Study Notes in Electrical Science
Noel M. Morris
Principal Lee turer,
North Staffordshire Polytechnic

© Noel M. Morris 1977
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Multiples and Physical Constants ix basic SI units-multiples and submultiples of 10---useful physical constants-logarithms-some constants and useful relationships I Direct-current Circuits 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.Contents Preface vn Useful Examination Tips vm Quantities. Magnetic Flux and Flux Density 2.7 1. Norton's and maximum power-transfer theorems 2 Electromagnetism 2.8 Basic Electrical Quantities current-quantity-potential-resistance--energy-power Ohm's Law derived relationships Electrochemical Equivalent Thermal Energy Resistivity and Resistors resistivity-resistors in series and parallel-resistance colour code Conductance and Conductivity conductance------<:onductivity-conductances in parallel and series The Decibel determination---dBm-3 dB Circuit Theorems Kirchhoff's laws-superposition. Neumann's and Lenz's laws I 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 II 11 11 . Thevenin's.1 Magnetic Field.1 1.2 1.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's.

4 Permittivity 3.f.m. Value of an Alternating Waveform average and r. values-form and peak factors 12 13 14 16 18 21 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 30 32 32 33 .7 2.8 Induced E. induced in a coil-induced e.F.8 Voltage Distribution between Series-connected Capacitors 3.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density 3.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor basic circuit-capacitor charging and discharging 4 Alternating-current Theory 4. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field-Fleming's right-hand rule Force on a Conductor force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic fieldscrew rule-Fleming's left-hand rule Magnetic Circuits hysteresis and eddy-current losses-magnetomotive force-magnetic-field strength-magnetic leakage-permeability-reluctance-reluctances in series and parallel Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop magnetisation curve-hysteresis loop Inductance self and mutual inductances-series-connected magnetically coupled circuits-coefficient of mutual inductanceenergy stored in a magnetic field Transients in Inductive Circuits basic circuit-growth and decay of currents 3 Electrostatics 3. 7 Series-connected Capacitors 3.9 Parallel-plate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics 3.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current 3.m.1 Basic Concepts sinusoidal waveform.4 2.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor 3. Electric-field Intensity or Electric-field Strength 3.M.5 2.6 2.s.6 Parallel-connected Capacitors 3.f.3 Electric Force.S. e.5 Capacitance of Parallel-plate Capacitors 3. amplitude and 'angle of rotation'frequency-angular frequency-periodic time 4.m.2 Average Value and R.3 2.iv Contents 2.M.

C.4 Windings concentrated and distributed windings 39 42 42 45 50 52 54 54 56 58 58 58 59 61 63 64 64 65 66 66 . Equation 7.F.2 Single-excited Machines 8.1 Star-connected Systems voltage and current relationships 6.Contents v 4. Circuits 6.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer 7.2 Series Circuits power factor-Rand Lin series-Rand C in series-R.3 Transformer Efficiency copper and iron losses-condition for maximum efficiency 7.1 E. Circuits 5.5 The Transformer as an Impedance-matching Device 8 Electrical Machines 8.3 Parallel Circuits circuit containing R.power consumed in a balanced load 7 Transformers 7.4 Complex Impedances reactance-impedance of series and parallel circuits 6 Tbree-pbase A. L and C-parallel resonance 5.M.1 Types of Electrical Machine salient and cylindrical magnetic systems 8.1 Basic Circuits circuit containing R only-reactance-circuit containing L only-circuit containing C only 5.3 Double-excited Machines 8.4 Phasor Diagrams ideal and practical transformers with and without load 7. L and C in series-series resonance 5.2 Mesh-connected or Delta-connected Systems current and voltage relationships.C.3 36 Phasors and Phase Relationships phasors-phase displacement-addition and subtraction of phasors 4.4 Complex Notation operator j-rectangular and polar components-complex conjugate-operations with complex quantities 5 Single-phase A.

Schering's.the moving-coil instrument as an ohmmeterrectifier instruments 9.5 8.6 8. series and compound-wound motors Induction Motors principle-synchronous speed of the magnetic fieldfractional slip Efficiency of Electrical Machines 9 Measurements 9.p-type 10.C.C.C. series-excited and compound-wound generators Power Required to Drive a D. Bridges basic four-arm bridge-De Sauty's. Generator D. Generators separately excited.p. shunt-excited.C.1 96 Semiconductors i-type-n-type.5 Moving-iron Instruments construction and use.6 Electrodynamic Instruments 9.instrument scales 9.f.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments 9.7 8.9 A. Motors shunt. equation-methods of connection Characteristic Curves of D.methods of supporting moving systems.extending the current and voltage ranges.Contents vi 8. Motors torque equation.C.ammeters.8 The Wheatstone Bridge 9.n junction.m.principal controls 68 68 71 72 73 76 77 78 78 78 78 81 86 87 88 88 89 93 10 Rectifiers 96 10.r. Maxwell's and Hay's bridges 9. Zener and thermionic diodes 96 .1 Analog and Digital Instruments 9. screen.9 8.4 Moving-coil Instruments or Galvanometers construction and uses.face-plate starter Characteristic Curves of D.10 8.3 Analog Indicating Instruments controlling and damping forces. Machines e. Potentiometer 9.t.11 D.C.C.2 Rectifiers diode characteristics.8 8.7 The D.10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope electron gun-electron lens system-deflection systemc.voltmeters 9.

Triodes and Amplifiers 11.3 11. This book provides the reader with a summary of the work in electrical science and principles.basic configurations.2 11. Meir Heath NOEL M.equivalent circuits 102 104 107 108 115 Preface This book is a collection of notes and essential diagrams for the study of the subjects of electrical science and electrical principles in T.common-emitter and common-base characteristics Field-effect Transistors junction-gate and insulated-gate FETs Triodes Amplifiers classification. courses. allowing him to streamline the activities that lead to his final goal.C. City and Guilds of London Institute courses.N.1 11.4 11. O. and O. MORRIS .small-signal amplifiers with bipolar transistors -load line.E. Present-day syllabuses place an immense burden on students. I should like to express my gratitude to my wife for the assistance she has given during the preparation of this book.Contents Vll 10.hybrid parameters.N. Thanks are also due to the Macmillan production and editorial stafffor their guidance and help during the production of the book.C. and sciencebased 0-level and A-level subjects.3 Rectifier Circuits single-phase half-wave.small-signal common-cathode triode amplifier Electronic-device Parameters and Equivalent Circuits use of parameters. The treatment is abbreviated and is produced in the most economical form possible. courses.D. who have also to deal with advances in technology. full-wave and bridge circuitssmoothing circuit 102 11 Transistors.5 100 Bipolar Junction Transistors construction.

Estimate the time allowed for each question or. alternatively. drawing instruments. 8.Useful Examination Tips 1. Be in the examination room at least ten minutes before the start of the examination. Spend several minutes reading through the examination paper before starting your solutions. into the examination room with you. Find out. pens. 5. 7. on which you can indicate the days when you intend to deal with each subject area). leave sufficient space at the end of it in case you wish to add to it later. 6. If you wish to use a portable electronic hand-held calculator. Clearly number each question in the answer book as you begin it. carefully check your solutions before leaving the room. 4. estimate the time required to obtain each 'mark'. Do not spend an excessive time on sections you prefer to answer at the expense of topics you find more difficult. 9. Take pencils. Make your drawings large enough to show all necessary detail. . 3. 2. Remember. 10. the time and place of the examination. this allows time to fill in particulars on the answer paper. at the earliest moment. Make sure that you understand the type of solution required. and also the order in which you will attempt them. If you complete your solutions before the allotted time has elapsed. etc. If you are unable to complete a question. check that the examination regulations permit its use. Start revision well before the examination date (it is often helpful to work out a revision 'timetable'. A tube of your favourite mints or barley sugar can provide refreshment and aid concentration. Mark on the question paper the problems you are going to attempt..an electronic calculator can sometimes provide wrong results more quickly than any other known method! Take a slide rule into the examination with you in case the calculator develops a fault.

l n p f a micro nano pico femto atto 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 . (} D.L m t I T I a.w Unit Unit symbol metre kilogram second ampere kelvin candela radian steradian m kg s A K cd rad sr Multiples and submultiples of 10 Symbol Prefix T G M k m tera giga mega kilo milli Multiple 1012 109 106 103 10-3 Symbol Prefix Multiple J. Multiples and Physical Constants Basic SI units Quantity Symbol length mass time current absolute temperature luminous intensity plane angle solid angle l. p.Quantities.

7 H/m 8. waves in a vacuum permeability of free space permittivity of free space e me mP mn c flo to Value -1.3026 log 10 N Note: log 10 is sometimes written as lg and loge is sometimes written as In (=natural logarithm).2958° = 57o 17' 45" 1o = 0.673 x w. loga m = Iogb m x loga b = Iogb mjlogb a n = 3.31 kg 1.19 c 9.602 x w. bases and logarithms is number (antilogarithm)= base (logarithm) log 10 e = 0.4343 log 10 N = 0.675 x w.Quantities. Multiples and Physical Constants X Useful physical constants Symbol Constant electron charge electron rest-mass proton rest-mass neutron rest-mass speed of e.27 kg 1.15oC 273.15 K = 0 oc .01745 rad OK= -273.3026 logeN = 2.14159 360degrees = 2n radians 1 rad = 360/21t 0 = 57. 71828 The general relationship between numbers (or antilogarithms).m.998 x 108 mjs 4n X 10.12 Fjm Some Constants and Useful Information base of natural logarithms= e = 2.109 x w.854 x 10.4343 logeN loge 10 = 2.27 kg 2.

1 Basic Electrical Quantities Electrical current Symbol I. Electrical potential Symbol E.d. The unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (symbol Q).d. Electrical energy Symbol W The joule (unit symbol J) or watt second is the energy dissipated in a conductor when a p. The ampere (unit symbol A) is the current that.d. W = EI t joules or watt seconds . and when a current of 1 A flows through a conductor of resistance 1 Q the p. The coulomb (unit symbol C) is the quantity of electricity passing a point in a circuit when a current of 1 A flows for 1 s.2 J!N) per metre length. Electrical quantity Symbol Q. The volt (unit symbol V) is the potential difference (p.7 N (0. Q =It coulombs where I is in amperes and t in seconds.) that exists between two points on an electrical conductor that carries a current of 1 A.J Direct-current Circuits 1. when the electrical resistance between the two points is 1 n. produces between the conductors a force of 2 x 10. Electrical resistance Symbol R. when flowing in each of two infinitely long parallel conductors that are of negligible cross-section and are placed 1m apart in a vacuum. between the ends of the conductor is 1 V. of 1 V causes a current of 1 A to flow for 1 s.

6 M1 Hence kWh= 1/(3. P =.e. which is 1 kWh= 1000 x 60 x 601 = 36000001 = 3. The commercial 'unit' of electrical energy is the kilowatt hour (unit symbol kWh= 1000 watt hour). I= current (A) and t =time (s).= EI watts or JOules/second t t where E is in volts. The electrochemical equivalent (e.6 X 106 ) Electrical power Symbol P. Hence m=Zit grams . and the unit is the watt (unit symbol W) or joule per second.grams/coulomb It where m =mass of substance liberated (g). W Eit .2 Ohm's Law E=IR volts where I is in amperes and R in ohms. I in amperes and t in seconds. Power is the rate of expending energy or of doing work.= . m Z =.3 Electrochemical Equivalent Symbol Z. Derived relationships E2 P=EI=I 2 R=-watts R E 2t W=Eit = 12 Rt =R joules 1.Study Notes in Electrical Science 2 where E is in volts. 1.) of a substance is the mass of the substance that is either deposited or liberated by the passage of 1 C of electricity. I in amperes and t in seconds.c.

a= area (m 2 ) of the conductor and p =resistivity (Qm) of the material..+ .. Hence Ra p =-1.4 Thermal Energy Symbol Q. 1. c =specific heat capacity of the substance (1/g K or kJ/kg K) and oe =temperature change (K).5 Resistivity and Resistors Resistivity Symbol p.ohms. of parallel-connected resistors is 1 1 1 1 1 . R.+ .+ .ohm metres Resistors in series The equivalent resistance. R. + . The energy gained or lost by a mass of substance when its temperature is changed is Q = m x c x 00 joules where m =mass of the substance (g).Direct-current Circuits 3 1. Resistance colour code An international colour code used to identify the values of certain types of resistor . R R1 R 2 R3 The equivalent resistance of two parallel-connected resistors is R= R 1 R 2 ohms Rl +Rz Note: The equivalent (or effective) resistance of parallel-connected resistors is always less than the lowest value in the set. The resistance of a conductor can be given by pi R=.1 R.ohms a where I= length (m) of the conductor. of series-connected resistors is Resistors in parallel The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance.= .

E. The mnemonic is reproduced by kind permission of J.E. M.1..I.E..ot 20 10 0. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance and its unit is the siemen (unit symbol S).1. W. . 1st significant figure 2nd significant figure decimal multiplier Figure 1. M.1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 0 1 2 Bye bye Rosie off you go Bristol via Great Western Decimal multiplier 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 is listed in table 1.E.I.R.Sc.6 Conductance and Conductivity Conductance Symbol G.1 Colour no band silver gold black brown red orange yellow green blue violet grey white Mnemonic Significant figure Tolerance (%) O.1 tolerance Resistor colour code 1. B. Machin.Eng. C.. which also includes a useful mnemonic to aid recollection of the sequence of colours. The coding method for resistors with axial leads is shown in figure 1.Study Notes in Electrical Science 4 Table 1.

The ratio of power levels P2 and P 1 expressed in the decibel notation is X= 10 log 10 p 2 decibels PI If P 1 is dissipated in resistor R 1 and P 2 is dissipated in resistor R 2 . 7 The Decibel Determination The decibel (unit symbol dB) is a logarithmic ratio of two power values. of series-connected conductances is 1 1 1 1 -=-+-+-+ G G 1 G 2 G3 I 1 . that is . G. . +-siemensG" The equivalent conductance of two series-connected conductances is G = G1G2 Gl +G2 siemens 1. Conductivity Symbol rr.5 Direct-current Circuits 1 . . 1 rr =-(ohm metres). G.1 p Conductances in parallel The equivalent conductance. where V1 and V 2 are the voltages developed across R 1 and R 2 respectively. then P 1 =V1 2 / R 1 and P 2 =V2 2 /R 2 . + G" siemens Conductances in series The reciprocal of the equivalent conductance. of parallel-connected conductances is G = G 1 + G 2 + G 3 + . G=R siemens where R is in ohms. The conductivity of a substance is the reciprocal of its resistivity.

