Study Notes in Electrical Science
Noel M. Morris
Principal Lee turer,
North Staffordshire Polytechnic

© Noel M. Morris 1977
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
without permission.
First published 1977 by
THE MACMILLAN PRESS LTD
London and Basingstoke
Associated companies in New York Dublin
Melbourne Johannesburg and Madras

ISBN 978-0-333-21216-5

ISBN 978-1-349-03123-8 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-1-349-03123-8
Type set in Times New Roman

This book is sold subject to the standard conditions of the Net Book Agreement.
The paperback edition of this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall
not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise
circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or
cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition
including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

2 1. Neumann's and Lenz's laws I 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 II 11 11 . Norton's and maximum power-transfer theorems 2 Electromagnetism 2.1 1.4 1.Contents Preface vn Useful Examination Tips vm Quantities.7 1.3 1. Thevenin's.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's. Multiples and Physical Constants ix basic SI units-multiples and submultiples of 10---useful physical constants-logarithms-some constants and useful relationships I Direct-current Circuits 1. Magnetic Flux and Flux Density 2.5 1.8 Basic Electrical Quantities current-quantity-potential-resistance--energy-power Ohm's Law derived relationships Electrochemical Equivalent Thermal Energy Resistivity and Resistors resistivity-resistors in series and parallel-resistance colour code Conductance and Conductivity conductance------<:onductivity-conductances in parallel and series The Decibel determination---dBm-3 dB Circuit Theorems Kirchhoff's laws-superposition.1 Magnetic Field.6 1.

1 Electric Flux and Flux Density 3. amplitude and 'angle of rotation'frequency-angular frequency-periodic time 4.M.f.4 2.s.6 Parallel-connected Capacitors 3. Electric-field Intensity or Electric-field Strength 3.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor 3.7 2. 7 Series-connected Capacitors 3.3 Electric Force.5 2. Value of an Alternating Waveform average and r. induced in a coil-induced e.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current 3.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor basic circuit-capacitor charging and discharging 4 Alternating-current Theory 4.2 Average Value and R.3 2. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field-Fleming's right-hand rule Force on a Conductor force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic fieldscrew rule-Fleming's left-hand rule Magnetic Circuits hysteresis and eddy-current losses-magnetomotive force-magnetic-field strength-magnetic leakage-permeability-reluctance-reluctances in series and parallel Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop magnetisation curve-hysteresis loop Inductance self and mutual inductances-series-connected magnetically coupled circuits-coefficient of mutual inductanceenergy stored in a magnetic field Transients in Inductive Circuits basic circuit-growth and decay of currents 3 Electrostatics 3.4 Permittivity 3.m.8 Induced E.M.6 2.5 Capacitance of Parallel-plate Capacitors 3.8 Voltage Distribution between Series-connected Capacitors 3.F. e.m.iv Contents 2.m.1 Basic Concepts sinusoidal waveform.S. values-form and peak factors 12 13 14 16 18 21 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 30 32 32 33 .9 Parallel-plate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics 3.f.

4 Complex Impedances reactance-impedance of series and parallel circuits 6 Tbree-pbase A.4 Windings concentrated and distributed windings 39 42 42 45 50 52 54 54 56 58 58 58 59 61 63 64 64 65 66 66 .C.M.4 Phasor Diagrams ideal and practical transformers with and without load 7.3 Transformer Efficiency copper and iron losses-condition for maximum efficiency 7.2 Single-excited Machines 8.1 E. Equation 7.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer 7.3 36 Phasors and Phase Relationships phasors-phase displacement-addition and subtraction of phasors 4.5 The Transformer as an Impedance-matching Device 8 Electrical Machines 8.Contents v 4.1 Types of Electrical Machine salient and cylindrical magnetic systems 8. L and C-parallel resonance 5. Circuits 5. L and C in series-series resonance 5.4 Complex Notation operator j-rectangular and polar components-complex conjugate-operations with complex quantities 5 Single-phase A.C.3 Parallel Circuits circuit containing R.power consumed in a balanced load 7 Transformers 7.2 Mesh-connected or Delta-connected Systems current and voltage relationships. Circuits 6.3 Double-excited Machines 8.2 Series Circuits power factor-Rand Lin series-Rand C in series-R.F.1 Star-connected Systems voltage and current relationships 6.1 Basic Circuits circuit containing R only-reactance-circuit containing L only-circuit containing C only 5.

7 8.3 Analog Indicating Instruments controlling and damping forces.C.r. Generator D. Zener and thermionic diodes 96 .1 Analog and Digital Instruments 9.6 Electrodynamic Instruments 9.n junction. series and compound-wound motors Induction Motors principle-synchronous speed of the magnetic fieldfractional slip Efficiency of Electrical Machines 9 Measurements 9.5 8.11 D. equation-methods of connection Characteristic Curves of D.principal controls 68 68 71 72 73 76 77 78 78 78 78 81 86 87 88 88 89 93 10 Rectifiers 96 10.8 The Wheatstone Bridge 9. Machines e. shunt-excited.extending the current and voltage ranges. Generators separately excited.4 Moving-coil Instruments or Galvanometers construction and uses.10 8.2 Rectifiers diode characteristics. Motors shunt.C. Motors torque equation. Schering's. Potentiometer 9.instrument scales 9. Maxwell's and Hay's bridges 9.1 96 Semiconductors i-type-n-type.face-plate starter Characteristic Curves of D.p-type 10. Bridges basic four-arm bridge-De Sauty's.ammeters.f.9 A.7 The D. series-excited and compound-wound generators Power Required to Drive a D.voltmeters 9.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments 9.C.C.C.5 Moving-iron Instruments construction and use.p.C.6 8.the moving-coil instrument as an ohmmeterrectifier instruments 9. screen.methods of supporting moving systems.9 8.C.10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope electron gun-electron lens system-deflection systemc.t.Contents vi 8.m.8 8.

Meir Heath NOEL M.Contents Vll 10. Present-day syllabuses place an immense burden on students. Thanks are also due to the Macmillan production and editorial stafffor their guidance and help during the production of the book.5 100 Bipolar Junction Transistors construction. full-wave and bridge circuitssmoothing circuit 102 11 Transistors. courses.N. The treatment is abbreviated and is produced in the most economical form possible. courses. and O.2 11.common-emitter and common-base characteristics Field-effect Transistors junction-gate and insulated-gate FETs Triodes Amplifiers classification.1 11. O. MORRIS .N.C.3 11. City and Guilds of London Institute courses. who have also to deal with advances in technology.3 Rectifier Circuits single-phase half-wave.basic configurations.E. This book provides the reader with a summary of the work in electrical science and principles. allowing him to streamline the activities that lead to his final goal.small-signal amplifiers with bipolar transistors -load line. Triodes and Amplifiers 11.C. I should like to express my gratitude to my wife for the assistance she has given during the preparation of this book.4 11.hybrid parameters.equivalent circuits 102 104 107 108 115 Preface This book is a collection of notes and essential diagrams for the study of the subjects of electrical science and electrical principles in T.D. and sciencebased 0-level and A-level subjects.small-signal common-cathode triode amplifier Electronic-device Parameters and Equivalent Circuits use of parameters.

pens. Find out. Make sure that you understand the type of solution required. Start revision well before the examination date (it is often helpful to work out a revision 'timetable'. alternatively.an electronic calculator can sometimes provide wrong results more quickly than any other known method! Take a slide rule into the examination with you in case the calculator develops a fault. 10. A tube of your favourite mints or barley sugar can provide refreshment and aid concentration.Useful Examination Tips 1. check that the examination regulations permit its use. If you are unable to complete a question. Clearly number each question in the answer book as you begin it. into the examination room with you. Be in the examination room at least ten minutes before the start of the examination. Make your drawings large enough to show all necessary detail. Remember. on which you can indicate the days when you intend to deal with each subject area). estimate the time required to obtain each 'mark'. 2. 3. and also the order in which you will attempt them. Do not spend an excessive time on sections you prefer to answer at the expense of topics you find more difficult. . at the earliest moment. drawing instruments. If you wish to use a portable electronic hand-held calculator. the time and place of the examination. etc. Mark on the question paper the problems you are going to attempt. 9. Estimate the time allowed for each question or. carefully check your solutions before leaving the room. 4. this allows time to fill in particulars on the answer paper. Spend several minutes reading through the examination paper before starting your solutions. 7. Take pencils. 5. 6.. 8. leave sufficient space at the end of it in case you wish to add to it later. If you complete your solutions before the allotted time has elapsed.

l n p f a micro nano pico femto atto 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 .Quantities.w Unit Unit symbol metre kilogram second ampere kelvin candela radian steradian m kg s A K cd rad sr Multiples and submultiples of 10 Symbol Prefix T G M k m tera giga mega kilo milli Multiple 1012 109 106 103 10-3 Symbol Prefix Multiple J.L m t I T I a. Multiples and Physical Constants Basic SI units Quantity Symbol length mass time current absolute temperature luminous intensity plane angle solid angle l. (} D. p.

7 H/m 8.602 x w.19 c 9.675 x w.14159 360degrees = 2n radians 1 rad = 360/21t 0 = 57.2958° = 57o 17' 45" 1o = 0.m. Multiples and Physical Constants X Useful physical constants Symbol Constant electron charge electron rest-mass proton rest-mass neutron rest-mass speed of e. bases and logarithms is number (antilogarithm)= base (logarithm) log 10 e = 0. 71828 The general relationship between numbers (or antilogarithms).4343 logeN loge 10 = 2.12 Fjm Some Constants and Useful Information base of natural logarithms= e = 2.3026 log 10 N Note: log 10 is sometimes written as lg and loge is sometimes written as In (=natural logarithm).Quantities.01745 rad OK= -273.27 kg 2.15 K = 0 oc .31 kg 1.109 x w.854 x 10.4343 log 10 N = 0.998 x 108 mjs 4n X 10. loga m = Iogb m x loga b = Iogb mjlogb a n = 3.15oC 273.27 kg 1. waves in a vacuum permeability of free space permittivity of free space e me mP mn c flo to Value -1.673 x w.3026 logeN = 2.

Electrical potential Symbol E. Q =It coulombs where I is in amperes and t in seconds.J Direct-current Circuits 1. produces between the conductors a force of 2 x 10. when flowing in each of two infinitely long parallel conductors that are of negligible cross-section and are placed 1m apart in a vacuum.7 N (0. of 1 V causes a current of 1 A to flow for 1 s.d.d. when the electrical resistance between the two points is 1 n.1 Basic Electrical Quantities Electrical current Symbol I. between the ends of the conductor is 1 V. The ampere (unit symbol A) is the current that. Electrical quantity Symbol Q. and when a current of 1 A flows through a conductor of resistance 1 Q the p.2 J!N) per metre length. W = EI t joules or watt seconds .d. The unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (symbol Q). Electrical energy Symbol W The joule (unit symbol J) or watt second is the energy dissipated in a conductor when a p. The volt (unit symbol V) is the potential difference (p.) that exists between two points on an electrical conductor that carries a current of 1 A. The coulomb (unit symbol C) is the quantity of electricity passing a point in a circuit when a current of 1 A flows for 1 s. Electrical resistance Symbol R.

2 Ohm's Law E=IR volts where I is in amperes and R in ohms. The commercial 'unit' of electrical energy is the kilowatt hour (unit symbol kWh= 1000 watt hour). The electrochemical equivalent (e.= .6 M1 Hence kWh= 1/(3. P =.e.3 Electrochemical Equivalent Symbol Z.c. Hence m=Zit grams . which is 1 kWh= 1000 x 60 x 601 = 36000001 = 3.Study Notes in Electrical Science 2 where E is in volts. and the unit is the watt (unit symbol W) or joule per second.grams/coulomb It where m =mass of substance liberated (g). m Z =. I in amperes and t in seconds. Derived relationships E2 P=EI=I 2 R=-watts R E 2t W=Eit = 12 Rt =R joules 1.6 X 106 ) Electrical power Symbol P. I= current (A) and t =time (s).) of a substance is the mass of the substance that is either deposited or liberated by the passage of 1 C of electricity. I in amperes and t in seconds. W Eit . Power is the rate of expending energy or of doing work.= EI watts or JOules/second t t where E is in volts. 1.

Resistance colour code An international colour code used to identify the values of certain types of resistor .1 R.+ . a= area (m 2 ) of the conductor and p =resistivity (Qm) of the material. of parallel-connected resistors is 1 1 1 1 1 . c =specific heat capacity of the substance (1/g K or kJ/kg K) and oe =temperature change (K).5 Resistivity and Resistors Resistivity Symbol p. R. R.4 Thermal Energy Symbol Q.ohms. 1. + . The resistance of a conductor can be given by pi R=.+ .Direct-current Circuits 3 1. The energy gained or lost by a mass of substance when its temperature is changed is Q = m x c x 00 joules where m =mass of the substance (g). Hence Ra p =-1.ohms a where I= length (m) of the conductor...= .+ . R R1 R 2 R3 The equivalent resistance of two parallel-connected resistors is R= R 1 R 2 ohms Rl +Rz Note: The equivalent (or effective) resistance of parallel-connected resistors is always less than the lowest value in the set. of series-connected resistors is Resistors in parallel The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance.ohm metres Resistors in series The equivalent resistance.

1 Colour no band silver gold black brown red orange yellow green blue violet grey white Mnemonic Significant figure Tolerance (%) O. C.E. Machin.Sc.E. The mnemonic is reproduced by kind permission of J. which also includes a useful mnemonic to aid recollection of the sequence of colours. 1st significant figure 2nd significant figure decimal multiplier Figure 1.I.I.E.1 tolerance Resistor colour code 1.ot 20 10 0. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance and its unit is the siemen (unit symbol S).1..1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 0 1 2 Bye bye Rosie off you go Bristol via Great Western Decimal multiplier 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 is listed in table 1.6 Conductance and Conductivity Conductance Symbol G...E.Study Notes in Electrical Science 4 Table 1. M. B. . The coding method for resistors with axial leads is shown in figure 1. M.1.R. W.Eng.

