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Noel M. Morris
Principal Lee turer,
North Staffordshire Polytechnic
© Noel M. Morris 1977
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
without permission.
First published 1977 by
THE MACMILLAN PRESS LTD
London and Basingstoke
Associated companies in New York Dublin
Melbourne Johannesburg and Madras
ISBN 9780333212165
ISBN 9781349031238 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/9781349031238
Type set in Times New Roman
This book is sold subject to the standard conditions of the Net Book Agreement.
The paperback edition of this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall
not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, resold, hired out, or otherwise
circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or
cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition
including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.
Contents
Preface
vn
Useful Examination Tips
vm
Quantities, Multiples and Physical Constants
ix
basic SI unitsmultiples and submultiples of 10useful physical
constantslogarithmssome constants and useful relationships
I Directcurrent Circuits
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
Basic Electrical Quantities
currentquantitypotentialresistanceenergypower
Ohm's Law
derived relationships
Electrochemical Equivalent
Thermal Energy
Resistivity and Resistors
resistivityresistors in series and parallelresistance colour
code
Conductance and Conductivity
conductance<:onductivityconductances in parallel and
series
The Decibel
determinationdBm3 dB
Circuit Theorems
Kirchhoff's lawssuperposition, Thevenin's, Norton's and
maximum powertransfer theorems
2 Electromagnetism
2.1 Magnetic Field, Magnetic Flux and Flux Density
2.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
Faraday's, Neumann's and Lenz's laws
I
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
7
II
11
11
iv
Contents
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
Induced E.M.F.
e.m.f. induced in a coilinduced e.m.f. due to the motion
of a conductor in a magnetic fieldFleming's righthand
rule
Force on a Conductor
force on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic fieldscrew ruleFleming's lefthand rule
Magnetic Circuits
hysteresis and eddycurrent lossesmagnetomotive
forcemagneticfield strengthmagnetic leakagepermeabilityreluctancereluctances in series and parallel
Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop
magnetisation curvehysteresis loop
Inductance
self and mutual inductancesseriesconnected magnetically
coupled circuitscoefficient of mutual inductanceenergy stored in a magnetic field
Transients in Inductive Circuits
basic circuitgrowth and decay of currents
3 Electrostatics
3.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density
3.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current
3.3 Electric Force, Electricfield Intensity or Electricfield
Strength
3.4 Permittivity
3.5 Capacitance of Parallelplate Capacitors
3.6 Parallelconnected Capacitors
3. 7 Seriesconnected Capacitors
3.8 Voltage Distribution between Seriesconnected Capacitors
3.9 Parallelplate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics
3.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
3.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor
basic circuitcapacitor charging and discharging
4 Alternatingcurrent Theory
4.1
Basic Concepts
sinusoidal waveform, amplitude and 'angle of rotation'frequencyangular frequencyperiodic time
4.2 Average Value and R.M.S. Value of an Alternating
Waveform
average and r.m.s. valuesform and peak factors
12
13
14
16
18
21
24
24
24
25
25
26
27
27
28
28
29
30
32
32
33
Contents
v
4.3
36
Phasors and Phase Relationships
phasorsphase displacementaddition and subtraction of
phasors
4.4 Complex Notation
operator jrectangular and polar componentscomplex
conjugateoperations with complex quantities
5 Singlephase A.C. Circuits
5.1
Basic Circuits
circuit containing R onlyreactancecircuit containing L
onlycircuit containing C only
5.2 Series Circuits
power factorRand Lin seriesRand C in seriesR, L
and C in seriesseries resonance
5.3 Parallel Circuits
circuit containing R, L and Cparallel resonance
5.4 Complex Impedances
reactanceimpedance of series and parallel circuits
6 Tbreepbase A.C. Circuits
6.1
Starconnected Systems
voltage and current relationships
6.2 Meshconnected or Deltaconnected Systems
current and voltage relationships power consumed in a
balanced load
7 Transformers
7.1 E.M.F. Equation
7.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer
7.3 Transformer Efficiency
copper and iron lossescondition for maximum efficiency
7.4 Phasor Diagrams
ideal and practical transformers with and without load
7.5 The Transformer as an Impedancematching Device
8 Electrical Machines
8.1
Types of Electrical Machine
salient and cylindrical magnetic systems
8.2 Singleexcited Machines
8.3 Doubleexcited Machines
8.4 Windings
concentrated and distributed windings
39
42
42
45
50
52
54
54
56
58
58
58
59
61
63
64
64
65
66
66
Contents
vi
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
D.C. Machines
e.m.f. equationmethods of connection
Characteristic Curves of D.C. Generators
separately excited, shuntexcited, seriesexcited and
compoundwound generators
Power Required to Drive a D.C. Generator
D.C. Motors
torque equation faceplate starter
Characteristic Curves of D.C. Motors
shunt, series and compoundwound motors
Induction Motors
principlesynchronous speed of the magnetic fieldfractional slip
Efficiency of Electrical Machines
9 Measurements
9.1 Analog and Digital Instruments
9.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments
9.3 Analog Indicating Instruments
controlling and damping forces methods of supporting
moving systems instrument scales
9.4 Movingcoil Instruments or Galvanometers
construction and uses extending the current and voltage
ranges the movingcoil instrument as an ohmmeterrectifier instruments
9.5 Movingiron Instruments
construction and use ammeters voltmeters
9.6 Electrodynamic Instruments
9.7 The D.C. Potentiometer
9.8 The Wheatstone Bridge
9.9 A.C. Bridges
basic fourarm bridgeDe Sauty's, Schering's, Maxwell's
and Hay's bridges
9.10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
electron gunelectron lens systemdeflection systemc.r.t. screen principal controls
68
68
71
72
73
76
77
78
78
78
78
81
86
87
88
88
89
93
10 Rectifiers
96
10.1
96
Semiconductors
itypentype ptype
10.2 Rectifiers
diode characteristics p n junction, Zener and thermionic
diodes
96
Contents
Vll
10.3 Rectifier Circuits
singlephase halfwave, fullwave and bridge circuitssmoothing circuit
102
11 Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
100
Bipolar Junction Transistors
construction basic configurations commonemitter and
commonbase characteristics
Fieldeffect Transistors
junctiongate and insulatedgate FETs
Triodes
Amplifiers
classification smallsignal amplifiers with bipolar
transistors load line smallsignal commoncathode
triode amplifier
Electronicdevice Parameters and Equivalent Circuits
use of parameters hybrid parameters equivalent circuits
102
104
107
108
115
Preface
This book is a collection of notes and essential diagrams for the study of the
subjects of electrical science and electrical principles in T.E.C. courses, City and
Guilds of London Institute courses, O.N.C. and O.N.D. courses, and sciencebased 0level and Alevel subjects. The treatment is abbreviated and is produced
in the most economical form possible.
Presentday syllabuses place an immense burden on students, who have also to
deal with advances in technology. This book provides the reader with a summary
of the work in electrical science and principles, allowing him to streamline the
activities that lead to his final goal.
