrent.
(b+ C+d)

A Ii)

3
_

g=

la+3g

3
G

a+b+c+d

symmetric in

a, b, c, d

This shows that the four principle medians pass through

(g)G.

0/'

p+q
2

This shows that

(g)G

lies on PQ

A.
P

Lateral medians

GA

6.

a<a

, ~ ,y <

21t

and a

-I' ~

,
3
+ y = 1t Prove that L cos a ~ - '2'

Deduce that, in any !'1 ABC, L cos A s


Sol

'2 .

0 < a,l3,y < 1t


a+ l3+y =

21t

cos a + cos 13 + cosy

~-2"

We have (~1 +~2 + ~3

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taking its self scalar product

(~I + ~2 + ~3 ). (~I + ~2 + ~3 )~ 0
3 + 2 (~2 . ~3 + ~3 . ~I + ~I ~2 ) ~ 0
3 + 2( cos a + cos ~ + cos y) ~ 0

3
.. cos a + cosf + cosy ~-
2
Hence proved

2n
Equality only when a= ~ = y = 3

S.T LcosA:S;"2

a=(n-A)

Proof: put

~=(n-B)

0./

y =(n-C)

.
a + p+ Y = 2n and 0 < a, P, y < n
Hence,

cos ( n - A) + cos ( n -P) + cos( n -C) ~-3


.

3
(cos A + cos B + cos C) ~ -"2

..

3
cosA+cosB+cosC:S;"2

chelrycheff's inequality
Let

a l,a2,a3 .... a n

b., b 2 , b 3 .. .b,
be sequence of real nos having the same monotonocity i.e. if one of them is increasing so is
then other same for decreasing.

then

L ajbn

~L

aj
n

L bn

C = only when all the a i are equal b,


or
If the montonicity are in opposite sense thendirection of inequality is rarrsed.
If A+B+C=n, then

.A

LcosA = 4nsln"2+ 1
Let ABC be a triangle (NR type)
A:
acos As- bcosB + ccosC:s; S
B:

. A 1
nSln- <

2-8

we have, LcosA:S;"2
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A 3
1 + 4 1tsm-~
0

A 1
4 1tsm-~
0

2 2
A 1
1tsm-~
2 8

Now,

Without loss of generality are an take a ;::: b ;::: c


it is cyclic expression

A;::: B;::: C
COS A ~ cosB s cosC

By cheby cheff's inequalety we have

o'

.0

acosA + bcosB+ccosC < a+ b (COSA+COSB+COSC) <~

- - 3

Ci

. true an d 0: cos A + cos B + cos C


0 ,.I Even A IS

-2
_
3

~~x!
3 2

3.IS use d f'or 1its proof an d 1it IS equiva Ien t


-2
0

to the statment R.

A & R true and R is correct explan of A

70
Sol

In a ~ ABC, the median CM .1. the angle bisector AL

(of L BAC ).1 ICMI = IALI, find cos A.

Let A be the origin

~I == II (ACP == APM)

Rt angle at P gives similarity and one side is common so Ralio of sides is 1

lAC! = IAMI =
i.e

~IABI

Icl=~lbl
AB

BL
LC

(Apollonius priciple)

-=-

C~

AC

=2

g = b+2C
3

- 1=Ial + '-b1 - 2a.b ]


IALI=ICMI
'
2

[ Note: AS

= ICMI
gog =(m-c).(m-c)

IALI

i(b +2c) .(b +2c) = ~ (b- 2c)(b- 2c)

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2
4(lb 1 +4!Cj2 + 4b c) = 9(lb12 +4IC!2 -4b c)
52b c = 51bl2 + 20lc12
= 5 X 41bl2 + 20lc12

52"5 c = 40lc12

52Ibl'lcl' cos A = 40 Icl2

52 X 2lcl'lclcosA = 40lc12

. A_~_20

cos - 2 x 52 - 52
8.
Sol

ABC and PQR are triangles. The perpendiculars from A , B , C to QR , RP , PQ ,are concurrent.
Prove that the perpendicular from P , Q , R to Be , CA , AB are also concurrent.
Let the ..1 from Q to CA and from to AB meet at N.

(taking mas origin) cyclic expression

~
.
j

(b- c) '(15 -h)+ (c -a) .(q - h)+ (a- "5).(r -h)


=[("5- c). 15+ (c -a).q +(a - "5). rJ -[("5- c). fi+(c -a) fi+(a -

~). fiJ

this is 0

=[("5-c).p+(c-a).q+{a-"5).rJ
= "5(15- r)+ c(q -p)+a(r -15) rach = 0
Hence proved ("5 - c). (15 -

11) = 0

10. ABCD is a regular tetrahedron. MN is the lateral median, as shown.

Show that AB , MN and DC are mutually orthogonal .If an edge of the

solid has length 1, find the shortest distance between AB and DC.

PQ=Q-P
=ol+oJ+2k

CD=D-C

= -2i+ 2J+Ok

ABPQ=O

--

PQCD=O

--

AB CD = -4 + 4 = 0

Hence proved
Note: The shortest distance between AB and CD is length PQ
.: it is ..1 both
IpQI = 2 (edge is IABI = 212)
In a regular tetrahedron the smallest distence between the two skew edges = side

.J2

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12.

ABCD is any quadrilateral. AC , BD meet at O. P, Q are the


orthocentres ~ OAB and ~ OCD, respectively. R,S are the centroids
of ~ OBC and ~ ODA, respectively. Show that PQ 1- RS .

