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**Study Notes in Electrical Science
**

Noel M. Morris

Principal Lee turer,

North Staffordshire Polytechnic

**© Noel M. Morris 1977
**

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may

be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means,

without permission.

First published 1977 by

THE MACMILLAN PRESS LTD

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Melbourne Johannesburg and Madras

ISBN 978-0-333-21216-5

**ISBN 978-1-349-03123-8 (eBook)
**

DOI 10.1007/978-1-349-03123-8

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Norton's and maximum power-transfer theorems 2 Electromagnetism 2. Multiples and Physical Constants ix basic SI units-multiples and submultiples of 10---useful physical constants-logarithms-some constants and useful relationships I Direct-current Circuits 1.2 1.8 Basic Electrical Quantities current-quantity-potential-resistance--energy-power Ohm's Law derived relationships Electrochemical Equivalent Thermal Energy Resistivity and Resistors resistivity-resistors in series and parallel-resistance colour code Conductance and Conductivity conductance------<:onductivity-conductances in parallel and series The Decibel determination---dBm-3 dB Circuit Theorems Kirchhoff's laws-superposition. Thevenin's. Neumann's and Lenz's laws I 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 II 11 11 .5 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.1 1.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's.3 1.Contents Preface vn Useful Examination Tips vm Quantities.1 Magnetic Field. Magnetic Flux and Flux Density 2.

9 Parallel-plate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics 3. e.6 2.7 2.5 2. Electric-field Intensity or Electric-field Strength 3.F.S. Value of an Alternating Waveform average and r. amplitude and 'angle of rotation'frequency-angular frequency-periodic time 4.m.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current 3. 7 Series-connected Capacitors 3.4 2.1 Basic Concepts sinusoidal waveform.3 Electric Force.s.m.5 Capacitance of Parallel-plate Capacitors 3. induced in a coil-induced e. values-form and peak factors 12 13 14 16 18 21 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 30 32 32 33 .6 Parallel-connected Capacitors 3.2 Average Value and R.f.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor 3.8 Voltage Distribution between Series-connected Capacitors 3. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field-Fleming's right-hand rule Force on a Conductor force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic fieldscrew rule-Fleming's left-hand rule Magnetic Circuits hysteresis and eddy-current losses-magnetomotive force-magnetic-field strength-magnetic leakage-permeability-reluctance-reluctances in series and parallel Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop magnetisation curve-hysteresis loop Inductance self and mutual inductances-series-connected magnetically coupled circuits-coefficient of mutual inductanceenergy stored in a magnetic field Transients in Inductive Circuits basic circuit-growth and decay of currents 3 Electrostatics 3.M.3 2.m.iv Contents 2.f.M.4 Permittivity 3.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor basic circuit-capacitor charging and discharging 4 Alternating-current Theory 4.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density 3.8 Induced E.

L and C in series-series resonance 5. Circuits 6.C.1 Types of Electrical Machine salient and cylindrical magnetic systems 8.1 Basic Circuits circuit containing R only-reactance-circuit containing L only-circuit containing C only 5.M.4 Complex Impedances reactance-impedance of series and parallel circuits 6 Tbree-pbase A.5 The Transformer as an Impedance-matching Device 8 Electrical Machines 8.power consumed in a balanced load 7 Transformers 7. Circuits 5. L and C-parallel resonance 5.3 Double-excited Machines 8.Contents v 4.4 Windings concentrated and distributed windings 39 42 42 45 50 52 54 54 56 58 58 58 59 61 63 64 64 65 66 66 .2 Mesh-connected or Delta-connected Systems current and voltage relationships.1 E. Equation 7.4 Phasor Diagrams ideal and practical transformers with and without load 7.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer 7.3 Transformer Efficiency copper and iron losses-condition for maximum efficiency 7.C.2 Series Circuits power factor-Rand Lin series-Rand C in series-R.1 Star-connected Systems voltage and current relationships 6.4 Complex Notation operator j-rectangular and polar components-complex conjugate-operations with complex quantities 5 Single-phase A.F.3 36 Phasors and Phase Relationships phasors-phase displacement-addition and subtraction of phasors 4.2 Single-excited Machines 8.3 Parallel Circuits circuit containing R.

9 A.ammeters.t.face-plate starter Characteristic Curves of D.C.C.9 8. series-excited and compound-wound generators Power Required to Drive a D.1 Analog and Digital Instruments 9. equation-methods of connection Characteristic Curves of D.the moving-coil instrument as an ohmmeterrectifier instruments 9. Generator D. Maxwell's and Hay's bridges 9.n junction.principal controls 68 68 71 72 73 76 77 78 78 78 78 81 86 87 88 88 89 93 10 Rectifiers 96 10.11 D. Motors torque equation.f.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments 9. Bridges basic four-arm bridge-De Sauty's. Generators separately excited. Zener and thermionic diodes 96 .8 8.C.4 Moving-coil Instruments or Galvanometers construction and uses. series and compound-wound motors Induction Motors principle-synchronous speed of the magnetic fieldfractional slip Efficiency of Electrical Machines 9 Measurements 9.voltmeters 9. Potentiometer 9.6 Electrodynamic Instruments 9.3 Analog Indicating Instruments controlling and damping forces. Motors shunt.5 8.p-type 10.m.10 8.2 Rectifiers diode characteristics.p.Contents vi 8.r. Schering's.extending the current and voltage ranges.1 96 Semiconductors i-type-n-type.7 8.instrument scales 9.methods of supporting moving systems.C. shunt-excited.5 Moving-iron Instruments construction and use.8 The Wheatstone Bridge 9.C. Machines e.6 8.C.10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope electron gun-electron lens system-deflection systemc.7 The D.C. screen.

4 11.equivalent circuits 102 104 107 108 115 Preface This book is a collection of notes and essential diagrams for the study of the subjects of electrical science and electrical principles in T.small-signal amplifiers with bipolar transistors -load line.3 Rectifier Circuits single-phase half-wave.E.N. Thanks are also due to the Macmillan production and editorial stafffor their guidance and help during the production of the book. full-wave and bridge circuitssmoothing circuit 102 11 Transistors. MORRIS . who have also to deal with advances in technology. allowing him to streamline the activities that lead to his final goal. and O.3 11.basic configurations. The treatment is abbreviated and is produced in the most economical form possible.Contents Vll 10. O. I should like to express my gratitude to my wife for the assistance she has given during the preparation of this book.5 100 Bipolar Junction Transistors construction. Present-day syllabuses place an immense burden on students. Meir Heath NOEL M. This book provides the reader with a summary of the work in electrical science and principles. courses.small-signal common-cathode triode amplifier Electronic-device Parameters and Equivalent Circuits use of parameters.common-emitter and common-base characteristics Field-effect Transistors junction-gate and insulated-gate FETs Triodes Amplifiers classification. Triodes and Amplifiers 11.C.2 11.C. courses.1 11.hybrid parameters. and sciencebased 0-level and A-level subjects.D. City and Guilds of London Institute courses.N.

leave sufficient space at the end of it in case you wish to add to it later.an electronic calculator can sometimes provide wrong results more quickly than any other known method! Take a slide rule into the examination with you in case the calculator develops a fault. 8. If you wish to use a portable electronic hand-held calculator. check that the examination regulations permit its use. at the earliest moment. 6. Be in the examination room at least ten minutes before the start of the examination. Make your drawings large enough to show all necessary detail. 4. 2. Estimate the time allowed for each question or. 10. Do not spend an excessive time on sections you prefer to answer at the expense of topics you find more difficult. .. drawing instruments. on which you can indicate the days when you intend to deal with each subject area). A tube of your favourite mints or barley sugar can provide refreshment and aid concentration. etc. Spend several minutes reading through the examination paper before starting your solutions. Clearly number each question in the answer book as you begin it.Useful Examination Tips 1. pens. If you are unable to complete a question. Mark on the question paper the problems you are going to attempt. 9. the time and place of the examination. Take pencils. estimate the time required to obtain each 'mark'. Make sure that you understand the type of solution required. into the examination room with you. Remember. 5. If you complete your solutions before the allotted time has elapsed. carefully check your solutions before leaving the room. alternatively. Find out. 7. 3. and also the order in which you will attempt them. this allows time to fill in particulars on the answer paper. Start revision well before the examination date (it is often helpful to work out a revision 'timetable'.

l n p f a micro nano pico femto atto 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 . (} D.Quantities. p.L m t I T I a.w Unit Unit symbol metre kilogram second ampere kelvin candela radian steradian m kg s A K cd rad sr Multiples and submultiples of 10 Symbol Prefix T G M k m tera giga mega kilo milli Multiple 1012 109 106 103 10-3 Symbol Prefix Multiple J. Multiples and Physical Constants Basic SI units Quantity Symbol length mass time current absolute temperature luminous intensity plane angle solid angle l.

bases and logarithms is number (antilogarithm)= base (logarithm) log 10 e = 0.01745 rad OK= -273.31 kg 1.14159 360degrees = 2n radians 1 rad = 360/21t 0 = 57.27 kg 2.m.2958° = 57o 17' 45" 1o = 0.7 H/m 8.3026 log 10 N Note: log 10 is sometimes written as lg and loge is sometimes written as In (=natural logarithm). loga m = Iogb m x loga b = Iogb mjlogb a n = 3. Multiples and Physical Constants X Useful physical constants Symbol Constant electron charge electron rest-mass proton rest-mass neutron rest-mass speed of e.675 x w.109 x w.854 x 10.12 Fjm Some Constants and Useful Information base of natural logarithms= e = 2.19 c 9.27 kg 1. 71828 The general relationship between numbers (or antilogarithms).4343 log 10 N = 0.15 K = 0 oc .998 x 108 mjs 4n X 10.602 x w. waves in a vacuum permeability of free space permittivity of free space e me mP mn c flo to Value -1.15oC 273.4343 logeN loge 10 = 2.Quantities.3026 logeN = 2.673 x w.

Electrical energy Symbol W The joule (unit symbol J) or watt second is the energy dissipated in a conductor when a p.J Direct-current Circuits 1. W = EI t joules or watt seconds . when the electrical resistance between the two points is 1 n.d. produces between the conductors a force of 2 x 10. of 1 V causes a current of 1 A to flow for 1 s.d. The unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (symbol Q). The ampere (unit symbol A) is the current that. The coulomb (unit symbol C) is the quantity of electricity passing a point in a circuit when a current of 1 A flows for 1 s.7 N (0. The volt (unit symbol V) is the potential difference (p. and when a current of 1 A flows through a conductor of resistance 1 Q the p. Q =It coulombs where I is in amperes and t in seconds. Electrical quantity Symbol Q.) that exists between two points on an electrical conductor that carries a current of 1 A.2 J!N) per metre length. Electrical resistance Symbol R.d. between the ends of the conductor is 1 V. Electrical potential Symbol E.1 Basic Electrical Quantities Electrical current Symbol I. when flowing in each of two infinitely long parallel conductors that are of negligible cross-section and are placed 1m apart in a vacuum.

grams/coulomb It where m =mass of substance liberated (g). Power is the rate of expending energy or of doing work. Hence m=Zit grams . W Eit . The commercial 'unit' of electrical energy is the kilowatt hour (unit symbol kWh= 1000 watt hour). The electrochemical equivalent (e. which is 1 kWh= 1000 x 60 x 601 = 36000001 = 3.c.6 M1 Hence kWh= 1/(3. Derived relationships E2 P=EI=I 2 R=-watts R E 2t W=Eit = 12 Rt =R joules 1. P =.Study Notes in Electrical Science 2 where E is in volts. I in amperes and t in seconds.) of a substance is the mass of the substance that is either deposited or liberated by the passage of 1 C of electricity. I in amperes and t in seconds. and the unit is the watt (unit symbol W) or joule per second.2 Ohm's Law E=IR volts where I is in amperes and R in ohms. m Z =.= EI watts or JOules/second t t where E is in volts. I= current (A) and t =time (s).6 X 106 ) Electrical power Symbol P.e. 1.= .3 Electrochemical Equivalent Symbol Z.

Direct-current Circuits 3 1. of parallel-connected resistors is 1 1 1 1 1 .= . + ..ohms a where I= length (m) of the conductor. a= area (m 2 ) of the conductor and p =resistivity (Qm) of the material. Hence Ra p =-1. The energy gained or lost by a mass of substance when its temperature is changed is Q = m x c x 00 joules where m =mass of the substance (g). The resistance of a conductor can be given by pi R=.5 Resistivity and Resistors Resistivity Symbol p. R.4 Thermal Energy Symbol Q. R R1 R 2 R3 The equivalent resistance of two parallel-connected resistors is R= R 1 R 2 ohms Rl +Rz Note: The equivalent (or effective) resistance of parallel-connected resistors is always less than the lowest value in the set.+ . c =specific heat capacity of the substance (1/g K or kJ/kg K) and oe =temperature change (K). R.. Resistance colour code An international colour code used to identify the values of certain types of resistor .1 R.ohm metres Resistors in series The equivalent resistance.+ . 1. of series-connected resistors is Resistors in parallel The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance.+ .ohms.

Eng..E. Machin.E.R. The coding method for resistors with axial leads is shown in figure 1. M. W.E. M..1 tolerance Resistor colour code 1. which also includes a useful mnemonic to aid recollection of the sequence of colours.E. .1 1 10 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 0 1 2 Bye bye Rosie off you go Bristol via Great Western Decimal multiplier 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 is listed in table 1. C.Sc. B.1 Colour no band silver gold black brown red orange yellow green blue violet grey white Mnemonic Significant figure Tolerance (%) O. 1st significant figure 2nd significant figure decimal multiplier Figure 1. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance and its unit is the siemen (unit symbol S).I.Study Notes in Electrical Science 4 Table 1.1.1.I.6 Conductance and Conductivity Conductance Symbol G. The mnemonic is reproduced by kind permission of J..ot 20 10 0.