G. . 7 The Decibel Determination The decibel (unit symbol dB) is a logarithmic ratio of two power values. +-siemensG" The equivalent conductance of two series-connected conductances is G = G1G2 Gl +G2 siemens 1. The ratio of power levels P2 and P 1 expressed in the decibel notation is X= 10 log 10 p 2 decibels PI If P 1 is dissipated in resistor R 1 and P 2 is dissipated in resistor R 2 . Conductivity Symbol rr. The conductivity of a substance is the reciprocal of its resistivity. . that is . G. G=R siemens where R is in ohms.1 p Conductances in parallel The equivalent conductance. where V1 and V 2 are the voltages developed across R 1 and R 2 respectively. then P 1 =V1 2 / R 1 and P 2 =V2 2 /R 2 .5 Direct-current Circuits 1 . of series-connected conductances is 1 1 1 1 -=-+-+-+ G G 1 G 2 G3 I 1 . of parallel-connected conductances is G = G 1 + G 2 + G 3 + . 1 rr =-(ohm metres). + G" siemens Conductances in series The reciprocal of the equivalent conductance.

lfV2 <V1 .0969 = . multiply this value by 20 to give the correct decibel ratio. and a power value of P milliwatts is said to have a level of 10 log 10 P decibels relative to 1 mW. . Example Determine the logarithmic power ratio in decibels for a circuit in which the ratio V 2 /V1 is (a) 15 and (b) 0.1. dectbels (v2) -10 loglO (R2) = 20 loglO Vl In most electrical circuits the second term in the above expression is ignored (even though its value may be high) and the power ratio is generally expressed in the form X= 20 log 10 (~:) decibels Note: IfV2 >V1 . then X has a negative value.25 0.0. that is.9031) = 20 X ( .8 = -20 log 10 ( -1-) = -20 log 10 1.8 = 20 x (1.707 of its original value. Solution (a) (b) X= 20 log 10 15 = 20 x 1. an increase in gain of 3 dB represents a doubling of power or an increase in voltage by a factor of 1.0969) = .52 dB X= 20 log 10 0.1761 = 23.938 dB Important note: When dealing with a voltage ratio whose value is less than unity. the value oflog 10 ( lr._/V2 ) and assign a negative sign to it.9031) = 20 x ( -1 +0. Thus in (b) above X= 20 log 10 0. R.6 Study Notes in Electrical Science . then X =0dB. the decibel ratio is more easily obtained as follows. 3dB A reduction in gain of 3 dB represents a reduction in power by one-half or a reduction in voltage to 0. Determine the logarithm of the inverse of the ratio. Similarly.414.938 dB dBm A datum power level frequently used is 1 mW (dBm).1. then X has a positive value. IfV2 =V1 .8.8 = -20 X 0.

m. that is.2b in the direction ABCDA gives E1 -IR 1 -IR 2 -E 2 -IR 3 =0 or .8 Circuit Theorems Kirchhoff's first law The total current flowing towards a junction or node in a circuit is equal to the total current flowing away from the node. (b) (a) Figure 1. the algebraic sum of the currents flowing towards the node is zero. (b) second law Hence in figure 1.f.7 Direct-current Circuits 1. Proceeding around figure 1.2 Kirchhoff's laws: (a) first law.s acting in that loop.2a or Therefore at node N 1:1=0 Kirchhoff's second law In any closed circuit the algebraic sum of the potential drops is equal to the algebraic sum of the e.

-IR 2 .d. when moving along the path ABCDA in figure 1. Superposition theorem In any network containing a number of sources of e. and assign a 'plus' sign to the voltages associated with a potential arrow pointing in the direction being followed and a 'minus' sign to those associated with a potential arrow pointing in the reverse direction.f.m.f.m.8 Study Notes in Electrical Science Therefore around the loop A useful technique when dealing with Kirchhoff's second law is as follows. . Thus. where Jl =14+(-/9)=/4-/9 12=(-/6)+/7= -16+17 13=ls+ls The'venin's theorem Any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by a voltage-source equivalent .3b and c. the arrowhead pointing towards the end with the most positive potential.E 2 and -JR 3 • Since the loop starts and finishes at the same point the sum of these e. the potentials are+ E 1 followed by -JR 1 .2b.f. all other sources of e.s and p.. the resultant current is the algebraic sum of the currents that would be produced by each e. (a) (b) Figure 1.m. Mark a 'potential' arrow against each component on the diagram. being replaced meanwhile by their respective internal resistances. Then proceed around the selected circuit. In the case of resistors the potential arrow always opposes the direction of current flow. acting alone.f.m.3 (c) Superposition theorem Thus the current distribution in the circuit in figure 1.s is zero.3a can be considered to be the sum of the currents in figures 1.

m.J L ______________ J (b) (a) Figure 1. The value of E is equal to the no-load voltage appearing between the two terminals of the network. r---------------l I I I I I I I I I I I .Direct-current Circuits 9 network having an e.4b. G.4 and 1.. Relationship between Thevenin's and Norton's equivalent circuits For the circuits in figures 1. i 1£ 6s 1 l ______________ . R. Thus the network in figure 1.I--~----~----~.5 1 R=G I E=IR=- G .4 ! Thevenin's theorem Norton's theorem Any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by a current-source equivalent network having an internal current source. I.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1. and R is the resistance of the network measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal voltage-sources meanwhile replaced by their internal resistances.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1.f. Thus the network in figure 1. and internal resistance. shunted by a conductance. The value of I is equal to the current that would flow through a short-circuit applied to the two terminals of the network.5. and G is the conductance of the network measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal voltage-sources meanwhile replaced by their conductances. E.

c. .5 Norton's theorem Maximum power-transfer theorem In a d. the condition for maximum power to be transferred from a source into a load is that the value of the load resistance must be equal to the internal resistance of the source.Study Notes in Electrical Science 10 current source Figure 1. circuit.

The unit of measurement of magnetic flux is the weber (unit symbol Wb). Neumann's law The magnitude of the induced e. is established in a circuit whenever the magnetic field linking that circuit is changed. . acts to circulate a current in a direction that opposes the change in the flux that induced the e.m.f. The flux density (symbol B) is the amount of flux passing through an area of 1m2 that is perpendicular to the direction of the flux. (Note: A N-pole is a north-seeking pole. 2. Lenz's law The induced e.f.m.1 Magnetic Field.2 Electromagnetism 2.m. the N-pole would trace out a path known as a line of magnetic flux (the symbol of magnetic flux is cP ). is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux linking the circuit.f.) If free to move.f. Magnetic Flux and Flux Density A magnetic field is established around a conductor that carries current.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's law An induced e. The 'direction' of action of the magnetic field at a point is taken to be that of the force experienced by an isolated N-pole placed at that point.m. Its unit of measurement is the tesla (unit symbol T). B=cPT a where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes perpendicular to the direction of the flux.

F.Study Notes in Electrical Science 12 2. l =active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field and v =velocity (m/s) of the conductor perpendicular to the direction of the flux. E.la).M. induced in a conductor If the conductor moves at angle lJ to the line of action ofthe flux (see figure 2. B =flux density (T) of the magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion (see figure 2.M.1 b).F. ifJ ---- ---- ---- ---- (b) (a) Figure 2.3 Induced E.F.mf. induced in a coil dcP e=N-V dt where N =number of turns of wire on the coil and dcP /dt =rate of change (Wb/s) of the magnetic flux linking with the coil. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field dcP e=-=Blv V dt where dcP/dt =rate (Wb/s) at which the conductor cuts the flux. Induced e. then e=Blvsin lJV .1 E.M.

. """'"" // thumb //~otion of r<+.:..m... I= current (A) and 1=active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field.....first finger _. . Screw rule (for the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor) If we imagine a screw with a right-handed thread to be pointing in the direction of current flow. // ~----------.f. then in order to propel the screw forwards (in the direction of the current flow) the head of the screw must be turned in the direction of action of the magnetic field.. in a clockwise direction when viewed from the head of the screw....__. and a cross symbolises current entering the page...... that is.13 Electromagnetism Fleming's right-hand rule (for the direction of the induced e.....2 Fleming's right-hand rule 2..1.2 First finger-1iirection of the magnetic Flux sEcond finger-1iirection of induced E.) Referring to figure 2..4 Force on a Conductor Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field F=BIIN where B =flux density (T).mf.. Examples of the application of this rule are illustrated in figure 2.... ...... thuMb---direction of Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux....:... A dot on the conductor symbolises current coming out of the paper. 1 1 : 1 I conductor relative to magnetic flux I I I I I I L-----------second finger Figure 2........

3 Fleming's left-hand rule Fleming's left-hand rule (for the direction of the force acting on a current-carrying conductor) Since this rule refers to motor action..6-2.: Figure 2..Study Notes in Electrical Science 14 rt- \_<$'c..ocPBmax2 W/m 3 . 2.~c.5 Magnetic Circuits Hysteresis loss and eddy-current loss hysteresis loss= PhocfBmax" W /m 3 where!= supply frequency. ---------------------~ ' direction of the /' / / /I I I I : '/ I f--------:------l""{ thumb 1 1 force on the conductor I I I I --- I I I Q) £ 0 c .direction of the Current in the conductor thuMb-direction of the Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux. ~ .u E / 'ii I I I ) /// // _____________________ _y / "CI // / .. Referring to figure 2.7). eddy current loss=P.2 (a typical value is 1.. it may be useful to recall that in Great Britain all motors drive on the left-hand side of the road. c 8 go Q) Ill.3 First finger-direction of the magnetic Flux seCond finger.2 ~ I c ~ t. Bmax= maximum flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1.

where . k ffi .f. use u magnetic ux In efficient magnetic circuits the value ofthis coefficient is in the range 1. J1 0 .m. The permeability of free space. J1o=4nx 10.It can be empirically allowed for by adding about 10-20 per cent to the calculated value of m.) causes the magnetic flux to be produced by a coil and is measured in ampere turns (unit symbol At) or amperes. Permeability B=J1H T where J1 =absolute permeability of the magnetic material and is measured in henrys/metre (unit symbol H/m). Magnetic-field strength Symbol H. It is accounted for in calculations by means of a leakage coefficient.m.15-1.15 Electromagnetism M agnetomotive force Symbol F.m. F=Nl At or A where I= current (A) in the coil and N =number of turns on the coil. Magnetic leakage: fringing Not all the magnetic flux developed by the solenoid follows the 'useful' path.25. The flux that fails to follow the 'useful' path is said to be leakage flux or fringing flux. . fl.f. per unit length. is constant. The magnetomotive force (m. F NI H =T=-1-At/m or A/m where l =length (m) of the magnetic circuit. total magnetic flux produced magnetic-1ea rage coe ctent = f I .7 H/m Also J1 = JloJlr H/m where J1 r= relative permeability of the material and is dimensionless. This is the m. It is also known as the magnetic-field intensity and as the magnetising force.f.

for the material. a = area of the magnetic circuit and J1. then at high values of H the slope of the curve reduces. Ultimately.rJl. =absolute permeability of the magnetic circuit. then Hence 1 -A/Wb S=Jl. . For reluctances in series effective reluctance= S 1 + S 2 + S 3 + .16 Study Notes in Electrical Science Reluctance magnetomotive force re1uctance = S = . magnetic flux F =- 1/J At/Wb or A/Wb (Compare this with Ohm's law for the electrical circuit: R = E/ 1.6 Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop Magnetisation curve or B-H curve This curve shows the relationship between the flux density. . when the material is magnetically saturated the only increase in B is that which would occur for a non-magnetic material for the same increase in H. B. . Curves for three ferromagnetic materials are illustrated in figure 2. and magnetising force. H.4.) Reluctances in series and in parallel The analogy between magnetic and electrical circuits is sufficiently close to allow techniques to be used with magnetic circuits that are similar to those used with electrical circuits.oa (Compare this with the expression for electrical resistance: R = plja. The value of B increases rapidly at first. + S" A/Wb For two branches in parallel effective reluctance = SS 1882 A/Wb 1 + 2 2.) If l = length of the magnetic circuit.

5 by the remanent flux density...17 Electromagnetism 2·0 1·6 1- 1·2 ll:J ~ ·. The residual magnetism is reduced to zero by applying a reverse magnetising force.4 B-H curves Hysteresis loop or B-H loop When the magnetising force suffers two complete reversals the resulting closed B. . When the magnetising force is reduced to zero the material retains some of its magnetism.. the retained magnetism being a measure of the material's retentivity or residual magnetism.5). H c· Materials having a high remanence (about 1 T) and a high coercivity (about 50000A/m) are described as magnetically hard materials and are suitable for permanent magnets. H (A/m) Figure 2. This is indicated on curve A in figure 2. c -8 " ~ 0•8 0·4 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 mognetising force.H loop is known as a hysteresis loop (see figure 2. B . In materials used for permanent magnets a high retentivity is desirable. known as the coercive force.

m. is given by di e =L x rate of change of current =L dt V .Study Notes in Electrical Science 18 0·4 -80 -60 -40 -20 20 40 60 Hx 80 103 (A/m) -0·4 -0·8 Figure 2.7 Inductance Self inductance Symbol£. of 1 Vis induced in the circuit when the current in the circuit changes at the rate of 1 A/s. 2. Self-induced e. transformer steel being an example. Inductance is measured in henrys (unit symbol H). which must lose their magnetism when the magnetising force is removed. need to have a high value of saturation flux-density together with low coercivity. These materials are described as magnetically soft materials. and a circuit has a self inductance of 1 H if an e.5 Hysteresis loops Electromagnets.f.m.f.

m. ~/ ' I . Figure 2.3 that the e.6 Mutual inductance IS .:.-... in which case L = N<P = NBa = N}lHa I I I Now NI H=1 or HI I=N Therefore leokoge flux I --. It was shown in section 2. .f. Hence For a magnetic circuit having a constant value of reluctance the flux proportional to the exciting current.19 Electromagnetism where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at time t(s). induced in a coil is also d<P e=N-V dt where N =number of turns on the coil and d<P/dt =rate of change (Wb/ s) of the magnetic flux.' .-------------A r---+'---P--P-...

Series-aiding total inductance =L 1 +L 2 + 2A1 Series-opposing total inductance =L 1 +L 2 .m.6..) The secondary induced e. having a mutual inductance A1.m. to be induced in the other (secondary) coil. (See figure 2. then A1 = k .20 Study Notes in Electrical Science A1utual inductance Symbol A1. H ll Series-connected magnetically coupled circuits For two series-connected coils of inductances L 1 and L 2 respectively.inductance x primary current udi1 dt =1v1-V Also e2 _ number of turns on the x rate of change of secondary flux secondary winding - d<P2 -V =N 2 dt Hence or d<P2 A1=N2-d. the total inductance is as follows.f. is rate of change of _ mutual e 2 .f.2A1 Coefficient of mutual inductance or coupling coefficient If the primary circuit in figure 2. Two coils are said to be mutually coupled when the magnetic flux produced by one coil (the primary coil) causes an e.} (L 1 L 2) . where coil A is the primary and coil B the secondary coil.6 produces flux <P 1 and if a flux k<P 1 (where k < 1) links with the secondary circuit.

2.21 Electromagnetism where k =coefficient of mutual inductance and L 1 and L 2 =self inductance (H) of the primary and secondary circuits respectively.L is in henrys and R is in ohms.71828.7b) the time constant is given by L T=-s R Then E i=-(1-e-'11) R where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2. 7a. initial rate of rise of current= (E/R)/T= E/ L Ajs final value ofcurrent=E/RA time taken for current to reach 0.99E/R =4. Growth of current When the switch is in position A (see figure 2.6Ts . and the differential equation of the circuit IS where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at timet (s).8 Transients in Inductive Circuits Basic circuit The basic circuit is shown in figure 2. Hence di1 e2 = M dt = k di1 J (L 1 L 2 ) x dt V Energy stored in a magnetic field energy stored= W = !L 12 J where£= self inductance (H) of the inductor and I= current (A) in the inductor windings.