52 dB X= 20 log 10 0.414. Solution (a) (b) X= 20 log 10 15 = 20 x 1.707 of its original value.1.1761 = 23. Thus in (b) above X= 20 log 10 0. the decibel ratio is more easily obtained as follows. R.9031) = 20 x ( -1 +0. 3dB A reduction in gain of 3 dB represents a reduction in power by one-half or a reduction in voltage to 0.8. multiply this value by 20 to give the correct decibel ratio. Determine the logarithm of the inverse of the ratio.8 = -20 X 0.25 0.lfV2 <V1 .0969) = . IfV2 =V1 . Similarly. then X has a positive value._/V2 ) and assign a negative sign to it. the value oflog 10 ( lr. .938 dB Important note: When dealing with a voltage ratio whose value is less than unity.8 = 20 x (1.938 dB dBm A datum power level frequently used is 1 mW (dBm). Example Determine the logarithmic power ratio in decibels for a circuit in which the ratio V 2 /V1 is (a) 15 and (b) 0. that is. dectbels (v2) -10 loglO (R2) = 20 loglO Vl In most electrical circuits the second term in the above expression is ignored (even though its value may be high) and the power ratio is generally expressed in the form X= 20 log 10 (~:) decibels Note: IfV2 >V1 .8 = -20 log 10 ( -1-) = -20 log 10 1. then X has a negative value.1.9031) = 20 X ( .6 Study Notes in Electrical Science . then X =0dB. and a power value of P milliwatts is said to have a level of 10 log 10 P decibels relative to 1 mW.0.0969 = . an increase in gain of 3 dB represents a doubling of power or an increase in voltage by a factor of 1.

f.2b in the direction ABCDA gives E1 -IR 1 -IR 2 -E 2 -IR 3 =0 or . (b) second law Hence in figure 1. (b) (a) Figure 1. the algebraic sum of the currents flowing towards the node is zero.2 Kirchhoff's laws: (a) first law.8 Circuit Theorems Kirchhoff's first law The total current flowing towards a junction or node in a circuit is equal to the total current flowing away from the node.2a or Therefore at node N 1:1=0 Kirchhoff's second law In any closed circuit the algebraic sum of the potential drops is equal to the algebraic sum of the e.s acting in that loop. Proceeding around figure 1.m. that is.7 Direct-current Circuits 1.

where Jl =14+(-/9)=/4-/9 12=(-/6)+/7= -16+17 13=ls+ls The'venin's theorem Any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by a voltage-source equivalent . Superposition theorem In any network containing a number of sources of e.2b.m. Then proceed around the selected circuit.f. all other sources of e.. the resultant current is the algebraic sum of the currents that would be produced by each e. -IR 2 . Thus.s is zero.3a can be considered to be the sum of the currents in figures 1.m.f. In the case of resistors the potential arrow always opposes the direction of current flow.8 Study Notes in Electrical Science Therefore around the loop A useful technique when dealing with Kirchhoff's second law is as follows.m. when moving along the path ABCDA in figure 1. and assign a 'plus' sign to the voltages associated with a potential arrow pointing in the direction being followed and a 'minus' sign to those associated with a potential arrow pointing in the reverse direction.f. Mark a 'potential' arrow against each component on the diagram. (a) (b) Figure 1. the potentials are+ E 1 followed by -JR 1 .3 (c) Superposition theorem Thus the current distribution in the circuit in figure 1.3b and c. .f. acting alone.m. being replaced meanwhile by their respective internal resistances.d.E 2 and -JR 3 • Since the loop starts and finishes at the same point the sum of these e. the arrowhead pointing towards the end with the most positive potential.s and p.

Direct-current Circuits 9 network having an e. and G is the conductance of the network measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal voltage-sources meanwhile replaced by their conductances. G. and R is the resistance of the network measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal voltage-sources meanwhile replaced by their internal resistances. Relationship between Thevenin's and Norton's equivalent circuits For the circuits in figures 1. Thus the network in figure 1.4 ! Thevenin's theorem Norton's theorem Any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by a current-source equivalent network having an internal current source.I--~----~----~..5 1 R=G I E=IR=- G . Thus the network in figure 1.m.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1. The value of E is equal to the no-load voltage appearing between the two terminals of the network.4b. R. r---------------l I I I I I I I I I I I .4 and 1. E.5. shunted by a conductance. i 1£ 6s 1 l ______________ . I.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1.f.J L ______________ J (b) (a) Figure 1. The value of I is equal to the current that would flow through a short-circuit applied to the two terminals of the network. and internal resistance.

.c.5 Norton's theorem Maximum power-transfer theorem In a d. circuit.Study Notes in Electrical Science 10 current source Figure 1. the condition for maximum power to be transferred from a source into a load is that the value of the load resistance must be equal to the internal resistance of the source.

Lenz's law The induced e.1 Magnetic Field.2 Electromagnetism 2. 2. Neumann's law The magnitude of the induced e.) If free to move.f. (Note: A N-pole is a north-seeking pole.m.m. . B=cPT a where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes perpendicular to the direction of the flux. the N-pole would trace out a path known as a line of magnetic flux (the symbol of magnetic flux is cP ). The flux density (symbol B) is the amount of flux passing through an area of 1m2 that is perpendicular to the direction of the flux.f.m. Magnetic Flux and Flux Density A magnetic field is established around a conductor that carries current.f.f. The unit of measurement of magnetic flux is the weber (unit symbol Wb). is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux linking the circuit. Its unit of measurement is the tesla (unit symbol T).m. is established in a circuit whenever the magnetic field linking that circuit is changed. The 'direction' of action of the magnetic field at a point is taken to be that of the force experienced by an isolated N-pole placed at that point. acts to circulate a current in a direction that opposes the change in the flux that induced the e.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's law An induced e.

F.la).mf. E.3 Induced E. ifJ ---- ---- ---- ---- (b) (a) Figure 2. induced in a conductor If the conductor moves at angle lJ to the line of action ofthe flux (see figure 2. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field dcP e=-=Blv V dt where dcP/dt =rate (Wb/s) at which the conductor cuts the flux.M.F.F. Induced e.1 E.Study Notes in Electrical Science 12 2. l =active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field and v =velocity (m/s) of the conductor perpendicular to the direction of the flux. B =flux density (T) of the magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion (see figure 2.M. induced in a coil dcP e=N-V dt where N =number of turns of wire on the coil and dcP /dt =rate of change (Wb/s) of the magnetic flux linking with the coil. then e=Blvsin lJV .M.1 b).

. Examples of the application of this rule are illustrated in figure 2..:.. A dot on the conductor symbolises current coming out of the paper. // ~----------........1.m. that is. in a clockwise direction when viewed from the head of the screw......mf..first finger _... I= current (A) and 1=active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field.. and a cross symbolises current entering the page.__. thuMb---direction of Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux.:...13 Electromagnetism Fleming's right-hand rule (for the direction of the induced e.4 Force on a Conductor Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field F=BIIN where B =flux density (T). ... """'"" // thumb //~otion of r<+... .2 Fleming's right-hand rule 2.. Screw rule (for the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor) If we imagine a screw with a right-handed thread to be pointing in the direction of current flow....) Referring to figure 2.2 First finger-1iirection of the magnetic Flux sEcond finger-1iirection of induced E... 1 1 : 1 I conductor relative to magnetic flux I I I I I I L-----------second finger Figure 2............f... then in order to propel the screw forwards (in the direction of the current flow) the head of the screw must be turned in the direction of action of the magnetic field.

5 Magnetic Circuits Hysteresis loss and eddy-current loss hysteresis loss= PhocfBmax" W /m 3 where!= supply frequency.u E / 'ii I I I ) /// // _____________________ _y / "CI // / ..2 (a typical value is 1. ---------------------~ ' direction of the /' / / /I I I I : '/ I f--------:------l""{ thumb 1 1 force on the conductor I I I I --- I I I Q) £ 0 c .direction of the Current in the conductor thuMb-direction of the Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux.~c.: Figure 2..6-2. ~ .ocPBmax2 W/m 3 . c 8 go Q) Ill.Study Notes in Electrical Science 14 rt- \_<$'c.. it may be useful to recall that in Great Britain all motors drive on the left-hand side of the road. Referring to figure 2. Bmax= maximum flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1. 2.. eddy current loss=P.3 Fleming's left-hand rule Fleming's left-hand rule (for the direction of the force acting on a current-carrying conductor) Since this rule refers to motor action.7)..2 ~ I c ~ t.3 First finger-direction of the magnetic Flux seCond finger.

) causes the magnetic flux to be produced by a coil and is measured in ampere turns (unit symbol At) or amperes.f.f.25. It is accounted for in calculations by means of a leakage coefficient. Magnetic leakage: fringing Not all the magnetic flux developed by the solenoid follows the 'useful' path. Magnetic-field strength Symbol H. J1o=4nx 10. k ffi . The flux that fails to follow the 'useful' path is said to be leakage flux or fringing flux.7 H/m Also J1 = JloJlr H/m where J1 r= relative permeability of the material and is dimensionless. is constant.It can be empirically allowed for by adding about 10-20 per cent to the calculated value of m.m. It is also known as the magnetic-field intensity and as the magnetising force.f. Permeability B=J1H T where J1 =absolute permeability of the magnetic material and is measured in henrys/metre (unit symbol H/m).15-1. The permeability of free space. The magnetomotive force (m. F NI H =T=-1-At/m or A/m where l =length (m) of the magnetic circuit. where . fl. . This is the m. F=Nl At or A where I= current (A) in the coil and N =number of turns on the coil. J1 0 .15 Electromagnetism M agnetomotive force Symbol F.m. total magnetic flux produced magnetic-1ea rage coe ctent = f I . per unit length.m. use u magnetic ux In efficient magnetic circuits the value ofthis coefficient is in the range 1.

=absolute permeability of the magnetic circuit.16 Study Notes in Electrical Science Reluctance magnetomotive force re1uctance = S = .rJl. . then at high values of H the slope of the curve reduces. H. Ultimately.) Reluctances in series and in parallel The analogy between magnetic and electrical circuits is sufficiently close to allow techniques to be used with magnetic circuits that are similar to those used with electrical circuits. for the material. .4. + S" A/Wb For two branches in parallel effective reluctance = SS 1882 A/Wb 1 + 2 2.) If l = length of the magnetic circuit. a = area of the magnetic circuit and J1. magnetic flux F =- 1/J At/Wb or A/Wb (Compare this with Ohm's law for the electrical circuit: R = E/ 1.oa (Compare this with the expression for electrical resistance: R = plja.6 Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop Magnetisation curve or B-H curve This curve shows the relationship between the flux density. when the material is magnetically saturated the only increase in B is that which would occur for a non-magnetic material for the same increase in H. For reluctances in series effective reluctance= S 1 + S 2 + S 3 + . then Hence 1 -A/Wb S=Jl. and magnetising force. . Curves for three ferromagnetic materials are illustrated in figure 2. B. The value of B increases rapidly at first.

B .. .H loop is known as a hysteresis loop (see figure 2..5 by the remanent flux density.4 B-H curves Hysteresis loop or B-H loop When the magnetising force suffers two complete reversals the resulting closed B. This is indicated on curve A in figure 2. c -8 " ~ 0•8 0·4 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 mognetising force. In materials used for permanent magnets a high retentivity is desirable. The residual magnetism is reduced to zero by applying a reverse magnetising force.. the retained magnetism being a measure of the material's retentivity or residual magnetism.17 Electromagnetism 2·0 1·6 1- 1·2 ll:J ~ ·. known as the coercive force. H c· Materials having a high remanence (about 1 T) and a high coercivity (about 50000A/m) are described as magnetically hard materials and are suitable for permanent magnets. When the magnetising force is reduced to zero the material retains some of its magnetism. H (A/m) Figure 2.5).

m. of 1 Vis induced in the circuit when the current in the circuit changes at the rate of 1 A/s. which must lose their magnetism when the magnetising force is removed.7 Inductance Self inductance Symbol£.f. 2.f.Study Notes in Electrical Science 18 0·4 -80 -60 -40 -20 20 40 60 Hx 80 103 (A/m) -0·4 -0·8 Figure 2. Self-induced e.5 Hysteresis loops Electromagnets. is given by di e =L x rate of change of current =L dt V . These materials are described as magnetically soft materials. transformer steel being an example. and a circuit has a self inductance of 1 H if an e. need to have a high value of saturation flux-density together with low coercivity. Inductance is measured in henrys (unit symbol H).m.

~/ ' I .m..' .-.6 Mutual inductance IS . ...f. in which case L = N<P = NBa = N}lHa I I I Now NI H=1 or HI I=N Therefore leokoge flux I --..-------------A r---+'---P--P-.19 Electromagnetism where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at time t(s).3 that the e. Hence For a magnetic circuit having a constant value of reluctance the flux proportional to the exciting current. induced in a coil is also d<P e=N-V dt where N =number of turns on the coil and d<P/dt =rate of change (Wb/ s) of the magnetic flux.:. It was shown in section 2. Figure 2.

m.inductance x primary current udi1 dt =1v1-V Also e2 _ number of turns on the x rate of change of secondary flux secondary winding - d<P2 -V =N 2 dt Hence or d<P2 A1=N2-d. the total inductance is as follows. having a mutual inductance A1.6. Two coils are said to be mutually coupled when the magnetic flux produced by one coil (the primary coil) causes an e.6 produces flux <P 1 and if a flux k<P 1 (where k < 1) links with the secondary circuit. then A1 = k . to be induced in the other (secondary) coil. H ll Series-connected magnetically coupled circuits For two series-connected coils of inductances L 1 and L 2 respectively. where coil A is the primary and coil B the secondary coil. (See figure 2.f.20 Study Notes in Electrical Science A1utual inductance Symbol A1..m.2A1 Coefficient of mutual inductance or coupling coefficient If the primary circuit in figure 2. is rate of change of _ mutual e 2 .) The secondary induced e.} (L 1 L 2) .f. Series-aiding total inductance =L 1 +L 2 + 2A1 Series-opposing total inductance =L 1 +L 2 .

7a.8 Transients in Inductive Circuits Basic circuit The basic circuit is shown in figure 2. Growth of current When the switch is in position A (see figure 2.L is in henrys and R is in ohms.71828.7b) the time constant is given by L T=-s R Then E i=-(1-e-'11) R where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2. initial rate of rise of current= (E/R)/T= E/ L Ajs final value ofcurrent=E/RA time taken for current to reach 0.99E/R =4. Hence di1 e2 = M dt = k di1 J (L 1 L 2 ) x dt V Energy stored in a magnetic field energy stored= W = !L 12 J where£= self inductance (H) of the inductor and I= current (A) in the inductor windings.6Ts .21 Electromagnetism where k =coefficient of mutual inductance and L 1 and L 2 =self inductance (H) of the primary and secondary circuits respectively. and the differential equation of the circuit IS where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at timet (s). 2.

I (s) T (c) Figure 2.7 Rise and decay of current in an inductive circuit: (a) basic circuit.2Ts current after T seconds= 0. then i=Ie-<ITA . switch in position A.7c).lE/R to 0.63E/ R A voltage across R = iR = E(l-e -<IT) V voltage across L = E. switch in position B Decay of current If the circuit current has the value I when the switch is moved from A to B (see figure 2.22 Study Notes in Electrical Science rise time of current= time taken for current to rise from O.iR = E e -</TV ~ c 0·63 _RE ~ "u 0 time. I (s) (b) I 4 c ~ ~ u initial slope o- I/T A/s 0·37! 0 time.9E/R =2. (c) decay of current. (b) growth of current.