I should like to express my gratitude to my wife for the assistance she has given
during the preparation of this book. Thanks are also due to the Macmillan
production and editorial stafffor their guidance and help during the production
of the book.
Meir Heath
NOEL M. MORRIS
Useful Examination Tips
1. Find out, at the earliest moment, the time and place of the examination.
Start revision well before the examination date (it is often helpful to work out a
revision 'timetable', on which you can indicate the days when you intend to deal
with each subject area).
2. If you wish to use a portable electronic handheld calculator, check that
the examination regulations permit its use. Remember an electronic calculator
can sometimes provide wrong results more quickly than any other known
method! Take a slide rule into the examination with you in case the calculator
develops a fault.
3. Be in the examination room at least ten minutes before the start of the
examination; this allows time to fill in particulars on the answer paper.
4. Take pencils, drawing instruments, pens, etc., into the examination
room with you. A tube of your favourite mints or barley sugar can provide
refreshment and aid concentration.
5. Spend several minutes reading through the examination paper before
starting your solutions. Make sure that you understand the type of solution
required. Mark on the question paper the problems you are going to attempt, and
also the order in which you will attempt them.
6. Estimate the time allowed for each question or, alternatively, estimate
the time required to obtain each 'mark'. Do not spend an excessive time on
sections you prefer to answer at the expense of topics you find more difficult.
7. Clearly number each question in the answer book as you begin it.
8. If you are unable to complete a question, leave sufficient space at the end
of it in case you wish to add to it later.
9. Make your drawings large enough to show all necessary detail.
10. If you complete your solutions before the allotted time has elapsed,
carefully check your solutions before leaving the room.
Quantities, Multiples and
Physical Constants
Basic SI units
Quantity
Symbol
length
mass
time
current
absolute temperature
luminous intensity
plane angle
solid angle
l,L
m
t
I
T
I
a, p, (}
D,w
Unit
Unit symbol
metre
kilogram
second
ampere
kelvin
candela
radian
steradian
m
kg
s
A
K
cd
rad
sr
Multiples and submultiples of 10
Symbol
Prefix
T
G
M
k
m
tera
giga
mega
kilo
milli
Multiple
1012
109
106
103
103
Symbol
Prefix
Multiple
J.l
n
p
f
a
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
106
109
1012
1015
1018
Quantities, Multiples and Physical Constants
X
Useful physical constants
Symbol
Constant
electron charge
electron restmass
proton restmass
neutron restmass
speed of e.m. waves in a vacuum
permeability of free space
permittivity of free space
e
me
mP
mn
c
flo
to
Value
1.602 x w 19 c
9.109 x w 31 kg
1.673 x w 27 kg
1.675 x w 27 kg
2.998 x 108 mjs
4n X 10 7 H/m
8.854 x 10 12 Fjm
Some Constants and Useful Information
base of natural logarithms= e = 2. 71828
The general relationship between numbers (or antilogarithms), bases and
logarithms is
number (antilogarithm)= base (logarithm)
log 10 e = 0.4343
log 10 N = 0.4343 logeN
loge 10 = 2.3026
logeN = 2.3026 log 10 N
Note: log 10 is sometimes written as lg and loge is sometimes written as In
(=natural logarithm).
loga m = Iogb m x loga b = Iogb mjlogb a
n = 3.14159
360degrees = 2n radians
1 rad = 360/21t 0 = 57.2958° = 57o 17' 45"
1o = 0.01745 rad
OK= 273.15oC
273.15 K = 0 oc
J Directcurrent Circuits
1.1 Basic Electrical Quantities
Electrical current
Symbol I. The ampere (unit symbol A) is the current that, when flowing in each of
two infinitely long parallel conductors that are of negligible crosssection and are
placed 1m apart in a vacuum, produces between the conductors a force of
2 x 10 7 N (0.2 J!N) per metre length.
Electrical quantity
Symbol Q. The coulomb (unit symbol C) is the quantity of electricity passing a
point in a circuit when a current of 1 A flows for 1 s.
Q =It coulombs
where I is in amperes and t in seconds.
Electrical potential
Symbol E. The volt (unit symbol V) is the potential difference (p.d.) that exists
between two points on an electrical conductor that carries a current of 1 A, when
the electrical resistance between the two points is 1 n.
Electrical resistance
Symbol R. The unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (symbol Q), and when a
current of 1 A flows through a conductor of resistance 1 Q the p.d. between the
ends of the conductor is 1 V.
Electrical energy
Symbol W The joule (unit symbol J) or watt second is the energy dissipated in a
conductor when a p.d. of 1 V causes a current of 1 A to flow for 1 s.
W = EI t joules or watt seconds
Study Notes in Electrical Science
2
where E is in volts, I in amperes and t in seconds.
The commercial 'unit' of electrical energy is the kilowatt hour (unit symbol
kWh= 1000 watt hour), which is
1 kWh= 1000 x 60 x 601 = 36000001 = 3.6 M1
Hence
kWh= 1/(3.6 X 106 )
Electrical power
Symbol P. Power is the rate of expending energy or of doing work, and the unit is
the watt (unit symbol W) or joule per second.
W Eit
.
P = =  = EI watts or JOules/second
t
t
where E is in volts, I in amperes and t in seconds.
1.2 Ohm's Law
E=IR volts
where I is in amperes and R in ohms.
Derived relationships
E2
P=EI=I 2 R=watts
R
E 2t
W=Eit = 12 Rt =R joules
1.3 Electrochemical Equivalent
Symbol Z. The electrochemical equivalent (e.c.e.) of a substance is the mass of the
substance that is either deposited or liberated by the passage of 1 C of electricity.
m
Z = grams/coulomb
It
where m =mass of substance liberated (g), I= current (A) and t =time (s). Hence
m=Zit grams
Directcurrent Circuits
3
1.4 Thermal Energy
Symbol Q. The energy gained or lost by a mass of substance when its temperature
is changed is
Q = m x c x 00 joules
where m =mass of the substance (g), c =specific heat capacity of the substance
(1/g K or kJ/kg K) and oe =temperature change (K).
1.5 Resistivity and Resistors
Resistivity
Symbol p. The resistance of a conductor can be given by
pi
R= ohms
a
where I= length (m) of the conductor, a= area (m 2 ) of the conductor and
p =resistivity (Qm) of the material. Hence
Ra
p =1 ohm metres
Resistors in series
The equivalent resistance, R, of seriesconnected resistors is
Resistors in parallel
The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance, R, of parallelconnected resistors is
1
1
1
1
1
 =  +  +  + ... +  ohms 1
R.
R R1 R 2 R3
The equivalent resistance of two parallelconnected resistors is
R= R 1 R 2 ohms
Rl +Rz
Note: The equivalent (or effective) resistance of parallelconnected resistors is
always less than the lowest value in the set.