The ratio of power levels P2 and P 1 expressed in the decibel notation is X= 10 log 10 p 2 decibels PI If P 1 is dissipated in resistor R 1 and P 2 is dissipated in resistor R 2 . of parallel-connected conductances is G = G 1 + G 2 + G 3 + . Conductivity Symbol rr.1 p Conductances in parallel The equivalent conductance. 7 The Decibel Determination The decibel (unit symbol dB) is a logarithmic ratio of two power values. that is . of series-connected conductances is 1 1 1 1 -=-+-+-+ G G 1 G 2 G3 I 1 . . The conductivity of a substance is the reciprocal of its resistivity. where V1 and V 2 are the voltages developed across R 1 and R 2 respectively. G. G=R siemens where R is in ohms. . G. then P 1 =V1 2 / R 1 and P 2 =V2 2 /R 2 . 1 rr =-(ohm metres). + G" siemens Conductances in series The reciprocal of the equivalent conductance. +-siemensG" The equivalent conductance of two series-connected conductances is G = G1G2 Gl +G2 siemens 1.5 Direct-current Circuits 1 .

then X has a negative value.938 dB Important note: When dealing with a voltage ratio whose value is less than unity._/V2 ) and assign a negative sign to it. multiply this value by 20 to give the correct decibel ratio.lfV2 <V1 .1. and a power value of P milliwatts is said to have a level of 10 log 10 P decibels relative to 1 mW. Determine the logarithm of the inverse of the ratio.9031) = 20 X ( . an increase in gain of 3 dB represents a doubling of power or an increase in voltage by a factor of 1.6 Study Notes in Electrical Science . then X has a positive value. 3dB A reduction in gain of 3 dB represents a reduction in power by one-half or a reduction in voltage to 0. the decibel ratio is more easily obtained as follows.1. .938 dB dBm A datum power level frequently used is 1 mW (dBm).8 = 20 x (1. that is. R. Thus in (b) above X= 20 log 10 0.8 = -20 X 0. IfV2 =V1 .414.8 = -20 log 10 ( -1-) = -20 log 10 1. the value oflog 10 ( lr.52 dB X= 20 log 10 0. dectbels (v2) -10 loglO (R2) = 20 loglO Vl In most electrical circuits the second term in the above expression is ignored (even though its value may be high) and the power ratio is generally expressed in the form X= 20 log 10 (~:) decibels Note: IfV2 >V1 .707 of its original value.1761 = 23.0969 = .0969) = . Solution (a) (b) X= 20 log 10 15 = 20 x 1.25 0.0.8. Example Determine the logarithmic power ratio in decibels for a circuit in which the ratio V 2 /V1 is (a) 15 and (b) 0.9031) = 20 x ( -1 +0. then X =0dB. Similarly.

7 Direct-current Circuits 1.m.2a or Therefore at node N 1:1=0 Kirchhoff's second law In any closed circuit the algebraic sum of the potential drops is equal to the algebraic sum of the e.2 Kirchhoff's laws: (a) first law.s acting in that loop.8 Circuit Theorems Kirchhoff's first law The total current flowing towards a junction or node in a circuit is equal to the total current flowing away from the node. Proceeding around figure 1.f.2b in the direction ABCDA gives E1 -IR 1 -IR 2 -E 2 -IR 3 =0 or . that is. (b) second law Hence in figure 1. (b) (a) Figure 1. the algebraic sum of the currents flowing towards the node is zero.

being replaced meanwhile by their respective internal resistances. when moving along the path ABCDA in figure 1.f. -IR 2 . Mark a 'potential' arrow against each component on the diagram..2b.3a can be considered to be the sum of the currents in figures 1.E 2 and -JR 3 • Since the loop starts and finishes at the same point the sum of these e.f.3 (c) Superposition theorem Thus the current distribution in the circuit in figure 1. and assign a 'plus' sign to the voltages associated with a potential arrow pointing in the direction being followed and a 'minus' sign to those associated with a potential arrow pointing in the reverse direction.m.m.m. Superposition theorem In any network containing a number of sources of e. (a) (b) Figure 1.f. all other sources of e. In the case of resistors the potential arrow always opposes the direction of current flow.m. where Jl =14+(-/9)=/4-/9 12=(-/6)+/7= -16+17 13=ls+ls The'venin's theorem Any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by a voltage-source equivalent .f.s and p.3b and c.8 Study Notes in Electrical Science Therefore around the loop A useful technique when dealing with Kirchhoff's second law is as follows. the resultant current is the algebraic sum of the currents that would be produced by each e. the potentials are+ E 1 followed by -JR 1 . Then proceed around the selected circuit. the arrowhead pointing towards the end with the most positive potential.s is zero. acting alone. Thus. .d.

f.. shunted by a conductance. Relationship between Thevenin's and Norton's equivalent circuits For the circuits in figures 1.J L ______________ J (b) (a) Figure 1. i 1£ 6s 1 l ______________ .4 and 1.4 ! Thevenin's theorem Norton's theorem Any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by a current-source equivalent network having an internal current source. and R is the resistance of the network measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal voltage-sources meanwhile replaced by their internal resistances.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1. G. I.4b. and G is the conductance of the network measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal voltage-sources meanwhile replaced by their conductances.5 1 R=G I E=IR=- G . r---------------l I I I I I I I I I I I .m. The value of E is equal to the no-load voltage appearing between the two terminals of the network.5. The value of I is equal to the current that would flow through a short-circuit applied to the two terminals of the network.I--~----~----~.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1. Thus the network in figure 1. E. Thus the network in figure 1. R.Direct-current Circuits 9 network having an e. and internal resistance.

5 Norton's theorem Maximum power-transfer theorem In a d. . the condition for maximum power to be transferred from a source into a load is that the value of the load resistance must be equal to the internal resistance of the source.c. circuit.Study Notes in Electrical Science 10 current source Figure 1.

Neumann's law The magnitude of the induced e. is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux linking the circuit.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction Faraday's law An induced e.2 Electromagnetism 2. 2. the N-pole would trace out a path known as a line of magnetic flux (the symbol of magnetic flux is cP ). B=cPT a where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes perpendicular to the direction of the flux. Lenz's law The induced e. The flux density (symbol B) is the amount of flux passing through an area of 1m2 that is perpendicular to the direction of the flux. .m. The unit of measurement of magnetic flux is the weber (unit symbol Wb).) If free to move. Its unit of measurement is the tesla (unit symbol T).f.f.m. is established in a circuit whenever the magnetic field linking that circuit is changed. (Note: A N-pole is a north-seeking pole. The 'direction' of action of the magnetic field at a point is taken to be that of the force experienced by an isolated N-pole placed at that point.m.m.f. acts to circulate a current in a direction that opposes the change in the flux that induced the e. Magnetic Flux and Flux Density A magnetic field is established around a conductor that carries current.f.1 Magnetic Field.

l =active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field and v =velocity (m/s) of the conductor perpendicular to the direction of the flux. induced in a coil dcP e=N-V dt where N =number of turns of wire on the coil and dcP /dt =rate of change (Wb/s) of the magnetic flux linking with the coil. E. induced in a conductor If the conductor moves at angle lJ to the line of action ofthe flux (see figure 2.F.3 Induced E. B =flux density (T) of the magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion (see figure 2.F.la).F. ifJ ---- ---- ---- ---- (b) (a) Figure 2.1 E.M. Induced e.Study Notes in Electrical Science 12 2.mf. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field dcP e=-=Blv V dt where dcP/dt =rate (Wb/s) at which the conductor cuts the flux. then e=Blvsin lJV .1 b).M.M.

Examples of the application of this rule are illustrated in figure 2.first finger _. in a clockwise direction when viewed from the head of the screw.:.... 1 1 : 1 I conductor relative to magnetic flux I I I I I I L-----------second finger Figure 2..:.2 First finger-1iirection of the magnetic Flux sEcond finger-1iirection of induced E. ..... and a cross symbolises current entering the page.. """'"" // thumb //~otion of r<+. that is.2 Fleming's right-hand rule 2. then in order to propel the screw forwards (in the direction of the current flow) the head of the screw must be turned in the direction of action of the magnetic field.......__...........m.) Referring to figure 2.. A dot on the conductor symbolises current coming out of the paper..mf.. .. I= current (A) and 1=active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field..4 Force on a Conductor Force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field F=BIIN where B =flux density (T).. Screw rule (for the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor) If we imagine a screw with a right-handed thread to be pointing in the direction of current flow....13 Electromagnetism Fleming's right-hand rule (for the direction of the induced e... // ~----------....1.. thuMb---direction of Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux...f...

u E / 'ii I I I ) /// // _____________________ _y / "CI // / . 2. it may be useful to recall that in Great Britain all motors drive on the left-hand side of the road.2 ~ I c ~ t. ~ .2 (a typical value is 1.: Figure 2.5 Magnetic Circuits Hysteresis loss and eddy-current loss hysteresis loss= PhocfBmax" W /m 3 where!= supply frequency.~c.. Bmax= maximum flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1.6-2..Study Notes in Electrical Science 14 rt- \_<$'c.3 First finger-direction of the magnetic Flux seCond finger. Referring to figure 2. ---------------------~ ' direction of the /' / / /I I I I : '/ I f--------:------l""{ thumb 1 1 force on the conductor I I I I --- I I I Q) £ 0 c .3 Fleming's left-hand rule Fleming's left-hand rule (for the direction of the force acting on a current-carrying conductor) Since this rule refers to motor action.ocPBmax2 W/m 3 ..direction of the Current in the conductor thuMb-direction of the Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux.7). eddy current loss=P... c 8 go Q) Ill.

. J1 0 .m.f.m. where . fl. The flux that fails to follow the 'useful' path is said to be leakage flux or fringing flux.7 H/m Also J1 = JloJlr H/m where J1 r= relative permeability of the material and is dimensionless.) causes the magnetic flux to be produced by a coil and is measured in ampere turns (unit symbol At) or amperes. The magnetomotive force (m.15 Electromagnetism M agnetomotive force Symbol F.It can be empirically allowed for by adding about 10-20 per cent to the calculated value of m. Magnetic-field strength Symbol H. This is the m. The permeability of free space. Magnetic leakage: fringing Not all the magnetic flux developed by the solenoid follows the 'useful' path. It is also known as the magnetic-field intensity and as the magnetising force. total magnetic flux produced magnetic-1ea rage coe ctent = f I .m. F=Nl At or A where I= current (A) in the coil and N =number of turns on the coil. It is accounted for in calculations by means of a leakage coefficient.25.f. per unit length. use u magnetic ux In efficient magnetic circuits the value ofthis coefficient is in the range 1. J1o=4nx 10. is constant. k ffi .f. Permeability B=J1H T where J1 =absolute permeability of the magnetic material and is measured in henrys/metre (unit symbol H/m).15-1. F NI H =T=-1-At/m or A/m where l =length (m) of the magnetic circuit.

Curves for three ferromagnetic materials are illustrated in figure 2.) If l = length of the magnetic circuit. H.6 Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop Magnetisation curve or B-H curve This curve shows the relationship between the flux density. for the material. when the material is magnetically saturated the only increase in B is that which would occur for a non-magnetic material for the same increase in H. and magnetising force. B.rJl. . then at high values of H the slope of the curve reduces.4.16 Study Notes in Electrical Science Reluctance magnetomotive force re1uctance = S = . For reluctances in series effective reluctance= S 1 + S 2 + S 3 + .) Reluctances in series and in parallel The analogy between magnetic and electrical circuits is sufficiently close to allow techniques to be used with magnetic circuits that are similar to those used with electrical circuits. . Ultimately. then Hence 1 -A/Wb S=Jl. magnetic flux F =- 1/J At/Wb or A/Wb (Compare this with Ohm's law for the electrical circuit: R = E/ 1. The value of B increases rapidly at first. a = area of the magnetic circuit and J1.oa (Compare this with the expression for electrical resistance: R = plja. . =absolute permeability of the magnetic circuit. + S" A/Wb For two branches in parallel effective reluctance = SS 1882 A/Wb 1 + 2 2.

17 Electromagnetism 2·0 1·6 1- 1·2 ll:J ~ ·.4 B-H curves Hysteresis loop or B-H loop When the magnetising force suffers two complete reversals the resulting closed B. the retained magnetism being a measure of the material's retentivity or residual magnetism. The residual magnetism is reduced to zero by applying a reverse magnetising force. c -8 " ~ 0•8 0·4 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 mognetising force.5 by the remanent flux density..H loop is known as a hysteresis loop (see figure 2. This is indicated on curve A in figure 2. B ..5).. H c· Materials having a high remanence (about 1 T) and a high coercivity (about 50000A/m) are described as magnetically hard materials and are suitable for permanent magnets. known as the coercive force. H (A/m) Figure 2. In materials used for permanent magnets a high retentivity is desirable. . When the magnetising force is reduced to zero the material retains some of its magnetism.

f. Self-induced e.Study Notes in Electrical Science 18 0·4 -80 -60 -40 -20 20 40 60 Hx 80 103 (A/m) -0·4 -0·8 Figure 2.f.m. which must lose their magnetism when the magnetising force is removed. and a circuit has a self inductance of 1 H if an e. These materials are described as magnetically soft materials. of 1 Vis induced in the circuit when the current in the circuit changes at the rate of 1 A/s.5 Hysteresis loops Electromagnets. is given by di e =L x rate of change of current =L dt V .7 Inductance Self inductance Symbol£. transformer steel being an example. 2. need to have a high value of saturation flux-density together with low coercivity. Inductance is measured in henrys (unit symbol H).m.

f.' .. Hence For a magnetic circuit having a constant value of reluctance the flux proportional to the exciting current.-...-------------A r---+'---P--P-. ~/ ' I . induced in a coil is also d<P e=N-V dt where N =number of turns on the coil and d<P/dt =rate of change (Wb/ s) of the magnetic flux. . in which case L = N<P = NBa = N}lHa I I I Now NI H=1 or HI I=N Therefore leokoge flux I --.. It was shown in section 2. Figure 2.19 Electromagnetism where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at time t(s).:.m.6 Mutual inductance IS .3 that the e.

is rate of change of _ mutual e 2 .) The secondary induced e. (See figure 2. where coil A is the primary and coil B the secondary coil. then A1 = k .m. H ll Series-connected magnetically coupled circuits For two series-connected coils of inductances L 1 and L 2 respectively. Series-aiding total inductance =L 1 +L 2 + 2A1 Series-opposing total inductance =L 1 +L 2 . the total inductance is as follows.} (L 1 L 2) .6 produces flux <P 1 and if a flux k<P 1 (where k < 1) links with the secondary circuit. having a mutual inductance A1.m..20 Study Notes in Electrical Science A1utual inductance Symbol A1.inductance x primary current udi1 dt =1v1-V Also e2 _ number of turns on the x rate of change of secondary flux secondary winding - d<P2 -V =N 2 dt Hence or d<P2 A1=N2-d.6.f.f. Two coils are said to be mutually coupled when the magnetic flux produced by one coil (the primary coil) causes an e. to be induced in the other (secondary) coil.2A1 Coefficient of mutual inductance or coupling coefficient If the primary circuit in figure 2.

Growth of current When the switch is in position A (see figure 2. initial rate of rise of current= (E/R)/T= E/ L Ajs final value ofcurrent=E/RA time taken for current to reach 0. and the differential equation of the circuit IS where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at timet (s).7b) the time constant is given by L T=-s R Then E i=-(1-e-'11) R where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2.8 Transients in Inductive Circuits Basic circuit The basic circuit is shown in figure 2.21 Electromagnetism where k =coefficient of mutual inductance and L 1 and L 2 =self inductance (H) of the primary and secondary circuits respectively. 2.71828. Hence di1 e2 = M dt = k di1 J (L 1 L 2 ) x dt V Energy stored in a magnetic field energy stored= W = !L 12 J where£= self inductance (H) of the inductor and I= current (A) in the inductor windings.99E/R =4.6Ts .L is in henrys and R is in ohms. 7a.