37 I A voltage across R=IRe-r/Ty voltage across L =-IRe -r/T V 23 .2Ts current after T seconds= 0.11 =2.9I to 0.Electromagnetism initial rate of fall of current= I /T A/s final value of current = 0 time taken for current to fall to 0.01 I =4.6Ts fall time of current= time taken for current to fall from 0.

where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes. that is. Experiments show that the electric charge stored by a capacitor is Q = CVcoulombs where C is in farads (unit symbol F) and V in volts.3 Electrostatics 3. 3. Hence 'P=QC Practical units of electric flux are microcoulombs ( lJ.6 C) and picocoulombs (1 pC = 10. dq. That is. The electric flux density (symbol D) is the amount of electric flux passing through unit area. P (pronounced 'psi') units of flux emanate from Q coulombs.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current The capacitance (symbol C) of a capacitor is an indication of its ability to store an electric charge. occurs in time dt. From this relationship.tC = 10.12 C). capacitor current is given by dv i=Cdt = C x rate of change of capacitor voltage . then dq =idt=Cdv where i =instantaneous value of the capacitor current (A) and dv =change in voltage (V) across the capacitor.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density One unit of electric flux (symbol P) emanates from unit charge. when a small change in charge.

. The electric force or electric-field intensity at any point in a dielectric is equal to the mechanical force experienced by a unit positive electric charge placed at that point. - • X electnc flux ' N ·' d•eleclfiC + v Figure 3. and electric field strength.. it experiences a force.1.. In the capacitor in figure 3. D.. which is towards plateN and away from plate P..- oreo a . plole of .4 Permittivity The relationship between electric flux density. p . . E..3 Electric Force. is D=EEC/ m 2 where E =absolute permittivity of the dielectric material and has dimensions of . ~ d -j .._ ..1 where d =distance (m) between the electrodes. we say that the direction of the electric force in that dielectric acts from P to N. Electric-field Intensity or Electric-field Strength Symbol E...1 Parallel-plate capacitor 3. but since it can be shown that this is equivalent to volts per metre (V / m).. electric force is quoted in volts per metre..25 Electrostatics 3. Electric stress or potential gradient have the same dimensions and also are assigned the symbol E. The dimensions of electric force are newtons per coulomb (N/ C). If a unit positive charge is placed at point X in figure 3. 1: .

than in the case when air is used as the dielectric. When an insulating material such as oil is used as the dielectric the flux density is larger.5 Capacitance of Parallel-plate Capacitors For the capacitor in figure 3. The absolute permittivity of an insulating material is given by £=£ 0 £rF/m where £.854 x 10. For ann-plate capacitor (see figure 3.2) having (n-1) identical dielectrics.12 F /m The permittivity of air is about 0. and for all practical purposes the two values of permittivity are taken to be equal. of the dielectric material. a= cross-sectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material and d =distance (m) between the electrodes. and d =thickness of the dielectric between the plates. respectively. where £0 = 8. Thus a dielectric (other than air) in an electric field has the same effect as does iron in a magnetic field.=relative permittivity of the material and is dimensionless. of a vacuum) is a constant given the special symbol £0 . the capacitance is C = (n-l)w d = (n-l)fofra d F where a =cross-sectional area of one of the dielectrics.2 Multiple-plate capacitor .06 per cent greater than that of free space. 3.26 Study Notes in Electrical Science farads per metre (F /m).1 where £ and £r= absolute and relative permittivities (F /m). dielectric Figure 3. as is the capacitance of the capacitor. The permittivity offree space (that is.

Q = C 1V1 = C 2V2 . V = QdC 1 = Q2 /C 2 . For the special case of two series-connected capacitors C= c1c2 cl +C2 F Note: The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is less than the capacitance of the smallest individual capacitor in the circuit.Electrostatics 27 l 1 v v (a) c (b) Figure 3. +_!__F-t c C1 C 2 c.. 3. is C=C 1 +C 2 F For n parallel-connected capacitors C=C 1 +C 2 + ..3.3 Parallel-connected capacitors 3. C.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each capacitor carries the same value of charge (since the same value of current flows through each for the same length of time). .F Note: The equivalent capacitance of parallel-connected capacitors is greater than the capacitance of the largest individual capacitor in the circuit. is _!__=2_+2_+ . etc. etc. that is.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each capacitor is charged to the same potential.7 Series-connected Capacitors (See figure 3. that is.4. The reciprocal of the equivalent capacitance. +C.6 Parallel-connected Capacitors (See figure 3. C.. The equivalent capacitance..

.. which is in series with capacitor C 2 . The equivalent capacitance of the two in series is c clc2 F C 1 +C2 ..5 can be regarded as though it were the dielectric of a capacitor C 1 ...4 Series-connected capacitors 3.. 3.l l l t . which has Y of thickness d2 as its dielectric.. so that the greatest voltage appears across the capacitor with the smallest capacitance in the circuit.8 Voltage Distribution between Seri~onnected Capacitors If the voltage across n series-connected capacitors is V.9 Parallel-plate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics The dielectric X of thickness d 1 in figure 3.28 Study Notes in Electrical Science c1 - r----<1~ . then the voltage across one of the capacitors in a chain of n series-connected capacitors is where C =equivalent capacitance of the series-connected capacitors.1 s v1 v (a) c v (b) Figure 3. V =voltage across the series-connected capacitors and C11 =capacitance of the gth capacitor._.. Note: V11 oc 1/C11 .

. If the applied voltage is V.y= relative permittivities of X and Y respectively.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor energy stored = W = !CV2 J where C =capacitance (F) of the capacitor and V =potential (V) between the plates of the capacitor.29 Electrostatics area=A v (a) c. then the electric-field strengths in X and Y are respectively and where £rx and f. 3.. Cz ----~•~•------~n~--(b) Figure 3. A being the cross-sectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material.5 Capacitor with a composite dielectric where C 1 = £A/d 1 and C 2 = £A/d 2 .

=-£/T V/s 0·37£ 0 time.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor Basic circuit The circuit diagram is shown in figure 3. (b) rise of voltage across capacitor. switch in position B 3. and the differential equation of the circuit is . t (s) T (C) Figure 3.6a.Study Notes in Electrical Science 30 R A C r---. switch in position A. dvc E=zR+vc=RC-+vc dt .~~~------~+J (a) 0 T=CR time.6 Charge and discharge of a capacitor: (a) basic circuit. t (s) (b) £ ~ ~ initial slope. (c) decay of voltage across capacitor.

6b) the time constant is given by T=RCs where R is in ohms and C in farads.01£ = 4.63E V vR=E-vc=Ee-'iTV i= vR= E e-'ITA R R Capacitor-discharge If the capacitor is fully charged when the switch is moved to position B (that is.9E =2.lE =2.2Ts Vc after T seconds =0.31 Electrostatics Capacitor-charging When the switch is in position A (see figure 3.2Ts v c after T seconds = 0. initial rate of rise of Vc= E/T V/s final value ofvc=EV time taken for v c to reach 0.37EV VR= -Vc= -Ee-t/Ty i= vR= R -~e-'ITA R .99 E = 4. Then vc= E(l-e -t/1) V where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2.6c.lE to 0.6Ts rise time of Vc= time taken for Vc to rise from O. as in figure 3. Vc= E when t = 0).71828. then Vc=Ee-t/Ty initial rate of fall ofvc= -E/T V/s final value of v c = 0 time taken for Vc to fall to 0.6Ts fall time of Vc= time taken for Vc to fall from 0.9E to O.

the angle measured from the start of the cycle). at any point in time is i =I msinO where (}='angle of rotation' (that is. Sinusoidal waveform. and the first negative peak-value.I m.4 Alternating-current Theory 4. one cycle Figure 4. having positive polarity during one part of its cycle and negative polarity in the remainder.1) is one whose amplitude varies sinusoidally with time. The instantaneous value. I m• occurs 90° after the start of the cycle. i. amplitude and 'angle of rotation' A sinusoidal current waveform (see figure 4.1 ·I Sinusoidal current waveform ..1 Basic Concepts An alternating signal (which can be either a voltage or a current) periodically reverses its direction. occurs at 270°. The first positive peak-value.

Alternating-current Theory

33

Frequency

Symbol f The frequency of a periodic waveform is the number of cycles it
completes per second. The unit is the hertz (unit symbol Hz).
Angular frequency

Symbol w. Since a complete cycle is equivalent to a 'rotational' angle of 360° or 2n
radians, the angular frequency of a sinusoidal waveform is
w = 2nfrad/s

where f is in hertz. The 'angle of rotation', (), after t seconds is
() = wt rad

The equation for the waveform in figure 4.1 may therefore be written

i =I msinwt
Periodic time of a complete cycle

Symbol T. This is the time taken to complete one cycle of a periodic waveform,
measured in number of seconds (or fraction of a second).
1

T=-S

f

For a sinusoidal waveform

1

21t

T=-=-s

f

(lJ

4.2 Average Value and R.M.S. Value of an Alternating Waveform

Average value or mean value

In engineering practice the mean value, 1•., of an alternating waveform is defined
as the average value under one-halfof the waveform. The reason for this is that the
mathematical average area under the complete cycle is zero (since the area under
the positive half-cycle is equal to that under the negative half-cycle).
The average value can be determined either graphically or analytically; in the
latter case it is necessary to know the equation of the waveform.
(1) Graphical determination. The mid-ordinate method of determining
the area under a curve is illustrated in figure 4.2.
1av= average length of the mid-ordinates
il + i2 + i3 + ... +in
=
n