(c) decay of current.2Ts current after T seconds= 0. (b) growth of current. switch in position B Decay of current If the circuit current has the value I when the switch is moved from A to B (see figure 2.9E/R =2.iR = E e -</TV ~ c 0·63 _RE ~ "u 0 time.7c). then i=Ie-<ITA .lE/R to 0.22 Study Notes in Electrical Science rise time of current= time taken for current to rise from O. I (s) T (c) Figure 2.7 Rise and decay of current in an inductive circuit: (a) basic circuit. I (s) (b) I 4 c ~ ~ u initial slope o- I/T A/s 0·37! 0 time. switch in position A.63E/ R A voltage across R = iR = E(l-e -<IT) V voltage across L = E.

2Ts current after T seconds= 0.6Ts fall time of current= time taken for current to fall from 0.11 =2.9I to 0.Electromagnetism initial rate of fall of current= I /T A/s final value of current = 0 time taken for current to fall to 0.37 I A voltage across R=IRe-r/Ty voltage across L =-IRe -r/T V 23 .01 I =4.

dq.3 Electrostatics 3. when a small change in charge. That is.6 C) and picocoulombs (1 pC = 10. then dq =idt=Cdv where i =instantaneous value of the capacitor current (A) and dv =change in voltage (V) across the capacitor. Experiments show that the electric charge stored by a capacitor is Q = CVcoulombs where C is in farads (unit symbol F) and V in volts.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density One unit of electric flux (symbol P) emanates from unit charge. P (pronounced 'psi') units of flux emanate from Q coulombs. that is. Hence 'P=QC Practical units of electric flux are microcoulombs ( lJ. where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes. The electric flux density (symbol D) is the amount of electric flux passing through unit area. From this relationship.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current The capacitance (symbol C) of a capacitor is an indication of its ability to store an electric charge. 3.tC = 10.12 C). capacitor current is given by dv i=Cdt = C x rate of change of capacitor voltage . occurs in time dt.

.. and electric field strength. In the capacitor in figure 3.25 Electrostatics 3. it experiences a force..4 Permittivity The relationship between electric flux density.. D.3 Electric Force. we say that the direction of the electric force in that dielectric acts from P to N. ~ d -j .. If a unit positive charge is placed at point X in figure 3. . - • X electnc flux ' N ·' d•eleclfiC + v Figure 3. Electric-field Intensity or Electric-field Strength Symbol E.. is D=EEC/ m 2 where E =absolute permittivity of the dielectric material and has dimensions of .. E. The dimensions of electric force are newtons per coulomb (N/ C). p ... plole of . but since it can be shown that this is equivalent to volts per metre (V / m)..1..1 Parallel-plate capacitor 3..1 where d =distance (m) between the electrodes._ . The electric force or electric-field intensity at any point in a dielectric is equal to the mechanical force experienced by a unit positive electric charge placed at that point. 1: . which is towards plateN and away from plate P. Electric stress or potential gradient have the same dimensions and also are assigned the symbol E. electric force is quoted in volts per metre.- oreo a .

5 Capacitance of Parallel-plate Capacitors For the capacitor in figure 3.2 Multiple-plate capacitor . of the dielectric material. a= cross-sectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material and d =distance (m) between the electrodes.=relative permittivity of the material and is dimensionless. as is the capacitance of the capacitor. of a vacuum) is a constant given the special symbol £0 . Thus a dielectric (other than air) in an electric field has the same effect as does iron in a magnetic field. When an insulating material such as oil is used as the dielectric the flux density is larger. For ann-plate capacitor (see figure 3. than in the case when air is used as the dielectric.854 x 10. dielectric Figure 3.2) having (n-1) identical dielectrics.1 where £ and £r= absolute and relative permittivities (F /m). 3. and d =thickness of the dielectric between the plates. The absolute permittivity of an insulating material is given by £=£ 0 £rF/m where £. respectively.06 per cent greater than that of free space. and for all practical purposes the two values of permittivity are taken to be equal. where £0 = 8. The permittivity offree space (that is.12 F /m The permittivity of air is about 0.26 Study Notes in Electrical Science farads per metre (F /m). the capacitance is C = (n-l)w d = (n-l)fofra d F where a =cross-sectional area of one of the dielectrics.

3.4. +C. is C=C 1 +C 2 F For n parallel-connected capacitors C=C 1 +C 2 + .F Note: The equivalent capacitance of parallel-connected capacitors is greater than the capacitance of the largest individual capacitor in the circuit.Electrostatics 27 l 1 v v (a) c (b) Figure 3. For the special case of two series-connected capacitors C= c1c2 cl +C2 F Note: The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is less than the capacitance of the smallest individual capacitor in the circuit. The reciprocal of the equivalent capacitance. The equivalent capacitance. is _!__=2_+2_+ .. V = QdC 1 = Q2 /C 2 .) The following equations are derived from the fact that each capacitor is charged to the same potential. C. etc. Q = C 1V1 = C 2V2 .. 3.. C.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each capacitor carries the same value of charge (since the same value of current flows through each for the same length of time).6 Parallel-connected Capacitors (See figure 3.3 Parallel-connected capacitors 3. . that is. +_!__F-t c C1 C 2 c.. that is. etc.7 Series-connected Capacitors (See figure 3.

.. then the voltage across one of the capacitors in a chain of n series-connected capacitors is where C =equivalent capacitance of the series-connected capacitors.... 3.. so that the greatest voltage appears across the capacitor with the smallest capacitance in the circuit. V =voltage across the series-connected capacitors and C11 =capacitance of the gth capacitor. which is in series with capacitor C 2 .._. The equivalent capacitance of the two in series is c clc2 F C 1 +C2 .. which has Y of thickness d2 as its dielectric.28 Study Notes in Electrical Science c1 - r----<1~ .5 can be regarded as though it were the dielectric of a capacitor C 1 . Note: V11 oc 1/C11 .9 Parallel-plate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics The dielectric X of thickness d 1 in figure 3.8 Voltage Distribution between Seri~onnected Capacitors If the voltage across n series-connected capacitors is V.4 Series-connected capacitors 3.l l l t .1 s v1 v (a) c v (b) Figure 3.

then the electric-field strengths in X and Y are respectively and where £rx and f. A being the cross-sectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material.y= relative permittivities of X and Y respectively. 3.5 Capacitor with a composite dielectric where C 1 = £A/d 1 and C 2 = £A/d 2 . If the applied voltage is V.. Cz ----~•~•------~n~--(b) Figure 3.29 Electrostatics area=A v (a) c.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor energy stored = W = !CV2 J where C =capacitance (F) of the capacitor and V =potential (V) between the plates of the capacitor. .

dvc E=zR+vc=RC-+vc dt . t (s) T (C) Figure 3. (c) decay of voltage across capacitor. switch in position B 3. t (s) (b) £ ~ ~ initial slope.~~~------~+J (a) 0 T=CR time. and the differential equation of the circuit is .6 Charge and discharge of a capacitor: (a) basic circuit.Study Notes in Electrical Science 30 R A C r---. =-£/T V/s 0·37£ 0 time.6a. (b) rise of voltage across capacitor.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor Basic circuit The circuit diagram is shown in figure 3. switch in position A.

9E to O.71828. Vc= E when t = 0).2Ts v c after T seconds = 0. as in figure 3.lE =2.01£ = 4.9E =2. initial rate of rise of Vc= E/T V/s final value ofvc=EV time taken for v c to reach 0.6Ts fall time of Vc= time taken for Vc to fall from 0.lE to 0.6Ts rise time of Vc= time taken for Vc to rise from O.37EV VR= -Vc= -Ee-t/Ty i= vR= R -~e-'ITA R .31 Electrostatics Capacitor-charging When the switch is in position A (see figure 3.63E V vR=E-vc=Ee-'iTV i= vR= E e-'ITA R R Capacitor-discharge If the capacitor is fully charged when the switch is moved to position B (that is.6c. Then vc= E(l-e -t/1) V where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2.6b) the time constant is given by T=RCs where R is in ohms and C in farads. then Vc=Ee-t/Ty initial rate of fall ofvc= -E/T V/s final value of v c = 0 time taken for Vc to fall to 0.99 E = 4.2Ts Vc after T seconds =0.

I m.1 ·I Sinusoidal current waveform . and the first negative peak-value. I m• occurs 90° after the start of the cycle. Sinusoidal waveform.4 Alternating-current Theory 4. occurs at 270°. one cycle Figure 4. at any point in time is i =I msinO where (}='angle of rotation' (that is.1 Basic Concepts An alternating signal (which can be either a voltage or a current) periodically reverses its direction. the angle measured from the start of the cycle). The first positive peak-value. amplitude and 'angle of rotation' A sinusoidal current waveform (see figure 4.. The instantaneous value. i. having positive polarity during one part of its cycle and negative polarity in the remainder.1) is one whose amplitude varies sinusoidally with time.

Alternating-current Theory

33

Frequency

Symbol f The frequency of a periodic waveform is the number of cycles it
completes per second. The unit is the hertz (unit symbol Hz).
Angular frequency

Symbol w. Since a complete cycle is equivalent to a 'rotational' angle of 360° or 2n
radians, the angular frequency of a sinusoidal waveform is
w = 2nfrad/s

where f is in hertz. The 'angle of rotation', (), after t seconds is
() = wt rad

The equation for the waveform in figure 4.1 may therefore be written

i =I msinwt
Periodic time of a complete cycle

Symbol T. This is the time taken to complete one cycle of a periodic waveform,
measured in number of seconds (or fraction of a second).
1

T=-S

f

For a sinusoidal waveform

1

21t

T=-=-s

f

(lJ

4.2 Average Value and R.M.S. Value of an Alternating Waveform

Average value or mean value

In engineering practice the mean value, 1•., of an alternating waveform is defined
as the average value under one-halfof the waveform. The reason for this is that the
mathematical average area under the complete cycle is zero (since the area under
the positive half-cycle is equal to that under the negative half-cycle).
The average value can be determined either graphically or analytically; in the
latter case it is necessary to know the equation of the waveform.
(1) Graphical determination. The mid-ordinate method of determining
the area under a curve is illustrated in figure 4.2.
1av= average length of the mid-ordinates
il + i2 + i3 + ... +in
=
n