Resistance colour code
An international colour code used to identify the values of certain types of resistor
Study Notes in Electrical Science
4
Table 1.1
Colour
no band
silver
gold
black
brown
red
orange
yellow
green
blue
violet
grey
white
Mnemonic
Significant
figure
Tolerance
(%)
O.ot
20
10
0.1
1
10
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
0
1
2
Bye
bye
Rosie
off
you
go
Bristol
via
Great
Western
Decimal
multiplier
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
5
is listed in table 1.1, which also includes a useful mnemonic to aid recollection of
the sequence of colours. The mnemonic is reproduced by kind permission of
J. W. Machin, B.Sc., C.Eng., M.I.E.E., M.I.E.R.E. The coding method for resistors
with axial leads is shown in figure 1.1.
1st significant
figure
2nd significant
figure
decimal multiplier
Figure 1.1
tolerance
Resistor colour code
1.6 Conductance and Conductivity
Conductance
Symbol G. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance and its unit is the siemen
(unit symbol S).
5
Directcurrent Circuits
1 .
G=R siemens
where R is in ohms.
Conductivity
Symbol rr. The conductivity of a substance is the reciprocal of its resistivity.
1
rr =(ohm metres) 1
p
Conductances in parallel
The equivalent conductance, G, of parallelconnected conductances is
G = G 1 + G 2 + G 3 + . . . + G" siemens
Conductances in series
The reciprocal of the equivalent conductance, G, of seriesconnected conductances is
1
1
1
1
=+++
G G 1 G 2 G3
I
1 .
+siemensG"
The equivalent conductance of two seriesconnected conductances is
G = G1G2
Gl +G2
siemens
1. 7 The Decibel
Determination
The decibel (unit symbol dB) is a logarithmic ratio of two power values. The ratio
of power levels P2 and P 1 expressed in the decibel notation is
X= 10 log 10 p 2 decibels
PI
If P 1 is dissipated in resistor R 1 and P 2 is dissipated in resistor R 2 , then P 1
=V1 2 / R 1 and P 2 =V2 2 /R 2 , where V1 and V 2 are the voltages developed across R 1
and R 2 respectively; that is
6
Study Notes in Electrical Science
.
R; dectbels
(v2) 10 loglO (R2)
= 20 loglO Vl
In most electrical circuits the second term in the above expression is ignored (even
though its value may be high) and the power ratio is generally expressed in the
form
X= 20 log 10
(~:) decibels
Note: IfV2 >V1 , then X has a positive value. IfV2 =V1 , then X =0dB.lfV2 <V1 ,
then X has a negative value.
Example
Determine the logarithmic power ratio in decibels for a circuit in which the ratio
V 2 /V1 is (a) 15 and (b) 0.8.
Solution
(a)
(b)
X= 20 log 10 15 = 20 x 1.1761 = 23.52 dB
X= 20 log 10 0.8 = 20 x (1.9031) = 20 x ( 1 +0.9031)
= 20 X (  0.0969) =  1.938 dB
Important note: When dealing with a voltage ratio whose value is less than
unity, the decibel ratio is more easily obtained as follows. Determine the logarithm
of the inverse of the ratio, that is, the value oflog 10 ( lr;_/V2 ) and assign a negative sign
to it; multiply this value by 20 to give the correct decibel ratio. Thus in (b) above
X= 20 log 10 0.8 = 20 log 10 ( 1) = 20 log 10 1.25
0.8
= 20 X 0.0969 =  1.938 dB
dBm
A datum power level frequently used is 1 mW (dBm), and a power value of P
milliwatts is said to have a level of 10 log 10 P decibels relative to 1 mW.
3dB
A reduction in gain of 3 dB represents a reduction in power by onehalf or a
reduction in voltage to 0.707 of its original value. Similarly, an increase in gain of
3 dB represents a doubling of power or an increase in voltage by a factor of 1.414.
7
Directcurrent Circuits
1.8 Circuit Theorems
Kirchhoff's first law
The total current flowing towards a junction or node in a circuit is equal to the
total current flowing away from the node; that is, the algebraic sum of the currents
flowing towards the node is zero.
(b)
(a)
Figure 1.2
Kirchhoff's laws: (a) first law, (b) second law
Hence in figure 1.2a
or
Therefore at node N
1:1=0
Kirchhoff's second law
In any closed circuit the algebraic sum of the potential drops is equal to the
algebraic sum of the e.m.f.s acting in that loop.
Proceeding around figure 1.2b in the direction ABCDA gives
E1 IR 1 IR 2 E 2 IR 3 =0
or
8
Study Notes in Electrical Science
Therefore around the loop
A useful technique when dealing with Kirchhoff's second law is as follows. Mark a
'potential' arrow against each component on the diagram, the arrowhead
pointing towards the end with the most positive potential. In the case of resistors
the potential arrow always opposes the direction of current flow. Then proceed
around the selected circuit, and assign a 'plus' sign to the voltages associated with
a potential arrow pointing in the direction being followed and a 'minus' sign to
those associated with a potential arrow pointing in the reverse direction. Thus,
when moving along the path ABCDA in figure 1.2b, the potentials are+ E 1
followed by JR 1 , IR 2 ,  E 2 and JR 3 • Since the loop starts and finishes at the
same point the sum of these e.m.f.s and p.d.s is zero.
Superposition theorem
In any network containing a number of sources of e.m.f., the resultant current is
the algebraic sum of the currents that would be produced by each e.m.f. acting
alone, all other sources of e.m.f. being replaced meanwhile by their respective
internal resistances.
(a)
(b)
Figure 1.3
(c)
Superposition theorem
Thus the current distribution in the circuit in figure 1.3a can be considered to be
the sum of the currents in figures 1.3b and c, where
Jl =14+(/9)=/4/9
12=(/6)+/7= 16+17
13=ls+ls
The'venin's theorem
Any twoterminal linear network can be replaced by a voltagesource equivalent
Directcurrent Circuits
9
network having an e.m.f., E, and internal resistance, R. The value of E is equal to
the noload voltage appearing between the two terminals of the network, and R is
the resistance of the network measured between these terminals with the load
disconnected and the internal voltagesources meanwhile replaced by their
internal resistances.
Thus the network in figure 1.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1.4b.
rl
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
,I~~~.
i
1£
6s
1
l ______________
.J
L ______________ J
(b)
(a)
Figure 1.4
!
Thevenin's theorem
Norton's theorem
Any twoterminal linear network can be replaced by a currentsource equivalent
network having an internal current source, I, shunted by a conductance, G. The
value of I is equal to the current that would flow through a shortcircuit applied to
the two terminals of the network, and G is the conductance of the network
measured between these terminals with the load disconnected and the internal
voltagesources meanwhile replaced by their conductances.
Thus the network in figure 1.4a can be replaced by that in figure 1.5.