Study Notes in Electrical Science

34

'E

~~~~~~~~~~-+----------------+­
::>

u

Figure 4.2

Graphical determination of average value and r.m.s. value

where n =number of mid-ordinates.
(2)

Analytical determination.
1 av= average value taken over one half-cycle

1

In

=-; Jo

idO or

1

IT/2

T/ 2 Jo idt

The average value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value
1m is

21m
1m [ 1-(-1) ] =-=0.6371m
=n
n
Root-mean-square value or effective value

The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value, 1, of an alternating waveform is its effective
value and is calculated in terms of its heating effect in an electrical circuit.
r.m.s. value= square root of the mean of the sum of the
squares of the instantaneous values
The value is usually computed over a complete cycle but can also be calculated
over a half-cycle period.

Alternating-current Theory

35

(1) Graphical determination.
value is

For the waveform in figure 4.2 the r.m.s.

I=JC 1 2 +i 2 2 +i 3 :+

... +i/)

where n =number of mid-ordinates.
(2)

Analytical determination.

I=

.j (average value under the current 2-time graph)

The r.m.s. value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value I m
IS

I=

=
=

J(2

1n

J:n (I

JG: J:n
J(~: [

m

sin0) 2 dO)

sin 2 0d0 )=

JG: J:n

O-tsin20 J:n)=

t(l-cos20)d0)

~; =0.707I

m

Form factor

For any alternating waveform
c
c
r.m.s. value
1orm 1actor = - - - - = - average value

For a sinusoidal waveform
form factor=

0.707I m
0.637I m

1.11

Peak factor

For any alternating waveform
!"
maximum value
pea k 1actor = - - - - - r.m.s. value

For a sinusoidal waveform

Im

peak factor = 0 70

. 1I m

= 1.414

m... we say that the current leads the voltage by angle ¢. the length of the phasor is shown as either 0.. which is the line scaled down to its r.. that is.4 is ¢. value. The phase displacement or phase-angle difference between the current and voltage in figure 4. The expression describing the current waveform in figure 4.c. and is drawn in the direction assumed by the rotating line at time t = 0. we may say that the voltage lags the current by angle ¢. To indicate the fact that the current waveform in figure 4. __ /1 _.-"" / / / Figure 4.. \ '. Alternatively.m.3 Phasors and Phase Relationships Phasors A sine wave is traced out by the perpendicular displacement of a rotating line (see figure 4.4 is i =I msinO =I msinwt and that describing the voltage waveform is v =Vmsin(O-¢) =Vmsin(wt-¢) In solving a. values of voltage and current.3).3 Generating a sine wave Phase displacement The phase displacement is the angular displacement between two sinusoidal quantities of the same frequency.Study Notes in Electrical Science 36 4.. 7071 m· .4 passes through zero angle in the direction of rotation before the voltage waveform.. - direction of rotation w rad/s // // j I I I / / / \ II I I 81 \ --------·----- '\ II ' I ---------------------~------------------ !1.s. ' .s. circuits it is convenient to rescale the lengths of the phasors so that they represent the r. This rotating line can be represented in the form of a phasor. 707V mor 0.

where he and vc are the horizontal and vertical components respectively of OC.4 Phase displacement Addition of phasors The addition of two phasor quantities (which must be of the same kind) is illustrated in figure 4.5 Addition of phasors .--- 37 Alternating-current Theory 41 rad /s Figure 4. The phasor sum of OA and OBis the diagonal OC of the parallelogram OACB. Figure 4.5.

.hb vd=v.OB).-vb .Study Notes in Electrical Science 38 The magnitude or modulus of OC is /OCI= .+(. illustrated in figure 4.+( -vJ=v. In this case hd= h.hb) =h.j(hc2 +v/) and the phase angle is B Figure 4.6 for the phasor difference (OA.6 Subtraction of phasors Subtraction of phasors Phasors are subtracted by adding the negative equivalent of the phasor to be subtracted.

Operator j Operator j is a mathematical 'operator' that is used to indicate the 'direction' of the phasor.4 Complex Notation This is a notation that gives an indication of the relative directions of phasors. in figure 4. the concept is introduced that j2 = -1 or 8 ja c a=j4a j2a 0 j3a D Figure 4.j(hi+vi) ¢ =tan. 7 Operator j A . 7.1 c~~l) 4. if OA=a then OB = ja = a/J!}__o 0C=jUa)=jla= aj180o =-a OD = jWa) =fa= -ja =aj270o =aj-90° From the expression of OC above. Thus.Alternating-current Theory 39 and IODI= .1 G:) =cos.

6 by OD=IODI/-c/J Complex conjugate The complex conjugate of the phasor (a+ jb) or r I!!!_ is (a.jb) or r /. The horizontal axis is known as the 'real' axis.!l!. Phasor OB can be similarly represented by OB=hb+jvb The quantity (.40 Study Notes in Electrical Science Since the square root of ( -1) cannot exist as a 'real' quantity.5 can be represented by OC=IOCILf and the phasor OD in figure 4..6 can be represented by ( -OB)= -(hb+jvb)= -hb-jvb Representation of phasors by polar components A phasor can be represented in terms of its modulus and its phase angle..OB) in figure 4. (1) Addition X+ Y=(a+jb)+(c+jd)=(a+c)+j(b+d) . the idea has developed that the perpendicular axis (the j-axis) is the 'imaginary' axis.L and Y=c+jd=r 2 !.cp.!l!.5 can be represented in the form OA=ha+jva where jva= perpendicular component of the phasor. Representation of phasors by rectangular or cartesian components The phasor OA in figure 4. The phasor OC in figure 4.L the following operations are possible. Mathematical operations with complex quantities Using the quantities X =a +jb = rtf.

J.Y=(a+jb)-(c+jd)=(a-c)+ j(b-d) (3) Multiplication X. Also ~=rd_!£1_='j_ /<PI-¢2 Y r 2 L!f!.__ r 2 .41 Alternating-current Theory (2) Subtraction X.(c+ jd) = ac + j(ad +be)+ j 2 bd = (ac -bd)+ j(ad +be) or (4) Division X y a+jb c+jd (a+jb)(c-jd) (c+jd)(c-jd) -=--=----- (ac +bd) + j(bc.ad) cz+dz Note: (c-jd) is the complex conjugate of (c+jd). Y =(a+ jb).

..m.s.1 v current =I= R A where V is in volts and R in ohms. the only power loss that may arise is due to the power dissipated in the resistance of the conductors of the circuit itself. This form of current limitation occurs without loss of power in the reactive elements.c.) are r.---L.. I.. quantities. power consumed= P = I 2 R =VI W The current and voltage are in phase with one another. t vm R (a) Figure 5. 5. Circuits The quantities used in this chapter (that is. P. . circuit: (a) circuit. (b) phasors... V.1 ___£ IC. etc.1 Basic Circuits Circuit containing pure resistance only In figure 5. (c) waveforms Reactance In circuits containing pure inductance or pure capacitance only.5 Single-phase A. the magnitude of the circuit current is limited by what is known as the reactance of the circuit elements.C.__T---~ (b) Pure resistance in an a..

s. Variation of XL and I with frequency. . the value of the reactance is proportional to the frequency.43 Single-phase A. v v current=l=-=-A XL wL power consumed = 0 The current through the inductance lags the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage leads the current by 90°).m. In figure 5. (c) phasors Circuit containing pure inductance only In figure 5.2 Pure inductance in an a.c.3 XL=2nfL ocf That is. circuit: (a) circuit. win radians/second and/ in hertz. the current decreases in value as the frequency increases. Circuits L di (a} ~ ~· I (c) (b) Figure 5.C. (b) waveforms. value of supply voltage v 1 f=--OC- 2njL f That is.2 inductive reactance= XL= wL = 2njL where L is in henrys. At a constant r.

.4 1 1 .wC 2n1 C dv ~) ~ • I (c) (b) Figure 5.. circuit: (a) circuit.. .4 Pure capacitance in an a.c.. ::I QJ<. capacttlve reactance= X c = .c.... . circuit Circuit containing pure capacitance only In figure 5..) OQJ QJ .) -c: 0 c: <.E frequency Figure 5.= ----:r.Study Notes in Electrical Science 44 QJ <.3 Effect of variation of frequency in an inductive a...) -~"'C -c: g "0 0 . (b) waveforms. (c) phasors .

the value of the capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases.) frequency Figure 5.. "' (.u -~" -c: ·u 0 o a. In figure 5. w in radians/second and fin hertz. Power factor In a.. "'"::I . Variation of X c and I with frequency.. When drawing the phasor diagram for series circuits. circuits.= V wC = 2nfCV A Xc power consumed = 0 The current through the capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage lags the current by 90°). .C.... circuits the number of volt-amperes (unit symbol VA) consumed is . In series circuits this quantity is the current.. Z.s. 0 (. At a constant r.5 Effect of variation of frequency in a capacitive a. the value of the current is proportional to the frequency.) c: o-c: u.c.o .2 Series Circuits In practical a. circuit 5..5 1 2nfC 1 f Xc=--oc- That is.. v current= I = . of the circuit. value of supply voltage I= 2nfCV ocf That is. it is usual to draw the quantity that is common to all the components on the 'real' axis or horizontal axis. Circuits where C is in farads.45 Single-phase A..m.c. the magnitude of the current is limited by the electrical impedance..c.

J(Vl+Vl)V q) =tan.( = IXL V =IZ G?J ~= IR ~IX. v current =I =-zA V R=IR=v: V (in phase with I) VL=IXL=VwLV (leading I by 90°) z V= .1 (~) .~} •I (b) IR R (c) (d) Figure 5.J[R 2 +(wL) 2 ]0 where R is in ohms. (c) voltage triangle.~L) =tan1( 1 (a:) =cos. (d) impedance triangle Resistance and inductance in series In figure 5. and unity in the case of a circuit containing pure resistance only). (b) phasors. The power consumed is P =VI x power factor where the power factor has a value in the range 0-1 (being zero in the case of a circuit containing either a pure inductor or a pure capacitor. which is sometimes referred to as the apparent power.Study Notes in Electrical Science 46 generally greater than the power consumed by the circuit. S=VIVA \. The symbol S is given to the voltampere product.J(R 2 +Xl)= . w in radians/second and L in henrys.6 circuit impedance=Z= .6 RL series circuit: (a) circuit.1 (~:) =tan.

C. When dealing with any a. (d) impedance triangle Resistance and capacitance in series In figure 5. Important note: r c R vb ~· ~--vR~ 0 (a) I IR ~ Vc = IXc ~[x. V =IZ (b) (d) (c) Figure 5.s is not equal to the supply voltage.=.=.d.s VL and V Rare not in phase with one another and that the algebraic sum of these p. Circuits 47 apparent power= S =VIVA power= P =VI cos¢= I 2 R W reactive power= Q =VI sin¢= I 2 XL VAr p R VR power factor =. win radians/second and C in farads.7 RC series circuit: (a) circuit.Single-phase A. (c) voltage triangle.d. circuit problem it is advisable to sketch the general form of phasor diagram before attempting to complete the solution.c. v current =I =-A V R= I R = v: z V (in phase with I) Vc=IXc=~V (lagging I ZwC by 90°) . 7 circuit impedance=Z= vf(R 2 +Xc2 )= J[ R 2 +(~cY]n where R is in ohms. R ~x. (b) phasors.= cos¢ s z v It should be noted that the p.

. XL> X C• (c) phasors.J(V/+Vc2 )V ~=tan.8 RLC series circuit: (a) circuit.1 (~) 1 apparent power = S =VI VA power= P =VI cos~= I 2 R W reactive power= Q =VI sin~= I 2 X c VAr power p R VR factor=cos~=-=-=- S Z V L------1 V' 1---------. (b) phasors.1 ( .: )=tan.(ro~R)=cos.48 Study Notes in Electrical Science V= .1 ( ~c )=tan. XL< Xc Resistance.8 XL= wL = 2njL X 1 1 c= roC = 2nfC . XL= X 0 (d) phasors.J v (a) ~ VR VR=V I I I v Vc Vc (b) (c) (d) Figure 5. inductance and capacitance in series In figure 5.

and the current is in phase with the applied voltage.Lv (leading I by 90°) Vc=IXc=~V(lagging I ZwC by 90°) ~ =tan-1 (VL.8b.C. and the current lags behind the applied voltage.j (L C) rad/s and 1 fo = 2n . f in hertz. the circuit has a net inductance.8c. Resonance occurs at a frequency w 0 . the condition is known as resonance.j (LC) Hz .:c)=tan-1 ( XL~X c)=cos-1 (~) apparent power= S =VIVA power=P=VI cos~ =I 2 RW reactive power=Q =VI sin~ =I 2 (XL-X c)VAr R p power factor =cos~ =. where or w0 = 1 . (2) When XL= X cor VL =V0 as in figure 5. L in henrys and C in farads.= -S z (1) When XL> X c or VL>V c.Single-phase A. v current =I =-A z V R= IR V (in phase with I) VL =IXL = v. as in figure 5. This condition occurs at frequencies above the resonant frequency (see 2 below). Circuits 49 circuit impedance= Z = .j [R 2 +(XL-X c) 2 ] Q where w is in radians/second.

. The current drawn by each branch is calculated by the method outlined in section 5.3 Parallel Circuits In parallel circuits (see figure 5. (3) When XL< X c or VL < V 0 as in figure 5. If the value of R is small. ' / / I "'--r I I I v v v (a) (b) Figure 5. thenVLandV cbothhave large values (they may be many times the value of the applied voltage. . circuit: (a) circuit.. since VL=I XL and V c =I X 0 it follows that if the current has a large value. V)..2. This condition occurs at frequencies below the resonant frequency (see 2 above).. and this quantity is drawn on the 'real' (horizontal) axis of the phasor diagram.. (b) typical phasors 5.. A factor known as the Q-factor or 'quality' factor is used to indicate the voltage magnification across the reactive elements in a series circuit. where c voltage across L (or C) at resonance Q-..c.Study Notes in Electrical Science 50 The current in the circuit at resonance has the magnitude I =VIR and is in phase with V.. and the current leads the applied voltage. the series resonant circuit is described as an acceptor circuit...9) the supply voltage is common to all branches.. then the current at resonance has a very large value. the circuit has a net capacitance..... '' / I - ' .voltage across R at resonance IwoL ]R -- w L R 0 -- 2nfoL R -- 1 1 w CR 2nf0 CR -0 =~J~ Since the circuit accepts the highest value of current under this condition.actor = .9 Parallel a..8d.

. Ih power factor =cos¢ =I apparent power=S=VIVA power=P=VIcos¢=I/R 1 +I/R 2 W reactive power= Q =VI sin¢ VAr Parallel resonance Resonance occurs in a parallel circuit having reactive components in each arm when the phase angle of the complete circuit is zero (see figure 5.10). I. I 2 and ¢ 2 are the respective values for the lower branch. Provided that the value of R is small. when I is in phase with V. that is. drawn from the supply is III= ~(lh2 +I}) where I h= sum of the horizontal components of the branch currents and I v= sum of the vertical components of the branch currents. Ro. The magnitude of the current. then R 0 has a large value (R 0 is infinity when R is zero!).C.51 Single-phase A. I 1 and ¢ 1 are the respective values of the current in and the phase angle of the upper branch ofthe circuit. and the current drawn from the supply has a minimum value at resonance. inductance and capacitance In the phasor diagram in figure 5. or r1 H Jo-2n~(LC) z The effective resistance of the parallel circuit at resonance is known as the dynamic resistance.9. where R = _£_ = (woL )z = 1 n ° CR R (w 0 C) 2 R The current drawn from the supply at resonance is v I=-A Ro If R has a small value. The parallel resonant circuit is known as a rejector circuit. the resonant frequency of the circuit is I w 0 = ~ (L C) rad/s where L is in henrys and C in farads. Circuits Parallel circuit containing resistance.

(b) phasors 5. v {b) (a) Figure 5.Study Notes in Electrical Science 52 ___:I___.10 Parallel resonance: (a) circuit.4 Complex Impedances Reactance XL= jwLQ j 1 Xc=--=--n jwC wC Impedance of series circuits Series RL circuit Z =R +jwL Series RC circuit j 1 Z=R+-=R-wC jwC Series RL C circuit .c=:o.__I1 L R I.

53 Single-phase A.j/wC) z = (R 1 +jwL )+(R 2 -j/wC) (R 1 R 2 +L/C)+j(wLR 2 -RtfwC) (R 1 +R 2 )+j(wL-1jwC) . Circuits Impedance of parallel circuits If impedances Z 1 =R 1 +jwL and Z 2 =R 2 -j/wC are in parallel with one another.C. then the effective impedance of the circuit is (R 1 + jwL )(R 2 .

V L• is equal to the magnitude of the voltage between any pair of lines.VRN V ya= voltage of the yellow line relative to the blue line = VvN.VYN The magnitude of the phase voltage. In this case three supply lines and a neutral wire are . Circuits In this chapter it is assumed that the supply system has a symmetrical set of threephase voltages.. In a star-connected system v p= IV RNI =IVYNI =IV aNI The magnitude of the line voltage. where N is the neutral point V RN =voltage of the red line relative to the neutral point V vN= voltage of the yellow line relative to the neutral point VaN= voltage of the blue line relative to the neutral point and V aR =voltage of the blue line relative to the red line =VaN. V"' is equal to the magnitude of the voltage applied to one phase of the load.VaN V Rv= voltage of the red line relative to the yellow line = VRN. and that the three phasors are displaced from one another by 120°.1 Star-connected Systems Voltage relationships In figure 6./ 3Vp Current relationships (1) Four-wire system. In a star-connected system VL= IV Rvl = IVaRI = IVYBI = .1.6 Three-phase A. which have equal values of phase voltage.C. 6.

when the impedance and phase angle of each load are equal) is equal to the magnitude of the phase current. a neutral current flows. (b) voltage used (see figure 6. I p.C. is equal to the magnitude of the current in the phase of the load. The magnitude of the phase current.55 Three-phase A. It should be noted that unbalanced loads are frequently connected to supply systems. I Rl = II vi = II sl I L= I In the case where an unbalanced load is star-connected (that is.1). I L• in the case of star-connected balanced loads (that is. In this case the neutral wire is omitted.1 phasors Three-phase star-connected system: (a) connections. In a balanced star-connected load I p=I L (2) Three-wire system. IN. Circuits B Is B neutral B w~re IN R R R ly y load generator lR y (b) (a) Figure 6. and phase currents is IN=IR+lv+ls The magnitude of the line current. a load in which differing values of impedance are connected in each phase). and the relationship of the neutral-wire current. hence IN=IR+lv+l 8 =0 .