I (s) T (c) Figure 2. switch in position A. switch in position B Decay of current If the circuit current has the value I when the switch is moved from A to B (see figure 2. (b) growth of current.63E/ R A voltage across R = iR = E(l-e -<IT) V voltage across L = E. then i=Ie-<ITA .lE/R to 0.iR = E e -</TV ~ c 0·63 _RE ~ "u 0 time. (c) decay of current.7c). I (s) (b) I 4 c ~ ~ u initial slope o- I/T A/s 0·37! 0 time.22 Study Notes in Electrical Science rise time of current= time taken for current to rise from O.2Ts current after T seconds= 0.9E/R =2.7 Rise and decay of current in an inductive circuit: (a) basic circuit.

11 =2.9I to 0.6Ts fall time of current= time taken for current to fall from 0.37 I A voltage across R=IRe-r/Ty voltage across L =-IRe -r/T V 23 .01 I =4.2Ts current after T seconds= 0.Electromagnetism initial rate of fall of current= I /T A/s final value of current = 0 time taken for current to fall to 0.

3 Electrostatics 3. when a small change in charge.6 C) and picocoulombs (1 pC = 10.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density One unit of electric flux (symbol P) emanates from unit charge. Hence 'P=QC Practical units of electric flux are microcoulombs ( lJ.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current The capacitance (symbol C) of a capacitor is an indication of its ability to store an electric charge. From this relationship.tC = 10. where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes. occurs in time dt. then dq =idt=Cdv where i =instantaneous value of the capacitor current (A) and dv =change in voltage (V) across the capacitor. Experiments show that the electric charge stored by a capacitor is Q = CVcoulombs where C is in farads (unit symbol F) and V in volts. That is. The electric flux density (symbol D) is the amount of electric flux passing through unit area. 3. P (pronounced 'psi') units of flux emanate from Q coulombs. dq.12 C). capacitor current is given by dv i=Cdt = C x rate of change of capacitor voltage . that is.

.1 where d =distance (m) between the electrodes. plole of . The dimensions of electric force are newtons per coulomb (N/ C). and electric field strength.1 Parallel-plate capacitor 3. we say that the direction of the electric force in that dielectric acts from P to N... p . If a unit positive charge is placed at point X in figure 3. electric force is quoted in volts per metre.1.. is D=EEC/ m 2 where E =absolute permittivity of the dielectric material and has dimensions of .. .. it experiences a force. The electric force or electric-field intensity at any point in a dielectric is equal to the mechanical force experienced by a unit positive electric charge placed at that point. 1: .... which is towards plateN and away from plate P. E. ~ d -j . D.._ .. but since it can be shown that this is equivalent to volts per metre (V / m).4 Permittivity The relationship between electric flux density.- oreo a .3 Electric Force.25 Electrostatics 3.. Electric stress or potential gradient have the same dimensions and also are assigned the symbol E. - • X electnc flux ' N ·' d•eleclfiC + v Figure 3. In the capacitor in figure 3. Electric-field Intensity or Electric-field Strength Symbol E.

For ann-plate capacitor (see figure 3. dielectric Figure 3. The permittivity offree space (that is. and for all practical purposes the two values of permittivity are taken to be equal. 3.=relative permittivity of the material and is dimensionless. where £0 = 8.12 F /m The permittivity of air is about 0. a= cross-sectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material and d =distance (m) between the electrodes. When an insulating material such as oil is used as the dielectric the flux density is larger.06 per cent greater than that of free space. Thus a dielectric (other than air) in an electric field has the same effect as does iron in a magnetic field. the capacitance is C = (n-l)w d = (n-l)fofra d F where a =cross-sectional area of one of the dielectrics. and d =thickness of the dielectric between the plates. than in the case when air is used as the dielectric. The absolute permittivity of an insulating material is given by £=£ 0 £rF/m where £.2) having (n-1) identical dielectrics. as is the capacitance of the capacitor.2 Multiple-plate capacitor .854 x 10.1 where £ and £r= absolute and relative permittivities (F /m).26 Study Notes in Electrical Science farads per metre (F /m). respectively. of a vacuum) is a constant given the special symbol £0 .5 Capacitance of Parallel-plate Capacitors For the capacitor in figure 3. of the dielectric material.

V = QdC 1 = Q2 /C 2 . The reciprocal of the equivalent capacitance.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each capacitor is charged to the same potential.. +_!__F-t c C1 C 2 c. is C=C 1 +C 2 F For n parallel-connected capacitors C=C 1 +C 2 + . etc..6 Parallel-connected Capacitors (See figure 3..F Note: The equivalent capacitance of parallel-connected capacitors is greater than the capacitance of the largest individual capacitor in the circuit. +C. C. For the special case of two series-connected capacitors C= c1c2 cl +C2 F Note: The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is less than the capacitance of the smallest individual capacitor in the circuit. C. etc.3 Parallel-connected capacitors 3.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each capacitor carries the same value of charge (since the same value of current flows through each for the same length of time). that is.Electrostatics 27 l 1 v v (a) c (b) Figure 3. 3. is _!__=2_+2_+ ..7 Series-connected Capacitors (See figure 3. that is. Q = C 1V1 = C 2V2 .4. . The equivalent capacitance.3.

which is in series with capacitor C 2 ... V =voltage across the series-connected capacitors and C11 =capacitance of the gth capacitor..8 Voltage Distribution between Seri~onnected Capacitors If the voltage across n series-connected capacitors is V. The equivalent capacitance of the two in series is c clc2 F C 1 +C2 ._.9 Parallel-plate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics The dielectric X of thickness d 1 in figure 3.l l l t . Note: V11 oc 1/C11 . so that the greatest voltage appears across the capacitor with the smallest capacitance in the circuit.. which has Y of thickness d2 as its dielectric.28 Study Notes in Electrical Science c1 - r----<1~ . then the voltage across one of the capacitors in a chain of n series-connected capacitors is where C =equivalent capacitance of the series-connected capacitors...5 can be regarded as though it were the dielectric of a capacitor C 1 .. 3..4 Series-connected capacitors 3.1 s v1 v (a) c v (b) Figure 3.

Cz ----~•~•------~n~--(b) Figure 3. A being the cross-sectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material.29 Electrostatics area=A v (a) c.y= relative permittivities of X and Y respectively. .10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor energy stored = W = !CV2 J where C =capacitance (F) of the capacitor and V =potential (V) between the plates of the capacitor. If the applied voltage is V. 3..5 Capacitor with a composite dielectric where C 1 = £A/d 1 and C 2 = £A/d 2 . then the electric-field strengths in X and Y are respectively and where £rx and f.

6 Charge and discharge of a capacitor: (a) basic circuit.Study Notes in Electrical Science 30 R A C r---. (b) rise of voltage across capacitor. switch in position B 3.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor Basic circuit The circuit diagram is shown in figure 3. dvc E=zR+vc=RC-+vc dt . t (s) T (C) Figure 3. =-£/T V/s 0·37£ 0 time. and the differential equation of the circuit is .~~~------~+J (a) 0 T=CR time. t (s) (b) £ ~ ~ initial slope.6a. (c) decay of voltage across capacitor. switch in position A.

Then vc= E(l-e -t/1) V where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2.6b) the time constant is given by T=RCs where R is in ohms and C in farads.6Ts fall time of Vc= time taken for Vc to fall from 0. as in figure 3.2Ts v c after T seconds = 0.6Ts rise time of Vc= time taken for Vc to rise from O. then Vc=Ee-t/Ty initial rate of fall ofvc= -E/T V/s final value of v c = 0 time taken for Vc to fall to 0.99 E = 4.37EV VR= -Vc= -Ee-t/Ty i= vR= R -~e-'ITA R .71828. Vc= E when t = 0). initial rate of rise of Vc= E/T V/s final value ofvc=EV time taken for v c to reach 0.9E =2.31 Electrostatics Capacitor-charging When the switch is in position A (see figure 3.lE to 0.9E to O.63E V vR=E-vc=Ee-'iTV i= vR= E e-'ITA R R Capacitor-discharge If the capacitor is fully charged when the switch is moved to position B (that is.lE =2.6c.01£ = 4.2Ts Vc after T seconds =0.

and the first negative peak-value. The first positive peak-value. Sinusoidal waveform. having positive polarity during one part of its cycle and negative polarity in the remainder.I m.4 Alternating-current Theory 4. amplitude and 'angle of rotation' A sinusoidal current waveform (see figure 4. I m• occurs 90° after the start of the cycle. i. occurs at 270°.1) is one whose amplitude varies sinusoidally with time. the angle measured from the start of the cycle). The instantaneous value.1 Basic Concepts An alternating signal (which can be either a voltage or a current) periodically reverses its direction.1 ·I Sinusoidal current waveform . at any point in time is i =I msinO where (}='angle of rotation' (that is. one cycle Figure 4..

Alternating-current Theory

33

Frequency

**Symbol f The frequency of a periodic waveform is the number of cycles it
**

completes per second. The unit is the hertz (unit symbol Hz).

Angular frequency

**Symbol w. Since a complete cycle is equivalent to a 'rotational' angle of 360° or 2n
**

radians, the angular frequency of a sinusoidal waveform is

w = 2nfrad/s

**where f is in hertz. The 'angle of rotation', (), after t seconds is
**

() = wt rad

The equation for the waveform in figure 4.1 may therefore be written

i =I msinwt

Periodic time of a complete cycle

**Symbol T. This is the time taken to complete one cycle of a periodic waveform,
**

measured in number of seconds (or fraction of a second).

1

T=-S

f

For a sinusoidal waveform

1

21t

T=-=-s

f

(lJ

4.2 Average Value and R.M.S. Value of an Alternating Waveform

Average value or mean value

**In engineering practice the mean value, 1•., of an alternating waveform is defined
**

as the average value under one-halfof the waveform. The reason for this is that the

mathematical average area under the complete cycle is zero (since the area under

the positive half-cycle is equal to that under the negative half-cycle).

The average value can be determined either graphically or analytically; in the

latter case it is necessary to know the equation of the waveform.

(1) Graphical determination. The mid-ordinate method of determining

the area under a curve is illustrated in figure 4.2.