Relationship between Thevenin's and Norton's equivalent circuits
For the circuits in figures 1.4 and 1.5
1
R=G
I
E=IR=
G
Study Notes in Electrical Science
10
current
source
Figure 1.5
Norton's theorem
Maximum powertransfer theorem
In a d.c. circuit, the condition for maximum power to be transferred from a source
into a load is that the value of the load resistance must be equal to the internal
resistance of the source.
2 Electromagnetism
2.1 Magnetic Field, Magnetic Flux and Flux Density
A magnetic field is established around a conductor that carries current. The
'direction' of action of the magnetic field at a point is taken to be that of the force
experienced by an isolated Npole placed at that point. (Note: A Npole is a
northseeking pole.)
If free to move, the Npole would trace out a path known as a line of magnetic
flux (the symbol of magnetic flux is cP ). The unit of measurement of magnetic flux
is the weber (unit symbol Wb).
The flux density (symbol B) is the amount of flux passing through an area of
1m2 that is perpendicular to the direction of the flux. Its unit of measurement is
the tesla (unit symbol T).
B=cPT
a
where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes perpendicular to the direction
of the flux.
2.2 Laws of Electromagnetic Induction
Faraday's law
An induced e.m.f. is established in a circuit whenever the magnetic field linking
that circuit is changed.
Neumann's law
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f. is proportional to the rate of change of the
magnetic flux linking the circuit.
Lenz's law
The induced e.m.f. acts to circulate a current in a direction that opposes the
change in the flux that induced the e.m.f.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
12
2.3 Induced E.M.F.
E.M.F. induced in a coil
dcP
e=NV
dt
where N =number of turns of wire on the coil and dcP /dt =rate of change (Wb/s)
of the magnetic flux linking with the coil.
Induced e.mf. due to the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field
dcP
e==Blv V
dt
where dcP/dt =rate (Wb/s) at which the conductor cuts the flux, B =flux density
(T) of the magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion (see figure 2.la),
l =active length (m) of the conductor in the magnetic field and v =velocity (m/s)
of the conductor perpendicular to the direction of the flux.
ifJ




(b)
(a)
Figure 2.1
E.M.F. induced in a conductor
If the conductor moves at angle lJ to the line of action ofthe flux (see figure 2.1 b),
then
e=Blvsin lJV
13
Electromagnetism
Fleming's righthand rule (for the direction of the induced e.mf.)
Referring to figure 2.2
First finger1iirection of the magnetic Flux
sEcond finger1iirection of induced E.m.f.
thuMbdirection of Motion of the conductor relative to that of the flux.
Examples of the application of this rule are illustrated in figure 2.1. A dot on the
conductor symbolises current coming out of the paper, and a cross symbolises
current entering the page.
//
~ first finger
_, .......... """'""
//
thumb
//~otion of
r<+......;.;.;.;;.;;.;:;;.;..;:;.;.__.......,,
1
1
:
1
I
conductor
relative to
magnetic
flux
I
I
I
I
I
I
Lsecond
finger
Figure 2.2
Fleming's righthand rule
2.4 Force on a Conductor
Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field
F=BIIN
where B =flux density (T), I= current (A) and 1=active length (m) of the
conductor in the magnetic field.
Screw rule (for the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor)
If we imagine a screw with a righthanded thread to be pointing in the direction of
current flow, then in order to propel the screw forwards (in the direction of the
current flow) the head of the screw must be turned in the direction of action of the
magnetic field, that is, in a clockwise direction when viewed from the head of the
screw.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
14
rt
\_<$'c;,
~
,~c.;
~
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direction of the
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f:l""{ thumb
1
1
force on the conductor
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...
c
8 go
Q)
Ill;;:
Figure 2.3
Fleming's lefthand rule
Fleming's lefthand rule (for the direction of the force acting on a currentcarrying
conductor)
Since this rule refers to motor action, it may be useful to recall that in Great Britain
all motors drive on the lefthand side of the road. Referring to figure 2.3
First fingerdirection of the magnetic Flux
seCond finger direction of the Current in the conductor
thuMbdirection of the Motion of the conductor relative to that of the
flux.
2.5 Magnetic Circuits
Hysteresis loss and eddycurrent loss
hysteresis loss= PhocfBmax" W /m 3
where!= supply frequency, Bmax= maximum flux density (T) and n =number in
the range 1.62.2 (a typical value is 1.7).
eddy current loss=P.ocPBmax2 W/m 3
15
Electromagnetism
M agnetomotive force
Symbol F. The magnetomotive force (m.m.f.) causes the magnetic flux to be
produced by a coil and is measured in ampere turns (unit symbol At) or amperes.
F=Nl At or A
where I= current (A) in the coil and N =number of turns on the coil.
Magneticfield strength
Symbol H. This is the m.m.f. per unit length. It is also known as the magneticfield
intensity and as the magnetising force.
F NI
H =T=1At/m or A/m
where l =length (m) of the magnetic circuit.
Magnetic leakage: fringing
Not all the magnetic flux developed by the solenoid follows the 'useful' path. The
flux that fails to follow the 'useful' path is said to be leakage flux or fringing flux. It
is accounted for in calculations by means of a leakage coefficient, where
.
k
ffi .
total magnetic flux produced
magnetic1ea rage coe ctent =
f I
. fl.
use u magnetic ux
In efficient magnetic circuits the value ofthis coefficient is in the range 1.151.25.It
can be empirically allowed for by adding about 1020 per cent to the calculated
value of m.m.f.
Permeability
B=J1H T
where J1 =absolute permeability of the magnetic material and is measured in
henrys/metre (unit symbol H/m). The permeability of free space, J1 0 , is constant.
J1o=4nx 10 7 H/m
Also
J1 = JloJlr H/m
where J1 r= relative permeability of the material and is dimensionless.
16
Study Notes in Electrical Science
Reluctance
magnetomotive force
re1uctance = S =
.
magnetic flux
F
=
1/J
At/Wb or A/Wb
(Compare this with Ohm's law for the electrical circuit: R = E/ 1.)
If l = length of the magnetic circuit, a = area of the magnetic circuit and
J1. =absolute permeability of the magnetic circuit, then
Hence
1 A/Wb
S=Jl.rJl.oa
(Compare this with the expression for electrical resistance: R = plja.)
Reluctances in series and in parallel
The analogy between magnetic and electrical circuits is sufficiently close to allow
techniques to be used with magnetic circuits that are similar to those used with
electrical circuits. For reluctances in series
effective reluctance= S 1 + S 2 + S 3 +
. . . + S" A/Wb
For two branches in parallel
effective reluctance = SS 1882 A/Wb
1
+
2
2.6 Magnetisation Curve and Hysteresis Loop
Magnetisation curve or BH curve
This curve shows the relationship between the flux density, B, and magnetising
force, H, for the material. Curves for three ferromagnetic materials are illustrated
in figure 2.4. The value of B increases rapidly at first; then at high values of H the
slope of the curve reduces. Ultimately, when the material is magnetically saturated
the only increase in B is that which would occur for a nonmagnetic material for
the same increase in H.