Study Notes in Electrical Science 56 Ie B generator load Figure 6.2 Mesh-connected or Delta-connected Systems Current and voltage relationships At junction R of the load in figure 6. hence VL=Vp In the case of a balanced mesh-connected load I p= II RYI = jiBRI = jiYBI and Power consumed in a balanced load In the case of a balanced load the power consumed by the load is .2 Three-phase delta-connected system 6.2 IRv=phasor sum of IR and 1 8 R or At junction Y and at junction B fs=fsR-JYB In the mesh-connected circuit the line voltage is applied directly to each phase of the load.

V Land I L=respective line values and cos¢= power factor of the load. Circuits volt-amperes= S = 3V pi r= 57 .J 3Vd Leos¢ W reactive VA= Q = 3V pipsin¢ = .J 3V LI Lsin¢ VAr power= P =3V ri pcos¢ = where V pand I r= phase values of voltage (V) and current (A) respectively.J 3V LI LVA .C.Three-phase A. .

When £ 2 has a greater value thanE 1 it is said to have a step-up ratio. From the e.s E 1 and E 2 induced in the primary and secondary windings respectively are. values of the e. with a sinusoidal supply £1 =4.m. that is or I2 N1 where I 1 and I 2 = r.F.s. and cp m=maximum value of the magnetic flux (Wb) in the core (the flux waveform is assumed to be sinusoidal).m.7 Transformers 7.s.volts/turn N1 N2 £1 N1 or When £ 2 has a lower value than £ 1 the transformer is said to have a step-down voltage ratio.44fN1C/Jm E2 = 4. 7.44fC/J m=.m.m.f.1.f. Equation The r.44fN 2 cp m where f =supply frequency (Hz).M. respectively. In power transformers ampere-turn balance is maintained between the windings. equations £1 E2 4.= . values of the primary and secondary currents. That is . N 1 and N 2 =respective number of turns on the primary and secondary windings.1 E.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer The basic features of a single-phase transformer are shown in figure 7.

Transformers 59 Hence or J input VA=output VA I section of laminated core I.1 Basic transformer 7.-------J Figure 7. A • r-~~----~-4----~ • 0 load IB I I I I I I 1 I L-----------------.3 Transformer Efficiency The per unit efficiency of a transformer is given by the relationship output power per unit efficiency = --::.----=--=--mput power output power output power+ losses input power -losses input power losses =1----input power per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100% .

f =supply frequency (Hz). p e· It can be shown that Ph=kfBmn p e =Kf2B m2 where k and K =constants of the transformer. c. The hysteresis loss is due to the energy that has to be supplied during each cycle of the a. Pc=Po . This loss is dissipated as heat in the magnetic material. as the magnetic flux in the core changes. Iron loss The iron loss is subdivided into the hysteresis loss. Since f and B m are usually constant in the case of the power supply to power transformers. The eddy-current loss is reduced by constructing the core of iron laminations. The core material of transformers is a conductor of electricity and. B m =maximum value of the core flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1. a current (known as an eddy current) is induced in the core. supply when the direction of magnetisation is twice reversed. Copper loss is due to the heating produced by the flow of current in the winding resistance. Ph.6--2. The iron loss (also known as the core loss or no-load loss) is P0 =Ph+P. Copper loss The copper loss for a two-winding transformer is Pc=l/R 1 +I/R 2 W where 11 and R 1 =respective values of current and resistance for the primary winding and 12 and R 2 =respective values for the secondary winding. Condition for maximum efficiency For maximum efficiency the copper loss is equal to the iron loss. This gives rise in the core to the power loss known as the eddy-current loss. which are insulated from one another (see figure 7.1).60 Study Notes in Electrical Science The power losses in a transformer are divided into two groups: those that vary with load current (copper loss) and those that vary with core flux (iron loss). the value of P0 is approximately constant over the working range of the transformer. and the eddy-current loss.

2.m.3 secondary Ideal transformer-inductive load .2 Ideal transformer-no load 7. the r.4 Phasor Diagrams I deal transformer: no load Referring to figure 7.s.61 Transformers 90° 90° II> II> secondary primary Figure 7.3 Vz = Nz Nt V~­ Nz /1 =lzNI cP1 =¢z ~ primary Figure 7. secondary voltage is Vz= Nz Nt V~- Ideal transformer: load with a lagging power factor Referring to figure 7.

=£. and E. but neglects the effects of the voltage drops in the windings. lo = . no-load power factor= cos ¢ 0 I mag= 10 sin¢ 0 lc=l 0 cos¢ 0 core loss= P0 =V1 1 c=V1 10 cos¢ 0 W V. (b) secondary winding .4 winding (b) Practical transformer-no load: (a) primary winding.5 Practical transformer-inductive load: (a) primary winding. (b) secondary Practical transformer: no load The phasor diagram in figure 7.4 accounts for the no-load current. liz and £ 2 -s-"' ell 0 0 ..J {I c + 1 mag 2 2) where 1 mag is the magnetising component of / 0 and I c is the core-loss component. / 0 ..."' 12 sin ¢ 2 (a) (b) Figure 7. (a) Figure 7..Study Notes in Electrical Science 62 v.

and / 0 7.12 N2 N1 I 1 = phasor sum of I._. and to decrease when referred to a winding with a smaller number of turns. Figure 7.63 Transformers Practical transformer: load with a lagging power factor In figure 7.5. resistance that appears between the primary-winding terminals of an ideal transformer (see figure 7. 11.6) is R1 =RL(z:r 0 where N 1 and N 2 =number of turns on the primary and secondary winding respectively. / 1 ' is the component of the primary current.5 The Transformer as an Impedance-matching Device A transformer is sometimes used as an impedance-matching device between a load of low impedance and an amplifier with a high output-impedance. The effective a.6 The transformer as an impedance-matching device . /1> that is due to 12 flowing in the secondary winding. Note: An aid to remembering the effect of the transformation ratio on the 'reflected' or 'referred' resistance is: the resistance value appears to increase when referred to a winding with a larger number of turns.c.

In the case of d.8 Electrical Machines 8. Salient and cylindrical magnetic systems When used in conjunction with machines the word 'salient' means 'jutting out'. Electrical machines can be divided into single-excited machines and doubleexcited machines. In single-excited machines only one member (either the stator or the rotor) carries a magnetising winding. In the machine in figure 8. the majority of practical machines are of this type. these machines are of limited practical value.lb the stator and rotor are both cylindrical. A cylindrical magnetic system is one that is cylindrical about the axis of rotation. The stationary part of the machine is known as the stator and the rotating part as the rotor. In the machine in figure 8. In practice many machines are designed with either a salient stator and a cylindrical rotor or a cylindrical stator and a salient rotor.1 (b) Salient and cylindrical machine systems . Double-excited machines carry magnetising windings on both the stator and the rotor. either the stator or the rotor can have a salient construction.c.1 Types of Electrical Machine An electrical machine is an electromechanical energy-convertor and consists of a magnetic circuit having two parts separated from each other by an air gap. machines the fixed and rotating parts are usually referred to as the frame and armature respectively.la both the stator and the rotor are salient. centre of rotation air gap stator (a) Figure 8.

2 Single-excited machine If the rotor is excited by d. the results for various combinations are listed in table 8.65 Electrical Machines 8.c. Not all single-excited machines develop a reluctance torque. Figure 8. T. Owing to the magnetic poles induced in the stator there is a rotational force that attempts to pull the rotor and stator into alignment. is known as the torque angle. then the machine produces a static torque.2 Single-excited Machines A single-excited machine having a salient structure is illustrated in figure 8. the reversal of the rotor current causes the rotor to rotate at a constant speed.1 Is a reluctance torque developed? Stator salient salient cylindrical cylindrical Rotor Stator excited Rotor excited salient cylindrical salient cylindrical yes no yes no yes yes no no .. This speed is known as its synchronous speed. then once the rotor is caused initially to rotate by some applied external force.2.c. Turning the rotor further away from alignment causes the length of the magnetic path to increase. Angle A. leading to an increase in the reluctance of the magnetic path. In general a reluctance torque is developed if the reluctance of the magnetic system changes when the rotor is turned away from the alignment position.. The above comments also apply if the stator is excited and the rotor is simply an iron circuit. If the rotor is excited by a.1. dependent on the supply frequency.. Table 8. which does not result in continuous rotation. For this reason the torque causing alignment is called the reluctance torque. Machines of this kind are known as reluctance motors and are used in clocks.

of the stator and rotor respectively and A.m. The excitation torque causes the magnetic fields to tend to align. the rotor experiences an excitation torque of where k =constant of the machine. Figure 8. such as those having a salient stator and a salient rotor. as shown in figure 8.f. T. Concentrated windings A concentrated winding is one carried by a salient-pole construction. that is. Other doublewound machines. .3b.3 Double-excited Machines When the stator and the rotor both carry windings a torque known as the excitation torque.66 Study Notes in Electrical Science 8. machine and for salient-pole alternators are examples of this type.3a shows a single-excited machine having a cylindrical stator and an excited salient rotor.. Distributed windings may be subdivided into a number of categories.4 Windings Windings may be classified as concentrated or distributed.= angle of misalignment between the stator and rotor fieldsystems. When the stator carries a winding. the most important of which are phase windings and commutator windings. this machine does not experience a reluctance torque (see also table 8. (b) (a) Figure 8. Field windings for a d. is developed.3b produces only an excitation torque.c.1).3 Excitation torque 8. produce both excitation and reluctance torques. it is a multi-turn coil that is wound on to a protruding branch of the iron circuit. The machine shown in figure 8. F 1 and F2 = m.

one below the other. belonging to two different coils. This is invariably on the rotor (armature) of the machine. the coils being connected in the form of a continuous circuit without a break. the coils being joined together in series.4 shows the general arrangement of a single-layer phase winding (that is. Figure 8. Alternatively a double-layer winding may be used in which each slot accommodates two coil sides. Current is either taken from or injected into the winding via brushes. each having a 'spread' of about one pole pitch.4 Single-layer phase winding .Electrical Machines 67 Distributed windings A distributed winding consists of a number of coils. A simple way of representing the arrangement is by means of the developed view of the winding in figure 8. Figure 8. Junctions at various points on the winding are each connected to individual segments on the commutator. In this type of drawing it is assumed that the magnetic circuit can be cut at some convenient point and unrolled flat. one coil side per slot) that is used to accommodate phase A of a three-phase machine. the coils being connected in series-parallel arrangements depending on the voltage and current requirements of the winding. which gives two parallel paths for current flow through the armature (frequently used in high-voltage machines). (1) There are two types of commutator winding (a) lap winding. which gives as many parallel paths through the armature as there are poles on the machine (frequently used in high-current machines) (b) wave winding. In this case the coils have the same span. (2) Commutator winding.4. This is a distributed winding that is located in slots around the face of the magnetic circuit. Phase winding. The winding for phase B is accommodated in slots b and b' and that for phase C in slots c and c . which make contact with the commutator.

Study Notes in Electrical Science 68 8. is maintained at a constant value then cf> is also constant (see figure 8. a= number of pairs of parallel paths through the armature (a= 1 for wave windings. If the field current.f.F. Methods of connection Referring to figure 8. equation induced e.5 D. a= p for lap windings). equation is that given in section 8. I r. then E oc cf> for constant n .m. n. = E =!!_cf>Zn V a p a w =-cf>Z-V 2n where p =number of pairs of poles. that is In a given machine the values of p.C.6 Characteristic Curves of D.6a) and E oc n for constant I r If the speed. Machines E.f. Z =total number of active conductors on the armature. hence E=kcf>nV where k is a constant of the machine. cf> =flux entering or leaving each pole (Wb). and (ii) short-shunt version. n =speed of rotation of the armature (revjs) and w =speed of rotation of the armature (rad/s).5. the main types of connection are classified by means of the field-winding connections as (a) (b) (c) (d) separate excitation shunt excitation series excitation compound excitation: (i) long-shunt version. is maintained at a constant value.M.m. Generators Separately excited generator The basic e.5. a and Z are constants. 8.C.

.c. machine connections slope= -R.C.6b) therefore follows the magnetisation curve for the magnetic material of the machine. I L (c) Separately excited generator characteristics The curve of E plotted to a base of I r (see figure 8. n field current.69 Electrical Machines field regulator separate d. The terminal voltage is V=E-ILRa where I L =load current (A) and R. I (a) (b) Figure 8.6 1 load current. "' E "' E g g 0 > It constant ~ ! 1 constant n constant . . E :::.L(ii) (d) (c) Figure 8.5 D.. .JI L_.. supply (a) (b) field regulator I shunt :field I (i) ______ .. .e speed. The load characteristic is shown in figure 8. =armature resistance (Q) of the generator.6c..

It load current .~"' .. and Ra =armature resistance ( 0 ).f. .. I r.. and a= slope of the line= ...R a· Shunt-excited generator As with the separately excited generator the generated e.IL (a) (b) / I I I Figure 8.--..m.7a).. b =vertical intercept= E..f. I L• causes I rto reduce.- I / - / 1 n constant . The reduction in V with increase in load current.fP The plot of e. The terminal voltage is V=E-IaRa where I a= armature current= load current+ field current (A). ' \ ' I I . is E=kfPnV If n is maintained at a constant value. where y = V..m../' field current. Consequently the reduction in V with increase in I Lis far more rapid than in the case of the separately excited generator. against field current. The generated voltage rises to a value of E 1 ....7a) follows the magnetisation curve of the machine.... . then Eoc.Study Notes in Electrical Science 70 Note: The equation for Vhas the form of the straight line y =ax+ b. . which corresponds to the intersection of the open-circuit characteristic of the machine with a straight line whose slope is equal to the total resistance of the field circuit.. (see figure 8...7 Shunt-generator characteristics The load characteristic is shown in figure 8. ... I line 1 El I / .. 7b... which in turn reduces E.. criticalI resistance . R r· The generator fails to excite when R ris either equal to or is greater than the critical resistance of the field circuit (see figure 8.

load current. are known as cumulative-compound machines.9 for the purpose of comparison. 8. I Figure 8.8. level. Since the load current in this machine also acts as the exciting current. If the flux produced by the series field opposes that of the shunt field. then the machine is known as a differential-compound machine. A large number of turns results in an overcompound characteristic in which the full-load terminal voltage exceeds the noload voltage. Since V varies with the value of I L this type of machine is unsuitable for use as a general-purpose generator.Electrical Machines 71 Series-excited generator The load characteristic is shown in figure 8. I L> follows the magnetisation curve of the machine. the plot of terminal voltage.8 L Series-generator load characteristics Compound-wound generator Compound-wound machines in which the magnetic fluxes produced by the series and shunt windings act in the same direction. The terminal-voltage-load-current characteristic for a shunt machine is shown in figure 8.7 Power Required to Drive a D. A level-compound machine has equal values of no-load and full-load terminal voltage. The degree of compounding depends on the number of turns of wire on the series winding.and under-compound characteristics in figure 8. while in an under-compound machine the full-load terminal voltage is less than the no-load voltage. against load current.C.9. Typical of these machines are the over-. Generator The mechanical input power supplied by the prime mover is Tw=2nnTW . V.