1av= average length of the mid-ordinates

il + i2 + i3 + ... +in

=

n

Study Notes in Electrical Science

34

'E

~~~~~~~~~~-+----------------+

::>

u

Figure 4.2

Graphical determination of average value and r.m.s. value

**where n =number of mid-ordinates.
**

(2)

Analytical determination.

1 av= average value taken over one half-cycle

1

In

=-; Jo

idO or

1

IT/2

T/ 2 Jo idt

**The average value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value
**

1m is

21m

1m [ 1-(-1) ] =-=0.6371m

=n

n

Root-mean-square value or effective value

**The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value, 1, of an alternating waveform is its effective
**

value and is calculated in terms of its heating effect in an electrical circuit.

r.m.s. value= square root of the mean of the sum of the

squares of the instantaneous values

The value is usually computed over a complete cycle but can also be calculated

over a half-cycle period.

Alternating-current Theory

35

(1) Graphical determination.

value is

For the waveform in figure 4.2 the r.m.s.

I=JC 1 2 +i 2 2 +i 3 :+

... +i/)

**where n =number of mid-ordinates.
**

(2)

Analytical determination.

I=

.j (average value under the current 2-time graph)

**The r.m.s. value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value I m
**

IS

I=

=

=

J(2

1n

J:n (I

JG: J:n

J(~: [

m

sin0) 2 dO)

sin 2 0d0 )=

JG: J:n

O-tsin20 J:n)=

t(l-cos20)d0)

~; =0.707I

m

Form factor

**For any alternating waveform
**

c

c

r.m.s. value

1orm 1actor = - - - - = - average value

**For a sinusoidal waveform
**

form factor=

0.707I m

0.637I m

1.11

Peak factor

**For any alternating waveform
**

!"

maximum value

pea k 1actor = - - - - - r.m.s. value

For a sinusoidal waveform

Im

peak factor = 0 70

. 1I m

= 1.414

and is drawn in the direction assumed by the rotating line at time t = 0. ' .. we say that the current leads the voltage by angle ¢. which is the line scaled down to its r. The expression describing the current waveform in figure 4.4 is i =I msinO =I msinwt and that describing the voltage waveform is v =Vmsin(O-¢) =Vmsin(wt-¢) In solving a. 707V mor 0.c. circuits it is convenient to rescale the lengths of the phasors so that they represent the r.3 Generating a sine wave Phase displacement The phase displacement is the angular displacement between two sinusoidal quantities of the same frequency.4 is ¢...3). we may say that the voltage lags the current by angle ¢. Alternatively.s. 7071 m· .. The phase displacement or phase-angle difference between the current and voltage in figure 4.. This rotating line can be represented in the form of a phasor. values of voltage and current. the length of the phasor is shown as either 0.. value. __ /1 _. that is.s. To indicate the fact that the current waveform in figure 4..m. \ '.m.4 passes through zero angle in the direction of rotation before the voltage waveform.Study Notes in Electrical Science 36 4.3 Phasors and Phase Relationships Phasors A sine wave is traced out by the perpendicular displacement of a rotating line (see figure 4. - direction of rotation w rad/s // // j I I I / / / \ II I I 81 \ --------·----- '\ II ' I ---------------------~------------------ !1.-"" / / / Figure 4.

5 Addition of phasors . The phasor sum of OA and OBis the diagonal OC of the parallelogram OACB. where he and vc are the horizontal and vertical components respectively of OC.--- 37 Alternating-current Theory 41 rad /s Figure 4.5.4 Phase displacement Addition of phasors The addition of two phasor quantities (which must be of the same kind) is illustrated in figure 4. Figure 4.

illustrated in figure 4.j(hc2 +v/) and the phase angle is B Figure 4.hb) =h.hb vd=v.OB).+( -vJ=v.6 for the phasor difference (OA.+(.Study Notes in Electrical Science 38 The magnitude or modulus of OC is /OCI= . In this case hd= h.-vb .6 Subtraction of phasors Subtraction of phasors Phasors are subtracted by adding the negative equivalent of the phasor to be subtracted..

the concept is introduced that j2 = -1 or 8 ja c a=j4a j2a 0 j3a D Figure 4.1 G:) =cos.j(hi+vi) ¢ =tan.4 Complex Notation This is a notation that gives an indication of the relative directions of phasors. 7 Operator j A . Operator j Operator j is a mathematical 'operator' that is used to indicate the 'direction' of the phasor. if OA=a then OB = ja = a/J!}__o 0C=jUa)=jla= aj180o =-a OD = jWa) =fa= -ja =aj270o =aj-90° From the expression of OC above. 7. in figure 4. Thus.Alternating-current Theory 39 and IODI= .1 c~~l) 4.

jb) or r /.cp.6 by OD=IODI/-c/J Complex conjugate The complex conjugate of the phasor (a+ jb) or r I!!!_ is (a.5 can be represented by OC=IOCILf and the phasor OD in figure 4.6 can be represented by ( -OB)= -(hb+jvb)= -hb-jvb Representation of phasors by polar components A phasor can be represented in terms of its modulus and its phase angle.OB) in figure 4. the idea has developed that the perpendicular axis (the j-axis) is the 'imaginary' axis. (1) Addition X+ Y=(a+jb)+(c+jd)=(a+c)+j(b+d) . The horizontal axis is known as the 'real' axis.L and Y=c+jd=r 2 !.5 can be represented in the form OA=ha+jva where jva= perpendicular component of the phasor.!l!..!l!..40 Study Notes in Electrical Science Since the square root of ( -1) cannot exist as a 'real' quantity. Mathematical operations with complex quantities Using the quantities X =a +jb = rtf. The phasor OC in figure 4. Phasor OB can be similarly represented by OB=hb+jvb The quantity (.L the following operations are possible. Representation of phasors by rectangular or cartesian components The phasor OA in figure 4.

ad) cz+dz Note: (c-jd) is the complex conjugate of (c+jd).(c+ jd) = ac + j(ad +be)+ j 2 bd = (ac -bd)+ j(ad +be) or (4) Division X y a+jb c+jd (a+jb)(c-jd) (c+jd)(c-jd) -=--=----- (ac +bd) + j(bc.J. Y =(a+ jb).__ r 2 . Also ~=rd_!£1_='j_ /<PI-¢2 Y r 2 L!f!.Y=(a+jb)-(c+jd)=(a-c)+ j(b-d) (3) Multiplication X.41 Alternating-current Theory (2) Subtraction X.

the only power loss that may arise is due to the power dissipated in the resistance of the conductors of the circuit itself. . (b) phasors.. circuit: (a) circuit.__T---~ (b) Pure resistance in an a. quantities. I.) are r.C. V.c. 5.. This form of current limitation occurs without loss of power in the reactive elements.. Circuits The quantities used in this chapter (that is.. power consumed= P = I 2 R =VI W The current and voltage are in phase with one another. etc..1 v current =I= R A where V is in volts and R in ohms. t vm R (a) Figure 5..5 Single-phase A. (c) waveforms Reactance In circuits containing pure inductance or pure capacitance only.s.---L. the magnitude of the circuit current is limited by what is known as the reactance of the circuit elements.1 ___£ IC. P.1 Basic Circuits Circuit containing pure resistance only In figure 5.m..

(b) waveforms.m.C.c.s. In figure 5. win radians/second and/ in hertz.2 inductive reactance= XL= wL = 2njL where L is in henrys.2 Pure inductance in an a. circuit: (a) circuit. the value of the reactance is proportional to the frequency. Variation of XL and I with frequency.3 XL=2nfL ocf That is. the current decreases in value as the frequency increases. At a constant r. (c) phasors Circuit containing pure inductance only In figure 5. Circuits L di (a} ~ ~· I (c) (b) Figure 5. v v current=l=-=-A XL wL power consumed = 0 The current through the inductance lags the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage leads the current by 90°). . value of supply voltage v 1 f=--OC- 2njL f That is.43 Single-phase A.

(c) phasors .) -~"'C -c: g "0 0 .) -c: 0 c: <...4 Pure capacitance in an a... circuit: (a) circuit.= ----:r..c.c. .3 Effect of variation of frequency in an inductive a. ::I QJ<.) OQJ QJ ..E frequency Figure 5. circuit Circuit containing pure capacitance only In figure 5..wC 2n1 C dv ~) ~ • I (c) (b) Figure 5. ..Study Notes in Electrical Science 44 QJ <.. (b) waveforms. capacttlve reactance= X c = .4 1 1 ..

.c.. circuits the number of volt-amperes (unit symbol VA) consumed is . In series circuits this quantity is the current. the value of the current is proportional to the frequency. Z.s.. Circuits where C is in farads.u -~" -c: ·u 0 o a. . circuits. 0 (. Power factor In a..) c: o-c: u..5 Effect of variation of frequency in a capacitive a. value of supply voltage I= 2nfCV ocf That is. When drawing the phasor diagram for series circuits.5 1 2nfC 1 f Xc=--oc- That is.c.. v current= I = . the magnitude of the current is limited by the electrical impedance.2 Series Circuits In practical a. it is usual to draw the quantity that is common to all the components on the 'real' axis or horizontal axis. circuit 5..= V wC = 2nfCV A Xc power consumed = 0 The current through the capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage lags the current by 90°). In figure 5.c..) frequency Figure 5..C.o . of the circuit. "'"::I .. w in radians/second and fin hertz..45 Single-phase A. At a constant r. Variation of X c and I with frequency. "' (. the value of the capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases.m.

The symbol S is given to the voltampere product. which is sometimes referred to as the apparent power.~} •I (b) IR R (c) (d) Figure 5.J[R 2 +(wL) 2 ]0 where R is in ohms. (d) impedance triangle Resistance and inductance in series In figure 5.J(R 2 +Xl)= .J(Vl+Vl)V q) =tan.1 (~:) =tan.6 circuit impedance=Z= .1 (~) .( = IXL V =IZ G?J ~= IR ~IX.~L) =tan1( 1 (a:) =cos. The power consumed is P =VI x power factor where the power factor has a value in the range 0-1 (being zero in the case of a circuit containing either a pure inductor or a pure capacitor. S=VIVA \. w in radians/second and L in henrys. v current =I =-zA V R=IR=v: V (in phase with I) VL=IXL=VwLV (leading I by 90°) z V= . (b) phasors. (c) voltage triangle.Study Notes in Electrical Science 46 generally greater than the power consumed by the circuit.6 RL series circuit: (a) circuit. and unity in the case of a circuit containing pure resistance only).

d. R ~x. V =IZ (b) (d) (c) Figure 5.Single-phase A.d. v current =I =-A V R= I R = v: z V (in phase with I) Vc=IXc=~V (lagging I ZwC by 90°) .=.C. 7 circuit impedance=Z= vf(R 2 +Xc2 )= J[ R 2 +(~cY]n where R is in ohms.= cos¢ s z v It should be noted that the p. When dealing with any a. circuit problem it is advisable to sketch the general form of phasor diagram before attempting to complete the solution. win radians/second and C in farads.=. (d) impedance triangle Resistance and capacitance in series In figure 5. (b) phasors. Circuits 47 apparent power= S =VIVA power= P =VI cos¢= I 2 R W reactive power= Q =VI sin¢= I 2 XL VAr p R VR power factor =.c. (c) voltage triangle.s is not equal to the supply voltage. Important note: r c R vb ~· ~--vR~ 0 (a) I IR ~ Vc = IXc ~[x.s VL and V Rare not in phase with one another and that the algebraic sum of these p.7 RC series circuit: (a) circuit.

1 ( . inductance and capacitance in series In figure 5. XL< Xc Resistance.(ro~R)=cos.. (b) phasors.J v (a) ~ VR VR=V I I I v Vc Vc (b) (c) (d) Figure 5. XL> X C• (c) phasors.1 ( ~c )=tan.1 (~) 1 apparent power = S =VI VA power= P =VI cos~= I 2 R W reactive power= Q =VI sin~= I 2 X c VAr power p R VR factor=cos~=-=-=- S Z V L------1 V' 1---------.48 Study Notes in Electrical Science V= .8 RLC series circuit: (a) circuit.: )=tan.8 XL= wL = 2njL X 1 1 c= roC = 2nfC . XL= X 0 (d) phasors.J(V/+Vc2 )V ~=tan.

where or w0 = 1 .j [R 2 +(XL-X c) 2 ] Q where w is in radians/second. the condition is known as resonance. the circuit has a net inductance.Lv (leading I by 90°) Vc=IXc=~V(lagging I ZwC by 90°) ~ =tan-1 (VL.= -S z (1) When XL> X c or VL>V c. Resonance occurs at a frequency w 0 . and the current lags behind the applied voltage. f in hertz. L in henrys and C in farads.:c)=tan-1 ( XL~X c)=cos-1 (~) apparent power= S =VIVA power=P=VI cos~ =I 2 RW reactive power=Q =VI sin~ =I 2 (XL-X c)VAr R p power factor =cos~ =.Single-phase A.8b. as in figure 5. and the current is in phase with the applied voltage.8c.C.j (L C) rad/s and 1 fo = 2n . (2) When XL= X cor VL =V0 as in figure 5. This condition occurs at frequencies above the resonant frequency (see 2 below).j (LC) Hz . Circuits 49 circuit impedance= Z = . v current =I =-A z V R= IR V (in phase with I) VL =IXL = v.

..c.. (b) typical phasors 5.9) the supply voltage is common to all branches. since VL=I XL and V c =I X 0 it follows that if the current has a large value.voltage across R at resonance IwoL ]R -- w L R 0 -- 2nfoL R -- 1 1 w CR 2nf0 CR -0 =~J~ Since the circuit accepts the highest value of current under this condition.Study Notes in Electrical Science 50 The current in the circuit at resonance has the magnitude I =VIR and is in phase with V..8d. where c voltage across L (or C) at resonance Q-. ' / / I "'--r I I I v v v (a) (b) Figure 5.9 Parallel a. and this quantity is drawn on the 'real' (horizontal) axis of the phasor diagram. '' / I - ' .. the series resonant circuit is described as an acceptor circuit. circuit: (a) circuit. If the value of R is small.. The current drawn by each branch is calculated by the method outlined in section 5.2.. (3) When XL< X c or VL < V 0 as in figure 5. This condition occurs at frequencies below the resonant frequency (see 2 above)..... and the current leads the applied voltage.actor = . the circuit has a net capacitance. V).3 Parallel Circuits In parallel circuits (see figure 5. thenVLandV cbothhave large values (they may be many times the value of the applied voltage... then the current at resonance has a very large value. A factor known as the Q-factor or 'quality' factor is used to indicate the voltage magnification across the reactive elements in a series circuit. ....

C. and the current drawn from the supply has a minimum value at resonance. .10). or r1 H Jo-2n~(LC) z The effective resistance of the parallel circuit at resonance is known as the dynamic resistance. when I is in phase with V. Ro. I 1 and ¢ 1 are the respective values of the current in and the phase angle of the upper branch ofthe circuit. then R 0 has a large value (R 0 is infinity when R is zero!). inductance and capacitance In the phasor diagram in figure 5. I. The parallel resonant circuit is known as a rejector circuit.9. Circuits Parallel circuit containing resistance. that is. Provided that the value of R is small. where R = _£_ = (woL )z = 1 n ° CR R (w 0 C) 2 R The current drawn from the supply at resonance is v I=-A Ro If R has a small value. I 2 and ¢ 2 are the respective values for the lower branch. Ih power factor =cos¢ =I apparent power=S=VIVA power=P=VIcos¢=I/R 1 +I/R 2 W reactive power= Q =VI sin¢ VAr Parallel resonance Resonance occurs in a parallel circuit having reactive components in each arm when the phase angle of the complete circuit is zero (see figure 5. The magnitude of the current. the resonant frequency of the circuit is I w 0 = ~ (L C) rad/s where L is in henrys and C in farads.51 Single-phase A. drawn from the supply is III= ~(lh2 +I}) where I h= sum of the horizontal components of the branch currents and I v= sum of the vertical components of the branch currents.

Study Notes in Electrical Science 52 ___:I___.c=:o.__I1 L R I.10 Parallel resonance: (a) circuit. (b) phasors 5.4 Complex Impedances Reactance XL= jwLQ j 1 Xc=--=--n jwC wC Impedance of series circuits Series RL circuit Z =R +jwL Series RC circuit j 1 Z=R+-=R-wC jwC Series RL C circuit . v {b) (a) Figure 5.

j/wC) z = (R 1 +jwL )+(R 2 -j/wC) (R 1 R 2 +L/C)+j(wLR 2 -RtfwC) (R 1 +R 2 )+j(wL-1jwC) . then the effective impedance of the circuit is (R 1 + jwL )(R 2 .C. Circuits Impedance of parallel circuits If impedances Z 1 =R 1 +jwL and Z 2 =R 2 -j/wC are in parallel with one another.53 Single-phase A.

In a star-connected system VL= IV Rvl = IVaRI = IVYBI = .6 Three-phase A./ 3Vp Current relationships (1) Four-wire system. where N is the neutral point V RN =voltage of the red line relative to the neutral point V vN= voltage of the yellow line relative to the neutral point VaN= voltage of the blue line relative to the neutral point and V aR =voltage of the blue line relative to the red line =VaN.VaN V Rv= voltage of the red line relative to the yellow line = VRN.1. V"' is equal to the magnitude of the voltage applied to one phase of the load.VYN The magnitude of the phase voltage. 6.VRN V ya= voltage of the yellow line relative to the blue line = VvN.C. and that the three phasors are displaced from one another by 120°. which have equal values of phase voltage. V L• is equal to the magnitude of the voltage between any pair of lines. Circuits In this chapter it is assumed that the supply system has a symmetrical set of threephase voltages. In a star-connected system v p= IV RNI =IVYNI =IV aNI The magnitude of the line voltage.1 Star-connected Systems Voltage relationships In figure 6.. In this case three supply lines and a neutral wire are .

a load in which differing values of impedance are connected in each phase).1).C. and the relationship of the neutral-wire current. In this case the neutral wire is omitted. a neutral current flows. In a balanced star-connected load I p=I L (2) Three-wire system. I Rl = II vi = II sl I L= I In the case where an unbalanced load is star-connected (that is. IN. is equal to the magnitude of the current in the phase of the load. Circuits B Is B neutral B w~re IN R R R ly y load generator lR y (b) (a) Figure 6. and phase currents is IN=IR+lv+ls The magnitude of the line current.1 phasors Three-phase star-connected system: (a) connections. I p. hence IN=IR+lv+l 8 =0 .55 Three-phase A. It should be noted that unbalanced loads are frequently connected to supply systems. I L• in the case of star-connected balanced loads (that is. The magnitude of the phase current. (b) voltage used (see figure 6. when the impedance and phase angle of each load are equal) is equal to the magnitude of the phase current.