17
Electromagnetism
2·0
1·6
1
1·2
ll:J
~
·;;;
c
8
"
~
0•8
0·4
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
mognetising force, H (A/m)
Figure 2.4 BH curves
Hysteresis loop or BH loop
When the magnetising force suffers two complete reversals the resulting closed
B H loop is known as a hysteresis loop (see figure 2.5).
When the magnetising force is reduced to zero the material retains some of its
magnetism, the retained magnetism being a measure of the material's retentivity
or residual magnetism. This is indicated on curve A in figure 2.5 by the remanent
flux density, B ,. In materials used for permanent magnets a high retentivity is
desirable. The residual magnetism is reduced to zero by applying a reverse
magnetising force, known as the coercive force, H c·
Materials having a high remanence (about 1 T) and a high coercivity (about
50000A/m) are described as magnetically hard materials and are suitable for
permanent magnets.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
18
0·4
80
60
40
20
20
40
60
Hx
80
103 (A/m)
0·4
0·8
Figure 2.5 Hysteresis loops
Electromagnets, which must lose their magnetism when the magnetising force
is removed, need to have a high value of saturation fluxdensity together with low
coercivity. These materials are described as magnetically soft materials, transformer steel being an example.
2.7 Inductance
Self inductance
Symbol£. Inductance is measured in henrys (unit symbol H), and a circuit has a
self inductance of 1 H if an e.m.f. of 1 Vis induced in the circuit when the current in
the circuit changes at the rate of 1 A/s. Selfinduced e.m.f. is given by
di
e =L x rate of change of current =L dt V
19
Electromagnetism
where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at time t(s). It was shown in section
2.3 that the e.m.f. induced in a coil is also
d<P
e=NV
dt
where N =number of turns on the coil and d<P/dt =rate of change (Wb/ s) of the
magnetic flux. Hence
For a magnetic circuit having a constant value of reluctance the flux
proportional to the exciting current, in which case
L = N<P = NBa = N}lHa
I
I
I
Now
NI
H=1
or
HI
I=N
Therefore
leokoge flux
I
 '
, ,A
r+'PP....:.. ~/
'
I
,,
Figure 2.6
Mutual inductance
IS
20
Study Notes in Electrical Science
A1utual inductance
Symbol A1. Two coils are said to be mutually coupled when the magnetic flux
produced by one coil (the primary coil) causes an e.m.f. to be induced in the other
(secondary) coil. (See figure 2.6, where coil A is the primary and coil B the
secondary coil.) The secondary induced e.m.f. is
rate of change of
_ mutual
e 2  inductance x primary current
udi1
dt
=1v1V
Also
e2
_ number of turns on the x rate of change of
secondary flux
secondary winding

d<P2
V
=N
2 dt
Hence
or
d<P2
A1=N2d. H
ll
Seriesconnected magnetically coupled circuits
For two seriesconnected coils of inductances L 1 and L 2 respectively, having a
mutual inductance A1, the total inductance is as follows.
Seriesaiding
total inductance =L 1 +L 2 + 2A1
Seriesopposing
total inductance =L 1 +L 2  2A1
Coefficient of mutual inductance or coupling coefficient
If the primary circuit in figure 2.6 produces flux <P 1 and if a flux k<P 1 (where k < 1)
links with the secondary circuit, then
A1 = k ..} (L 1 L
2)
21
Electromagnetism
where k =coefficient of mutual inductance and L 1 and L 2 =self inductance (H) of
the primary and secondary circuits respectively. Hence
di1
e2 = M dt = k
di1
J (L 1 L 2 ) x dt
V
Energy stored in a magnetic field
energy stored= W = !L 12 J
where£= self inductance (H) of the inductor and I= current (A) in the inductor
windings.
2.8 Transients in Inductive Circuits
Basic circuit
The basic circuit is shown in figure 2. 7a, and the differential equation of the circuit
IS
where i =instantaneous value of current (A) at timet (s),L is in henrys and R is in
ohms.
Growth of current
When the switch is in position A (see figure 2.7b) the time constant is given by
L
T=s
R
Then
E
i=(1e'11)
R
where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2.71828.
initial rate of rise of current= (E/R)/T= E/ L Ajs
final value ofcurrent=E/RA
time taken for current to reach 0.99E/R =4.6Ts
22
Study Notes in Electrical Science
rise time of current= time taken for current to rise from O.lE/R to 0.9E/R
=2.2Ts
current after T seconds= 0.63E/ R A
voltage across R = iR = E(le <IT) V
voltage across L = E iR = E e </TV
~
c
0·63
_RE
~
"u
0
time, I (s)
(b)
I
4
c
~
~
u
initial slope
o
I/T A/s
0·37!
0
time, I (s)
T
(c)
Figure 2.7 Rise and decay of current in an inductive circuit: (a) basic circuit,
(b) growth of current, switch in position A, (c) decay of current, switch in
position B
Decay of current
If the circuit current has the value I when the switch is moved from A to B (see
figure 2.7c), then
i=Ie<ITA
Electromagnetism
initial rate of fall of current= I /T A/s
final value of current = 0
time taken for current to fall to 0.01 I =4.6Ts
fall time of current= time taken for current to fall from 0.9I to 0.11
=2.2Ts
current after T seconds= 0.37 I A
voltage across R=IRer/Ty
voltage across L =IRe r/T V
23
3 Electrostatics
3.1 Electric Flux and Flux Density
One unit of electric flux (symbol P) emanates from unit charge; that is, P
(pronounced 'psi') units of flux emanate from Q coulombs. Hence
'P=QC
Practical units of electric flux are microcoulombs ( lJ.tC = 10 6 C) and picocoulombs (1 pC = 10 12 C).
The electric flux density (symbol D) is the amount of electric flux passing
through unit area.
where a= area (m 2 ) through which the flux passes.
3.2 Capacitance and Capacitor Current
The capacitance (symbol C) of a capacitor is an indication of its ability to store an
electric charge. Experiments show that the electric charge stored by a capacitor is
Q = CVcoulombs
where C is in farads (unit symbol F) and V in volts.
From this relationship, when a small change in charge, dq, occurs in time dt,
then
dq =idt=Cdv
where i =instantaneous value of the capacitor current (A) and dv =change in
voltage (V) across the capacitor. That is, capacitor current is given by
dv
i=Cdt
= C x rate of change of capacitor voltage
25
Electrostatics
3.3 Electric Force, Electricfield Intensity or Electricfield Strength
Symbol E. The electric force or electricfield intensity at any point in a dielectric is
equal to the mechanical force experienced by a unit positive electric charge placed
at that point. If a unit positive charge is placed at point X in figure 3.1, it
experiences a force, which is towards plateN and away from plate P; we say that
the direction of the electric force in that dielectric acts from P to N. The
dimensions of electric force are newtons per coulomb (N/ C), but since it can be
shown that this is equivalent to volts per metre (V / m), electric force is quoted in
volts per metre. In the capacitor in figure 3.1
where d =distance (m) between the electrodes.