5).compound shunt differential. Motors The construction of d.c. a and Z are constant. a =number of pairs of parallel paths through the armature circuit (a= 1 for wave windings.c. 8. motors and the methods of connection of the field windings are generally similar to those of the d. a= p for lap windings). motor is where E ='back' e. Torque equation The torque developed by the armature of a d. 4> =magnetic flux (Wb) entering or leaving each pole and Z =total number of active conductors on the armature.9 L Compound-generator characteristics where T =torque (N m) applied to the generator shaft. I.Study Notes in Electrical Science 72 ~--------+--over-compound level-compound under.f.= armature current (A).m. (V) induced in the armature conductors when they rotate at speed w (rad/s) in the magnetic field. For a given motor the values of p.c. hence T=k4>1 . I Figure 8.compound 100% load current. generator (see section 8. p =number of pairs of magnetic poles on the machine.Nm where k =constant of the machine. w = shaft speed (rad/s) and n = shaft speed (rev Is).C.8 D. .

If if> is constant (that is.R.. is constant). where V =supply voltage and I .9 Characteristic Curves of D.f. Motors Shunt motor Shunt-motor characteristics are shown in figure 8. then Trx:.R. in the internal resistance of the armature. (1) Torque-armature-current curve.10 Shunt-motor starter 8. If If> (that is..I. undervoltage and overcurrent protection are normally provided but are omitted from the figure for simplicity.JI shunt field supply Figure 8.m.10. at full speed.11.Electrical Machines 73 Face-plate starter To limit the current drawn by d.C. r----------------1I I I I I I I A I ~-----<~----------~ I + :~ -co F I I I 1 -----. The value of the resistance is progressively reduced either automatically or by an operator until. its value is zero. (2) Speed-armature-current curve. . ='internal' p.d. then speed rxV. a resistor is inserted in series with the supply.c. A typical starter for a shunt motor is illustrated in figure 8.R.1 L L______ s~r~r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ . machines during starting.. of rotation is E = kf/>w but in the shunt motor E=V-I. I r.I . The 'back' e. the field current. I r) is constant.

armature current Figure 8. (1) Torque-armature-current curve.74 Study Notes in Electrical Science no -lood speed -g 0 l"' It constant armature current Shunt-motor characteristics Figure 8.12 Series-motor characteristics .11 Series motor Series-motor characteristics are shown in figure 8.12.

The 'back' e.m.. then 1 woc4> Since 4> oc I a 1 speedocIa Note: Series motors are not normally operated under no-load conditions.Electrical Machines 75 In a series-wound machine the armature current produces the flux and 4> oc I a· For low values of I a the torque equation is Tocia2 At higher values of I a the iron circuit approaches magnetic saturation and 4> becomes nearly constant. and if I aRm can be neglected. hence for high values of I a the torque equation becomes Tocl a (2) Speed-armature-current curve. since the small value of I a results in an excessively large value of w.13 Compound-motor characteristics .senes armature current Figure 8.f. If Vis constant.of rotation is E=kf/Jw E w= kf/J = V-laRm kf/J where R m =resistance (Q) of the series motor. differentialcampound --------shunt l"' --- cumulative cam pound .

10 Induction Motors Induction-motor principle When the magnetic flux in figure 8.. In differential-compound motors the fluxes oppose one another.. 8. _.14b and the resulting magnetic-field distribution is as shown in figure 8. The speed-armature-current characteristics of the two types are shown in figure 8.._ @conductor \ ' J I -/ direction of movement of flux relative to the conductor (b) direction of movement of conductor rela I ive to the flux (a) magnetic flux I I I t t t I) / I /.14 Induction-motor principle .Study Notes in Electrical Science 76 Compound-wound motor In cumulative-compound motors the fluxes produced by the series and the shunt windings assist each other. I ' I I direction of the force on the conductor I I (c) Figure 8. The direction of the magnetic flux produced by the induced current in the conductor is shown in figure 8.14c.13..14a moves in the direction shown relative to the conductor.1~@ \ <'. The conductor experiences a force that causes it to move from the stronger magnetic magnetic flux I!!!! /-. ( t@ \ \ . the direction of the current induced in the conductor is predicted by Fleming's right-hand rule (rule for generators). I I I t I I I• 1. The characteristics of shunt and series motors are given for comparison purposes..

.n.- n. hence the force on the conductor acts in the direction of movement of the magnetic field. where n.11 Efficiency of Electrical Machines . n. =speed of rotation (rev /s) of the rotor or rotating part of the motor.. n.77 Electrical Machines field into the weaker. n . . . The speed of rotation of the magnetic field or synchronous speed is n. Synchronous speed of the magnetic field In conventional forms of induction motor the magnetic field is generated inside the stationary cylindrical part (the stator) of the motor. fractwna s Ip=s=--= 1 .=£rev/s p where f =supply frequency (Hz) and p =number of pairs of magnetic poles produced by the stator. Fractional slip I 1.--------- per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100% .----mput power output power output power+ losses input power -losses input power losses input power =1-. The field rotates within the cylinder and is described as a rotating magnetic field. output power per umt efficiency=-:. 8.

9. Heating effects are utilised in thermocouple instruments. which have a high input resistance between their terminals. watt-hour meters (for example the domestic energy-meter) and also in some a.1 Analog and Digital Instruments An analog instrument indicates the value of the quantity being measured by means of a pointer. voltmeters and wattmeters. 9. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Magnetic effect is used by the majority of analog electrical instruments. (3) The damping force quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final position. .c.c. (2) The controlling force ensures that the magnitude of the steady deflection is always the same for a given value of measured quantity. such as the normal range of pointer-type ammeters and voltmeters.3 Analog Indicating Instruments There are three forces acting on the moving systems of analog indicating instruments.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments Practical measuring instruments utilise one of five effects.9 Measurements 9. Electrostatic effect is principally applied to electrostatic voltmeters. Chemical effects are used in a small range of instruments such as some types of ampere-hour meter. (1) The deflecting force or operating force causes the moving system to deflect from its 'zero' position. ammeters. Digital instruments give an indication in the form of a complete number (usually in decimal form). Electromagnetic-induction effects are utilised in a. The smallest change that can be indicated corresponds to the change of one digit in the least significant position of the number. whose indication varies smoothly with the measured quantity.

m. (3) Fluidfriction damping. This phenomenon is used as one method of damping moving systems. An aluminium piston is attached to the moving system and moves inside a chamber that is closed at one end (the chamber may have any convenient section).79 Measurements Controlling force (1) Spring control. (2) Airfriction damping. The viscous frictional drag of the oil on the vane is used to damp the movement of the system. A controlling hair-spring (usually of phosphor bronze) controls the angular movement of the moving system (see figure 9. A damping force is generated when the air pressure in the chamber is either increased or decreased by the movement of the piston. In this method a vane enclosed in a cylinder containing oil is mechanically connected to the moving system. Instruments using gravity control must be used in an upright position. then a current (an eddy current) flows in it and dissipates energy in the resistance of the conductor. The controlling torque produced by the spring increases linearly with the angular movement of the moving system. (2) Gravity control. is induced in it.f. this method of control is not suitable for portable instruments.5). One form of air-friction damping mechanism is shown in figure 9. in a springcontrolled system the law of the scale of the instrument has the same form as that of the deflecting force. Consequently.1 Air-damping . spindle of moving element Figure 9. Damping force (1) Eddy-current damping.1. If this conductor is part of a complete circuit within the magnetic field of the instrument. The eddy currents are induced either in the metallic former that supports the element of the moving system (see figure 9. When a conductor moves in a magnetic field an e. A small weight is attached to the moving system so that it produces a controlling torque when the system deflects.5) or in a disc that is mechanically connected to the moving system.

2). (1) Pivoted support.3 Taut-ribbon suspension Instrument scales The type of scale depends on the controlling mechanism and the relationship between the torque produced by the moving element and the measured quantity. are located in jewelled bearings (usually sapphire). (3) Thread suspension.80 Study Notes in Electrical Science jewel spindle Figure 9. The moving element is attached to the shaft.2 Pivoted support Methods of supporting moving systems The most popular methods are pivoted support. The movement is supported on a thread (of phosphor bronze). . These suspensions are delicate but provide a suspension with very low friction. The moving element is attached to the spindle. taut-ribbon suspension and thread suspension. (2) Taut-ribbon suspension. spring frame of instrument Figure 9.3. The ends of the spindle (see figure 9. which is of hardened steel. The movement is suspended by ribbons (of beryllium copper) under tension at either end of the shaft. A section through one end of a taut-ribbon suspension is shown in figure 9.

The magnetic system is designed so that the flux distribution in the air gap is radial. 6 4 (a) 20 (b) Figure 9. In this case the iron core is in the form of a cylinder surrounding the movement. An alternative magnetic circuit arrangement is to place the magnet inside the coil (this is the so-called core-magnet or internal-magnet movement). and deflecting angles in the range 9(}-250° are commercially available.4a). With this arrangement the average torque produced by the coil is proportional to the average value of current in the coil.4 Instrument scales 9. the coil former being supported on either a pivoted suspension (shown) or a taut-ribbon suspension.4 Moving-coil Instruments or Galvanometers Construction and uses The internal construction of one type of moving-coil instrument is shown in figure 9.5. Current is supplied to the coil either via the control springs or by flexible ligaments.4a and b). In figure 9. The scale calibration may be either linear or non-linear (see figures 9. the permanent magnet being external to the coil. The net result is a linear scale calibration (see figure 9.5 the coil rotates around a soft-iron core.Measurements 81 The scale length depends on the construction of the instrument. Moving-coil instruments are essentially milliammeters (or microammeters) . The coil is supported on a metallic former (which provides eddy-current damping).

d.). One of the terminals is marked with a'+' and the other with a'-'.d. to allow them to read high voltages.s. These instruments require a direct (or unidirectional) current flow. where I g= meter current (A) to give full-scale deflection (f.6.s.s.SV and I=I 8 +I. I. R g=resistance (0) of the meter.Study Notes in Electrical Science 82 and are used in conjunction with either shunt resistors. S = resistance (n) of the shunt and I =current (A) in the external circuit at f.d.= current (A) in the shunt at f.. or voltage multipliers (series voltage-dropping resistors). Since the meter and the shunt are connected in parallel with one another I gRg= I . to allow them to read higher values of current. current must flow from the external circuit into the '+' terminal and out of the '-' terminal.5 Moving-coil instrument Extending the current range of a moving-coil instrument The general arrangement is shown in figure 9. pointer balance arm Figure 9.A .

d.7 Extension of voltage range . Resistor R is known as a voltage multiplier or a voltage-dropping resistor.6 ) = 20000 ohms per volt (o. = Is For example. with a current of 50 J.LA is sometimes referred to as a 1/(50 x 10. + R v Figure 9.s.s.6 Extension of current range Extending the voltage range of a moving-coil instrument The moving-coil instrument can be converted into a voltmeter by connecting resistor R (see figure 9. The circuit equation is V=lg(R+RJ Hence v R=--R 8 Is Quite often the effective sensitivity of the instrument is expressed in ohms per volt at f.s. an instrument giving f.p.d.) instrument. Its function is to absorb a large proportion of the applied voltage. V.d.7) in series with the instrument.Measurements 83 Solving gives I I Figure 9. This value is in fact given by 1 ohms per volt at f.v.

a moving-coil instrument can be used .8a. The resistance of resistor R is determined by measuring the current flowing through it from the cell of e..8b. The Ohms scale of the instrument is non-linear. Hence the midpoint of the Ohms scale is equal to the internal resistance of the meter.. The cell is connected so that the current flows in the 'correct' direction through the meter.f.d. Rectifier Instruments When used in conjunction with a rectifier. When a resistance that is equal to the internal resistance of the instrument is connected between its terminals. the current is half that for f. a consequence is that when the instrument is used in the Ohms mode the '+' terminal of the instrument has a negative potential with respect to its '-' terminal. When the current in the external circuit is zero the resistance ofthe external circuit is infinity.8 Ohmmeter The moving-coil instrument as an ohmmeter A typical ohmmeter circuit is shown in figure 9.s.. E.s. a typical scale being illustrated in figure 9.-. this is done by short-circuiting the terminals of the instrument and adjusting RVto give f.- I -c:=J-.84 Study Notes in Electrical Science I I I I I I L __ .d.m. Resistor RVis used to 'zero' the ir.strument on the Ohms scale. which is included within the meter._____ J R (unknown) I (a) OHMS 100 0 'o (b) Figure 9.

c. signal is non-sinusoidal. moving-coil meter a.m. The equivalent d.c.c. current I 1 is given by the expression I 2 - I1 (form factor of the a.c.9 (the principle of the rectifier is described in chapter 10). air-damping chamber I Figure 9. corresponding to the a. signal Figure 9.c. A milliammeter circuit that uses a bridge rectifier is shown in figure 9.9 Rectifier instrument to provide an indication of alternating quantities. I 2 .s.c. waveform) For a sinusoidal waveform Rectifier instruments have their scales calibrated in terms ofr. If the a. and it is assumed by the instrument maker that the a. then the indication given by the meter is not strictly accurate.85 Measurements + I. signal has a sine wave. quantities. current.10 Moving-iron instrument: attraction type .

To prevent electromagnetic interference from affecting the accuracy of the instrument. in which two parallel vanes or rods of soft iron. current or the r.Study Notes in Electrical Science 86 9.f. current. only one control spring is required.c. the scale calibration can be 'linearised' over much of its length by modifying the design of the vane system so that the inductance of the coil varies over the deflecting angle. The attraction type.10).s. value of a. (2) The repulsion type.5 Moving-iron Instruments Construction and use There are two types of moving-iron instrument.11 Moving-iron instrument: repulsion type The average torque produced by the moving-iron movement is proportional to the square of the value of the current in the coil.m. Ammeters Equal magnetic fluxes require equal values of m. (1) pointer air-dampilg chamber Figure 9.m. the coil and movement are surrounded by a nickel.. Air-damping is used with these instruments. The net result is a non-linear scale calibration. These instruments can be used to measure either d.11 ). and a low-current . Because current does not need to be conveyed to the moving part of the instrument. in which an eccentrically pivoted soft-iron vane is attracted towards a solenoid (see figure 9.iron screen (not shown). similarly magnetised inside a solenoid. are repelled from one another (see figure 9.c.

This type of instrument is most frequently used as a wattmeter. It can also be used as an ammeter by connecting the fixed and moving coils in . voltages greater than about 750 V a voltage transformer is used in conjunction with a 0--llOV instrument.s. Voltmeters The coil usually has a large number of turns of fine wire. The mean angular deflection of the pointer is proportional to the average power consumed by the load. a current transformer is used in conjunction with a low-current instrument (usually a 0--1 A or 0--5 A meter). For a. When the instrument is used as a wattmeter the scale calibration is linear. across the load is applied to the moving coil (a voltage-multiplier resistor is connected in series with this coil).6 Electrodynamic Instruments The usual form of construction (see figure 9.d.12) consists of two series-connected coils that are fixed to the frame of the instrument and another coil that is free to rotate within the fixed coils. The range of the wattmeter can be extended by using it in conjunction with a current transformer and a voltage transformer. The deflecting force is proportional to the product I 112. is in the range 0.1 A. moving ooil Figure 9. in which the load current flows through the fixed coils.05--0.12 Electrodynamic instrument 9. For the measurement of very high values of alternating current. and the current required to give f.c.Measurements 87 instrument merely requires more turns of wire on the coil than does a largecurrent instrument.d. and the p.