A..------

s
Sol

Let 0 be origin

------"B

,.

PQ.RS = (q- 15) {s - r)

D I L - -_ _-----"

=("+ ~+ 0_C+;+O}<s_r) =("+ ii;c -d)-Cs_r)


~Cc +d -a- b)'(5 - r)
=~((c -a)+(a- b))(5- r)
= ~[(c - a) 5 + (d b). 5 - (c a). r - (d - b). rJ
..

S is the orthocentre BS is 1.. AC

..

(c-a)(5-b)=O

..

(c - a) .5 = (c - a). b

.r'

CS is 1.. BD

(b d) .(c- 5) = 0
-(b-d). 5 = (b-d). c
lll" all and the replacing in 1

= ~ ((c - a).5 + (d - b) .5 - (c- a).r- (d - b) .r)


-J

-J

-J

-J

(c - a).b+(d - b). c - (c - a).d -(d - b). a

C:
.

13.

."

Sol

A" i = 1 ,2 , ... , n, are arbitrary points on the surface


of a unit sphere . Prove that
2
2
L L
I A, Aj 1 :5: n
1:5: i <j:5: n
2

la 12

IAiA j 1= i + laj 1-

=2-2aj aj

zs, .a
j

(-:la l = l )
i

The required expression

= n 2 -(al +al +a 2 +a 2 + an+an+2IIa2 +aj )


=

(al +.... +an) .(al + +an)al .al =1

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..

L.H.S s n

Equality only when a 1 + ...a n =


This can happen for insland if the n points are ratices of a regular points.

14. Al B1C1 in an equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle 0)1 ' and PI is any point of
0)1 ; Az B, Cz
is an equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle 0)2 concentric with 0)1
and Pz is any point of 0)2' Show that

IP 1Az l2 + IPIB212 + \PIC212 = IPzA112 + 1P2B112 + \P2CIIZ

Sol
The L.H.S.

= I15J + lal- 2151' +I15J + Ibzl - 2151 . b z +I15l +


2151, Cz

s,

Icl-

= 3R~ +3R~ -2151 .(az + b 2 + Cz)


=3Ri +3R~
lilY R.H.S = 3Ri + 3R~

15. For any two vectors a and b , prove that


(1 - a . b )2 + I a + b + a x b 12 = ( 1 + 0 2 ) (1 + b2 )
Sol

L.H.S=1-2a.b+(a.bt +la(+lblz +Iaxblz +2a.b+2a.(a xb)+2b(axb)


z
z
= 1 + lal + Iblz + lal + Iblz
z

= (1 + \al

(1 + Ibn = R.H.S

16. In any tetrahedron, show that the vector sum of the areas of the faces, taken along the outward
normals, is zero.
A(a)
Vector area of
Sol

"".

1.

face ABC is

~(axb+ bxc + cxa)

2.

face ACD is

~(axc+cxd+(Ixa)

3.

face BDC is

~(b x d + d x c + C x b)

4.

face ADB is 2"(axd+dxb+ bxa)

l3(b) ------------ ------------ [)(d)

C~

(Note: Each of the face to hav the area in the outword normal dicection we will be to it
for all of them that they are taken in anticlockwise sense)
It is dear that the vector sum is zero.
A

17. ABCD is" a convex quadrilateral. Join the corresponding trisection

points of pairs of opposite sides. Prove that the area of the central

quadrilateral, so formed, is

9"

area (

[J

ABCD )

D--":-"_\

c
Sol

M(m)=2a+b

Neil) = 2d+c
3

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The position vector of the point dividing MN in the ratio 1 : 2 is

2m+ii= 2(20;b)+_2d_

3+_C

3
=

=2[H)
3

2x+y

3
This shows that p divides MN in the ratio in 1 : 2

The position vector P (15)

_ 4a+2b+c+2d
p=

illY

_ a+2b+4c+2d
r=-----

RP=pr

= a-c=.!.CA
3
3

IllY

SQ=~DB
-

1-

RPxSQ=-CAxDB
9

~IRPxSQI =~x~ICAXDBI
1
Area of PQRS = 9" Area of ABCD.
B

18.

PYTHAGORAS' THEOREM IN 3-DIMENSIONS .


ABeD is a tetrahedron . All the face angles at A are 90 0

SB is the area of the face CAD. Sc ' SD and SA are similarly


defined. Prove that SA2 = SB2 + Sc2 + SD2
c

Sol

Area of face
ABD=Sl
ABC =S2
B

ACD=S3

BCD=S

T.P.T: S2 = S~ +S~ +S~


Consider the vector area 5 1,52,5 3,5 all along the outword normals
We have, 51 + 52 +5 3 =-5

This implies

(51 + 52 + 53)' (51 + 52 + 53) = (-5). (-5)


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--

--

--

S; + S~ + S~ + 2S1 S2 + 2S2 .S3 + 2S3 .Sl = S

-l-

-l-

-l

22. a, b are unit vectors. A vector c is such that c + ('c x a ) == b. Show that Ia x b . c

I : :; '2'

When does equality hold?

Sol

J=(_e)2

[ ex a- b

Ie x al
=>

+ 1- -2 [cab] = c

c2a2 sin2 e+ l-c2 = 2[cab] _c2 (1-sin2 e) + 1 = 2[cab]

2[cab] = l-c2 cos" e ~11


[cab] ~2

Equality holds when

e = 900

lIT - ian's PACE; ANDHERI I DADARI CHEMBURI THANE; Tel: 26245223 109; .www.iitianspace.com # 10

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