Electric stress or potential gradient have the same dimensions and also are
assigned the symbol E.
~ d j
.
plole of
..._
;...
oreo a
., 1:
;
p
....
....

•
X
electnc
flux
' N
·'
d•eleclfiC
+ v
Figure 3.1
Parallelplate capacitor
3.4 Permittivity
The relationship between electric flux density, D, and electric field strength, E, is
D=EEC/ m 2
where E =absolute permittivity of the dielectric material and has dimensions of
26
Study Notes in Electrical Science
farads per metre (F /m). The permittivity offree space (that is, of a vacuum) is a
constant given the special symbol £0 , where
£0 =
8.854 x 10 12 F /m
The permittivity of air is about 0.06 per cent greater than that of free space, and for
all practical purposes the two values of permittivity are taken to be equal.
When an insulating material such as oil is used as the dielectric the flux density
is larger, as is the capacitance of the capacitor, than in the case when air is used as
the dielectric. Thus a dielectric (other than air) in an electric field has the same
effect as does iron in a magnetic field. The absolute permittivity of an insulating
material is given by
£=£ 0 £rF/m
where £.=relative permittivity of the material and is dimensionless.
3.5 Capacitance of Parallelplate Capacitors
For the capacitor in figure 3.1
where £ and £r= absolute and relative permittivities (F /m), respectively, of the
dielectric material, a= crosssectional area (m 2 ) of the dielectric material and d
=distance (m) between the electrodes.
For annplate capacitor (see figure 3.2) having (n1) identical dielectrics, the
capacitance is
C
=
(nl)w
d
=
(nl)fofra
d
F
where a =crosssectional area of one of the dielectrics, and d =thickness of the
dielectric between the plates.
dielectric
Figure 3.2 Multipleplate capacitor
Electrostatics
27
l
1
v
v
(a)
c
(b)
Figure 3.3 Parallelconnected capacitors
3.6 Parallelconnected Capacitors
(See figure 3.3.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each
capacitor is charged to the same potential; that is, V = QdC 1 = Q2 /C 2 , etc. The
equivalent capacitance, C, is
C=C 1 +C 2 F
For n parallelconnected capacitors
C=C 1 +C 2 + ... +C.F
Note: The equivalent capacitance of parallelconnected capacitors is greater
than the capacitance of the largest individual capacitor in the circuit.
3.7 Seriesconnected Capacitors
(See figure 3.4.) The following equations are derived from the fact that each
capacitor carries the same value of charge (since the same value of current flows
through each for the same length of time); that is, Q = C 1V1 = C 2V2 , etc. The
reciprocal of the equivalent capacitance, C, is
_!__=2_+2_+ ... +_!__Ft
c C1 C 2
c.
For the special case of two seriesconnected capacitors
C=
c1c2
cl +C2
F
Note: The equivalent capacitance of seriesconnected capacitors is less than the
capacitance of the smallest individual capacitor in the circuit.
28
Study Notes in Electrical Science
c1

r<1~ ..._.   l l l t     1
s
v1
v
(a)
c
v
(b)
Figure 3.4
Seriesconnected capacitors
3.8 Voltage Distribution between
Seri~onnected
Capacitors
If the voltage across n seriesconnected capacitors is V, then the voltage across one
of the capacitors in a chain of n seriesconnected capacitors is
where C =equivalent capacitance of the seriesconnected capacitors, V =voltage
across the seriesconnected capacitors and C11 =capacitance of the gth capacitor.
Note: V11 oc 1/C11 , so that the greatest voltage appears across the capacitor with
the smallest capacitance in the circuit.
3.9 Parallelplate Capacitors with Composite Dielectrics
The dielectric X of thickness d 1 in figure 3.5 can be regarded as though it were the
dielectric of a capacitor C 1 , which is in series with capacitor C 2 , which has Y of
thickness d2 as its dielectric. The equivalent capacitance of the two in series is
c
clc2 F
C 1 +C2
29
Electrostatics
area=A
v
(a)
c,
Cz
~•~•~n~(b)
Figure 3.5 Capacitor with a composite dielectric
where C 1 = £A/d 1 and C 2 = £A/d 2 , A being the crosssectional area (m 2 ) of the
dielectric material. If the applied voltage is V, then the electricfield strengths in X
and Y are respectively
and
where
£rx
and f.,y= relative permittivities of X and Y respectively.
3.10 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
energy stored = W = !CV2 J
where C =capacitance (F) of the capacitor and V =potential (V) between the
plates of the capacitor.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
30
R
A
C
r,~~~~+J
(a)
0
T=CR
time,
t (s)
(b)
£
~
~
initial slope, =£/T V/s
0·37£
0
time, t (s)
T
(C)
Figure 3.6 Charge and discharge of a capacitor: (a) basic circuit, (b) rise of
voltage across capacitor, switch in position A, (c) decay of voltage across
capacitor, switch in position B
3.11 Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor
Basic circuit
The circuit diagram is shown in figure 3.6a, and the differential equation of the
circuit is
.
dvc
E=zR+vc=RC+vc
dt
31
Electrostatics
Capacitorcharging
When the switch is in position A (see figure 3.6b) the time constant is given by
T=RCs
where R is in ohms and C in farads. Then
vc= E(le t/1) V
where e =base of naperian logarithms= 2.71828.
initial rate of rise of Vc= E/T V/s
final value ofvc=EV
time taken for v c to reach 0.99 E = 4.6Ts
rise time of Vc= time taken for Vc to rise from O.lE to 0.9E
=2.2Ts
v c after T seconds = 0.63E V
vR=Evc=Ee'iTV
i= vR= E e'ITA
R R
Capacitordischarge
If the capacitor is fully charged when the switch is moved to position B (that is,
Vc= E when t = 0), as in figure 3.6c, then
Vc=Eet/Ty
initial rate of fall ofvc= E/T V/s
final value of v c = 0
time taken for Vc to fall to 0.01£ = 4.6Ts
fall time of Vc= time taken for Vc to fall from 0.9E to O.lE
=2.2Ts
Vc after T seconds =0.37EV
VR= Vc= Eet/Ty
i= vR=
R
~e'ITA
R
4
Alternatingcurrent Theory
4.1 Basic Concepts
An alternating signal (which can be either a voltage or a current) periodically
reverses its direction, having positive polarity during one part of its cycle and
negative polarity in the remainder.
Sinusoidal waveform, amplitude and 'angle of rotation'
A sinusoidal current waveform (see figure 4.1) is one whose amplitude varies
sinusoidally with time. The first positive peakvalue, I m• occurs 90° after the start of
the cycle, and the first negative peakvalue, I m, occurs at 270°. The instantaneous
value, i, at any point in time is
i =I msinO
where (}='angle of rotation' (that is, the angle measured from the start of the
cycle).
one cycle
Figure 4.1
·I
Sinusoidal current waveform
Alternatingcurrent Theory
33
Frequency
Symbol f The frequency of a periodic waveform is the number of cycles it
completes per second. The unit is the hertz (unit symbol Hz).