2 Mesh-connected or Delta-connected Systems Current and voltage relationships At junction R of the load in figure 6.2 IRv=phasor sum of IR and 1 8 R or At junction Y and at junction B fs=fsR-JYB In the mesh-connected circuit the line voltage is applied directly to each phase of the load. hence VL=Vp In the case of a balanced mesh-connected load I p= II RYI = jiBRI = jiYBI and Power consumed in a balanced load In the case of a balanced load the power consumed by the load is .Study Notes in Electrical Science 56 Ie B generator load Figure 6.2 Three-phase delta-connected system 6.

Three-phase A. Circuits volt-amperes= S = 3V pi r= 57 . .J 3Vd Leos¢ W reactive VA= Q = 3V pipsin¢ = .C.J 3V LI LVA . V Land I L=respective line values and cos¢= power factor of the load.J 3V LI Lsin¢ VAr power= P =3V ri pcos¢ = where V pand I r= phase values of voltage (V) and current (A) respectively.

44fC/J m=. with a sinusoidal supply £1 =4. and cp m=maximum value of the magnetic flux (Wb) in the core (the flux waveform is assumed to be sinusoidal). values of the e.f.m.volts/turn N1 N2 £1 N1 or When £ 2 has a lower value than £ 1 the transformer is said to have a step-down voltage ratio.= .s. From the e. In power transformers ampere-turn balance is maintained between the windings.44fN1C/Jm E2 = 4.M. 7. That is .44fN 2 cp m where f =supply frequency (Hz). When £ 2 has a greater value thanE 1 it is said to have a step-up ratio.F.f. N 1 and N 2 =respective number of turns on the primary and secondary windings. respectively.s.m.1.7 Transformers 7.1 E. values of the primary and secondary currents.s E 1 and E 2 induced in the primary and secondary windings respectively are.m. that is or I2 N1 where I 1 and I 2 = r.m.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer The basic features of a single-phase transformer are shown in figure 7. equations £1 E2 4. Equation The r.

3 Transformer Efficiency The per unit efficiency of a transformer is given by the relationship output power per unit efficiency = --::.-------J Figure 7.Transformers 59 Hence or J input VA=output VA I section of laminated core I.----=--=--mput power output power output power+ losses input power -losses input power losses =1----input power per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100% .1 Basic transformer 7. A • r-~~----~-4----~ • 0 load IB I I I I I I 1 I L-----------------.

Ph. This gives rise in the core to the power loss known as the eddy-current loss.1). Copper loss is due to the heating produced by the flow of current in the winding resistance. a current (known as an eddy current) is induced in the core. Iron loss The iron loss is subdivided into the hysteresis loss. The core material of transformers is a conductor of electricity and. Since f and B m are usually constant in the case of the power supply to power transformers. which are insulated from one another (see figure 7. f =supply frequency (Hz).6--2. Copper loss The copper loss for a two-winding transformer is Pc=l/R 1 +I/R 2 W where 11 and R 1 =respective values of current and resistance for the primary winding and 12 and R 2 =respective values for the secondary winding. Condition for maximum efficiency For maximum efficiency the copper loss is equal to the iron loss. The iron loss (also known as the core loss or no-load loss) is P0 =Ph+P. as the magnetic flux in the core changes. The eddy-current loss is reduced by constructing the core of iron laminations. c. p e· It can be shown that Ph=kfBmn p e =Kf2B m2 where k and K =constants of the transformer. The hysteresis loss is due to the energy that has to be supplied during each cycle of the a. the value of P0 is approximately constant over the working range of the transformer. This loss is dissipated as heat in the magnetic material. Pc=Po . and the eddy-current loss. B m =maximum value of the core flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1.60 Study Notes in Electrical Science The power losses in a transformer are divided into two groups: those that vary with load current (copper loss) and those that vary with core flux (iron loss). supply when the direction of magnetisation is twice reversed.

the r.61 Transformers 90° 90° II> II> secondary primary Figure 7.3 Vz = Nz Nt V~ Nz /1 =lzNI cP1 =¢z ~ primary Figure 7.2 Ideal transformer-no load 7.3 secondary Ideal transformer-inductive load . secondary voltage is Vz= Nz Nt V~- Ideal transformer: load with a lagging power factor Referring to figure 7.m.2.s.4 Phasor Diagrams I deal transformer: no load Referring to figure 7.

4 winding (b) Practical transformer-no load: (a) primary winding. (b) secondary Practical transformer: no load The phasor diagram in figure 7.4 accounts for the no-load current.5 Practical transformer-inductive load: (a) primary winding. (b) secondary winding . and E.. liz and £ 2 -s-"' ell 0 0 . no-load power factor= cos ¢ 0 I mag= 10 sin¢ 0 lc=l 0 cos¢ 0 core loss= P0 =V1 1 c=V1 10 cos¢ 0 W V. (a) Figure 7.J {I c + 1 mag 2 2) where 1 mag is the magnetising component of / 0 and I c is the core-loss component.. / 0 ."' 12 sin ¢ 2 (a) (b) Figure 7.Study Notes in Electrical Science 62 v.. but neglects the effects of the voltage drops in the windings. =£. lo = ..

Note: An aid to remembering the effect of the transformation ratio on the 'reflected' or 'referred' resistance is: the resistance value appears to increase when referred to a winding with a larger number of turns.c._. and to decrease when referred to a winding with a smaller number of turns.5. The effective a. Figure 7.63 Transformers Practical transformer: load with a lagging power factor In figure 7.12 N2 N1 I 1 = phasor sum of I. / 1 ' is the component of the primary current. /1> that is due to 12 flowing in the secondary winding.6 The transformer as an impedance-matching device .6) is R1 =RL(z:r 0 where N 1 and N 2 =number of turns on the primary and secondary winding respectively. 11.5 The Transformer as an Impedance-matching Device A transformer is sometimes used as an impedance-matching device between a load of low impedance and an amplifier with a high output-impedance. and / 0 7. resistance that appears between the primary-winding terminals of an ideal transformer (see figure 7.

1 (b) Salient and cylindrical machine systems . Salient and cylindrical magnetic systems When used in conjunction with machines the word 'salient' means 'jutting out'. Double-excited machines carry magnetising windings on both the stator and the rotor. these machines are of limited practical value.lb the stator and rotor are both cylindrical. In the machine in figure 8.8 Electrical Machines 8.la both the stator and the rotor are salient. The stationary part of the machine is known as the stator and the rotating part as the rotor. A cylindrical magnetic system is one that is cylindrical about the axis of rotation. either the stator or the rotor can have a salient construction. Electrical machines can be divided into single-excited machines and doubleexcited machines. In practice many machines are designed with either a salient stator and a cylindrical rotor or a cylindrical stator and a salient rotor. centre of rotation air gap stator (a) Figure 8. In the machine in figure 8. machines the fixed and rotating parts are usually referred to as the frame and armature respectively. the majority of practical machines are of this type.1 Types of Electrical Machine An electrical machine is an electromechanical energy-convertor and consists of a magnetic circuit having two parts separated from each other by an air gap.c. In the case of d. In single-excited machines only one member (either the stator or the rotor) carries a magnetising winding.

In general a reluctance torque is developed if the reluctance of the magnetic system changes when the rotor is turned away from the alignment position.65 Electrical Machines 8. T. The above comments also apply if the stator is excited and the rotor is simply an iron circuit. Owing to the magnetic poles induced in the stator there is a rotational force that attempts to pull the rotor and stator into alignment. If the rotor is excited by a.1 Is a reluctance torque developed? Stator salient salient cylindrical cylindrical Rotor Stator excited Rotor excited salient cylindrical salient cylindrical yes no yes no yes yes no no . This speed is known as its synchronous speed. the results for various combinations are listed in table 8. Turning the rotor further away from alignment causes the length of the magnetic path to increase. Not all single-excited machines develop a reluctance torque.c.c. is known as the torque angle. Figure 8... which does not result in continuous rotation. For this reason the torque causing alignment is called the reluctance torque. then once the rotor is caused initially to rotate by some applied external force. leading to an increase in the reluctance of the magnetic path. Table 8. Machines of this kind are known as reluctance motors and are used in clocks. the reversal of the rotor current causes the rotor to rotate at a constant speed.1. Angle A.. dependent on the supply frequency.2 Single-excited machine If the rotor is excited by d.2 Single-excited Machines A single-excited machine having a salient structure is illustrated in figure 8. then the machine produces a static torque.2.

= angle of misalignment between the stator and rotor fieldsystems. Distributed windings may be subdivided into a number of categories.3b. The machine shown in figure 8. Other doublewound machines.3b produces only an excitation torque. as shown in figure 8. F 1 and F2 = m.c. is developed. produce both excitation and reluctance torques. (b) (a) Figure 8. of the stator and rotor respectively and A. Figure 8.3 Double-excited Machines When the stator and the rotor both carry windings a torque known as the excitation torque. machine and for salient-pole alternators are examples of this type. such as those having a salient stator and a salient rotor. When the stator carries a winding. T.3 Excitation torque 8.3a shows a single-excited machine having a cylindrical stator and an excited salient rotor. The excitation torque causes the magnetic fields to tend to align.66 Study Notes in Electrical Science 8. it is a multi-turn coil that is wound on to a protruding branch of the iron circuit. that is. Field windings for a d.1).4 Windings Windings may be classified as concentrated or distributed. the rotor experiences an excitation torque of where k =constant of the machine.m. this machine does not experience a reluctance torque (see also table 8. the most important of which are phase windings and commutator windings.f.. Concentrated windings A concentrated winding is one carried by a salient-pole construction. .

Electrical Machines 67 Distributed windings A distributed winding consists of a number of coils. Alternatively a double-layer winding may be used in which each slot accommodates two coil sides.4 Single-layer phase winding .4 shows the general arrangement of a single-layer phase winding (that is. In this type of drawing it is assumed that the magnetic circuit can be cut at some convenient point and unrolled flat. which gives as many parallel paths through the armature as there are poles on the machine (frequently used in high-current machines) (b) wave winding. Junctions at various points on the winding are each connected to individual segments on the commutator. the coils being joined together in series. one coil side per slot) that is used to accommodate phase A of a three-phase machine. A simple way of representing the arrangement is by means of the developed view of the winding in figure 8. the coils being connected in series-parallel arrangements depending on the voltage and current requirements of the winding. one below the other. The winding for phase B is accommodated in slots b and b' and that for phase C in slots c and c . (1) There are two types of commutator winding (a) lap winding. belonging to two different coils. In this case the coils have the same span. the coils being connected in the form of a continuous circuit without a break. This is invariably on the rotor (armature) of the machine. (2) Commutator winding. Figure 8. This is a distributed winding that is located in slots around the face of the magnetic circuit. which make contact with the commutator. Figure 8. Current is either taken from or injected into the winding via brushes. each having a 'spread' of about one pole pitch.4. which gives two parallel paths for current flow through the armature (frequently used in high-voltage machines). Phase winding.

Study Notes in Electrical Science 68 8. that is In a given machine the values of p.6a) and E oc n for constant I r If the speed. hence E=kcf>nV where k is a constant of the machine.5 D. = E =!!_cf>Zn V a p a w =-cf>Z-V 2n where p =number of pairs of poles. Machines E.F. If the field current. a and Z are constants.f.m. 8. n.5.C.5.m. Methods of connection Referring to figure 8. is maintained at a constant value then cf> is also constant (see figure 8. n =speed of rotation of the armature (revjs) and w =speed of rotation of the armature (rad/s). the main types of connection are classified by means of the field-winding connections as (a) (b) (c) (d) separate excitation shunt excitation series excitation compound excitation: (i) long-shunt version. and (ii) short-shunt version.C.f. a= number of pairs of parallel paths through the armature (a= 1 for wave windings. is maintained at a constant value.M. cf> =flux entering or leaving each pole (Wb). I r. then E oc cf> for constant n . equation induced e. equation is that given in section 8. Generators Separately excited generator The basic e.6 Characteristic Curves of D. Z =total number of active conductors on the armature. a= p for lap windings).

E :::. =armature resistance (Q) of the generator.e speed. . n field current.6c..c. . The terminal voltage is V=E-ILRa where I L =load current (A) and R.6b) therefore follows the magnetisation curve for the magnetic material of the machine. supply (a) (b) field regulator I shunt :field I (i) ______ . "' E "' E g g 0 > It constant ~ ! 1 constant n constant .. .JI L_.5 D.69 Electrical Machines field regulator separate d. I (a) (b) Figure 8. The load characteristic is shown in figure 8... I L (c) Separately excited generator characteristics The curve of E plotted to a base of I r (see figure 8..C.L(ii) (d) (c) Figure 8. machine connections slope= -R.6 1 load current.

The terminal voltage is V=E-IaRa where I a= armature current= load current+ field current (A).. I L• causes I rto reduce.. The reduction in V with increase in load current.--. is E=kfPnV If n is maintained at a constant value.. Consequently the reduction in V with increase in I Lis far more rapid than in the case of the separately excited generator. 7b..m. (see figure 8. which corresponds to the intersection of the open-circuit characteristic of the machine with a straight line whose slope is equal to the total resistance of the field circuit.. where y = V...~"' .m.f.... I r.. The generated voltage rises to a value of E 1 ./' field current. which in turn reduces E...Study Notes in Electrical Science 70 Note: The equation for Vhas the form of the straight line y =ax+ b..7 Shunt-generator characteristics The load characteristic is shown in figure 8.R a· Shunt-excited generator As with the separately excited generator the generated e.fP The plot of e.7a) follows the magnetisation curve of the machine.. ' \ ' I I . b =vertical intercept= E.. criticalI resistance . against field current... and Ra =armature resistance ( 0 ). .. . . It load current ... and a= slope of the line= .IL (a) (b) / I I I Figure 8. then Eoc...- I / - / 1 n constant ..f.7a).. I line 1 El I / . R r· The generator fails to excite when R ris either equal to or is greater than the critical resistance of the field circuit (see figure 8. .

9 for the purpose of comparison. The terminal-voltage-load-current characteristic for a shunt machine is shown in figure 8. 8. the plot of terminal voltage.8 L Series-generator load characteristics Compound-wound generator Compound-wound machines in which the magnetic fluxes produced by the series and shunt windings act in the same direction. I L> follows the magnetisation curve of the machine.C. The degree of compounding depends on the number of turns of wire on the series winding. Typical of these machines are the over-. I Figure 8. Generator The mechanical input power supplied by the prime mover is Tw=2nnTW . against load current. are known as cumulative-compound machines. load current. level.7 Power Required to Drive a D. Since V varies with the value of I L this type of machine is unsuitable for use as a general-purpose generator. A large number of turns results in an overcompound characteristic in which the full-load terminal voltage exceeds the noload voltage.9. V.and under-compound characteristics in figure 8. A level-compound machine has equal values of no-load and full-load terminal voltage. while in an under-compound machine the full-load terminal voltage is less than the no-load voltage. Since the load current in this machine also acts as the exciting current.Electrical Machines 71 Series-excited generator The load characteristic is shown in figure 8.8. then the machine is known as a differential-compound machine. If the flux produced by the series field opposes that of the shunt field.