Study Notes in Electrical Science

34

'E

~~~~~~~~~~-+----------------+­
::>

u

Figure 4.2

Graphical determination of average value and r.m.s. value

where n =number of mid-ordinates.
(2)

Analytical determination.
1 av= average value taken over one half-cycle

1

In

=-; Jo

idO or

1

IT/2

T/ 2 Jo idt

The average value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value
1m is

21m
1m [ 1-(-1) ] =-=0.6371m
=n
n
Root-mean-square value or effective value

The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value, 1, of an alternating waveform is its effective
value and is calculated in terms of its heating effect in an electrical circuit.
r.m.s. value= square root of the mean of the sum of the
squares of the instantaneous values
The value is usually computed over a complete cycle but can also be calculated
over a half-cycle period.

Alternating-current Theory

35

(1) Graphical determination.
value is

For the waveform in figure 4.2 the r.m.s.

I=JC 1 2 +i 2 2 +i 3 :+

... +i/)

where n =number of mid-ordinates.
(2)

Analytical determination.

I=

.j (average value under the current 2-time graph)

The r.m.s. value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value I m
IS

I=

=
=

J(2

1n

J:n (I

JG: J:n
J(~: [

m

sin0) 2 dO)

sin 2 0d0 )=

JG: J:n

O-tsin20 J:n)=

t(l-cos20)d0)

~; =0.707I

m

Form factor

For any alternating waveform
c
c
r.m.s. value
1orm 1actor = - - - - = - average value

For a sinusoidal waveform
form factor=

0.707I m
0.637I m

1.11

Peak factor

For any alternating waveform
!"
maximum value
pea k 1actor = - - - - - r.m.s. value

For a sinusoidal waveform

Im

peak factor = 0 70

. 1I m

= 1.414

. value... This rotating line can be represented in the form of a phasor.s. \ '.c. values of voltage and current.3 Phasors and Phase Relationships Phasors A sine wave is traced out by the perpendicular displacement of a rotating line (see figure 4.4 passes through zero angle in the direction of rotation before the voltage waveform. that is... the length of the phasor is shown as either 0. ' . we say that the current leads the voltage by angle ¢.s. 7071 m· . Alternatively. we may say that the voltage lags the current by angle ¢. __ /1 _.-"" / / / Figure 4. circuits it is convenient to rescale the lengths of the phasors so that they represent the r.m. To indicate the fact that the current waveform in figure 4.Study Notes in Electrical Science 36 4. - direction of rotation w rad/s // // j I I I / / / \ II I I 81 \ --------·----- '\ II ' I ---------------------~------------------ !1. The expression describing the current waveform in figure 4.m.4 is i =I msinO =I msinwt and that describing the voltage waveform is v =Vmsin(O-¢) =Vmsin(wt-¢) In solving a.3 Generating a sine wave Phase displacement The phase displacement is the angular displacement between two sinusoidal quantities of the same frequency. The phase displacement or phase-angle difference between the current and voltage in figure 4. which is the line scaled down to its r. 707V mor 0..4 is ¢. and is drawn in the direction assumed by the rotating line at time t = 0..3).

5 Addition of phasors .5. where he and vc are the horizontal and vertical components respectively of OC. The phasor sum of OA and OBis the diagonal OC of the parallelogram OACB.4 Phase displacement Addition of phasors The addition of two phasor quantities (which must be of the same kind) is illustrated in figure 4. Figure 4.--- 37 Alternating-current Theory 41 rad /s Figure 4.

+(.6 for the phasor difference (OA.j(hc2 +v/) and the phase angle is B Figure 4.Study Notes in Electrical Science 38 The magnitude or modulus of OC is /OCI= . In this case hd= h.+( -vJ=v.. illustrated in figure 4.OB).hb) =h.-vb .6 Subtraction of phasors Subtraction of phasors Phasors are subtracted by adding the negative equivalent of the phasor to be subtracted.hb vd=v.

if OA=a then OB = ja = a/J!}__o 0C=jUa)=jla= aj180o =-a OD = jWa) =fa= -ja =aj270o =aj-90° From the expression of OC above. in figure 4. 7 Operator j A .4 Complex Notation This is a notation that gives an indication of the relative directions of phasors.j(hi+vi) ¢ =tan. the concept is introduced that j2 = -1 or 8 ja c a=j4a j2a 0 j3a D Figure 4.1 G:) =cos. 7.Alternating-current Theory 39 and IODI= . Operator j Operator j is a mathematical 'operator' that is used to indicate the 'direction' of the phasor.1 c~~l) 4. Thus.

Phasor OB can be similarly represented by OB=hb+jvb The quantity (.6 by OD=IODI/-c/J Complex conjugate The complex conjugate of the phasor (a+ jb) or r I!!!_ is (a.40 Study Notes in Electrical Science Since the square root of ( -1) cannot exist as a 'real' quantity.OB) in figure 4.6 can be represented by ( -OB)= -(hb+jvb)= -hb-jvb Representation of phasors by polar components A phasor can be represented in terms of its modulus and its phase angle.5 can be represented by OC=IOCILf and the phasor OD in figure 4.cp.!l!. The horizontal axis is known as the 'real' axis.jb) or r /. Mathematical operations with complex quantities Using the quantities X =a +jb = rtf. the idea has developed that the perpendicular axis (the j-axis) is the 'imaginary' axis. (1) Addition X+ Y=(a+jb)+(c+jd)=(a+c)+j(b+d) .5 can be represented in the form OA=ha+jva where jva= perpendicular component of the phasor. The phasor OC in figure 4.!l!..L and Y=c+jd=r 2 !. Representation of phasors by rectangular or cartesian components The phasor OA in figure 4..L the following operations are possible.

J.ad) cz+dz Note: (c-jd) is the complex conjugate of (c+jd). Y =(a+ jb).Y=(a+jb)-(c+jd)=(a-c)+ j(b-d) (3) Multiplication X.41 Alternating-current Theory (2) Subtraction X.__ r 2 . Also ~=rd_!£1_='j_ /<PI-¢2 Y r 2 L!f!.(c+ jd) = ac + j(ad +be)+ j 2 bd = (ac -bd)+ j(ad +be) or (4) Division X y a+jb c+jd (a+jb)(c-jd) (c+jd)(c-jd) -=--=----- (ac +bd) + j(bc.

1 ___£ IC. I. Circuits The quantities used in this chapter (that is.1 v current =I= R A where V is in volts and R in ohms. the magnitude of the circuit current is limited by what is known as the reactance of the circuit elements. V. the only power loss that may arise is due to the power dissipated in the resistance of the conductors of the circuit itself.5 Single-phase A.---L. power consumed= P = I 2 R =VI W The current and voltage are in phase with one another. circuit: (a) circuit.. . (c) waveforms Reactance In circuits containing pure inductance or pure capacitance only. etc. (b) phasors...) are r.. P..c.1 Basic Circuits Circuit containing pure resistance only In figure 5.s. This form of current limitation occurs without loss of power in the reactive elements. t vm R (a) Figure 5.m. quantities..__T---~ (b) Pure resistance in an a.C.. 5.

43 Single-phase A. . the value of the reactance is proportional to the frequency.3 XL=2nfL ocf That is. the current decreases in value as the frequency increases. circuit: (a) circuit. In figure 5. (c) phasors Circuit containing pure inductance only In figure 5.m.c.s.2 Pure inductance in an a.2 inductive reactance= XL= wL = 2njL where L is in henrys. At a constant r.C. Circuits L di (a} ~ ~· I (c) (b) Figure 5. (b) waveforms. v v current=l=-=-A XL wL power consumed = 0 The current through the inductance lags the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage leads the current by 90°). value of supply voltage v 1 f=--OC- 2njL f That is. win radians/second and/ in hertz. Variation of XL and I with frequency.

c.4 Pure capacitance in an a.Study Notes in Electrical Science 44 QJ <. capacttlve reactance= X c = ..= ----:r.4 1 1 ..3 Effect of variation of frequency in an inductive a... ..wC 2n1 C dv ~) ~ • I (c) (b) Figure 5. circuit: (a) circuit.. (b) waveforms.c. circuit Circuit containing pure capacitance only In figure 5. .E frequency Figure 5....) -~"'C -c: g "0 0 . ::I QJ<.) OQJ QJ .) -c: 0 c: <.. (c) phasors .

) c: o-c: u. the value of the capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases. circuits. value of supply voltage I= 2nfCV ocf That is....c.C. it is usual to draw the quantity that is common to all the components on the 'real' axis or horizontal axis. w in radians/second and fin hertz.= V wC = 2nfCV A Xc power consumed = 0 The current through the capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage lags the current by 90°). v current= I = . Z.. Circuits where C is in farads.5 Effect of variation of frequency in a capacitive a. the value of the current is proportional to the frequency. In series circuits this quantity is the current. the magnitude of the current is limited by the electrical impedance..) frequency Figure 5..c. 0 (. In figure 5..45 Single-phase A.u -~" -c: ·u 0 o a. At a constant r.c. "'"::I .2 Series Circuits In practical a. .o .m. Variation of X c and I with frequency. circuits the number of volt-amperes (unit symbol VA) consumed is .. "' (.. circuit 5..5 1 2nfC 1 f Xc=--oc- That is.s. When drawing the phasor diagram for series circuits. Power factor In a. of the circuit..

The power consumed is P =VI x power factor where the power factor has a value in the range 0-1 (being zero in the case of a circuit containing either a pure inductor or a pure capacitor. The symbol S is given to the voltampere product. and unity in the case of a circuit containing pure resistance only).1 (~:) =tan. w in radians/second and L in henrys. v current =I =-zA V R=IR=v: V (in phase with I) VL=IXL=VwLV (leading I by 90°) z V= .6 circuit impedance=Z= . (b) phasors.~L) =tan1( 1 (a:) =cos.( = IXL V =IZ G?J ~= IR ~IX. which is sometimes referred to as the apparent power.~} •I (b) IR R (c) (d) Figure 5.6 RL series circuit: (a) circuit.Study Notes in Electrical Science 46 generally greater than the power consumed by the circuit.1 (~) . S=VIVA \.J(Vl+Vl)V q) =tan. (c) voltage triangle.J[R 2 +(wL) 2 ]0 where R is in ohms.J(R 2 +Xl)= . (d) impedance triangle Resistance and inductance in series In figure 5.

d.c.= cos¢ s z v It should be noted that the p. (b) phasors. V =IZ (b) (d) (c) Figure 5. 7 circuit impedance=Z= vf(R 2 +Xc2 )= J[ R 2 +(~cY]n where R is in ohms. When dealing with any a. Circuits 47 apparent power= S =VIVA power= P =VI cos¢= I 2 R W reactive power= Q =VI sin¢= I 2 XL VAr p R VR power factor =.=. Important note: r c R vb ~· ~--vR~ 0 (a) I IR ~ Vc = IXc ~[x.=. (c) voltage triangle.d. (d) impedance triangle Resistance and capacitance in series In figure 5.Single-phase A. win radians/second and C in farads.s is not equal to the supply voltage. R ~x.C. v current =I =-A V R= I R = v: z V (in phase with I) Vc=IXc=~V (lagging I ZwC by 90°) . circuit problem it is advisable to sketch the general form of phasor diagram before attempting to complete the solution.s VL and V Rare not in phase with one another and that the algebraic sum of these p.7 RC series circuit: (a) circuit.

.1 ( ~c )=tan. XL= X 0 (d) phasors. inductance and capacitance in series In figure 5.J(V/+Vc2 )V ~=tan.8 RLC series circuit: (a) circuit.: )=tan.J v (a) ~ VR VR=V I I I v Vc Vc (b) (c) (d) Figure 5.1 (~) 1 apparent power = S =VI VA power= P =VI cos~= I 2 R W reactive power= Q =VI sin~= I 2 X c VAr power p R VR factor=cos~=-=-=- S Z V L------1 V' 1---------.1 ( .8 XL= wL = 2njL X 1 1 c= roC = 2nfC . XL< Xc Resistance. (b) phasors.(ro~R)=cos.48 Study Notes in Electrical Science V= . XL> X C• (c) phasors.

j (LC) Hz . (2) When XL= X cor VL =V0 as in figure 5. the circuit has a net inductance. This condition occurs at frequencies above the resonant frequency (see 2 below).8c.j (L C) rad/s and 1 fo = 2n .:c)=tan-1 ( XL~X c)=cos-1 (~) apparent power= S =VIVA power=P=VI cos~ =I 2 RW reactive power=Q =VI sin~ =I 2 (XL-X c)VAr R p power factor =cos~ =.= -S z (1) When XL> X c or VL>V c. as in figure 5. and the current is in phase with the applied voltage. v current =I =-A z V R= IR V (in phase with I) VL =IXL = v.8b.j [R 2 +(XL-X c) 2 ] Q where w is in radians/second. Resonance occurs at a frequency w 0 .Lv (leading I by 90°) Vc=IXc=~V(lagging I ZwC by 90°) ~ =tan-1 (VL. the condition is known as resonance. Circuits 49 circuit impedance= Z = . L in henrys and C in farads.C. f in hertz.Single-phase A. and the current lags behind the applied voltage. where or w0 = 1 .

. thenVLandV cbothhave large values (they may be many times the value of the applied voltage. then the current at resonance has a very large value. '' / I - ' . (b) typical phasors 5. A factor known as the Q-factor or 'quality' factor is used to indicate the voltage magnification across the reactive elements in a series circuit. If the value of R is small.voltage across R at resonance IwoL ]R -- w L R 0 -- 2nfoL R -- 1 1 w CR 2nf0 CR -0 =~J~ Since the circuit accepts the highest value of current under this condition..actor = ...8d...3 Parallel Circuits In parallel circuits (see figure 5.c. This condition occurs at frequencies below the resonant frequency (see 2 above).2.. The current drawn by each branch is calculated by the method outlined in section 5... since VL=I XL and V c =I X 0 it follows that if the current has a large value. the circuit has a net capacitance.. . and this quantity is drawn on the 'real' (horizontal) axis of the phasor diagram. where c voltage across L (or C) at resonance Q-....Study Notes in Electrical Science 50 The current in the circuit at resonance has the magnitude I =VIR and is in phase with V.. V).. (3) When XL< X c or VL < V 0 as in figure 5. the series resonant circuit is described as an acceptor circuit. ' / / I "'--r I I I v v v (a) (b) Figure 5.. circuit: (a) circuit.9 Parallel a. and the current leads the applied voltage.9) the supply voltage is common to all branches.

that is. I 1 and ¢ 1 are the respective values of the current in and the phase angle of the upper branch ofthe circuit. then R 0 has a large value (R 0 is infinity when R is zero!). I 2 and ¢ 2 are the respective values for the lower branch. drawn from the supply is III= ~(lh2 +I}) where I h= sum of the horizontal components of the branch currents and I v= sum of the vertical components of the branch currents. I.C. the resonant frequency of the circuit is I w 0 = ~ (L C) rad/s where L is in henrys and C in farads. or r1 H Jo-2n~(LC) z The effective resistance of the parallel circuit at resonance is known as the dynamic resistance.9. inductance and capacitance In the phasor diagram in figure 5. Circuits Parallel circuit containing resistance. Ih power factor =cos¢ =I apparent power=S=VIVA power=P=VIcos¢=I/R 1 +I/R 2 W reactive power= Q =VI sin¢ VAr Parallel resonance Resonance occurs in a parallel circuit having reactive components in each arm when the phase angle of the complete circuit is zero (see figure 5.51 Single-phase A. and the current drawn from the supply has a minimum value at resonance. Provided that the value of R is small. where R = _£_ = (woL )z = 1 n ° CR R (w 0 C) 2 R The current drawn from the supply at resonance is v I=-A Ro If R has a small value. Ro. .10). The magnitude of the current. when I is in phase with V. The parallel resonant circuit is known as a rejector circuit.

10 Parallel resonance: (a) circuit. (b) phasors 5.c=:o.__I1 L R I. v {b) (a) Figure 5.4 Complex Impedances Reactance XL= jwLQ j 1 Xc=--=--n jwC wC Impedance of series circuits Series RL circuit Z =R +jwL Series RC circuit j 1 Z=R+-=R-wC jwC Series RL C circuit .Study Notes in Electrical Science 52 ___:I___.

C.53 Single-phase A. Circuits Impedance of parallel circuits If impedances Z 1 =R 1 +jwL and Z 2 =R 2 -j/wC are in parallel with one another.j/wC) z = (R 1 +jwL )+(R 2 -j/wC) (R 1 R 2 +L/C)+j(wLR 2 -RtfwC) (R 1 +R 2 )+j(wL-1jwC) . then the effective impedance of the circuit is (R 1 + jwL )(R 2 .

In this case three supply lines and a neutral wire are . which have equal values of phase voltage. V L• is equal to the magnitude of the voltage between any pair of lines. 6. and that the three phasors are displaced from one another by 120°.VaN V Rv= voltage of the red line relative to the yellow line = VRN.C. V"' is equal to the magnitude of the voltage applied to one phase of the load.1 Star-connected Systems Voltage relationships In figure 6.VRN V ya= voltage of the yellow line relative to the blue line = VvN.6 Three-phase A.1.VYN The magnitude of the phase voltage. In a star-connected system VL= IV Rvl = IVaRI = IVYBI = . In a star-connected system v p= IV RNI =IVYNI =IV aNI The magnitude of the line voltage../ 3Vp Current relationships (1) Four-wire system. where N is the neutral point V RN =voltage of the red line relative to the neutral point V vN= voltage of the yellow line relative to the neutral point VaN= voltage of the blue line relative to the neutral point and V aR =voltage of the blue line relative to the red line =VaN. Circuits In this chapter it is assumed that the supply system has a symmetrical set of threephase voltages.

I Rl = II vi = II sl I L= I In the case where an unbalanced load is star-connected (that is. The magnitude of the phase current. a neutral current flows. Circuits B Is B neutral B w~re IN R R R ly y load generator lR y (b) (a) Figure 6. is equal to the magnitude of the current in the phase of the load. In a balanced star-connected load I p=I L (2) Three-wire system. a load in which differing values of impedance are connected in each phase). and the relationship of the neutral-wire current. hence IN=IR+lv+l 8 =0 . It should be noted that unbalanced loads are frequently connected to supply systems.1 phasors Three-phase star-connected system: (a) connections.55 Three-phase A. IN. (b) voltage used (see figure 6. I L• in the case of star-connected balanced loads (that is. I p.C. and phase currents is IN=IR+lv+ls The magnitude of the line current.1). In this case the neutral wire is omitted. when the impedance and phase angle of each load are equal) is equal to the magnitude of the phase current.