88

Study Notes in Electrical Science

parallel with one another. When the fixed and moving coils are connected in series
the instrument can be used as a voltmeter. When the instrument is used as either
an ammeter or a voltmeter, the scale calibration is non-linear and is cramped at
the low-current end of the scale.
Air-damping is used, and th~ movement is usually spring controlled.
9.7 The D.C. Potentiometer
The d.c. potentiometer is a null-balance instrument used for determining values of
e.m.f. by a comparison method. In the circuit in figure 9.13, Vis a supply source
whose voltage need not be known accurately. The slide wire has a uniform crosssectional area, so that the p.d. per unit length is uniform. The slider is moved along
the wire until balance is obtained (that is, until the galvanometer deflection is
zero). The p.d. per unit length of wire is then E/IV/m. If E 1 is the e.m.f. of a
standard cell and 11 is its balance position, and E 2 is the e.m.f. of another cell,
which gives balance at 12 , then

or

v

slide wire
slider

Figure 9.13 The d.c. potentiometer

9.8 The Wheatstone Bridge
The basic circuit is shown in figure 9.14, in which G is a sensitive galvanometer, P
and Q are resistors and are known as the 'ratio arms' of the potentiometer, R is a
calibrated variable resistance and X is a resistor of unknown value. At balance the
potential at A is the same as that at B and the galvanometer deflection is zero.

89

Measurements

When this occurs
PX=QR
That is, the products of diagonally opposed resistances are equal to one another;
hence
RQ
X=p
A

8

Figure 9.14 The Wheatstone bridge
9.9 A.C. Bridges
Basic four-arm bridge

The general configuration of a four-arm a.c. bridge is shown in figure 9.15. At
balance the a.c. detector gives zero indication, and the general condition of
balance is
ZxZ3=ZlZ2
That is, the products of diagonally opposed impedances are equal to one another.
Impedance Z xis the element (the unknown) whose value is being determined.
Elements Z 1, Z 2 and Z 3 are other (known) components in the bridge. Hence

z2

Zx=Zl-

z3

Balance is obtained in an a.c. bridge when both the magnitude and the phase angle
of the potentials at A and B are equal to one another.

90

Study Notes in Electrical Science
A

Figure 9.15 Basic four-arm a.c. bridge

Figure 9.16 De Sauty's bridge
De Sauty's capacitance bridge
This bridge (see figure 9.16) is suitable for measuring the capacitance of ideal lossfree capacitors. At balance

17 Schering's bridge Schering's bridge This circuit (see figure 9. insulators and equipment having small capacitance values.17) is suitable for determining the capacitance and phaseangle values of capacitors. The unknown components are r x and C".Measurements 91 p jwCx Q jwC or PC Cx=- Q Figure 9. At balance Solving yields . it is frequently used for measurements on cables.

18 Maxwell's bridge Maxwell's bridge This bridge (see figure 9.18) is suited to measuring the components of lossy inductors. At balance Solving gives R1R2 rx=-R3 Lx=R 1 R 2 C 3 Hay's bridge This bridge (see figure 9.15).19) is particularly suitable for measuring the components of low-loss inductors and for measuring large values of inductance.~r-------~ Figure 9. The measurements may be made with direct current flowing in the inductor. At balance the condition ZxZ3 =Z1Z2 applies (see also figure 9. but since the unknown elements are in parallel with one another it is more convenient to write the condition of balance as .Study Notes in Electrical Science 92 ~------.

illustrated in figure 9.t.' Figure 9..o. The intensity of the spot on the face of the tube depends on the value of the beam current.t.1 2 Solving yields RtRz rx=-R3 Lx=R 1 R 2 C3 '---------( rv f .r.r.10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope The cathode ray oscilloscope (c.). At balance R 3 +(1/jwC 3 ) _ R R (1/rx)+(1/jwLx).19 Hay's bridge 9. which is adjusted by the brilliance control.r.. . electron lens system. screen. The principal components of the c.t... The control grid is in the form of a metal cup with a small hole in it to allow a narrow beam of electrons to pass through it.r.) together with its controls and power supplies. deflection system and c.20. Electron gun The cathode.. are the electron gun. has a flat surface directed towards the screen so that it provides high electron-emission in that direction.93 Measurements where Y x= (1/r x)+(1jjwLx). which is usually indirectly heated. consists of a cathode ray tube (c.

and X -deflection plates respectively. In the case of the X -deflection plates.c. in this arrangement coils are wound around the neck of the tube and the beam is focused by passing a current through the coils.and X -directions by means of voltages applied to theY.c. Two signals are applied to each set of plates. potential from theY-shift control and the other signal. potential from the Xshift control and the other signal.94 Study Notes in Electrical Science Y-onput signal X-input signal electron electron gun lens system ~~ heater screen --v cathode e. I. causes the spot to deflect at a constant speed from the left-hand side of the screen to the right-hand . theY-input signal.h. known as the timebase signal. supply L-------f--11•1•1-------+ Figure 9. This system usually contains three anodes. one signal is a d. Focusing can also be brought about by electromagnetic means. In the case of theY-deflection plates. the potential of the second anode being adjusted by means of the focus control. one signal is a d. is the signal to be observed on the face of the tube.20 Cathode ray oscilloscope Electron lens system The diverging beam leaving the electron gun is formed into a converging beam by the electron lens system. Deflection system The electron beam is deflected in the Y.

The spot can also be deflected by electromagnetic means. . The brilliance and focus controls respectively control the brilliance and focus of the spot on the face of the tube. allowing the user to observe the movement of the spot on the face of the tube. When the spot reaches the right-hand end of the timebase sweep the timebase signal causes the spot to return to the left-hand side of the screen (this is known as flyback).Measurements 95 side. Having given their energy up to the screen the electrons return to the positive pole of the e.h.RI.1 V/em to 50 V/em).t. C.o. TheY-gain control (usually calibrated in VOLTS/CM) permits the vertical trace size to be adjusted (a popular range of Y-gain settings is from 0. screen The inside face of the screen is coated with a phosphor. When the electron beam strikes the phosphor it causes it to fluoresce. The Y-shift and X -shift controls allow the user to position the trace on the screen of the tube.r. The X -gain control or TIME/CM control allows the horizontal-deflection speed of the spot to be adjusted (a popular range of X-gain settings is from lOOms/em to 1 JlS/cm). Principal controls of the c. supply via the graphite coating inside the neck of the tube. In most oscilloscopes the effects of these controls interact with one another so that both must be adjusted to provide a satisfactory display. Triggering controls are provided to allow a repetitive waveform to be displayed as a steady trace on the screen.

J0

Rectifiers

10.1 Semiconductors
Semiconductors include a wide range of materials whose resistivities are midway
between those of good conductors and those of good insulators. The most widely
used semiconductor materials are silicon and germanium, with other materials
being used in more specialised applications.
i-type semiconductors or intrinsic semiconductors

Intrinsic semiconductors or i-type semiconductors are the natural pure-type
semiconductor materials. The majority of semiconductors used in practice are
either n-type or p-type materials (see below), which are formed by doping i-type
materials with suitable dopants.
n-type semiconductors

Ann-type semiconductor is one having mobile negative-charge carriers (electrons)
in its structure. Current flow in semiconductors is due largely to the movement of
what are known as majority-charge carriers in that material; inn-type materials
electrons are the majority-charge carriers. A small proportion of current flow in
semiconductors is due to minority-charge carriers; inn-type materials positivecharge carriers (known as holes) are the minority-charge carriers.
p-type semiconductors

A p-type semiconductor is one having mobile positive-charge carriers (holes) in its
structure. In p-type materials, current flow is due largely to the movement of holes
(which are in this case the majority-charge carriers) while a small proportion of
current flow is due to electrons (which are in this case the minority-charge
carriers).
10.2 Rectifiers
Diode characteristics

A rectifier is a two-terminal device (diode) that offers low resistance to current

97

Rectifiers

flow in one direction and a very high resistance to current flow in the reverse
direction.
A diode has two electrodes: an anode and a cathode. It offers low resistance to
current flow when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode; in this mode it
is said to be forward-biased. It offers very high resistance to current flow when the
anode is negative with respect to the cathode; in this mode it is said to be reversebiased.
The characteristics of both ideal and practical diodes are shown in figure 10.1.
An ideal diode (characteristic shown in bold line in the figure) offers no resistance
to current flow in the forward-biased mode (first quadrant) and infinite resistance
to flow in the reverse-biased mode (third quadrant). A practical diode offers a
small resistance to current flow in the forward-biased mode, when forward
conduction takes place. In the reverse-biased mode a leakage current of small
value passes through the diode, in which case it is said to operate in its reverseblocking mode; as the reverse-bias voltage is increased a point is reached at which
the current through the diode increases rapidly, from when it is said to operate in
its reverse-breakdown mode.

+

forward
conduction

reverse
blocking

Figure 10.1

Diode characteristics

p-n junction diode

The p-n junction diode is a single crystal of semiconductor material that has both
p- and n-regions within the crystal (see figure 10.2). The diode conducts when the
p-region (the anode) is positive with respect to the n-region (the cathode).
When the diode is reverse-biased the mobile charge carriers are drawn back
from the junction and a depletion layer, which is depleted of charge carriers, exists
at the junction. This region effectively becomes an insulating region.

Study Notes in Electrical Science

98

n

p

cathode

anode

Figure 10.2

p-n junction diode

Zener diode

Certain types of diode, known as Zener diodes, are operated in their reversebreakdown mode. The diode is not damaged provided that the rating of the device
is not exceeded. For example, the maximum 'reverse' current through a 1 W, 10 V
Zener diode should not exceed 0.1 A. A feature of Zener diodes is that, when
operated in the reverse-breakdown mode, the voltage across them does not alter
significantly over a fairly wide current range. Applications of Zener diodes include
voltage-reference sources, meter protection and bias-voltage supplies.
Thermionic diode or valve diode

This is an electronic valve containing an anode and a cathode inside a container
(usually made of glass) that may be either evacuated or gas-filled. The symbol for a
vacuum diode (known as a 'hard' valve) is shown in figure 10.3. The cathode emits
electrons when heated, the source of heat in the valve in figure 10.3 being the
heating element (this type of valve is known as an indirectly heated diode).
anode

'"""'~"'

Figure 10.3

Thermionic diode

A typical vacuum-diode characteristic is shown in figure 10.4. Current I Ao is
known as the splash current and is due to energetic electrons that arrive at the
anode at zero anode voltage; its value is usually very small. Region A on the
characteristic is known as the space-charge-limited region, since in this region of
the characteristic the magnitude of the anode current is limited in value by the
'space charge' surrounding the cathode. The diode is normally operated in this
region of the curve. Region B is known as the temperature-limited region, since in

since doing so may result in damage to the surface of the cathode. The device is not normally operated in this region of the curve.5 Single-phase half-wave rectifier . load supply (a) I time Figure 10.£ L---~L---~~--------~~ ~ 0 + a.4 Thermionic vacuum-diode characteristic this region the anode current is limited by the temperature of the cathode.99 Rectifiers + saturation current lAO anode voltage + Figure 10. ~ .c.

= 0.=.c =mean value of the d.c.m.c.318Vm= 0. supply= V rnl 2.9V. ensuring that the potential of terminal X is always positive with respect to Y. value of the a..c.= 0.c. In the case of a sinusoidal a.5 conducts when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. supply.c.) ci A if\!}\ 8 ~ (a) time (b) Figure 10. V m= maximum value ofthe a. 1t where Vd. and V.636Vm= 0. This circuit is also known as a biphase circuit.c. Owing to the cost and weight of the transformer this circuit is only used either when an unusual value of d.------+. output voltage. refer to the voltage between one of the secondary-winding terminals and the centre tap.45V. = . .c.. .s.J ~ . 1t where V mand V.6 Single-phase full-wave rectifier Single-phase full-wave centre-tap circuit Diodes A and Bin figure 10. voltage is required or where the load must be electrically isolated from the a. = r. .6 conduct in alternate half-cycles.<.. supply voltage vm Vd.: : '--------. supply.c. With a sinusoidal input 2Vm V d.100 Study Notes in Electrical Science 10.3 Rectifier Circuits Single-phase half-wave circuit The diode in figure 10.

and diagonally opposed diodes conduct simultaneously. Electrolytic capacitors are used both as reservoir and as filter capacitors. sides of the circuit. and d. Smoothing is usually brought about by using a reservoir capacitor in conjunction with some form of LC filter circuit (see figure 10.c.6.c supply Figure 10.c.8 Smoothing circuit Smoothing circuit The output waveform from rectifier circuits is not smooth enough for some applications.Rectifiers 101 + t vd. The waveforms are generally like those shown in figure 10.636V m = 0. The circuit does not require a transformer but must not be operated with earth connections on both the a. .c. that is. + QJ ~ u ~ E .g 1~1 I [ I + time "0 0 E . and V d. diodes A and B conduct during one halfcycle of the supply waveform. Four diodes are used. = 0.c. and diodes C and D conduct in the other half-cycle.9V.8). load a.g reservoir L-C filter capacitor \ \ I I \ I (a) (b) Figure 10.7.7 Single-phase bridge rectifier Single-phase bridge circuit The circuit is shown in figure 10.

p.base junction is reverse-biased.1 Bipolar junction transistors Basic configurations Amplifier circuits have an input terminal. The name given to the circuit connection or configuration in which the transistor is used is that of the electrode that is connected to the common line.n and p. Triodes and Amplifiers 11.n. and there are two types: n.1 Bipolar Junction Tramoistors Construction A bipolar junction transistor (see figure 11. . When the transistor is used in amplifier circuits the base. an output terminal and a 'common' connection between the input and output signals. of hole flow). collector p n p collector junction collector n base p base n-p-n symbol n emitter junction emitter emitter (a) (b) Figure 11. Any one of the three regions of the transistor (the emitter.1) is formed in a single crystal of semiconductor material. Each contains three regions known as the emitter.p. base or collector) may be connected to the 'common' line. The arrow on the circuit symbols points in the direction of conventional current flow (that is. the base and the collector. The most widely used type is the n-p-n silicon transistor.11 Transistors.emitter junction is forward-biased and the collector.

2). The common-collector configuration (figure 11. power gain and input impedance. the common-base corifiguration and the common-collector corifiguration (see figure 11.2c) has a very high input impedance. input o------+.2 Transistor configurations . The common-base configuration (figure 11.2a) is the most widely used circuit and provides reasonably high values of voltage gain.103 Transistors. signal (a) common line collector : o~tput s1gnal (b) base common line (c) ~_e_m_it_t_er_0 output signal input o---b_a_s_e_~ signal common line Figure 11. Triodes and Amplifiers Hence we have the common-emitter configuration. All the transistors in the figure are n-p-n types..2b) provides reasonably high values of voltage and power gain but has a low value of input impedance. The common-emitter configuration (figure 11. a very low output impedance and a voltage gain of slightly less than unity. it maintains its current gain at higher frequencies than does the common-emitter configuration.