a and Z are constant. I Figure 8. I.= armature current (A).5).f. . Torque equation The torque developed by the armature of a d.m. hence T=k4>1 . motor is where E ='back' e. w = shaft speed (rad/s) and n = shaft speed (rev Is).c.c.C. (V) induced in the armature conductors when they rotate at speed w (rad/s) in the magnetic field.Study Notes in Electrical Science 72 ~--------+--over-compound level-compound under.9 L Compound-generator characteristics where T =torque (N m) applied to the generator shaft.compound 100% load current. For a given motor the values of p. a= p for lap windings).c.compound shunt differential. 8. generator (see section 8. Motors The construction of d. p =number of pairs of magnetic poles on the machine.8 D.Nm where k =constant of the machine. 4> =magnetic flux (Wb) entering or leaving each pole and Z =total number of active conductors on the armature. motors and the methods of connection of the field windings are generally similar to those of the d. a =number of pairs of parallel paths through the armature circuit (a= 1 for wave windings.

.I . is constant). The 'back' e. a resistor is inserted in series with the supply. If If> (that is.f. of rotation is E = kf/>w but in the shunt motor E=V-I.Electrical Machines 73 Face-plate starter To limit the current drawn by d. If if> is constant (that is.R. I r. the field current. at full speed. (2) Speed-armature-current curve.10 Shunt-motor starter 8.. ='internal' p. Motors Shunt motor Shunt-motor characteristics are shown in figure 8.I.. machines during starting. r----------------1I I I I I I I A I ~-----<~----------~ I + :~ -co F I I I 1 -----. then speed rxV.C.JI shunt field supply Figure 8.m. in the internal resistance of the armature..11.R.R. then Trx:. I r) is constant. A typical starter for a shunt motor is illustrated in figure 8.c. where V =supply voltage and I . its value is zero.d. (1) Torque-armature-current curve.9 Characteristic Curves of D.10. The value of the resistance is progressively reduced either automatically or by an operator until.1 L L______ s~r~r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ . undervoltage and overcurrent protection are normally provided but are omitted from the figure for simplicity.

12 Series-motor characteristics .74 Study Notes in Electrical Science no -lood speed -g 0 l"' It constant armature current Shunt-motor characteristics Figure 8.12. (1) Torque-armature-current curve. armature current Figure 8.11 Series motor Series-motor characteristics are shown in figure 8.

f. hence for high values of I a the torque equation becomes Tocl a (2) Speed-armature-current curve.m.. since the small value of I a results in an excessively large value of w. If Vis constant.senes armature current Figure 8. then 1 woc4> Since 4> oc I a 1 speedocIa Note: Series motors are not normally operated under no-load conditions.of rotation is E=kf/Jw E w= kf/J = V-laRm kf/J where R m =resistance (Q) of the series motor.Electrical Machines 75 In a series-wound machine the armature current produces the flux and 4> oc I a· For low values of I a the torque equation is Tocia2 At higher values of I a the iron circuit approaches magnetic saturation and 4> becomes nearly constant. The 'back' e. and if I aRm can be neglected. differentialcampound --------shunt l"' --- cumulative cam pound .13 Compound-motor characteristics .

8.. I ' I I direction of the force on the conductor I I (c) Figure 8. ( t@ \ \ . In differential-compound motors the fluxes oppose one another.._ @conductor \ ' J I -/ direction of movement of flux relative to the conductor (b) direction of movement of conductor rela I ive to the flux (a) magnetic flux I I I t t t I) / I /..14a moves in the direction shown relative to the conductor..Study Notes in Electrical Science 76 Compound-wound motor In cumulative-compound motors the fluxes produced by the series and the shunt windings assist each other.10 Induction Motors Induction-motor principle When the magnetic flux in figure 8.1~@ \ <'. The direction of the magnetic flux produced by the induced current in the conductor is shown in figure 8.14b and the resulting magnetic-field distribution is as shown in figure 8. The conductor experiences a force that causes it to move from the stronger magnetic magnetic flux I!!!! /-. the direction of the current induced in the conductor is predicted by Fleming's right-hand rule (rule for generators).14c. _. The characteristics of shunt and series motors are given for comparison purposes. The speed-armature-current characteristics of the two types are shown in figure 8.14 Induction-motor principle .. I I I t I I I• 1.13.

=speed of rotation (rev /s) of the rotor or rotating part of the motor.--------- per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100% . n.77 Electrical Machines field into the weaker. The speed of rotation of the magnetic field or synchronous speed is n. The field rotates within the cylinder and is described as a rotating magnetic field. output power per umt efficiency=-:. 8. where n. Fractional slip I 1. hence the force on the conductor acts in the direction of movement of the magnetic field.11 Efficiency of Electrical Machines .----mput power output power output power+ losses input power -losses input power losses input power =1-. . ... fractwna s Ip=s=--= 1 .n. Synchronous speed of the magnetic field In conventional forms of induction motor the magnetic field is generated inside the stationary cylindrical part (the stator) of the motor. n.=£rev/s p where f =supply frequency (Hz) and p =number of pairs of magnetic poles produced by the stator. n .- n.

1 Analog and Digital Instruments An analog instrument indicates the value of the quantity being measured by means of a pointer.3 Analog Indicating Instruments There are three forces acting on the moving systems of analog indicating instruments. The smallest change that can be indicated corresponds to the change of one digit in the least significant position of the number. such as the normal range of pointer-type ammeters and voltmeters. Electrostatic effect is principally applied to electrostatic voltmeters. Electromagnetic-induction effects are utilised in a.9 Measurements 9.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments Practical measuring instruments utilise one of five effects. Chemical effects are used in a small range of instruments such as some types of ampere-hour meter. (1) The deflecting force or operating force causes the moving system to deflect from its 'zero' position. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Magnetic effect is used by the majority of analog electrical instruments. ammeters. 9. Heating effects are utilised in thermocouple instruments. . Digital instruments give an indication in the form of a complete number (usually in decimal form).c. 9. (3) The damping force quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final position. which have a high input resistance between their terminals. whose indication varies smoothly with the measured quantity. voltmeters and wattmeters. (2) The controlling force ensures that the magnitude of the steady deflection is always the same for a given value of measured quantity. watt-hour meters (for example the domestic energy-meter) and also in some a.c.

One form of air-friction damping mechanism is shown in figure 9. (2) Airfriction damping. this method of control is not suitable for portable instruments. A damping force is generated when the air pressure in the chamber is either increased or decreased by the movement of the piston.f. An aluminium piston is attached to the moving system and moves inside a chamber that is closed at one end (the chamber may have any convenient section). Instruments using gravity control must be used in an upright position. The eddy currents are induced either in the metallic former that supports the element of the moving system (see figure 9. A controlling hair-spring (usually of phosphor bronze) controls the angular movement of the moving system (see figure 9.5) or in a disc that is mechanically connected to the moving system. The viscous frictional drag of the oil on the vane is used to damp the movement of the system. If this conductor is part of a complete circuit within the magnetic field of the instrument. (3) Fluidfriction damping.1 Air-damping . Consequently.5). then a current (an eddy current) flows in it and dissipates energy in the resistance of the conductor. In this method a vane enclosed in a cylinder containing oil is mechanically connected to the moving system.m. When a conductor moves in a magnetic field an e. spindle of moving element Figure 9. The controlling torque produced by the spring increases linearly with the angular movement of the moving system.1. A small weight is attached to the moving system so that it produces a controlling torque when the system deflects. This phenomenon is used as one method of damping moving systems. Damping force (1) Eddy-current damping.79 Measurements Controlling force (1) Spring control. is induced in it. (2) Gravity control. in a springcontrolled system the law of the scale of the instrument has the same form as that of the deflecting force.

(3) Thread suspension. . A section through one end of a taut-ribbon suspension is shown in figure 9. taut-ribbon suspension and thread suspension. The moving element is attached to the spindle. The moving element is attached to the shaft.3. These suspensions are delicate but provide a suspension with very low friction. are located in jewelled bearings (usually sapphire). (1) Pivoted support. spring frame of instrument Figure 9.3 Taut-ribbon suspension Instrument scales The type of scale depends on the controlling mechanism and the relationship between the torque produced by the moving element and the measured quantity.2). The movement is supported on a thread (of phosphor bronze). (2) Taut-ribbon suspension. The movement is suspended by ribbons (of beryllium copper) under tension at either end of the shaft. which is of hardened steel. The ends of the spindle (see figure 9.80 Study Notes in Electrical Science jewel spindle Figure 9.2 Pivoted support Methods of supporting moving systems The most popular methods are pivoted support.

5. With this arrangement the average torque produced by the coil is proportional to the average value of current in the coil. The magnetic system is designed so that the flux distribution in the air gap is radial. the coil former being supported on either a pivoted suspension (shown) or a taut-ribbon suspension. The coil is supported on a metallic former (which provides eddy-current damping). the permanent magnet being external to the coil.4a and b).4 Moving-coil Instruments or Galvanometers Construction and uses The internal construction of one type of moving-coil instrument is shown in figure 9. Moving-coil instruments are essentially milliammeters (or microammeters) . The scale calibration may be either linear or non-linear (see figures 9.4 Instrument scales 9. and deflecting angles in the range 9(}-250° are commercially available. Current is supplied to the coil either via the control springs or by flexible ligaments. 6 4 (a) 20 (b) Figure 9. The net result is a linear scale calibration (see figure 9. An alternative magnetic circuit arrangement is to place the magnet inside the coil (this is the so-called core-magnet or internal-magnet movement).4a).Measurements 81 The scale length depends on the construction of the instrument. In this case the iron core is in the form of a cylinder surrounding the movement. In figure 9.5 the coil rotates around a soft-iron core.

6.).5 Moving-coil instrument Extending the current range of a moving-coil instrument The general arrangement is shown in figure 9. where I g= meter current (A) to give full-scale deflection (f. to allow them to read high voltages.s. current must flow from the external circuit into the '+' terminal and out of the '-' terminal. One of the terminals is marked with a'+' and the other with a'-'.d. These instruments require a direct (or unidirectional) current flow.s. S = resistance (n) of the shunt and I =current (A) in the external circuit at f. pointer balance arm Figure 9.d.A .d.s.Study Notes in Electrical Science 82 and are used in conjunction with either shunt resistors.. to allow them to read higher values of current.SV and I=I 8 +I. or voltage multipliers (series voltage-dropping resistors). R g=resistance (0) of the meter. I. Since the meter and the shunt are connected in parallel with one another I gRg= I .= current (A) in the shunt at f.

V.7) in series with the instrument.d.7 Extension of voltage range . Its function is to absorb a large proportion of the applied voltage. = Is For example.Measurements 83 Solving gives I I Figure 9.6 ) = 20000 ohms per volt (o.LA is sometimes referred to as a 1/(50 x 10.s. Resistor R is known as a voltage multiplier or a voltage-dropping resistor.) instrument. The circuit equation is V=lg(R+RJ Hence v R=--R 8 Is Quite often the effective sensitivity of the instrument is expressed in ohms per volt at f.d. an instrument giving f.p. with a current of 50 J. This value is in fact given by 1 ohms per volt at f. + R v Figure 9.6 Extension of current range Extending the voltage range of a moving-coil instrument The moving-coil instrument can be converted into a voltmeter by connecting resistor R (see figure 9.v.s.d.s.

Hence the midpoint of the Ohms scale is equal to the internal resistance of the meter. a consequence is that when the instrument is used in the Ohms mode the '+' terminal of the instrument has a negative potential with respect to its '-' terminal.8b.8 Ohmmeter The moving-coil instrument as an ohmmeter A typical ohmmeter circuit is shown in figure 9. The cell is connected so that the current flows in the 'correct' direction through the meter. a moving-coil instrument can be used . which is included within the meter. this is done by short-circuiting the terminals of the instrument and adjusting RVto give f.m..s.84 Study Notes in Electrical Science I I I I I I L __ . E.d.f._____ J R (unknown) I (a) OHMS 100 0 'o (b) Figure 9. Resistor RVis used to 'zero' the ir.s.. Rectifier Instruments When used in conjunction with a rectifier.. When the current in the external circuit is zero the resistance ofthe external circuit is infinity.8a. The resistance of resistor R is determined by measuring the current flowing through it from the cell of e.- I -c:=J-. When a resistance that is equal to the internal resistance of the instrument is connected between its terminals.strument on the Ohms scale. The Ohms scale of the instrument is non-linear.d. a typical scale being illustrated in figure 9.-. the current is half that for f.

signal Figure 9.85 Measurements + I.c. then the indication given by the meter is not strictly accurate. signal has a sine wave. and it is assumed by the instrument maker that the a. If the a. The equivalent d. current I 1 is given by the expression I 2 - I1 (form factor of the a. air-damping chamber I Figure 9. waveform) For a sinusoidal waveform Rectifier instruments have their scales calibrated in terms ofr. moving-coil meter a. signal is non-sinusoidal. I 2 .c.9 Rectifier instrument to provide an indication of alternating quantities.c.c. A milliammeter circuit that uses a bridge rectifier is shown in figure 9.m.10 Moving-iron instrument: attraction type . current.c.c. quantities.s.9 (the principle of the rectifier is described in chapter 10). corresponding to the a.

5 Moving-iron Instruments Construction and use There are two types of moving-iron instrument.11 ). Air-damping is used with these instruments. value of a. the scale calibration can be 'linearised' over much of its length by modifying the design of the vane system so that the inductance of the coil varies over the deflecting angle. in which two parallel vanes or rods of soft iron. (1) pointer air-dampilg chamber Figure 9. the coil and movement are surrounded by a nickel. current or the r. The attraction type. To prevent electromagnetic interference from affecting the accuracy of the instrument.m. current. in which an eccentrically pivoted soft-iron vane is attracted towards a solenoid (see figure 9. and a low-current .Study Notes in Electrical Science 86 9.10). Because current does not need to be conveyed to the moving part of the instrument. Ammeters Equal magnetic fluxes require equal values of m. are repelled from one another (see figure 9. similarly magnetised inside a solenoid..iron screen (not shown).c. The net result is a non-linear scale calibration.s.f. only one control spring is required.m.11 Moving-iron instrument: repulsion type The average torque produced by the moving-iron movement is proportional to the square of the value of the current in the coil. These instruments can be used to measure either d.c. (2) The repulsion type.

a current transformer is used in conjunction with a low-current instrument (usually a 0--1 A or 0--5 A meter).s. For a.1 A.c. The deflecting force is proportional to the product I 112. is in the range 0.Measurements 87 instrument merely requires more turns of wire on the coil than does a largecurrent instrument.d.d. Voltmeters The coil usually has a large number of turns of fine wire. When the instrument is used as a wattmeter the scale calibration is linear.12) consists of two series-connected coils that are fixed to the frame of the instrument and another coil that is free to rotate within the fixed coils.05--0. across the load is applied to the moving coil (a voltage-multiplier resistor is connected in series with this coil). For the measurement of very high values of alternating current. It can also be used as an ammeter by connecting the fixed and moving coils in . The range of the wattmeter can be extended by using it in conjunction with a current transformer and a voltage transformer. in which the load current flows through the fixed coils. The mean angular deflection of the pointer is proportional to the average power consumed by the load.12 Electrodynamic instrument 9. voltages greater than about 750 V a voltage transformer is used in conjunction with a 0--llOV instrument.6 Electrodynamic Instruments The usual form of construction (see figure 9. and the p. moving ooil Figure 9. This type of instrument is most frequently used as a wattmeter. and the current required to give f.