Angular frequency
Symbol w. Since a complete cycle is equivalent to a 'rotational' angle of 360° or 2n
radians, the angular frequency of a sinusoidal waveform is
w = 2nfrad/s
where f is in hertz. The 'angle of rotation', (), after t seconds is
() = wt rad
The equation for the waveform in figure 4.1 may therefore be written
i =I msinwt
Periodic time of a complete cycle
Symbol T. This is the time taken to complete one cycle of a periodic waveform,
measured in number of seconds (or fraction of a second).
1
T=S
f
For a sinusoidal waveform
1
21t
T==s
f
(lJ
4.2 Average Value and R.M.S. Value of an Alternating Waveform
Average value or mean value
In engineering practice the mean value, 1•., of an alternating waveform is defined
as the average value under onehalfof the waveform. The reason for this is that the
mathematical average area under the complete cycle is zero (since the area under
the positive halfcycle is equal to that under the negative halfcycle).
The average value can be determined either graphically or analytically; in the
latter case it is necessary to know the equation of the waveform.
(1) Graphical determination. The midordinate method of determining
the area under a curve is illustrated in figure 4.2.
1av= average length of the midordinates
il + i2 + i3 + ... +in
=
n
Study Notes in Electrical Science
34
'E
~~~~~~~~~~++
::>
u
Figure 4.2
Graphical determination of average value and r.m.s. value
where n =number of midordinates.
(2)
Analytical determination.
1 av= average value taken over one halfcycle
1
In
=; Jo
idO or
1
IT/2
T/ 2 Jo idt
The average value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value
1m is
21m
1m [ 1(1) ] ==0.6371m
=n
n
Rootmeansquare value or effective value
The rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) value, 1, of an alternating waveform is its effective
value and is calculated in terms of its heating effect in an electrical circuit.
r.m.s. value= square root of the mean of the sum of the
squares of the instantaneous values
The value is usually computed over a complete cycle but can also be calculated
over a halfcycle period.
Alternatingcurrent Theory
35
(1) Graphical determination.
value is
For the waveform in figure 4.2 the r.m.s.
I=JC 1 2 +i 2 2 +i 3 :+
... +i/)
where n =number of midordinates.
(2)
Analytical determination.
I=
.j (average value under the current 2time graph)
The r.m.s. value of a sinusoidal current waveform of maximum value I m
IS
I=
=
=
J(2
1n
J:n (I
JG: J:n
J(~: [
m
sin0) 2 dO)
sin 2 0d0 )=
JG: J:n
Otsin20 J:n)=
t(lcos20)d0)
~; =0.707I
m
Form factor
For any alternating waveform
c
c
r.m.s. value
1orm 1actor =     =  average value
For a sinusoidal waveform
form factor=
0.707I m
0.637I m
1.11
Peak factor
For any alternating waveform
!"
maximum value
pea k 1actor =      r.m.s. value
For a sinusoidal waveform
Im
peak factor = 0 70
. 1I m
= 1.414
Study Notes in Electrical Science
36
4.3 Phasors and Phase Relationships
Phasors
A sine wave is traced out by the perpendicular displacement of a rotating line (see
figure 4.3). This rotating line can be represented in the form of a phasor, which is
the line scaled down to its r.m.s. value, and is drawn in the direction assumed by
the rotating line at time t = 0.

direction of rotation
w rad/s
//
//
j
I
I
I
/
/
/
\
II
I
I
81
\
·
'\
II
'
I
~
!1. \
', '
.......
__
/1
_.."" / /
/
Figure 4.3
Generating a sine wave
Phase displacement
The phase displacement is the angular displacement between two sinusoidal
quantities of the same frequency. The phase displacement or phaseangle
difference between the current and voltage in figure 4.4 is ¢.
To indicate the fact that the current waveform in figure 4.4 passes through zero
angle in the direction of rotation before the voltage waveform, we say that the
current leads the voltage by angle ¢. Alternatively, we may say that the voltage
lags the current by angle ¢. The expression describing the current waveform in
figure 4.4 is
i =I msinO =I msinwt
and that describing the voltage waveform is
v =Vmsin(O¢) =Vmsin(wt¢)
In solving a.c. circuits it is convenient to rescale the lengths of the phasors so that
they represent the r.m.s. values of voltage and current; that is, the length of the
phasor is shown as either 0. 707V mor 0. 7071 m·

37
Alternatingcurrent Theory
41
rad /s
Figure 4.4
Phase displacement
Addition of phasors
The addition of two phasor quantities (which must be of the same kind) is
illustrated in figure 4.5. The phasor sum of OA and OBis the diagonal OC of the
parallelogram OACB, where he and vc are the horizontal and vertical components respectively of OC.
Figure 4.5
Addition of phasors
Study Notes in Electrical Science
38
The magnitude or modulus of OC is
/OCI= .j(hc2 +v/)
and the phase angle is
B
Figure 4.6
Subtraction of phasors
Subtraction of phasors
Phasors are subtracted by adding the negative equivalent of the phasor to be
subtracted, illustrated in figure 4.6 for the phasor difference (OA OB). In this
case
hd= h.+( hb) =h. hb
vd=v.+( vJ=v.vb
Alternatingcurrent Theory
39
and
IODI= .j(hi+vi)
¢ =tan 1
G:)
=cos 1
c~~l)
4.4 Complex Notation
This is a notation that gives an indication of the relative directions of phasors.
Operator j
Operator j is a mathematical 'operator' that is used to indicate the 'direction' of
the phasor. Thus, in figure 4. 7, if
OA=a
then
OB = ja = a/J!}__o
0C=jUa)=jla= aj180o =a
OD = jWa) =fa= ja =aj270o =aj90°
From the expression of OC above, the concept is introduced that
j2 = 1
or
8
ja
c
a=j4a
j2a
0
j3a
D
Figure 4. 7
Operator j
A
40
Study Notes in Electrical Science
Since the square root of ( 1) cannot exist as a 'real' quantity, the idea has
developed that the perpendicular axis (the jaxis) is the 'imaginary' axis. The
horizontal axis is known as the 'real' axis.
Representation of phasors by rectangular or cartesian components
The phasor OA in figure 4.5 can be represented in the form
OA=ha+jva
where jva= perpendicular component of the phasor. Phasor OB can be similarly
represented by
OB=hb+jvb
The quantity ( OB) in figure 4.6 can be represented by
( OB)= (hb+jvb)= hbjvb
Representation of phasors by polar components
A phasor can be represented in terms of its modulus and its phase angle. The
phasor OC in figure 4.5 can be represented by
OC=IOCILf
and the phasor OD in figure 4.6 by
OD=IODI/c/J
Complex conjugate
The complex conjugate of the phasor (a+ jb) or r I!!!_ is (a jb) or r / cp.