m 10 50 I L . ...2 Field-effect Transistors Field-effect transistors (FETs) are so named because an electrical field (or electrical potential) controls the flow of current through the device.LA 0 250 500 750 0 5 15 10 V6 (mV) Vc (V) ~ ~ 20 25 Figure 11.. which show the way in which the output current (the collector current.LA v 20 100 <i <1 E j. V c).. V c) for various values of input current (the base current...3 Common-emitter characteristics Static output characteristics in the common-base corifiguration A typical set of output characteristics (collector current plotted to a base of voltage for various values of emitter current) is shown in figure 11. I 8 )._. which show the way in which the input current (the base current. The two types are junction-gate FETs (JUGFET) and insulated-gate FETs (IGFET or M OSFET). I c) varies with the output voltage (the collector voltage.! 6 =20 f.. 11. being typically .3a.4.. It should be noted that the value of I c increases with I 8 • 150 30 Vc =5 v Vc =10 I 6 =100 f. V 8 ) for various values of output voltage (the collector voltage. are shown in figure 11. A family of output characteristics.3b... The input resistance of both types of FET is very high.. I 8 ) varies with the input voltage (the base voltage.104 Study Notes in Electrical Science Static characteristic curves in the common-emitter configuration Typical input characteristics.. The output characteristics are seen to be almost parallel not only with one another but also with the base of the graph. are illustrated in figure 11.

Transistors. source - + (a) drain voltage (b) n -channel p -channel (C) (d) Figure 11.5 Junction-gate FET .~----------------~----- ".base voltage (V) Figure 11.i . 20 10 0 collector.-----~----. These transistors are generally used in applications in which this feature is of paramount importance.. Triodes and Amplifiers 105 IE= 40 rnA 40.4 Common-base output characteristics several hundred megohms. 30- c ~::> 0 2 IE=20 rnA 20- 0 ~ 0 h =10 0 10- rnA /Ico 0--~----------.§.to.

. this type is known as ann-channel device since the conducting channel linking the source electrode and the drain electrode is of n-type material. and the drain is the electrode where they are 'drained' from the device.5b). This type of device is known as a depletion-mode device. since it points in the direction of the arrow in a conventional p-n junction diode.Study Notes in Electrical Science 106 Junction-gate F EJ's One form of JUGFET is shown in figure 11.5. The arrow on the symbol indicates the nature of the gate-to-channel junction. A reverse gate bias voltage equal to V P (the pinch-off voltage) causes the drain current to become zero.6 Insulated-gate FET . The circuit symbols for ann-channel device and a p-channel device are shown in figure 11. Increasing the negative value of V 0 reduces or depletes the value of the drain current (see figure 11. The application of a reverse-bias voltage. V c. The source electrode is so named because it acts as the source of charge carriers.channel n-channel (c) (d) Figure 11. Insulated-gate FEJ's In an IGFET the gate is insulated from the body (or substrate) of the FET by a aluminium contact (a) drain voltage (V) (b) p. between the p-type gate region and the n-type conducting-channel causes a depletion region to form in the channel.5a. an arrow pointing towards the channel indicates that the gate is of p-type material and that the channel is of n-type material.

thus the gate voltage increases or enhances the value of the drain current (see figure 11. V a. When the arrow on the symbol points towards the conducting channel it indicates that the substrate is of p-type material and that the conducting channel is of n-type material. 7) is a three-electrode thermionic valve.Transistors. . Below a value of voltage known as the threshold voltage. When the gate voltage. The device in figure 11. This type of device is also described as a MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET) because of the gate-to-channel structure. the cathode and the control grid.6b ).3 Triodes A triode (see figure 11. V n no current flows between the source and drain electrodes. Triodes and Amplifiers 107 silicon-oxide (that is. The triode is operated with its anode positive with respect to the cathode and its control grid negative with respect to the cathode. The circuit symbols in figure 11. as shown below. glass) insulating layer. is zero no current flows between the source and the drain (see figure 11.6a is known asap-channel MOSFET.6 give information about the channel type. a p-type conducting-channel is formed between the source and drain regions. This type of device is described as an enhancementmode device. the electrodes being the anode. anode control grid ~ ~athode (a) anode voltage ( V) (b) Figure 11. The application of a negative potential to the gate attracts positive charges (holes) in the substrate to the underside of the oxide layer to form an inversion channel of p-type material in the n-type substrate.6b).7 The triode 11. When the gate voltage becomes more negative than V T• current begins to flow.

d.c.c. while magnetic amplifiers contain saturable reactors and diodes. amplifier c g. Power amplifiers are capable of providing a large power output but their output waveform may not be a faithful reproduction of the input signal. Rotating amplifiers use special types of rotating generator (which may be either d. amplifiers reduces rapidly at low frequencies and they are incapable of operating at zero frequency. Tuned amplifiers can only provide a more-or-less uniform amplification to a very narrow band of frequencies. or a. while thermionic amplifiers contain such devices as triodes and pentodes. Amplifiers are also classified by the point on the characteristic to which the electronic devices are biased as follows. This is illustrated in figure 11.Low-:frequency amplifiers have a uniform gain at a small range of frequencies above zero frequency.c.8. solid-state amplifiers contain semiconductor devices. However.). the former being more popular).4 Amplifiers Classification Amplifiers can be classified in many ways. frequency Figure 11. they are also known as small-signal amplifiers. D. the gain of a. Voltage amplifiers are those that faithfully reproduce the input waveform but only provide a relatively small amount of power output. Amplifiers may also be classified according to the band offrequencies they are capable of faithfully reproducing. For example. For example. they may be classified as either voltage amplifiers or power amplifiers.C. amplifiers are capable of reproducing a range of frequencies down to zero frequency (d.c. this type is sometimes described as a wide-band a.8 Amplifier frequency-response curves Amplifiers may also be classified according to the type of device used in them.c.Study Notes in Electrical Science 108 11. .c. amplifier..

C 1 and C2 =blocking capacitors.Transistors. The latter arises from a change in collector current . Class B: current flows in the load for one-half of the period of each inputsignal cycle.R d R in (parameter h re also is discussed in section 11. Class A amplifiers are used in tuned and untuned voltage-amplifiers and in low-power audio-frequency amplifiers. R L =collector-load resistor and V cc =collector-supply voltage. The output resistance of the circuit is approximately equal to R L· The thermal stability of this circuit is poor. Other classifications such as class AB are possible. Triodes and Amplifiers 109 Class A: current flows in the load during the whole period of the inputsignal cycle. and a variation in temperature causes the quiescent value of the collector voltage to change. Rio• whose value is equal to R 1 in parallel with parameter hie (this parameter is discussed in section 11. The functions of the important components in the circuit are: TR =transistor. Fixed-bias small-signal amplifier using bipolar transistors Figure 11.9 shows a simple amplifier using a fixed-bias arrangement. Many audio-frequency power-amplifiers and some radio-frequency amplifiers work in class B. R 1 =base-bias resistor. cl input signal Figure 11. Tuned oscillators and some radio-frequency amplifiers work in class C. input resistance. Class C: current flows in the load for less than one-half of the period of each input-signal cycle. The voltage gain of the amplifier is approximately equal to.c.5).h r.5).9 Bipolar-transistor amplifier with fixed bias The amplifier is phase-inverting and has an effective a.

power gain. Practical small-signal amplifier using bipolar transistors A circuit with improved thermal stability is shown in figure 11.. R 2 andRE =bias and thermal-stability resistors .lVceo and the quiescent base voltage is . etc. R 2 and hie· The voltage gain is about .6 V.. input resistance.c. of the amplifier. the over-all result being a change in the voltage gain.10 A practical amplifier circuit The amplifier is phase-inverting. For a silicon transistor the quiescent base potential is about 0.Any change in the collector current due to temperature change is partially compensated for by a change in base-emitter voltage.------o Vee (+l Figure 11..--------.Rc I Riw and the output resistance is approximately equal to Rc. The functions of the important components are: TR =transistor. R E> and R 1 . The d. C 1 and C2 =blocking capacitors. Rio• is equivalent to the parallel combination of R 1 .110 Study Notes in Electrical Science with temperature through the transistor. and its a. potential across R Eis about O.hc. and the quiescent collector voltage should be about V cd2. power dissipation. the latter change restricts the change in collector current to a small value. C E= bypass capacitorfor the emitter resistor.1 0.c. .

The transistor is used in an amplifier circuit like that .d. The quiescent collector voltage is about midway between the emitter voltage and Vee· Load-line construction for resistive loads For the circuit in figure 11. across R L hence Vee=Ve+leRL Vee 1) le=. V e• for given values ofVee and Rvlt should be compared with the straight-line equation y = mx + c relating the variables y and x. Triodes and Amplifiers about 0.5 V greater than this value.11 Load line Example The common-emitter characteristics of a n-p-n transistor are linear over the range given in table 11. c.11.111 Transistors. m. from which it can be seen that the slope. of the load line is -1/RL and that the vertical intercept. varies with the collector voltage. I e.1. is equal to VcciRL· A load line corresponding to this equation is shown in figure 11.( RL Ve+ RL The above equation is known as the load-line equation and shows how the collector current.9 supply voltage =collector voltage+ p. load line of slope= -1/RL Vcc co I lector voltage Figure 11.

m.12 it can be seen that the vertical intercept of the load line on the I c axis is 8V 1500 Q = 0.lA. determine the current gain of the amplifier and also the r.65 rnA quiescent collector voltage = V co= 4 V (b) quiescent power dissipated by the transistor =Vcof co=4 x 2.s. value of the a.8 3.3 2. Q.7 2. The quiescent point.lA = 0.9 1. is 50 J. Table 11.5 4. I 8 .c.9 and has a collector load resistor. estimate (a) (b) (c) the quiescent values of the collector current. and collector voltage.33 rnA The load line has a slope of -1 A 1500 v -1 rnA 1. components of I c and Vc.12 quiescent collector current= I co= 2.lA. the characteristic for I 8 = 50 J. V cc• of 8 V. of the circuit is given by the intersection of the load line and the static output characteristic corresponding to the d. bias current (that is.8 2.Study Notes in Electrical Science 112 shown in figure 11.6mW (a) . V c the quiescent power dissipated by the transistor the total power dissipated in the circuit.1 I c (rnA) for 20 40 50 60 80 Vc=2V Vc=9V 0.9 1. From figure 11.65mW = 10. If a sinusoidal input-signal causes I 8 to change by± 10 J.5 Solution From figure 11.05 rnA).8 3. R L• of 1500 Q and a collector supply voltage.2 5.c.5 v ---=-- and cuts the V c axis at V cc or 8 V.00533 A= 5. If the base bias current. I c.

10 = 40 11A to 50+ 10 = 60 JlA.18 =0.05) x 8mW =21.88mA Hence the current gain of the amplifier is OI c 8J B 0.113 Transistors.2mW. that is. the change in I 8 is M 8 = 20 11A = 0..3 20 X 10 6 = 44 6·0 5·33 5·0 .02 rnA The resulting change in I c is M c= 3.12 8 9 10 .:.6mW (Note: The total power is given approximately by I cQXVcc=21.> 2·0 1•0 0 2 4 6 collector voltage ( V) Figure 11. Triodes and Amplifiers (c) total power dissipated by the circuit =(I cQ+I 8 ) xVcc =(2.) The input signal causes I 8 to change from 50.65+0. 4·0 E c "'::>t: <.06-2.88 X 10.> 3·0 0 u ~ 0 <.

s. R K =cathode bias resistor.114 Study Notes in Electrical Science and since the input signal is sinusoidal the r.46V 1. value of the a. of the valve at its operating point. value of the a.c.J2 = ~~82 = 0. The following components are used: V 1 =triode valve.4= 1. The amplifier is phase-inverting and has an a.13. component of I c is given by oi c (peak-to-peak change in I c) 2.c.3 Small-signal common-cathode triode amplifier The circuit is shown in figure 11.3 V and the corresponding r.7 -3.c. R a= grid resistor.J 2 =0. input-impedance equal to R G· The voltage gain is.J2 =2.311 rnA The corresponding change in V c is 0Vc=4.13 A triode amplifier + 1-AA . The output resistance of the amplifier is equal to the parallel combination of R Land r a· t------Il outp~t signal C2 input voltage RG Figure 11.JLRJ(r a+ RL).s. Cl and C2 =blocking Capacitors and C K =bypaSS Capacitor for resistor RK. respectively. component of V cis 2 . R L=anode load resistor.m. where Jl and r aare the voltage-amplification factor and slope resistance.m.

other subscripts are given as follows e =common-emitter configuration . It should be noted that the equivalent circuits are only accurate over a limited range of the characteristics.Transistors. In the case of FETs and valves other sets of parameters are used. The relationships existing between the input and output quantities are expressed by equations that contain certain coefficients or parameters.5 Electronic-device Parameters and Equivalent Circuits Use of parameters Transistors can be regarded as circuit elements having a pair of input terminals and a pair of output terminals. They are defined for 'black-box' devices in figure 11.1) l2=hrl1 +hoV2 (11. I. common-emitter.! transis1or Figure 11. The resulting equations can then be developed to give electrically equivalent circuits ofthe devices. which are in the form of voltage sources (Thevenin's circuit) or current sources (Norton's circuit).14 )~ out put signal Transistor parameters Hybrid parameters or h-parameters The hybrid parameters are so named because the dimensions of the parameters are mixed. commonbase or common-collector. input signal [2 v. Triodes and Amplifiers 115 11. that is.14 by the equations vl =hJ1 +h.2) where hi=input-resistance parameter and has dimensions of resistance h r =reverse-feedback parameter and is dimensionless h r= forward-current-gain parameter and is dimensionless ho=output-conductance parameter and has dimensions of conductance Depending on the circuit configuration used.v2 (11. The parameters used to describe the operation of devices depend to a great extent on the ease with which they can be measured. In the case of bipolar transistors it has been found that the most useful set of parameters is the hybrid parameters or h-parameters.

1 and 11.6 the equivalent output-circuit is output current= current generator due to I 1 +current due to V2 When the bipolar transistor is used in one of its three operating modes the parameters and variables in the equivalent circuit in figure 11.4) If the transistor is in the common-base configuration.3) I c= hrel b+hoeVc (11.5.2 are written V b= hie/ b+ h.= hibl ..5) J c= hfb/ . The general equivalent circuit using the h-parameters in figure 11.116 Study Notes in Electrical Science b =common-base configuration c =common-collector configuration If the transistor in figure 11. due to I 1 +voltage generator due to V 2 From equations 11.2.1 and 11.1 and 11.2 are written V. then equations 11.Vc (11.1 and 11. the equivalent input-circuit is input voltage= p.2 as follows.+hobVc (11.+h. lz ho v.d. . then equations 11.15 General h-parameter equivalent circuit Equivalent circuits The equivalent circuit of the transistor is derived from the above equations.2 and 11.bVc (11.15 is derived from equations 11. t Figure 11.15 are replaced by those in table 11. From equations 11.14 is in the common-emitter configuration.6) ..

b hie hrc v2 I2 vc Ic h.2 Variables and Variables and parameters used in equivalent circuits parameters in figure 11.02 2. Triodes and Amplifiers 117 Table 11. hie hib h.LS) Common-emitter 2.0 0.16 Simplified h-parameter equivalent circuit Table 11. he ho h..99 0.3 Parameter hi(kQ) h. hr ho (J. Vj Figure 11. hoe hi hfb hob vb Ib hec hoc In many cases the values of the parameters hi and h 0 are small enough to cause the voltage across and the current in the respective elements to be neglected.4 100 15 Common-base Common-collector 0.Transistors. This I.15 Common-emitter Common-base Common-collector vl Il vb Ib v.4 -0.0 3 X 10. he.9997 -101 15 3 X 10.15 . vc Ic v. I. I.

1 and 11.118 Study Notes in Electrical Science means that equations 11.ll 12 =h 111 which result in the simplified equivalent circuit in figure 11.3.16.2 respectively can be reduced to v~ =h. . Typical parameter values for one transistor when used in the three configurations are given in table 11.

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