88

Study Notes in Electrical Science

**parallel with one another. When the fixed and moving coils are connected in series
**

the instrument can be used as a voltmeter. When the instrument is used as either

an ammeter or a voltmeter, the scale calibration is non-linear and is cramped at

the low-current end of the scale.

Air-damping is used, and th~ movement is usually spring controlled.

9.7 The D.C. Potentiometer

The d.c. potentiometer is a null-balance instrument used for determining values of

e.m.f. by a comparison method. In the circuit in figure 9.13, Vis a supply source

whose voltage need not be known accurately. The slide wire has a uniform crosssectional area, so that the p.d. per unit length is uniform. The slider is moved along

the wire until balance is obtained (that is, until the galvanometer deflection is

zero). The p.d. per unit length of wire is then E/IV/m. If E 1 is the e.m.f. of a

standard cell and 11 is its balance position, and E 2 is the e.m.f. of another cell,

which gives balance at 12 , then

or

v

slide wire

slider

Figure 9.13 The d.c. potentiometer

**9.8 The Wheatstone Bridge
**

The basic circuit is shown in figure 9.14, in which G is a sensitive galvanometer, P

and Q are resistors and are known as the 'ratio arms' of the potentiometer, R is a

calibrated variable resistance and X is a resistor of unknown value. At balance the

potential at A is the same as that at B and the galvanometer deflection is zero.

89

Measurements

**When this occurs
**

PX=QR

That is, the products of diagonally opposed resistances are equal to one another;

hence

RQ

X=p

A

8

**Figure 9.14 The Wheatstone bridge
**

9.9 A.C. Bridges

Basic four-arm bridge

**The general configuration of a four-arm a.c. bridge is shown in figure 9.15. At
**

balance the a.c. detector gives zero indication, and the general condition of

balance is

ZxZ3=ZlZ2

That is, the products of diagonally opposed impedances are equal to one another.

Impedance Z xis the element (the unknown) whose value is being determined.

Elements Z 1, Z 2 and Z 3 are other (known) components in the bridge. Hence

z2

Zx=Zl-

z3

**Balance is obtained in an a.c. bridge when both the magnitude and the phase angle
**

of the potentials at A and B are equal to one another.

90

**Study Notes in Electrical Science
**

A

Figure 9.15 Basic four-arm a.c. bridge

**Figure 9.16 De Sauty's bridge
**

De Sauty's capacitance bridge

This bridge (see figure 9.16) is suitable for measuring the capacitance of ideal lossfree capacitors. At balance

it is frequently used for measurements on cables.17) is suitable for determining the capacitance and phaseangle values of capacitors.Measurements 91 p jwCx Q jwC or PC Cx=- Q Figure 9.17 Schering's bridge Schering's bridge This circuit (see figure 9. The unknown components are r x and C". At balance Solving yields . insulators and equipment having small capacitance values.

Study Notes in Electrical Science 92 ~------.15).18) is suited to measuring the components of lossy inductors.19) is particularly suitable for measuring the components of low-loss inductors and for measuring large values of inductance. At balance Solving gives R1R2 rx=-R3 Lx=R 1 R 2 C 3 Hay's bridge This bridge (see figure 9. but since the unknown elements are in parallel with one another it is more convenient to write the condition of balance as .~r-------~ Figure 9.18 Maxwell's bridge Maxwell's bridge This bridge (see figure 9. The measurements may be made with direct current flowing in the inductor. At balance the condition ZxZ3 =Z1Z2 applies (see also figure 9.

o.r. illustrated in figure 9.) together with its controls and power supplies... The intensity of the spot on the face of the tube depends on the value of the beam current. The principal components of the c.t..t. consists of a cathode ray tube (c.' Figure 9. which is adjusted by the brilliance control. has a flat surface directed towards the screen so that it provides high electron-emission in that direction. The control grid is in the form of a metal cup with a small hole in it to allow a narrow beam of electrons to pass through it..r..). electron lens system. Electron gun The cathode.r.20. screen. At balance R 3 +(1/jwC 3 ) _ R R (1/rx)+(1/jwLx). deflection system and c.t.r.19 Hay's bridge 9. are the electron gun.93 Measurements where Y x= (1/r x)+(1jjwLx). .10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope The cathode ray oscilloscope (c. which is usually indirectly heated.1 2 Solving yields RtRz rx=-R3 Lx=R 1 R 2 C3 '---------( rv f .

supply L-------f--11•1•1-------+ Figure 9. is the signal to be observed on the face of the tube. Deflection system The electron beam is deflected in the Y.h. theY-input signal. potential from theY-shift control and the other signal. potential from the Xshift control and the other signal. This system usually contains three anodes. Two signals are applied to each set of plates.94 Study Notes in Electrical Science Y-onput signal X-input signal electron electron gun lens system ~~ heater screen --v cathode e.c.c. one signal is a d. in this arrangement coils are wound around the neck of the tube and the beam is focused by passing a current through the coils. known as the timebase signal. the potential of the second anode being adjusted by means of the focus control. In the case of the X -deflection plates. I. causes the spot to deflect at a constant speed from the left-hand side of the screen to the right-hand .20 Cathode ray oscilloscope Electron lens system The diverging beam leaving the electron gun is formed into a converging beam by the electron lens system. one signal is a d.and X -directions by means of voltages applied to theY. In the case of theY-deflection plates.and X -deflection plates respectively. Focusing can also be brought about by electromagnetic means.

When the electron beam strikes the phosphor it causes it to fluoresce. Principal controls of the c. allowing the user to observe the movement of the spot on the face of the tube. TheY-gain control (usually calibrated in VOLTS/CM) permits the vertical trace size to be adjusted (a popular range of Y-gain settings is from 0. The X -gain control or TIME/CM control allows the horizontal-deflection speed of the spot to be adjusted (a popular range of X-gain settings is from lOOms/em to 1 JlS/cm).o. The brilliance and focus controls respectively control the brilliance and focus of the spot on the face of the tube. In most oscilloscopes the effects of these controls interact with one another so that both must be adjusted to provide a satisfactory display.RI.t.Measurements 95 side.h. . When the spot reaches the right-hand end of the timebase sweep the timebase signal causes the spot to return to the left-hand side of the screen (this is known as flyback). C. The Y-shift and X -shift controls allow the user to position the trace on the screen of the tube.1 V/em to 50 V/em). screen The inside face of the screen is coated with a phosphor.r. supply via the graphite coating inside the neck of the tube. The spot can also be deflected by electromagnetic means. Triggering controls are provided to allow a repetitive waveform to be displayed as a steady trace on the screen. Having given their energy up to the screen the electrons return to the positive pole of the e.

J0

Rectifiers

10.1 Semiconductors

Semiconductors include a wide range of materials whose resistivities are midway

between those of good conductors and those of good insulators. The most widely

used semiconductor materials are silicon and germanium, with other materials

being used in more specialised applications.

i-type semiconductors or intrinsic semiconductors

**Intrinsic semiconductors or i-type semiconductors are the natural pure-type
**

semiconductor materials. The majority of semiconductors used in practice are

either n-type or p-type materials (see below), which are formed by doping i-type

materials with suitable dopants.

n-type semiconductors

**Ann-type semiconductor is one having mobile negative-charge carriers (electrons)
**

in its structure. Current flow in semiconductors is due largely to the movement of

what are known as majority-charge carriers in that material; inn-type materials

electrons are the majority-charge carriers. A small proportion of current flow in

semiconductors is due to minority-charge carriers; inn-type materials positivecharge carriers (known as holes) are the minority-charge carriers.

p-type semiconductors

**A p-type semiconductor is one having mobile positive-charge carriers (holes) in its
**

structure. In p-type materials, current flow is due largely to the movement of holes

(which are in this case the majority-charge carriers) while a small proportion of

current flow is due to electrons (which are in this case the minority-charge

carriers).

10.2 Rectifiers

Diode characteristics

A rectifier is a two-terminal device (diode) that offers low resistance to current

97

Rectifiers

**flow in one direction and a very high resistance to current flow in the reverse
**

direction.

A diode has two electrodes: an anode and a cathode. It offers low resistance to

current flow when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode; in this mode it

is said to be forward-biased. It offers very high resistance to current flow when the

anode is negative with respect to the cathode; in this mode it is said to be reversebiased.

The characteristics of both ideal and practical diodes are shown in figure 10.1.

An ideal diode (characteristic shown in bold line in the figure) offers no resistance

to current flow in the forward-biased mode (first quadrant) and infinite resistance

to flow in the reverse-biased mode (third quadrant). A practical diode offers a

small resistance to current flow in the forward-biased mode, when forward

conduction takes place. In the reverse-biased mode a leakage current of small

value passes through the diode, in which case it is said to operate in its reverseblocking mode; as the reverse-bias voltage is increased a point is reached at which

the current through the diode increases rapidly, from when it is said to operate in

its reverse-breakdown mode.

+

forward

conduction

reverse

blocking

Figure 10.1

Diode characteristics

p-n junction diode

**The p-n junction diode is a single crystal of semiconductor material that has both
**

p- and n-regions within the crystal (see figure 10.2). The diode conducts when the

p-region (the anode) is positive with respect to the n-region (the cathode).

When the diode is reverse-biased the mobile charge carriers are drawn back

from the junction and a depletion layer, which is depleted of charge carriers, exists

at the junction. This region effectively becomes an insulating region.

Study Notes in Electrical Science

98

n

p

cathode

anode

Figure 10.2

p-n junction diode

Zener diode

Certain types of diode, known as Zener diodes, are operated in their reversebreakdown mode. The diode is not damaged provided that the rating of the device

is not exceeded. For example, the maximum 'reverse' current through a 1 W, 10 V

Zener diode should not exceed 0.1 A. A feature of Zener diodes is that, when

operated in the reverse-breakdown mode, the voltage across them does not alter

significantly over a fairly wide current range. Applications of Zener diodes include

voltage-reference sources, meter protection and bias-voltage supplies.

Thermionic diode or valve diode

**This is an electronic valve containing an anode and a cathode inside a container
**

(usually made of glass) that may be either evacuated or gas-filled. The symbol for a

vacuum diode (known as a 'hard' valve) is shown in figure 10.3. The cathode emits

electrons when heated, the source of heat in the valve in figure 10.3 being the

heating element (this type of valve is known as an indirectly heated diode).

anode

'"""'~"'

Figure 10.3

Thermionic diode

**A typical vacuum-diode characteristic is shown in figure 10.4. Current I Ao is
**

known as the splash current and is due to energetic electrons that arrive at the

anode at zero anode voltage; its value is usually very small. Region A on the

characteristic is known as the space-charge-limited region, since in this region of

the characteristic the magnitude of the anode current is limited in value by the

'space charge' surrounding the cathode. The diode is normally operated in this

region of the curve. Region B is known as the temperature-limited region, since in

c.5 Single-phase half-wave rectifier .4 Thermionic vacuum-diode characteristic this region the anode current is limited by the temperature of the cathode.99 Rectifiers + saturation current lAO anode voltage + Figure 10.£ L---~L---~~--------~~ ~ 0 + a. ~ . load supply (a) I time Figure 10. since doing so may result in damage to the surface of the cathode. The device is not normally operated in this region of the curve.

c =mean value of the d.= 0. This circuit is also known as a biphase circuit.c.636Vm= 0.c.9V.) ci A if\!}\ 8 ~ (a) time (b) Figure 10. value of the a. = r.3 Rectifier Circuits Single-phase half-wave circuit The diode in figure 10. With a sinusoidal input 2Vm V d. In the case of a sinusoidal a.c..s. ..c. ensuring that the potential of terminal X is always positive with respect to Y.<.c.m. 1t where V mand V.5 conducts when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode.c. and V.c.: : '--------.c.=.45V.------+. supply. .100 Study Notes in Electrical Science 10. V m= maximum value ofthe a. supply voltage vm Vd. voltage is required or where the load must be electrically isolated from the a. 1t where Vd. supply= V rnl 2. = .= 0. supply.6 Single-phase full-wave rectifier Single-phase full-wave centre-tap circuit Diodes A and Bin figure 10. output voltage.J ~ .318Vm= 0. refer to the voltage between one of the secondary-winding terminals and the centre tap. ..6 conduct in alternate half-cycles. Owing to the cost and weight of the transformer this circuit is only used either when an unusual value of d.

g 1~1 I [ I + time "0 0 E . . Electrolytic capacitors are used both as reservoir and as filter capacitors.Rectifiers 101 + t vd. Smoothing is usually brought about by using a reservoir capacitor in conjunction with some form of LC filter circuit (see figure 10.7.8 Smoothing circuit Smoothing circuit The output waveform from rectifier circuits is not smooth enough for some applications. load a.g reservoir L-C filter capacitor \ \ I I \ I (a) (b) Figure 10. = 0. sides of the circuit.8).c. + QJ ~ u ~ E .c.6. and diagonally opposed diodes conduct simultaneously.7 Single-phase bridge rectifier Single-phase bridge circuit The circuit is shown in figure 10.c. Four diodes are used. and V d. that is.c.9V.636V m = 0. The waveforms are generally like those shown in figure 10. The circuit does not require a transformer but must not be operated with earth connections on both the a.c supply Figure 10. and d. diodes A and B conduct during one halfcycle of the supply waveform. and diodes C and D conduct in the other half-cycle.

p. The arrow on the circuit symbols points in the direction of conventional current flow (that is. When the transistor is used in amplifier circuits the base. . Triodes and Amplifiers 11.emitter junction is forward-biased and the collector. base or collector) may be connected to the 'common' line. and there are two types: n.1 Bipolar Junction Tramoistors Construction A bipolar junction transistor (see figure 11. The name given to the circuit connection or configuration in which the transistor is used is that of the electrode that is connected to the common line.n.n and p. of hole flow).1) is formed in a single crystal of semiconductor material. the base and the collector. an output terminal and a 'common' connection between the input and output signals. Each contains three regions known as the emitter.11 Transistors. Any one of the three regions of the transistor (the emitter. The most widely used type is the n-p-n silicon transistor.p.base junction is reverse-biased.1 Bipolar junction transistors Basic configurations Amplifier circuits have an input terminal. collector p n p collector junction collector n base p base n-p-n symbol n emitter junction emitter emitter (a) (b) Figure 11.

103 Transistors. it maintains its current gain at higher frequencies than does the common-emitter configuration. power gain and input impedance. a very low output impedance and a voltage gain of slightly less than unity.2a) is the most widely used circuit and provides reasonably high values of voltage gain. input o------+.2b) provides reasonably high values of voltage and power gain but has a low value of input impedance. The common-base configuration (figure 11.2).2c) has a very high input impedance. The common-emitter configuration (figure 11.2 Transistor configurations . The common-collector configuration (figure 11. the common-base corifiguration and the common-collector corifiguration (see figure 11.. signal (a) common line collector : o~tput s1gnal (b) base common line (c) ~_e_m_it_t_er_0 output signal input o---b_a_s_e_~ signal common line Figure 11. Triodes and Amplifiers Hence we have the common-emitter configuration. All the transistors in the figure are n-p-n types.