2 Mesh-connected or Delta-connected Systems Current and voltage relationships At junction R of the load in figure 6.2 Three-phase delta-connected system 6. hence VL=Vp In the case of a balanced mesh-connected load I p= II RYI = jiBRI = jiYBI and Power consumed in a balanced load In the case of a balanced load the power consumed by the load is .2 IRv=phasor sum of IR and 1 8 R or At junction Y and at junction B fs=fsR-JYB In the mesh-connected circuit the line voltage is applied directly to each phase of the load.Study Notes in Electrical Science 56 Ie B generator load Figure 6.

J 3V LI Lsin¢ VAr power= P =3V ri pcos¢ = where V pand I r= phase values of voltage (V) and current (A) respectively.J 3Vd Leos¢ W reactive VA= Q = 3V pipsin¢ = . V Land I L=respective line values and cos¢= power factor of the load.C.J 3V LI LVA .Three-phase A. . Circuits volt-amperes= S = 3V pi r= 57 .

f. In power transformers ampere-turn balance is maintained between the windings.1 E.m.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer The basic features of a single-phase transformer are shown in figure 7.s. 7.s.7 Transformers 7.44fN 2 cp m where f =supply frequency (Hz).F. Equation The r. values of the primary and secondary currents. with a sinusoidal supply £1 =4. values of the e.s E 1 and E 2 induced in the primary and secondary windings respectively are. equations £1 E2 4. That is . When £ 2 has a greater value thanE 1 it is said to have a step-up ratio.m. respectively.1.m. From the e.m.= .f. and cp m=maximum value of the magnetic flux (Wb) in the core (the flux waveform is assumed to be sinusoidal). N 1 and N 2 =respective number of turns on the primary and secondary windings.44fC/J m=.volts/turn N1 N2 £1 N1 or When £ 2 has a lower value than £ 1 the transformer is said to have a step-down voltage ratio.M.44fN1C/Jm E2 = 4. that is or I2 N1 where I 1 and I 2 = r.

A • r-~~----~-4----~ • 0 load IB I I I I I I 1 I L-----------------.1 Basic transformer 7.3 Transformer Efficiency The per unit efficiency of a transformer is given by the relationship output power per unit efficiency = --::.----=--=--mput power output power output power+ losses input power -losses input power losses =1----input power per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100% .Transformers 59 Hence or J input VA=output VA I section of laminated core I.-------J Figure 7.

the value of P0 is approximately constant over the working range of the transformer. which are insulated from one another (see figure 7. f =supply frequency (Hz). p e· It can be shown that Ph=kfBmn p e =Kf2B m2 where k and K =constants of the transformer. a current (known as an eddy current) is induced in the core. The hysteresis loss is due to the energy that has to be supplied during each cycle of the a. Pc=Po . Iron loss The iron loss is subdivided into the hysteresis loss. The iron loss (also known as the core loss or no-load loss) is P0 =Ph+P. Since f and B m are usually constant in the case of the power supply to power transformers. supply when the direction of magnetisation is twice reversed. Copper loss is due to the heating produced by the flow of current in the winding resistance. The eddy-current loss is reduced by constructing the core of iron laminations. Copper loss The copper loss for a two-winding transformer is Pc=l/R 1 +I/R 2 W where 11 and R 1 =respective values of current and resistance for the primary winding and 12 and R 2 =respective values for the secondary winding. B m =maximum value of the core flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1.1).60 Study Notes in Electrical Science The power losses in a transformer are divided into two groups: those that vary with load current (copper loss) and those that vary with core flux (iron loss). This gives rise in the core to the power loss known as the eddy-current loss. as the magnetic flux in the core changes. Condition for maximum efficiency For maximum efficiency the copper loss is equal to the iron loss.6--2. The core material of transformers is a conductor of electricity and. Ph. and the eddy-current loss. This loss is dissipated as heat in the magnetic material. c.

3 secondary Ideal transformer-inductive load . the r.4 Phasor Diagrams I deal transformer: no load Referring to figure 7.3 Vz = Nz Nt V~­ Nz /1 =lzNI cP1 =¢z ~ primary Figure 7.m.s.2 Ideal transformer-no load 7. secondary voltage is Vz= Nz Nt V~- Ideal transformer: load with a lagging power factor Referring to figure 7.61 Transformers 90° 90° II> II> secondary primary Figure 7.2.

. =£. / 0 .Study Notes in Electrical Science 62 v. and E.4 accounts for the no-load current.. (a) Figure 7.. no-load power factor= cos ¢ 0 I mag= 10 sin¢ 0 lc=l 0 cos¢ 0 core loss= P0 =V1 1 c=V1 10 cos¢ 0 W V. (b) secondary Practical transformer: no load The phasor diagram in figure 7. lo = . liz and £ 2 -s-"' ell 0 0 .. (b) secondary winding . but neglects the effects of the voltage drops in the windings.4 winding (b) Practical transformer-no load: (a) primary winding."' 12 sin ¢ 2 (a) (b) Figure 7.5 Practical transformer-inductive load: (a) primary winding.J {I c + 1 mag 2 2) where 1 mag is the magnetising component of / 0 and I c is the core-loss component.

/1> that is due to 12 flowing in the secondary winding.5 The Transformer as an Impedance-matching Device A transformer is sometimes used as an impedance-matching device between a load of low impedance and an amplifier with a high output-impedance. / 1 ' is the component of the primary current.12 N2 N1 I 1 = phasor sum of I._.6) is R1 =RL(z:r 0 where N 1 and N 2 =number of turns on the primary and secondary winding respectively. and / 0 7. The effective a.6 The transformer as an impedance-matching device .c. 11.63 Transformers Practical transformer: load with a lagging power factor In figure 7. Note: An aid to remembering the effect of the transformation ratio on the 'reflected' or 'referred' resistance is: the resistance value appears to increase when referred to a winding with a larger number of turns. Figure 7. resistance that appears between the primary-winding terminals of an ideal transformer (see figure 7. and to decrease when referred to a winding with a smaller number of turns.5.

Electrical machines can be divided into single-excited machines and doubleexcited machines. In the machine in figure 8. In practice many machines are designed with either a salient stator and a cylindrical rotor or a cylindrical stator and a salient rotor.1 (b) Salient and cylindrical machine systems . In the case of d.la both the stator and the rotor are salient. these machines are of limited practical value. Salient and cylindrical magnetic systems When used in conjunction with machines the word 'salient' means 'jutting out'.8 Electrical Machines 8. centre of rotation air gap stator (a) Figure 8.1 Types of Electrical Machine An electrical machine is an electromechanical energy-convertor and consists of a magnetic circuit having two parts separated from each other by an air gap. Double-excited machines carry magnetising windings on both the stator and the rotor. A cylindrical magnetic system is one that is cylindrical about the axis of rotation. In the machine in figure 8.lb the stator and rotor are both cylindrical. the majority of practical machines are of this type.c. The stationary part of the machine is known as the stator and the rotating part as the rotor. either the stator or the rotor can have a salient construction. machines the fixed and rotating parts are usually referred to as the frame and armature respectively. In single-excited machines only one member (either the stator or the rotor) carries a magnetising winding.

1. T. then the machine produces a static torque.c. Table 8. In general a reluctance torque is developed if the reluctance of the magnetic system changes when the rotor is turned away from the alignment position.. The above comments also apply if the stator is excited and the rotor is simply an iron circuit. Figure 8. leading to an increase in the reluctance of the magnetic path.c. dependent on the supply frequency. then once the rotor is caused initially to rotate by some applied external force. Angle A. If the rotor is excited by a. Not all single-excited machines develop a reluctance torque. Owing to the magnetic poles induced in the stator there is a rotational force that attempts to pull the rotor and stator into alignment. the results for various combinations are listed in table 8. the reversal of the rotor current causes the rotor to rotate at a constant speed. This speed is known as its synchronous speed.65 Electrical Machines 8.2 Single-excited machine If the rotor is excited by d. is known as the torque angle.1 Is a reluctance torque developed? Stator salient salient cylindrical cylindrical Rotor Stator excited Rotor excited salient cylindrical salient cylindrical yes no yes no yes yes no no .2. Turning the rotor further away from alignment causes the length of the magnetic path to increase. which does not result in continuous rotation... Machines of this kind are known as reluctance motors and are used in clocks. For this reason the torque causing alignment is called the reluctance torque.2 Single-excited Machines A single-excited machine having a salient structure is illustrated in figure 8.

it is a multi-turn coil that is wound on to a protruding branch of the iron circuit.3 Excitation torque 8. machine and for salient-pole alternators are examples of this type. is developed. such as those having a salient stator and a salient rotor. the most important of which are phase windings and commutator windings. (b) (a) Figure 8. Figure 8. this machine does not experience a reluctance torque (see also table 8.c.3 Double-excited Machines When the stator and the rotor both carry windings a torque known as the excitation torque.66 Study Notes in Electrical Science 8.m. Distributed windings may be subdivided into a number of categories. . of the stator and rotor respectively and A.3b.f. Other doublewound machines.3a shows a single-excited machine having a cylindrical stator and an excited salient rotor. produce both excitation and reluctance torques.3b produces only an excitation torque. Field windings for a d. Concentrated windings A concentrated winding is one carried by a salient-pole construction. as shown in figure 8. The excitation torque causes the magnetic fields to tend to align. When the stator carries a winding. The machine shown in figure 8.1). that is. F 1 and F2 = m.. T. the rotor experiences an excitation torque of where k =constant of the machine.= angle of misalignment between the stator and rotor fieldsystems.4 Windings Windings may be classified as concentrated or distributed.

(2) Commutator winding. (1) There are two types of commutator winding (a) lap winding.Electrical Machines 67 Distributed windings A distributed winding consists of a number of coils. Phase winding. Figure 8.4 Single-layer phase winding . This is a distributed winding that is located in slots around the face of the magnetic circuit. A simple way of representing the arrangement is by means of the developed view of the winding in figure 8. which gives two parallel paths for current flow through the armature (frequently used in high-voltage machines). Alternatively a double-layer winding may be used in which each slot accommodates two coil sides. Figure 8. the coils being joined together in series. which gives as many parallel paths through the armature as there are poles on the machine (frequently used in high-current machines) (b) wave winding.4. In this type of drawing it is assumed that the magnetic circuit can be cut at some convenient point and unrolled flat. Current is either taken from or injected into the winding via brushes. The winding for phase B is accommodated in slots b and b' and that for phase C in slots c and c . In this case the coils have the same span. This is invariably on the rotor (armature) of the machine. which make contact with the commutator. one coil side per slot) that is used to accommodate phase A of a three-phase machine.4 shows the general arrangement of a single-layer phase winding (that is. belonging to two different coils. Junctions at various points on the winding are each connected to individual segments on the commutator. the coils being connected in series-parallel arrangements depending on the voltage and current requirements of the winding. one below the other. the coils being connected in the form of a continuous circuit without a break. each having a 'spread' of about one pole pitch.

hence E=kcf>nV where k is a constant of the machine.M. equation induced e. that is In a given machine the values of p.f.6a) and E oc n for constant I r If the speed. I r.f.5.m. Generators Separately excited generator The basic e. is maintained at a constant value.C.F. Methods of connection Referring to figure 8.5. a= number of pairs of parallel paths through the armature (a= 1 for wave windings. then E oc cf> for constant n . a and Z are constants. Machines E. n. cf> =flux entering or leaving each pole (Wb). is maintained at a constant value then cf> is also constant (see figure 8. 8.6 Characteristic Curves of D. a= p for lap windings). and (ii) short-shunt version. Z =total number of active conductors on the armature. n =speed of rotation of the armature (revjs) and w =speed of rotation of the armature (rad/s).C. = E =!!_cf>Zn V a p a w =-cf>Z-V 2n where p =number of pairs of poles.m.5 D. equation is that given in section 8. the main types of connection are classified by means of the field-winding connections as (a) (b) (c) (d) separate excitation shunt excitation series excitation compound excitation: (i) long-shunt version.Study Notes in Electrical Science 68 8. If the field current.

The terminal voltage is V=E-ILRa where I L =load current (A) and R.e speed.6c. machine connections slope= -R.6b) therefore follows the magnetisation curve for the magnetic material of the machine.5 D. .c. I (a) (b) Figure 8. I L (c) Separately excited generator characteristics The curve of E plotted to a base of I r (see figure 8.69 Electrical Machines field regulator separate d.. "' E "' E g g 0 > It constant ~ ! 1 constant n constant . supply (a) (b) field regulator I shunt :field I (i) ______ ..6 1 load current. =armature resistance (Q) of the generator.C.. .. The load characteristic is shown in figure 8.L(ii) (d) (c) Figure 8. . E :::.. n field current.JI L_.

/' field current..m.. I line 1 El I / .7a). which corresponds to the intersection of the open-circuit characteristic of the machine with a straight line whose slope is equal to the total resistance of the field circuit. R r· The generator fails to excite when R ris either equal to or is greater than the critical resistance of the field circuit (see figure 8.... The terminal voltage is V=E-IaRa where I a= armature current= load current+ field current (A).Study Notes in Electrical Science 70 Note: The equation for Vhas the form of the straight line y =ax+ b. ..f.m.. .--.f.. . criticalI resistance . I r.7a) follows the magnetisation curve of the machine.R a· Shunt-excited generator As with the separately excited generator the generated e.7 Shunt-generator characteristics The load characteristic is shown in figure 8..... is E=kfPnV If n is maintained at a constant value.~"' .- I / - / 1 n constant . 7b.... The generated voltage rises to a value of E 1 . which in turn reduces E. and Ra =armature resistance ( 0 ).. The reduction in V with increase in load current. I L• causes I rto reduce. against field current. It load current . then Eoc. ' \ ' I I . b =vertical intercept= E. (see figure 8. . Consequently the reduction in V with increase in I Lis far more rapid than in the case of the separately excited generator...IL (a) (b) / I I I Figure 8..... and a= slope of the line= ....fP The plot of e. where y = V.

Electrical Machines 71 Series-excited generator The load characteristic is shown in figure 8. The terminal-voltage-load-current characteristic for a shunt machine is shown in figure 8. the plot of terminal voltage. 8. Typical of these machines are the over-. Since the load current in this machine also acts as the exciting current. If the flux produced by the series field opposes that of the shunt field.8. I Figure 8.8 L Series-generator load characteristics Compound-wound generator Compound-wound machines in which the magnetic fluxes produced by the series and shunt windings act in the same direction. Since V varies with the value of I L this type of machine is unsuitable for use as a general-purpose generator. load current.9 for the purpose of comparison. A large number of turns results in an overcompound characteristic in which the full-load terminal voltage exceeds the noload voltage. then the machine is known as a differential-compound machine. The degree of compounding depends on the number of turns of wire on the series winding. I L> follows the magnetisation curve of the machine.7 Power Required to Drive a D. V.9. Generator The mechanical input power supplied by the prime mover is Tw=2nnTW .and under-compound characteristics in figure 8. level. while in an under-compound machine the full-load terminal voltage is less than the no-load voltage.C. against load current. A level-compound machine has equal values of no-load and full-load terminal voltage. are known as cumulative-compound machines.

Torque equation The torque developed by the armature of a d.f. motor is where E ='back' e. a= p for lap windings).compound shunt differential.Study Notes in Electrical Science 72 ~--------+--over-compound level-compound under. Motors The construction of d.Nm where k =constant of the machine. p =number of pairs of magnetic poles on the machine.m. motors and the methods of connection of the field windings are generally similar to those of the d. I Figure 8. a =number of pairs of parallel paths through the armature circuit (a= 1 for wave windings. 4> =magnetic flux (Wb) entering or leaving each pole and Z =total number of active conductors on the armature. (V) induced in the armature conductors when they rotate at speed w (rad/s) in the magnetic field.5). For a given motor the values of p. generator (see section 8.compound 100% load current. 8. .8 D. a and Z are constant. w = shaft speed (rad/s) and n = shaft speed (rev Is).c.9 L Compound-generator characteristics where T =torque (N m) applied to the generator shaft. I.c.c.C. hence T=k4>1 .= armature current (A).

r----------------1I I I I I I I A I ~-----<~----------~ I + :~ -co F I I I 1 -----. then speed rxV.9 Characteristic Curves of D.I .m.JI shunt field supply Figure 8. (2) Speed-armature-current curve. (1) Torque-armature-current curve. The 'back' e. where V =supply voltage and I . If if> is constant (that is.10 Shunt-motor starter 8.C.11. is constant). undervoltage and overcurrent protection are normally provided but are omitted from the figure for simplicity. the field current. If If> (that is. at full speed. ='internal' p. its value is zero. I r.R..10.R.Electrical Machines 73 Face-plate starter To limit the current drawn by d.I. The value of the resistance is progressively reduced either automatically or by an operator until.1 L L______ s~r~r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. machines during starting. ..R. in the internal resistance of the armature.d. a resistor is inserted in series with the supply. A typical starter for a shunt motor is illustrated in figure 8. of rotation is E = kf/>w but in the shunt motor E=V-I.f. Motors Shunt motor Shunt-motor characteristics are shown in figure 8.c. I r) is constant. then Trx:.

12 Series-motor characteristics . (1) Torque-armature-current curve.12.11 Series motor Series-motor characteristics are shown in figure 8. armature current Figure 8.74 Study Notes in Electrical Science no -lood speed -g 0 l"' It constant armature current Shunt-motor characteristics Figure 8.

of rotation is E=kf/Jw E w= kf/J = V-laRm kf/J where R m =resistance (Q) of the series motor.f. since the small value of I a results in an excessively large value of w. differentialcampound --------shunt l"' --- cumulative cam pound .13 Compound-motor characteristics . If Vis constant.m.Electrical Machines 75 In a series-wound machine the armature current produces the flux and 4> oc I a· For low values of I a the torque equation is Tocia2 At higher values of I a the iron circuit approaches magnetic saturation and 4> becomes nearly constant. The 'back' e. hence for high values of I a the torque equation becomes Tocl a (2) Speed-armature-current curve. then 1 woc4> Since 4> oc I a 1 speedocIa Note: Series motors are not normally operated under no-load conditions.senes armature current Figure 8. and if I aRm can be neglected..

14 Induction-motor principle . 8. the direction of the current induced in the conductor is predicted by Fleming's right-hand rule (rule for generators). The speed-armature-current characteristics of the two types are shown in figure 8. _._ @conductor \ ' J I -/ direction of movement of flux relative to the conductor (b) direction of movement of conductor rela I ive to the flux (a) magnetic flux I I I t t t I) / I /.1~@ \ <'. I ' I I direction of the force on the conductor I I (c) Figure 8. In differential-compound motors the fluxes oppose one another.14c.13...14a moves in the direction shown relative to the conductor.14b and the resulting magnetic-field distribution is as shown in figure 8. The characteristics of shunt and series motors are given for comparison purposes..Study Notes in Electrical Science 76 Compound-wound motor In cumulative-compound motors the fluxes produced by the series and the shunt windings assist each other. I I I t I I I• 1.10 Induction Motors Induction-motor principle When the magnetic flux in figure 8. The direction of the magnetic flux produced by the induced current in the conductor is shown in figure 8. The conductor experiences a force that causes it to move from the stronger magnetic magnetic flux I!!!! /-... ( t@ \ \ .

--------- per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100% .77 Electrical Machines field into the weaker. hence the force on the conductor acts in the direction of movement of the magnetic field.. . ..n. where n. Fractional slip I 1. n. Synchronous speed of the magnetic field In conventional forms of induction motor the magnetic field is generated inside the stationary cylindrical part (the stator) of the motor. The speed of rotation of the magnetic field or synchronous speed is n. n . 8. output power per umt efficiency=-:. fractwna s Ip=s=--= 1 . n.=£rev/s p where f =supply frequency (Hz) and p =number of pairs of magnetic poles produced by the stator.- n. The field rotates within the cylinder and is described as a rotating magnetic field.11 Efficiency of Electrical Machines .----mput power output power output power+ losses input power -losses input power losses input power =1-. =speed of rotation (rev /s) of the rotor or rotating part of the motor.

Digital instruments give an indication in the form of a complete number (usually in decimal form). 9.c. voltmeters and wattmeters. 9. .9 Measurements 9. which have a high input resistance between their terminals. Heating effects are utilised in thermocouple instruments. The smallest change that can be indicated corresponds to the change of one digit in the least significant position of the number.3 Analog Indicating Instruments There are three forces acting on the moving systems of analog indicating instruments. ammeters.c.1 Analog and Digital Instruments An analog instrument indicates the value of the quantity being measured by means of a pointer. Electromagnetic-induction effects are utilised in a. Electrostatic effect is principally applied to electrostatic voltmeters. (3) The damping force quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final position.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments Practical measuring instruments utilise one of five effects. watt-hour meters (for example the domestic energy-meter) and also in some a. Chemical effects are used in a small range of instruments such as some types of ampere-hour meter. whose indication varies smoothly with the measured quantity. such as the normal range of pointer-type ammeters and voltmeters. (2) The controlling force ensures that the magnitude of the steady deflection is always the same for a given value of measured quantity. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Magnetic effect is used by the majority of analog electrical instruments. (1) The deflecting force or operating force causes the moving system to deflect from its 'zero' position.

this method of control is not suitable for portable instruments. A damping force is generated when the air pressure in the chamber is either increased or decreased by the movement of the piston. The controlling torque produced by the spring increases linearly with the angular movement of the moving system. in a springcontrolled system the law of the scale of the instrument has the same form as that of the deflecting force. (2) Gravity control. The eddy currents are induced either in the metallic former that supports the element of the moving system (see figure 9. One form of air-friction damping mechanism is shown in figure 9. If this conductor is part of a complete circuit within the magnetic field of the instrument. The viscous frictional drag of the oil on the vane is used to damp the movement of the system. (2) Airfriction damping. Consequently. Damping force (1) Eddy-current damping. then a current (an eddy current) flows in it and dissipates energy in the resistance of the conductor. spindle of moving element Figure 9. This phenomenon is used as one method of damping moving systems. (3) Fluidfriction damping.5) or in a disc that is mechanically connected to the moving system.1 Air-damping .m.f. In this method a vane enclosed in a cylinder containing oil is mechanically connected to the moving system.1. An aluminium piston is attached to the moving system and moves inside a chamber that is closed at one end (the chamber may have any convenient section). A controlling hair-spring (usually of phosphor bronze) controls the angular movement of the moving system (see figure 9. Instruments using gravity control must be used in an upright position. When a conductor moves in a magnetic field an e. A small weight is attached to the moving system so that it produces a controlling torque when the system deflects.79 Measurements Controlling force (1) Spring control.5). is induced in it.

The ends of the spindle (see figure 9. taut-ribbon suspension and thread suspension. (3) Thread suspension. These suspensions are delicate but provide a suspension with very low friction. The movement is suspended by ribbons (of beryllium copper) under tension at either end of the shaft.80 Study Notes in Electrical Science jewel spindle Figure 9. which is of hardened steel. . The moving element is attached to the shaft.3 Taut-ribbon suspension Instrument scales The type of scale depends on the controlling mechanism and the relationship between the torque produced by the moving element and the measured quantity.3. The movement is supported on a thread (of phosphor bronze).2). (2) Taut-ribbon suspension. The moving element is attached to the spindle.2 Pivoted support Methods of supporting moving systems The most popular methods are pivoted support. are located in jewelled bearings (usually sapphire). (1) Pivoted support. A section through one end of a taut-ribbon suspension is shown in figure 9. spring frame of instrument Figure 9.

the coil former being supported on either a pivoted suspension (shown) or a taut-ribbon suspension.5. Current is supplied to the coil either via the control springs or by flexible ligaments. With this arrangement the average torque produced by the coil is proportional to the average value of current in the coil. and deflecting angles in the range 9(}-250° are commercially available. In this case the iron core is in the form of a cylinder surrounding the movement. The coil is supported on a metallic former (which provides eddy-current damping).4 Moving-coil Instruments or Galvanometers Construction and uses The internal construction of one type of moving-coil instrument is shown in figure 9. In figure 9.5 the coil rotates around a soft-iron core. Moving-coil instruments are essentially milliammeters (or microammeters) . The scale calibration may be either linear or non-linear (see figures 9. the permanent magnet being external to the coil.Measurements 81 The scale length depends on the construction of the instrument.4a and b).4 Instrument scales 9. The net result is a linear scale calibration (see figure 9. An alternative magnetic circuit arrangement is to place the magnet inside the coil (this is the so-called core-magnet or internal-magnet movement).4a). 6 4 (a) 20 (b) Figure 9. The magnetic system is designed so that the flux distribution in the air gap is radial.

where I g= meter current (A) to give full-scale deflection (f. current must flow from the external circuit into the '+' terminal and out of the '-' terminal.Study Notes in Electrical Science 82 and are used in conjunction with either shunt resistors. S = resistance (n) of the shunt and I =current (A) in the external circuit at f. These instruments require a direct (or unidirectional) current flow.A . I. R g=resistance (0) of the meter.d.= current (A) in the shunt at f. One of the terminals is marked with a'+' and the other with a'-'.s.. pointer balance arm Figure 9.s. or voltage multipliers (series voltage-dropping resistors).6.). Since the meter and the shunt are connected in parallel with one another I gRg= I . to allow them to read higher values of current.d.5 Moving-coil instrument Extending the current range of a moving-coil instrument The general arrangement is shown in figure 9. to allow them to read high voltages.d.SV and I=I 8 +I.s.

an instrument giving f.LA is sometimes referred to as a 1/(50 x 10.7 Extension of voltage range . V.6 Extension of current range Extending the voltage range of a moving-coil instrument The moving-coil instrument can be converted into a voltmeter by connecting resistor R (see figure 9.d. Resistor R is known as a voltage multiplier or a voltage-dropping resistor.p.s. This value is in fact given by 1 ohms per volt at f.Measurements 83 Solving gives I I Figure 9.v.7) in series with the instrument. The circuit equation is V=lg(R+RJ Hence v R=--R 8 Is Quite often the effective sensitivity of the instrument is expressed in ohms per volt at f.d.s.6 ) = 20000 ohms per volt (o. + R v Figure 9.d. Its function is to absorb a large proportion of the applied voltage.s. with a current of 50 J. = Is For example.) instrument.

8 Ohmmeter The moving-coil instrument as an ohmmeter A typical ohmmeter circuit is shown in figure 9. The cell is connected so that the current flows in the 'correct' direction through the meter. a consequence is that when the instrument is used in the Ohms mode the '+' terminal of the instrument has a negative potential with respect to its '-' terminal.8b..m.f.d.strument on the Ohms scale.- I -c:=J-.. a moving-coil instrument can be used .84 Study Notes in Electrical Science I I I I I I L __ ._____ J R (unknown) I (a) OHMS 100 0 'o (b) Figure 9. which is included within the meter. E. a typical scale being illustrated in figure 9. When a resistance that is equal to the internal resistance of the instrument is connected between its terminals.-. this is done by short-circuiting the terminals of the instrument and adjusting RVto give f.. Resistor RVis used to 'zero' the ir.d.s. Hence the midpoint of the Ohms scale is equal to the internal resistance of the meter.s. The resistance of resistor R is determined by measuring the current flowing through it from the cell of e. When the current in the external circuit is zero the resistance ofthe external circuit is infinity. the current is half that for f.8a. Rectifier Instruments When used in conjunction with a rectifier. The Ohms scale of the instrument is non-linear.

current. then the indication given by the meter is not strictly accurate. waveform) For a sinusoidal waveform Rectifier instruments have their scales calibrated in terms ofr. signal is non-sinusoidal. current I 1 is given by the expression I 2 - I1 (form factor of the a. I 2 . moving-coil meter a.c.9 (the principle of the rectifier is described in chapter 10). signal Figure 9.9 Rectifier instrument to provide an indication of alternating quantities. If the a. quantities. The equivalent d.s. corresponding to the a.c.c. A milliammeter circuit that uses a bridge rectifier is shown in figure 9.c.c. signal has a sine wave.10 Moving-iron instrument: attraction type . air-damping chamber I Figure 9.m.c.85 Measurements + I. and it is assumed by the instrument maker that the a.

c. and a low-current .s. Air-damping is used with these instruments.. Ammeters Equal magnetic fluxes require equal values of m. To prevent electromagnetic interference from affecting the accuracy of the instrument. current.m. in which an eccentrically pivoted soft-iron vane is attracted towards a solenoid (see figure 9.iron screen (not shown). The net result is a non-linear scale calibration. the scale calibration can be 'linearised' over much of its length by modifying the design of the vane system so that the inductance of the coil varies over the deflecting angle.Study Notes in Electrical Science 86 9.11 Moving-iron instrument: repulsion type The average torque produced by the moving-iron movement is proportional to the square of the value of the current in the coil.10).f. are repelled from one another (see figure 9. These instruments can be used to measure either d. (2) The repulsion type.5 Moving-iron Instruments Construction and use There are two types of moving-iron instrument. (1) pointer air-dampilg chamber Figure 9. only one control spring is required. value of a. the coil and movement are surrounded by a nickel. current or the r. The attraction type.11 ). similarly magnetised inside a solenoid. Because current does not need to be conveyed to the moving part of the instrument. in which two parallel vanes or rods of soft iron.m.c.

s. and the current required to give f.Measurements 87 instrument merely requires more turns of wire on the coil than does a largecurrent instrument. across the load is applied to the moving coil (a voltage-multiplier resistor is connected in series with this coil). When the instrument is used as a wattmeter the scale calibration is linear. It can also be used as an ammeter by connecting the fixed and moving coils in .c. Voltmeters The coil usually has a large number of turns of fine wire.d. For a. in which the load current flows through the fixed coils. a current transformer is used in conjunction with a low-current instrument (usually a 0--1 A or 0--5 A meter).6 Electrodynamic Instruments The usual form of construction (see figure 9.12) consists of two series-connected coils that are fixed to the frame of the instrument and another coil that is free to rotate within the fixed coils. is in the range 0.1 A. For the measurement of very high values of alternating current. The range of the wattmeter can be extended by using it in conjunction with a current transformer and a voltage transformer.05--0. The mean angular deflection of the pointer is proportional to the average power consumed by the load.12 Electrodynamic instrument 9.d. This type of instrument is most frequently used as a wattmeter. voltages greater than about 750 V a voltage transformer is used in conjunction with a 0--llOV instrument. and the p. The deflecting force is proportional to the product I 112. moving ooil Figure 9.