V c).104 Study Notes in Electrical Science Static characteristic curves in the common-emitter configuration Typical input characteristics. A family of output characteristics. 11.4.._.LA 0 250 500 750 0 5 15 10 V6 (mV) Vc (V) ~ ~ 20 25 Figure 11.3a.LA v 20 100 <i <1 E j.2 Field-effect Transistors Field-effect transistors (FETs) are so named because an electrical field (or electrical potential) controls the flow of current through the device.. V 8 ) for various values of output voltage (the collector voltage.3b..... V c) for various values of input current (the base current. The two types are junction-gate FETs (JUGFET) and insulated-gate FETs (IGFET or M OSFET)... The input resistance of both types of FET is very high. The output characteristics are seen to be almost parallel not only with one another but also with the base of the graph. I 8 ) varies with the input voltage (the base voltage. which show the way in which the input current (the base current.. which show the way in which the output current (the collector current.. I 8 ).! 6 =20 f. are shown in figure 11. .. are illustrated in figure 11.m 10 50 I L . I c) varies with the output voltage (the collector voltage. It should be noted that the value of I c increases with I 8 • 150 30 Vc =5 v Vc =10 I 6 =100 f.3 Common-emitter characteristics Static output characteristics in the common-base corifiguration A typical set of output characteristics (collector current plotted to a base of voltage for various values of emitter current) is shown in figure 11. being typically ..

. These transistors are generally used in applications in which this feature is of paramount importance.i .base voltage (V) Figure 11.4 Common-base output characteristics several hundred megohms.-----~----.§.5 Junction-gate FET .~----------------~----- ". source - + (a) drain voltage (b) n -channel p -channel (C) (d) Figure 11.Transistors. 30- c ~::> 0 2 IE=20 rnA 20- 0 ~ 0 h =10 0 10- rnA /Ico 0--~----------.to. Triodes and Amplifiers 105 IE= 40 rnA 40. 20 10 0 collector.

Study Notes in Electrical Science 106 Junction-gate F EJ's One form of JUGFET is shown in figure 11. The arrow on the symbol indicates the nature of the gate-to-channel junction.6 Insulated-gate FET . V c. this type is known as ann-channel device since the conducting channel linking the source electrode and the drain electrode is of n-type material. The application of a reverse-bias voltage.5. between the p-type gate region and the n-type conducting-channel causes a depletion region to form in the channel. The circuit symbols for ann-channel device and a p-channel device are shown in figure 11.. and the drain is the electrode where they are 'drained' from the device.5b). The source electrode is so named because it acts as the source of charge carriers. since it points in the direction of the arrow in a conventional p-n junction diode. This type of device is known as a depletion-mode device. A reverse gate bias voltage equal to V P (the pinch-off voltage) causes the drain current to become zero. Increasing the negative value of V 0 reduces or depletes the value of the drain current (see figure 11. Insulated-gate FEJ's In an IGFET the gate is insulated from the body (or substrate) of the FET by a aluminium contact (a) drain voltage (V) (b) p.5a. an arrow pointing towards the channel indicates that the gate is of p-type material and that the channel is of n-type material.channel n-channel (c) (d) Figure 11.

This type of device is described as an enhancementmode device. This type of device is also described as a MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor FET) because of the gate-to-channel structure.3 Triodes A triode (see figure 11. Triodes and Amplifiers 107 silicon-oxide (that is. When the gate voltage becomes more negative than V T• current begins to flow. The application of a negative potential to the gate attracts positive charges (holes) in the substrate to the underside of the oxide layer to form an inversion channel of p-type material in the n-type substrate.6b ). V a.6 give information about the channel type. the electrodes being the anode. thus the gate voltage increases or enhances the value of the drain current (see figure 11. a p-type conducting-channel is formed between the source and drain regions. 7) is a three-electrode thermionic valve. The circuit symbols in figure 11.6a is known asap-channel MOSFET. as shown below. is zero no current flows between the source and the drain (see figure 11. When the arrow on the symbol points towards the conducting channel it indicates that the substrate is of p-type material and that the conducting channel is of n-type material.Transistors. anode control grid ~ ~athode (a) anode voltage ( V) (b) Figure 11. The triode is operated with its anode positive with respect to the cathode and its control grid negative with respect to the cathode.6b). When the gate voltage.7 The triode 11. glass) insulating layer. V n no current flows between the source and drain electrodes. the cathode and the control grid. The device in figure 11. . Below a value of voltage known as the threshold voltage.

8 Amplifier frequency-response curves Amplifiers may also be classified according to the type of device used in them.c. amplifiers are capable of reproducing a range of frequencies down to zero frequency (d. the former being more popular).). For example. D. amplifier.c. Amplifiers may also be classified according to the band offrequencies they are capable of faithfully reproducing. This is illustrated in figure 11. the gain of a.c.c.4 Amplifiers Classification Amplifiers can be classified in many ways.C.c. For example.Study Notes in Electrical Science 108 11. . Power amplifiers are capable of providing a large power output but their output waveform may not be a faithful reproduction of the input signal. or a..8. they may be classified as either voltage amplifiers or power amplifiers.Low-:frequency amplifiers have a uniform gain at a small range of frequencies above zero frequency. Rotating amplifiers use special types of rotating generator (which may be either d. amplifier c g. Amplifiers are also classified by the point on the characteristic to which the electronic devices are biased as follows. amplifiers reduces rapidly at low frequencies and they are incapable of operating at zero frequency. However. they are also known as small-signal amplifiers. Voltage amplifiers are those that faithfully reproduce the input waveform but only provide a relatively small amount of power output. this type is sometimes described as a wide-band a.c. frequency Figure 11. d. Tuned amplifiers can only provide a more-or-less uniform amplification to a very narrow band of frequencies. while magnetic amplifiers contain saturable reactors and diodes. while thermionic amplifiers contain such devices as triodes and pentodes. solid-state amplifiers contain semiconductor devices.

input resistance. and a variation in temperature causes the quiescent value of the collector voltage to change.h r. The latter arises from a change in collector current . The output resistance of the circuit is approximately equal to R L· The thermal stability of this circuit is poor.c. Many audio-frequency power-amplifiers and some radio-frequency amplifiers work in class B. Fixed-bias small-signal amplifier using bipolar transistors Figure 11. R 1 =base-bias resistor. Triodes and Amplifiers 109 Class A: current flows in the load during the whole period of the inputsignal cycle.Transistors. Tuned oscillators and some radio-frequency amplifiers work in class C. The voltage gain of the amplifier is approximately equal to.9 Bipolar-transistor amplifier with fixed bias The amplifier is phase-inverting and has an effective a. Class C: current flows in the load for less than one-half of the period of each input-signal cycle. C 1 and C2 =blocking capacitors. cl input signal Figure 11.5). Other classifications such as class AB are possible.9 shows a simple amplifier using a fixed-bias arrangement. Class A amplifiers are used in tuned and untuned voltage-amplifiers and in low-power audio-frequency amplifiers. Rio• whose value is equal to R 1 in parallel with parameter hie (this parameter is discussed in section 11.5). The functions of the important components in the circuit are: TR =transistor.R d R in (parameter h re also is discussed in section 11. Class B: current flows in the load for one-half of the period of each inputsignal cycle. R L =collector-load resistor and V cc =collector-supply voltage.

For a silicon transistor the quiescent base potential is about 0.6 V. input resistance. the latter change restricts the change in collector current to a small value. etc. power dissipation.c. Practical small-signal amplifier using bipolar transistors A circuit with improved thermal stability is shown in figure 11. .110 Study Notes in Electrical Science with temperature through the transistor. and its a. of the amplifier. C 1 and C2 =blocking capacitors.10 A practical amplifier circuit The amplifier is phase-inverting.Any change in the collector current due to temperature change is partially compensated for by a change in base-emitter voltage. The functions of the important components are: TR =transistor.------o Vee (+l Figure 11. R 2 andRE =bias and thermal-stability resistors . C E= bypass capacitorfor the emitter resistor. the over-all result being a change in the voltage gain. Rio• is equivalent to the parallel combination of R 1 . The d.. power gain.c..--------. potential across R Eis about O. R E> and R 1 . and the quiescent collector voltage should be about V cd2.lVceo and the quiescent base voltage is .1 0.hc..Rc I Riw and the output resistance is approximately equal to Rc. R 2 and hie· The voltage gain is about .

from which it can be seen that the slope. The transistor is used in an amplifier circuit like that . Triodes and Amplifiers about 0. V e• for given values ofVee and Rvlt should be compared with the straight-line equation y = mx + c relating the variables y and x.9 supply voltage =collector voltage+ p.1. The quiescent collector voltage is about midway between the emitter voltage and Vee· Load-line construction for resistive loads For the circuit in figure 11. load line of slope= -1/RL Vcc co I lector voltage Figure 11. across R L hence Vee=Ve+leRL Vee 1) le=.d. m. I e.( RL Ve+ RL The above equation is known as the load-line equation and shows how the collector current.111 Transistors.11. is equal to VcciRL· A load line corresponding to this equation is shown in figure 11.11 Load line Example The common-emitter characteristics of a n-p-n transistor are linear over the range given in table 11. of the load line is -1/RL and that the vertical intercept. varies with the collector voltage. c.5 V greater than this value.

the characteristic for I 8 = 50 J. From figure 11.5 Solution From figure 11. R L• of 1500 Q and a collector supply voltage.6mW (a) . I 8 .9 and has a collector load resistor.m.2 5.lA.65 rnA quiescent collector voltage = V co= 4 V (b) quiescent power dissipated by the transistor =Vcof co=4 x 2. and collector voltage.65mW = 10. Table 11.12 it can be seen that the vertical intercept of the load line on the I c axis is 8V 1500 Q = 0.1 I c (rnA) for 20 40 50 60 80 Vc=2V Vc=9V 0. value of the a. Q.12 quiescent collector current= I co= 2.8 3.7 2.c.Study Notes in Electrical Science 112 shown in figure 11. determine the current gain of the amplifier and also the r. V c the quiescent power dissipated by the transistor the total power dissipated in the circuit. estimate (a) (b) (c) the quiescent values of the collector current.9 1. If a sinusoidal input-signal causes I 8 to change by± 10 J.5 v ---=-- and cuts the V c axis at V cc or 8 V.s. components of I c and Vc. The quiescent point.lA = 0. If the base bias current. V cc• of 8 V.8 2. bias current (that is. of the circuit is given by the intersection of the load line and the static output characteristic corresponding to the d. is 50 J.c.33 rnA The load line has a slope of -1 A 1500 v -1 rnA 1.5 4. I c.00533 A= 5.05 rnA).8 3.3 2.9 1.lA.

:. 4·0 E c "'::>t: <.02 rnA The resulting change in I c is M c= 3. Triodes and Amplifiers (c) total power dissipated by the circuit =(I cQ+I 8 ) xVcc =(2.3 20 X 10 6 = 44 6·0 5·33 5·0 .> 2·0 1•0 0 2 4 6 collector voltage ( V) Figure 11.18 =0.> 3·0 0 u ~ 0 <.65+0.05) x 8mW =21. the change in I 8 is M 8 = 20 11A = 0.88 X 10.12 8 9 10 ..) The input signal causes I 8 to change from 50.113 Transistors.88mA Hence the current gain of the amplifier is OI c 8J B 0.2mW.10 = 40 11A to 50+ 10 = 60 JlA.06-2.6mW (Note: The total power is given approximately by I cQXVcc=21. that is.

m. of the valve at its operating point.4= 1.311 rnA The corresponding change in V c is 0Vc=4. where Jl and r aare the voltage-amplification factor and slope resistance.s.c. R L=anode load resistor.s.c. The amplifier is phase-inverting and has an a. value of the a.3 Small-signal common-cathode triode amplifier The circuit is shown in figure 11.J2 =2.J2 = ~~82 = 0.46V 1. R a= grid resistor. input-impedance equal to R G· The voltage gain is.c.J 2 =0. respectively. R K =cathode bias resistor. value of the a. Cl and C2 =blocking Capacitors and C K =bypaSS Capacitor for resistor RK. The output resistance of the amplifier is equal to the parallel combination of R Land r a· t------Il outp~t signal C2 input voltage RG Figure 11.7 -3.114 Study Notes in Electrical Science and since the input signal is sinusoidal the r.13 A triode amplifier + 1-AA .13. component of I c is given by oi c (peak-to-peak change in I c) 2.3 V and the corresponding r.JLRJ(r a+ RL).m. The following components are used: V 1 =triode valve. component of V cis 2 .

1) l2=hrl1 +hoV2 (11. which are in the form of voltage sources (Thevenin's circuit) or current sources (Norton's circuit). other subscripts are given as follows e =common-emitter configuration .v2 (11. The parameters used to describe the operation of devices depend to a great extent on the ease with which they can be measured. Triodes and Amplifiers 115 11. input signal [2 v. that is. I. The relationships existing between the input and output quantities are expressed by equations that contain certain coefficients or parameters. The resulting equations can then be developed to give electrically equivalent circuits ofthe devices. common-emitter.2) where hi=input-resistance parameter and has dimensions of resistance h r =reverse-feedback parameter and is dimensionless h r= forward-current-gain parameter and is dimensionless ho=output-conductance parameter and has dimensions of conductance Depending on the circuit configuration used. In the case of FETs and valves other sets of parameters are used.5 Electronic-device Parameters and Equivalent Circuits Use of parameters Transistors can be regarded as circuit elements having a pair of input terminals and a pair of output terminals.14 )~ out put signal Transistor parameters Hybrid parameters or h-parameters The hybrid parameters are so named because the dimensions of the parameters are mixed. They are defined for 'black-box' devices in figure 11.Transistors. In the case of bipolar transistors it has been found that the most useful set of parameters is the hybrid parameters or h-parameters.14 by the equations vl =hJ1 +h. It should be noted that the equivalent circuits are only accurate over a limited range of the characteristics. commonbase or common-collector.! transis1or Figure 11.

+h.= hibl .1 and 11.Vc (11.15 is derived from equations 11.1 and 11.6) ..5) J c= hfb/ .bVc (11.4) If the transistor is in the common-base configuration. then equations 11.3) I c= hrel b+hoeVc (11.1 and 11.5.d. From equations 11.+hobVc (11.6 the equivalent output-circuit is output current= current generator due to I 1 +current due to V2 When the bipolar transistor is used in one of its three operating modes the parameters and variables in the equivalent circuit in figure 11. lz ho v.2. t Figure 11. then equations 11.15 are replaced by those in table 11.1 and 11..15 General h-parameter equivalent circuit Equivalent circuits The equivalent circuit of the transistor is derived from the above equations.116 Study Notes in Electrical Science b =common-base configuration c =common-collector configuration If the transistor in figure 11.2 are written V. due to I 1 +voltage generator due to V 2 From equations 11. the equivalent input-circuit is input voltage= p. The general equivalent circuit using the h-parameters in figure 11.14 is in the common-emitter configuration. .2 as follows.2 and 11.2 are written V b= hie/ b+ h.

b hie hrc v2 I2 vc Ic h.15 Common-emitter Common-base Common-collector vl Il vb Ib v.Transistors.4 100 15 Common-base Common-collector 0. he.. vc Ic v. This I.2 Variables and Variables and parameters used in equivalent circuits parameters in figure 11. I.15 .16 Simplified h-parameter equivalent circuit Table 11.LS) Common-emitter 2.3 Parameter hi(kQ) h.0 3 X 10. Vj Figure 11.4 -0. hr ho (J. Triodes and Amplifiers 117 Table 11.9997 -101 15 3 X 10. he ho h. hoe hi hfb hob vb Ib hec hoc In many cases the values of the parameters hi and h 0 are small enough to cause the voltage across and the current in the respective elements to be neglected.02 2. I.0 0.99 0. hie hib h.

. Typical parameter values for one transistor when used in the three configurations are given in table 11.1 and 11.118 Study Notes in Electrical Science means that equations 11.2 respectively can be reduced to v~ =h.16.3.ll 12 =h 111 which result in the simplified equivalent circuit in figure 11.