88

Study Notes in Electrical Science

parallel with one another. When the fixed and moving coils are connected in series
the instrument can be used as a voltmeter. When the instrument is used as either
an ammeter or a voltmeter, the scale calibration is non-linear and is cramped at
the low-current end of the scale.
Air-damping is used, and th~ movement is usually spring controlled.
9.7 The D.C. Potentiometer
The d.c. potentiometer is a null-balance instrument used for determining values of
e.m.f. by a comparison method. In the circuit in figure 9.13, Vis a supply source
whose voltage need not be known accurately. The slide wire has a uniform crosssectional area, so that the p.d. per unit length is uniform. The slider is moved along
the wire until balance is obtained (that is, until the galvanometer deflection is
zero). The p.d. per unit length of wire is then E/IV/m. If E 1 is the e.m.f. of a
standard cell and 11 is its balance position, and E 2 is the e.m.f. of another cell,
which gives balance at 12 , then

or

v

slide wire
slider

Figure 9.13 The d.c. potentiometer

9.8 The Wheatstone Bridge
The basic circuit is shown in figure 9.14, in which G is a sensitive galvanometer, P
and Q are resistors and are known as the 'ratio arms' of the potentiometer, R is a
calibrated variable resistance and X is a resistor of unknown value. At balance the
potential at A is the same as that at B and the galvanometer deflection is zero.

89

Measurements

When this occurs
PX=QR
That is, the products of diagonally opposed resistances are equal to one another;
hence
RQ
X=p
A

8

Figure 9.14 The Wheatstone bridge
9.9 A.C. Bridges
Basic four-arm bridge

The general configuration of a four-arm a.c. bridge is shown in figure 9.15. At
balance the a.c. detector gives zero indication, and the general condition of
balance is
ZxZ3=ZlZ2
That is, the products of diagonally opposed impedances are equal to one another.
Impedance Z xis the element (the unknown) whose value is being determined.
Elements Z 1, Z 2 and Z 3 are other (known) components in the bridge. Hence

z2

Zx=Zl-

z3

Balance is obtained in an a.c. bridge when both the magnitude and the phase angle
of the potentials at A and B are equal to one another.

90

Study Notes in Electrical Science
A

Figure 9.15 Basic four-arm a.c. bridge

Figure 9.16 De Sauty's bridge
De Sauty's capacitance bridge
This bridge (see figure 9.16) is suitable for measuring the capacitance of ideal lossfree capacitors. At balance

insulators and equipment having small capacitance values. The unknown components are r x and C". At balance Solving yields . it is frequently used for measurements on cables.17 Schering's bridge Schering's bridge This circuit (see figure 9.17) is suitable for determining the capacitance and phaseangle values of capacitors.Measurements 91 p jwCx Q jwC or PC Cx=- Q Figure 9.

~r-------~ Figure 9. At balance the condition ZxZ3 =Z1Z2 applies (see also figure 9. The measurements may be made with direct current flowing in the inductor. but since the unknown elements are in parallel with one another it is more convenient to write the condition of balance as . At balance Solving gives R1R2 rx=-R3 Lx=R 1 R 2 C 3 Hay's bridge This bridge (see figure 9.18 Maxwell's bridge Maxwell's bridge This bridge (see figure 9.Study Notes in Electrical Science 92 ~------.19) is particularly suitable for measuring the components of low-loss inductors and for measuring large values of inductance.15).18) is suited to measuring the components of lossy inductors.

The control grid is in the form of a metal cup with a small hole in it to allow a narrow beam of electrons to pass through it.. has a flat surface directed towards the screen so that it provides high electron-emission in that direction.r.t..r.) together with its controls and power supplies. . illustrated in figure 9..20. screen.. At balance R 3 +(1/jwC 3 ) _ R R (1/rx)+(1/jwLx).93 Measurements where Y x= (1/r x)+(1jjwLx). which is usually indirectly heated. The principal components of the c.t.o. Electron gun The cathode. electron lens system.1 2 Solving yields RtRz rx=-R3 Lx=R 1 R 2 C3 '---------( rv f . are the electron gun.t.19 Hay's bridge 9.r. The intensity of the spot on the face of the tube depends on the value of the beam current.). deflection system and c. which is adjusted by the brilliance control.r..10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope The cathode ray oscilloscope (c.' Figure 9. consists of a cathode ray tube (c.

20 Cathode ray oscilloscope Electron lens system The diverging beam leaving the electron gun is formed into a converging beam by the electron lens system. potential from the Xshift control and the other signal. In the case of theY-deflection plates.c.94 Study Notes in Electrical Science Y-onput signal X-input signal electron electron gun lens system ~~ heater screen --v cathode e. Deflection system The electron beam is deflected in the Y. in this arrangement coils are wound around the neck of the tube and the beam is focused by passing a current through the coils. one signal is a d. theY-input signal. is the signal to be observed on the face of the tube. Two signals are applied to each set of plates.c.h. Focusing can also be brought about by electromagnetic means. I. known as the timebase signal. potential from theY-shift control and the other signal. one signal is a d. This system usually contains three anodes. the potential of the second anode being adjusted by means of the focus control. In the case of the X -deflection plates.and X -deflection plates respectively.and X -directions by means of voltages applied to theY. causes the spot to deflect at a constant speed from the left-hand side of the screen to the right-hand . supply L-------f--11•1•1-------+ Figure 9.

When the spot reaches the right-hand end of the timebase sweep the timebase signal causes the spot to return to the left-hand side of the screen (this is known as flyback). . TheY-gain control (usually calibrated in VOLTS/CM) permits the vertical trace size to be adjusted (a popular range of Y-gain settings is from 0.h. screen The inside face of the screen is coated with a phosphor. C.r. When the electron beam strikes the phosphor it causes it to fluoresce. The brilliance and focus controls respectively control the brilliance and focus of the spot on the face of the tube. Triggering controls are provided to allow a repetitive waveform to be displayed as a steady trace on the screen.1 V/em to 50 V/em).t. The Y-shift and X -shift controls allow the user to position the trace on the screen of the tube. The spot can also be deflected by electromagnetic means.o. supply via the graphite coating inside the neck of the tube.RI. The X -gain control or TIME/CM control allows the horizontal-deflection speed of the spot to be adjusted (a popular range of X-gain settings is from lOOms/em to 1 JlS/cm). Principal controls of the c.Measurements 95 side. allowing the user to observe the movement of the spot on the face of the tube. Having given their energy up to the screen the electrons return to the positive pole of the e. In most oscilloscopes the effects of these controls interact with one another so that both must be adjusted to provide a satisfactory display.

J0

Rectifiers

10.1 Semiconductors
Semiconductors include a wide range of materials whose resistivities are midway
between those of good conductors and those of good insulators. The most widely
used semiconductor materials are silicon and germanium, with other materials
being used in more specialised applications.
i-type semiconductors or intrinsic semiconductors

Intrinsic semiconductors or i-type semiconductors are the natural pure-type
semiconductor materials. The majority of semiconductors used in practice are
either n-type or p-type materials (see below), which are formed by doping i-type
materials with suitable dopants.
n-type semiconductors

Ann-type semiconductor is one having mobile negative-charge carriers (electrons)
in its structure. Current flow in semiconductors is due largely to the movement of
what are known as majority-charge carriers in that material; inn-type materials
electrons are the majority-charge carriers. A small proportion of current flow in
semiconductors is due to minority-charge carriers; inn-type materials positivecharge carriers (known as holes) are the minority-charge carriers.
p-type semiconductors

A p-type semiconductor is one having mobile positive-charge carriers (holes) in its
structure. In p-type materials, current flow is due largely to the movement of holes
(which are in this case the majority-charge carriers) while a small proportion of
current flow is due to electrons (which are in this case the minority-charge
carriers).
10.2 Rectifiers
Diode characteristics

A rectifier is a two-terminal device (diode) that offers low resistance to current

97

Rectifiers

flow in one direction and a very high resistance to current flow in the reverse
direction.
A diode has two electrodes: an anode and a cathode. It offers low resistance to
current flow when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode; in this mode it
is said to be forward-biased. It offers very high resistance to current flow when the
anode is negative with respect to the cathode; in this mode it is said to be reversebiased.
The characteristics of both ideal and practical diodes are shown in figure 10.1.
An ideal diode (characteristic shown in bold line in the figure) offers no resistance
to current flow in the forward-biased mode (first quadrant) and infinite resistance
to flow in the reverse-biased mode (third quadrant). A practical diode offers a
small resistance to current flow in the forward-biased mode, when forward
conduction takes place. In the reverse-biased mode a leakage current of small
value passes through the diode, in which case it is said to operate in its reverseblocking mode; as the reverse-bias voltage is increased a point is reached at which
the current through the diode increases rapidly, from when it is said to operate in
its reverse-breakdown mode.

+

forward
conduction

reverse
blocking

Figure 10.1

Diode characteristics

p-n junction diode

The p-n junction diode is a single crystal of semiconductor material that has both
p- and n-regions within the crystal (see figure 10.2). The diode conducts when the
p-region (the anode) is positive with respect to the n-region (the cathode).
When the diode is reverse-biased the mobile charge carriers are drawn back
from the junction and a depletion layer, which is depleted of charge carriers, exists
at the junction. This region effectively becomes an insulating region.

Study Notes in Electrical Science

98

n

p

cathode

anode

Figure 10.2

p-n junction diode

Zener diode

Certain types of diode, known as Zener diodes, are operated in their reversebreakdown mode. The diode is not damaged provided that the rating of the device
is not exceeded. For example, the maximum 'reverse' current through a 1 W, 10 V
Zener diode should not exceed 0.1 A. A feature of Zener diodes is that, when
operated in the reverse-breakdown mode, the voltage across them does not alter
significantly over a fairly wide current range. Applications of Zener diodes include
voltage-reference sources, meter protection and bias-voltage supplies.
Thermionic diode or valve diode

This is an electronic valve containing an anode and a cathode inside a container
(usually made of glass) that may be either evacuated or gas-filled. The symbol for a
vacuum diode (known as a 'hard' valve) is shown in figure 10.3. The cathode emits
electrons when heated, the source of heat in the valve in figure 10.3 being the
heating element (this type of valve is known as an indirectly heated diode).
anode

'"""'~"'

Figure 10.3

Thermionic diode

A typical vacuum-diode characteristic is shown in figure 10.4. Current I Ao is
known as the splash current and is due to energetic electrons that arrive at the
anode at zero anode voltage; its value is usually very small. Region A on the
characteristic is known as the space-charge-limited region, since in this region of
the characteristic the magnitude of the anode current is limited in value by the
'space charge' surrounding the cathode. The diode is normally operated in this
region of the curve. Region B is known as the temperature-limited region, since in

4 Thermionic vacuum-diode characteristic this region the anode current is limited by the temperature of the cathode. load supply (a) I time Figure 10. ~ .99 Rectifiers + saturation current lAO anode voltage + Figure 10.c. The device is not normally operated in this region of the curve.£ L---~L---~~--------~~ ~ 0 + a. since doing so may result in damage to the surface of the cathode.5 Single-phase half-wave rectifier .

<.. supply. supply= V rnl 2. With a sinusoidal input 2Vm V d. . = .6 Single-phase full-wave rectifier Single-phase full-wave centre-tap circuit Diodes A and Bin figure 10. and V.c. . 1t where V mand V.636Vm= 0.------+.100 Study Notes in Electrical Science 10.: : '--------. supply voltage vm Vd.=. . output voltage.45V.m.c.9V. Owing to the cost and weight of the transformer this circuit is only used either when an unusual value of d. This circuit is also known as a biphase circuit.3 Rectifier Circuits Single-phase half-wave circuit The diode in figure 10.318Vm= 0. In the case of a sinusoidal a.c.) ci A if\!}\ 8 ~ (a) time (b) Figure 10.5 conducts when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode.= 0.c. refer to the voltage between one of the secondary-winding terminals and the centre tap. value of the a.c =mean value of the d.s.6 conduct in alternate half-cycles. supply.J ~ . V m= maximum value ofthe a.c.c. 1t where Vd.= 0.c.. voltage is required or where the load must be electrically isolated from the a.c. = r.. ensuring that the potential of terminal X is always positive with respect to Y.

and diodes C and D conduct in the other half-cycle. and diagonally opposed diodes conduct simultaneously. that is.9V.636V m = 0. diodes A and B conduct during one halfcycle of the supply waveform. = 0. The waveforms are generally like those shown in figure 10. sides of the circuit.7.g reservoir L-C filter capacitor \ \ I I \ I (a) (b) Figure 10.c supply Figure 10.c. + QJ ~ u ~ E . load a.c. Electrolytic capacitors are used both as reservoir and as filter capacitors.8).6.Rectifiers 101 + t vd. and d.7 Single-phase bridge rectifier Single-phase bridge circuit The circuit is shown in figure 10.c. Smoothing is usually brought about by using a reservoir capacitor in conjunction with some form of LC filter circuit (see figure 10. and V d. Four diodes are used.c. The circuit does not require a transformer but must not be operated with earth connections on both the a.8 Smoothing circuit Smoothing circuit The output waveform from rectifier circuits is not smooth enough for some applications.g 1~1 I [ I + time "0 0 E . .

collector p n p collector junction collector n base p base n-p-n symbol n emitter junction emitter emitter (a) (b) Figure 11.p.1 Bipolar Junction Tramoistors Construction A bipolar junction transistor (see figure 11.1 Bipolar junction transistors Basic configurations Amplifier circuits have an input terminal. The most widely used type is the n-p-n silicon transistor. and there are two types: n. Any one of the three regions of the transistor (the emitter.base junction is reverse-biased.n and p. base or collector) may be connected to the 'common' line. Each contains three regions known as the emitter. The name given to the circuit connection or configuration in which the transistor is used is that of the electrode that is connected to the common line.emitter junction is forward-biased and the collector. When the transistor is used in amplifier circuits the base.n. .11 Transistors.p. The arrow on the circuit symbols points in the direction of conventional current flow (that is.1) is formed in a single crystal of semiconductor material. the base and the collector. of hole flow). an output terminal and a 'common' connection between the input and output signals. Triodes and Amplifiers 11.

. The common-collector configuration (figure 11. power gain and input impedance.103 Transistors. All the transistors in the figure are n-p-n types. signal (a) common line collector : o~tput s1gnal (b) base common line (c) ~_e_m_it_t_er_0 output signal input o---b_a_s_e_~ signal common line Figure 11.2). input o------+. the common-base corifiguration and the common-collector corifiguration (see figure 11. The common-base configuration (figure 11.2c) has a very high input impedance. Triodes and Amplifiers Hence we have the common-emitter configuration.2b) provides reasonably high values of voltage and power gain but has a low value of input impedance.2 Transistor configurations . a very low output impedance and a voltage gain of slightly less than unity. The common-emitter configuration (figure 11. it maintains its current gain at higher frequencies than does the common-emitter configuration.2a) is the most widely used circuit and provides reasonably high values of voltage gain.

V c). I 8 ) varies with the input voltage (the base voltage. I 8 ).LA v 20 100 <i <1 E j.. 11. V c) for various values of input current (the base current. The two types are junction-gate FETs (JUGFET) and insulated-gate FETs (IGFET or M OSFET).3a. which show the way in which the input current (the base current.. are illustrated in figure 11. A family of output characteristics.104 Study Notes in Electrical Science Static characteristic curves in the common-emitter configuration Typical input characteristics.! 6 =20 f. The input resistance of both types of FET is very high. which show the way in which the output current (the collector current. are shown in figure 11... It should be noted that the value of I c increases with I 8 • 150 30 Vc =5 v Vc =10 I 6 =100 f. .3b..2 Field-effect Transistors Field-effect transistors (FETs) are so named because an electrical field (or electrical potential) controls the flow of current through the device... The output characteristics are seen to be almost parallel not only with one another but also with the base of the graph... being typically . I c) varies with the output voltage (the collector voltage..LA 0 250 500 750 0 5 15 10 V6 (mV) Vc (V) ~ ~ 20 25 Figure 11.. V 8 ) for various values of output voltage (the collector voltage.4._.m 10 50 I L .3 Common-emitter characteristics Static output characteristics in the common-base corifiguration A typical set of output characteristics (collector current plotted to a base of voltage for various values of emitter current) is shown in figure 11..

source - + (a) drain voltage (b) n -channel p -channel (C) (d) Figure 11. These transistors are generally used in applications in which this feature is of paramount importance.to..-----~----. 30- c ~::> 0 2 IE=20 rnA 20- 0 ~ 0 h =10 0 10- rnA /Ico 0--~----------.5 Junction-gate FET .4 Common-base output characteristics several hundred megohms.Transistors.~----------------~----- ". 20 10 0 collector.§. Triodes and Amplifiers 105 IE= 40 rnA 40.i .base voltage (V) Figure 11.

. The source electrode is so named because it acts as the source of charge carriers. since it points in the direction of the arrow in a conventional p-n junction diode.6 Insulated-gate FET .5b). The arrow on the symbol indicates the nature of the gate-to-channel junction. V c. This type of device is known as a depletion-mode device.5. between the p-type gate region and the n-type conducting-channel causes a depletion region to form in the channel. A reverse gate bias voltage equal to V P (the pinch-off voltage) causes the drain current to become zero. Increasing the negative value of V 0 reduces or depletes the value of the drain current (see figure 11.Study Notes in Electrical Science 106 Junction-gate F EJ's One form of JUGFET is shown in figure 11. Insulated-gate FEJ's In an IGFET the gate is insulated from the body (or substrate) of the FET by a aluminium contact (a) drain voltage (V) (b) p. an arrow pointing towards the channel indicates that the gate is of p-type material and that the channel is of n-type material. The circuit symbols for ann-channel device and a p-channel device are shown in figure 11.channel n-channel (c) (d) Figure 11. this type is known as ann-channel device since the conducting channel linking the source electrode and the drain electrode is of n-type material. and the drain is the electrode where they are 'drained' from the device.5a. The application of a reverse-bias voltage.

.3 Triodes A triode (see figure 11. Triodes and Amplifiers 107 silicon-oxide (that is. the electrodes being the anode. glass) insulating layer.6a is known asap-channel MOSFET. the cathode and the control grid.6b ). The circuit symbols in figure 11. This type of device is also described as a MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET) because of the gate-to-channel structure.7 The triode 11. When the gate voltage becomes more negative than V T• current begins to flow.6b). thus the gate voltage increases or enhances the value of the drain current (see figure 11. a p-type conducting-channel is formed between the source and drain regions. The triode is operated with its anode positive with respect to the cathode and its control grid negative with respect to the cathode. When the arrow on the symbol points towards the conducting channel it indicates that the substrate is of p-type material and that the conducting channel is of n-type material.Transistors. V a. is zero no current flows between the source and the drain (see figure 11. anode control grid ~ ~athode (a) anode voltage ( V) (b) Figure 11.6 give information about the channel type. This type of device is described as an enhancementmode device. as shown below. The application of a negative potential to the gate attracts positive charges (holes) in the substrate to the underside of the oxide layer to form an inversion channel of p-type material in the n-type substrate. When the gate voltage. The device in figure 11. Below a value of voltage known as the threshold voltage. V n no current flows between the source and drain electrodes. 7) is a three-electrode thermionic valve.

For example. For example.. This is illustrated in figure 11. the gain of a. Amplifiers are also classified by the point on the characteristic to which the electronic devices are biased as follows.8.4 Amplifiers Classification Amplifiers can be classified in many ways.c. . d.c.). they are also known as small-signal amplifiers.8 Amplifier frequency-response curves Amplifiers may also be classified according to the type of device used in them. amplifier. while thermionic amplifiers contain such devices as triodes and pentodes.c. while magnetic amplifiers contain saturable reactors and diodes.Low-:frequency amplifiers have a uniform gain at a small range of frequencies above zero frequency. Tuned amplifiers can only provide a more-or-less uniform amplification to a very narrow band of frequencies. Amplifiers may also be classified according to the band offrequencies they are capable of faithfully reproducing. they may be classified as either voltage amplifiers or power amplifiers. Power amplifiers are capable of providing a large power output but their output waveform may not be a faithful reproduction of the input signal. Voltage amplifiers are those that faithfully reproduce the input waveform but only provide a relatively small amount of power output. amplifier c g. However. amplifiers reduces rapidly at low frequencies and they are incapable of operating at zero frequency. the former being more popular). this type is sometimes described as a wide-band a. Rotating amplifiers use special types of rotating generator (which may be either d. solid-state amplifiers contain semiconductor devices.c.c. or a. D. frequency Figure 11.C.c.Study Notes in Electrical Science 108 11. amplifiers are capable of reproducing a range of frequencies down to zero frequency (d.

R L =collector-load resistor and V cc =collector-supply voltage. Many audio-frequency power-amplifiers and some radio-frequency amplifiers work in class B.9 Bipolar-transistor amplifier with fixed bias The amplifier is phase-inverting and has an effective a. The voltage gain of the amplifier is approximately equal to. The latter arises from a change in collector current . Class C: current flows in the load for less than one-half of the period of each input-signal cycle. Triodes and Amplifiers 109 Class A: current flows in the load during the whole period of the inputsignal cycle. and a variation in temperature causes the quiescent value of the collector voltage to change.h r. R 1 =base-bias resistor.9 shows a simple amplifier using a fixed-bias arrangement. Other classifications such as class AB are possible. The functions of the important components in the circuit are: TR =transistor. Tuned oscillators and some radio-frequency amplifiers work in class C. Fixed-bias small-signal amplifier using bipolar transistors Figure 11. cl input signal Figure 11. Class A amplifiers are used in tuned and untuned voltage-amplifiers and in low-power audio-frequency amplifiers.R d R in (parameter h re also is discussed in section 11. Class B: current flows in the load for one-half of the period of each inputsignal cycle.Transistors.c. C 1 and C2 =blocking capacitors. input resistance.5). Rio• whose value is equal to R 1 in parallel with parameter hie (this parameter is discussed in section 11.5). The output resistance of the circuit is approximately equal to R L· The thermal stability of this circuit is poor.

c..Rc I Riw and the output resistance is approximately equal to Rc.------o Vee (+l Figure 11. power dissipation.. . input resistance. R E> and R 1 . C 1 and C2 =blocking capacitors.110 Study Notes in Electrical Science with temperature through the transistor. C E= bypass capacitorfor the emitter resistor. Practical small-signal amplifier using bipolar transistors A circuit with improved thermal stability is shown in figure 11. For a silicon transistor the quiescent base potential is about 0. power gain. Rio• is equivalent to the parallel combination of R 1 . R 2 and hie· The voltage gain is about . etc. and the quiescent collector voltage should be about V cd2.lVceo and the quiescent base voltage is .--------.10 A practical amplifier circuit The amplifier is phase-inverting. The functions of the important components are: TR =transistor. R 2 andRE =bias and thermal-stability resistors .1 0. of the amplifier. and its a. the latter change restricts the change in collector current to a small value.c.. the over-all result being a change in the voltage gain.hc. potential across R Eis about O.Any change in the collector current due to temperature change is partially compensated for by a change in base-emitter voltage. The d.6 V.

Triodes and Amplifiers about 0. The transistor is used in an amplifier circuit like that . The quiescent collector voltage is about midway between the emitter voltage and Vee· Load-line construction for resistive loads For the circuit in figure 11. of the load line is -1/RL and that the vertical intercept.111 Transistors.( RL Ve+ RL The above equation is known as the load-line equation and shows how the collector current. c.11 Load line Example The common-emitter characteristics of a n-p-n transistor are linear over the range given in table 11. from which it can be seen that the slope.d.9 supply voltage =collector voltage+ p. load line of slope= -1/RL Vcc co I lector voltage Figure 11. I e.11. m. V e• for given values ofVee and Rvlt should be compared with the straight-line equation y = mx + c relating the variables y and x. varies with the collector voltage. is equal to VcciRL· A load line corresponding to this equation is shown in figure 11. across R L hence Vee=Ve+leRL Vee 1) le=.5 V greater than this value.1.

7 2.5 Solution From figure 11. value of the a. the characteristic for I 8 = 50 J. is 50 J.2 5.lA. If the base bias current. Table 11. R L• of 1500 Q and a collector supply voltage. V c the quiescent power dissipated by the transistor the total power dissipated in the circuit. and collector voltage. components of I c and Vc.8 3. estimate (a) (b) (c) the quiescent values of the collector current.12 quiescent collector current= I co= 2.00533 A= 5.Study Notes in Electrical Science 112 shown in figure 11.65 rnA quiescent collector voltage = V co= 4 V (b) quiescent power dissipated by the transistor =Vcof co=4 x 2.12 it can be seen that the vertical intercept of the load line on the I c axis is 8V 1500 Q = 0.05 rnA).c.65mW = 10. From figure 11. V cc• of 8 V.m. I c.5 v ---=-- and cuts the V c axis at V cc or 8 V. If a sinusoidal input-signal causes I 8 to change by± 10 J. determine the current gain of the amplifier and also the r.lA = 0.8 3.c.9 and has a collector load resistor. bias current (that is. of the circuit is given by the intersection of the load line and the static output characteristic corresponding to the d.lA.33 rnA The load line has a slope of -1 A 1500 v -1 rnA 1.6mW (a) .9 1.3 2.9 1. The quiescent point.s. I 8 .5 4. Q.8 2.1 I c (rnA) for 20 40 50 60 80 Vc=2V Vc=9V 0.

) The input signal causes I 8 to change from 50.65+0.3 20 X 10 6 = 44 6·0 5·33 5·0 .05) x 8mW =21. Triodes and Amplifiers (c) total power dissipated by the circuit =(I cQ+I 8 ) xVcc =(2.113 Transistors.2mW.:. that is.18 =0. 4·0 E c "'::>t: <.02 rnA The resulting change in I c is M c= 3.88mA Hence the current gain of the amplifier is OI c 8J B 0.6mW (Note: The total power is given approximately by I cQXVcc=21.> 2·0 1•0 0 2 4 6 collector voltage ( V) Figure 11. the change in I 8 is M 8 = 20 11A = 0..88 X 10.12 8 9 10 .10 = 40 11A to 50+ 10 = 60 JlA.06-2.> 3·0 0 u ~ 0 <.

J 2 =0.s. value of the a. input-impedance equal to R G· The voltage gain is. component of V cis 2 .311 rnA The corresponding change in V c is 0Vc=4.114 Study Notes in Electrical Science and since the input signal is sinusoidal the r.m. The following components are used: V 1 =triode valve. component of I c is given by oi c (peak-to-peak change in I c) 2. where Jl and r aare the voltage-amplification factor and slope resistance.13 A triode amplifier + 1-AA .JLRJ(r a+ RL).3 Small-signal common-cathode triode amplifier The circuit is shown in figure 11.J2 = ~~82 = 0.s.c.m. value of the a. The output resistance of the amplifier is equal to the parallel combination of R Land r a· t------Il outp~t signal C2 input voltage RG Figure 11.J2 =2.4= 1.c.7 -3. of the valve at its operating point. R K =cathode bias resistor. Cl and C2 =blocking Capacitors and C K =bypaSS Capacitor for resistor RK.13. The amplifier is phase-inverting and has an a.3 V and the corresponding r.46V 1. respectively. R a= grid resistor.c. R L=anode load resistor.

that is.2) where hi=input-resistance parameter and has dimensions of resistance h r =reverse-feedback parameter and is dimensionless h r= forward-current-gain parameter and is dimensionless ho=output-conductance parameter and has dimensions of conductance Depending on the circuit configuration used. The resulting equations can then be developed to give electrically equivalent circuits ofthe devices. other subscripts are given as follows e =common-emitter configuration . It should be noted that the equivalent circuits are only accurate over a limited range of the characteristics. input signal [2 v. common-emitter. I. In the case of bipolar transistors it has been found that the most useful set of parameters is the hybrid parameters or h-parameters. which are in the form of voltage sources (Thevenin's circuit) or current sources (Norton's circuit).v2 (11. They are defined for 'black-box' devices in figure 11.! transis1or Figure 11.14 by the equations vl =hJ1 +h. The parameters used to describe the operation of devices depend to a great extent on the ease with which they can be measured.14 )~ out put signal Transistor parameters Hybrid parameters or h-parameters The hybrid parameters are so named because the dimensions of the parameters are mixed.Transistors.5 Electronic-device Parameters and Equivalent Circuits Use of parameters Transistors can be regarded as circuit elements having a pair of input terminals and a pair of output terminals.1) l2=hrl1 +hoV2 (11. commonbase or common-collector. Triodes and Amplifiers 115 11. The relationships existing between the input and output quantities are expressed by equations that contain certain coefficients or parameters. In the case of FETs and valves other sets of parameters are used.

the equivalent input-circuit is input voltage= p.1 and 11.14 is in the common-emitter configuration.2 and 11.5. due to I 1 +voltage generator due to V 2 From equations 11.15 is derived from equations 11.+hobVc (11.2 as follows.6 the equivalent output-circuit is output current= current generator due to I 1 +current due to V2 When the bipolar transistor is used in one of its three operating modes the parameters and variables in the equivalent circuit in figure 11.2 are written V b= hie/ b+ h. From equations 11.116 Study Notes in Electrical Science b =common-base configuration c =common-collector configuration If the transistor in figure 11. lz ho v. then equations 11. then equations 11.2.5) J c= hfb/ .1 and 11.Vc (11.3) I c= hrel b+hoeVc (11.d.2 are written V..1 and 11.6) . .bVc (11.4) If the transistor is in the common-base configuration.1 and 11.15 are replaced by those in table 11. t Figure 11.15 General h-parameter equivalent circuit Equivalent circuits The equivalent circuit of the transistor is derived from the above equations.= hibl .+h. The general equivalent circuit using the h-parameters in figure 11..

Triodes and Amplifiers 117 Table 11. I.9997 -101 15 3 X 10. I.02 2.4 -0. hie hib h.99 0.. This I. hoe hi hfb hob vb Ib hec hoc In many cases the values of the parameters hi and h 0 are small enough to cause the voltage across and the current in the respective elements to be neglected. vc Ic v.0 3 X 10.15 Common-emitter Common-base Common-collector vl Il vb Ib v. he. hr ho (J.15 .3 Parameter hi(kQ) h. Vj Figure 11.0 0.LS) Common-emitter 2.Transistors.4 100 15 Common-base Common-collector 0.b hie hrc v2 I2 vc Ic h. he ho h.16 Simplified h-parameter equivalent circuit Table 11.2 Variables and Variables and parameters used in equivalent circuits parameters in figure 11.

2 respectively can be reduced to v~ =h.118 Study Notes in Electrical Science means that equations 11.3. .16.1 and 11.ll 12 =h 111 which result in the simplified equivalent circuit in figure 11. Typical parameter values for one transistor when used in the three configurations are given in table 11.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.