Mathematical operations with complex quantities
Using the quantities
X =a +jb = rtf.!l!..L
and
Y=c+jd=r 2 !.!l!..L
the following operations are possible.
(1)
Addition
X+ Y=(a+jb)+(c+jd)=(a+c)+j(b+d)
41
Alternatingcurrent Theory
(2)
Subtraction
X Y=(a+jb)(c+jd)=(ac)+ j(bd)
(3)
Multiplication
X. Y =(a+ jb).(c+ jd)
= ac + j(ad +be)+ j 2 bd = (ac bd)+ j(ad +be)
or
(4)
Division
X
y
a+jb
c+jd
(a+jb)(cjd)
(c+jd)(cjd)
==
(ac +bd) + j(bc ad)
cz+dz
Note:
(cjd) is the complex conjugate of (c+jd). Also
~=rd_!£1_='j_ /<PI¢2
Y r 2 L!f!.J.__ r 2
5
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
The quantities used in this chapter (that is, V, I, P, etc.) are r.m.s. quantities.
5.1 Basic Circuits
Circuit containing pure resistance only
In figure 5.1
v
current =I= R A
where V is in volts and R in ohms.
power consumed= P = I 2 R =VI W
The current and voltage are in phase with one another.
t
vm
R
(a)
Figure 5.1
___£ IC....L.;,;;__T~
(b)
Pure resistance in an a.c. circuit: (a) circuit, (b) phasors, (c) waveforms
Reactance
In circuits containing pure inductance or pure capacitance only, the magnitude of
the circuit current is limited by what is known as the reactance of the circuit
elements. This form of current limitation occurs without loss of power in the
reactive elements; the only power loss that may arise is due to the power
dissipated in the resistance of the conductors of the circuit itself.
43
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
L
di
(a}
~
~·
I
(c)
(b)
Figure 5.2 Pure inductance in an a.c. circuit: (a) circuit, (b) waveforms,
(c) phasors
Circuit containing pure inductance only
In figure 5.2
inductive reactance= XL= wL = 2njL
where L is in henrys, win radians/second and/ in hertz.
v
v
current=l==A
XL wL
power consumed = 0
The current through the inductance lags the voltage across it by 90° (or the
voltage leads the current by 90°).
Variation of XL and I with frequency. In figure 5.3
XL=2nfL ocf
That is, the value of the reactance is proportional to the frequency. At a constant
r.m.s. value of supply voltage
v
1
f=OC
2njL
f
That is, the current decreases in value as the frequency increases.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
44
QJ
<.)
c:
0
c:
<.)
OQJ
QJ ....
.... ....
::I
QJ<.)
~"'C
c:
g
"0
0
.E
frequency
Figure 5.3
Effect of variation of frequency in an inductive a.c. circuit
Circuit containing pure capacitance only
In figure 5.4
1
1
..
capacttlve reactance= X c =  = :r;wC 2n1 C
dv
~)
~
• I
(c)
(b)
Figure 5.4 Pure capacitance in an a.c. circuit: (a) circuit, (b) waveforms,
(c) phasors
45
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
where C is in farads, w in radians/second and fin hertz.
v
current= I =  = V wC = 2nfCV A
Xc
power consumed = 0
The current through the capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° (or the voltage
lags the current by 90°).
Variation of X c and I with frequency. In figure 5.5
1
2nfC
1
f
Xc=oc
That is, the value of the capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases.
At a constant r.m.s. value of supply voltage
I= 2nfCV ocf
That is, the value of the current is proportional to the frequency.
"'
(.)
c:
oc:
u..,
..,o ......
"'"::I
..,u
~"
c:
·u
0
o
a.
0
(.)
frequency
Figure 5.5
Effect of variation of frequency in a capacitive a.c. circuit
5.2 Series Circuits
In practical a.c. circuits, the magnitude of the current is limited by the electrical
impedance, Z, of the circuit.
When drawing the phasor diagram for series circuits, it is usual to draw the
quantity that is common to all the components on the 'real' axis or horizontal
axis. In series circuits this quantity is the current.
Power factor
In a.c. circuits the number of voltamperes (unit symbol VA) consumed is
Study Notes in Electrical Science
46
generally greater than the power consumed by the circuit. The power consumed is
P =VI x power factor
where the power factor has a value in the range 01 (being zero in the case of a
circuit containing either a pure inductor or a pure capacitor, and unity in the case
of a circuit containing pure resistance only). The symbol S is given to the voltampere product, which is sometimes referred to as the apparent power.
S=VIVA
\;( = IXL
V =IZ
G?J
~=
IR
~IX,~}
•I
(b)
IR
R
(c)
(d)
Figure 5.6 RL series circuit: (a) circuit, (b) phasors, (c) voltage triangle,
(d) impedance triangle
Resistance and inductance in series
In figure 5.6
circuit impedance=Z= .J(R 2 +Xl)= .J[R 2 +(wL) 2 ]0
where R is in ohms, w in radians/second and L in henrys.
v
current =I =zA
V R=IR=v: V (in phase with I)
VL=IXL=VwLV (leading I by 90°)
z
V= .J(Vl+Vl)V
q) =tan 1
(~:) =tan ~L) =tan1(
1
(a:)
=cos 1
(~)
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
47
apparent power= S =VIVA
power= P =VI cos¢= I 2 R W
reactive power= Q =VI sin¢= I 2 XL VAr
p R VR
power factor = = = = cos¢
s z v
It should be noted that the p.d.s VL and V Rare not in phase with
one another and that the algebraic sum of these p.d.s is not equal to the supply
voltage. When dealing with any a.c. circuit problem it is advisable to sketch the
general form of phasor diagram before attempting to complete the solution.
Important note:
r
c
R
vb
~·
~vR~
0
(a)
I
IR
~
Vc = IXc
~[x,
R
~x,
V =IZ
(b)
(d)
(c)
Figure 5.7 RC series circuit: (a) circuit, (b) phasors, (c) voltage triangle,
(d) impedance triangle
Resistance and capacitance in series
In figure 5. 7
circuit impedance=Z= vf(R 2 +Xc2 )=
J[ R 2 +(~cY]n
where R is in ohms, win radians/second and C in farads.
v
current =I =A
V R= I R =
v:
z
V (in phase with I)
Vc=IXc=~V (lagging I
ZwC
by 90°)
48
Study Notes in Electrical Science
V= .J(V/+Vc2 )V
~=tan 1
(
;:
)=tan 1 (
~c )=tan (ro~R)=cos 1 (~)
1
apparent power = S =VI VA
power= P =VI cos~= I 2 R W
reactive power= Q =VI sin~= I 2 X c VAr
power
p
R
VR
factor=cos~===
S Z V
L1
V' 1..J
v
(a)
~
VR
VR=V
I
I
I
v
Vc
Vc
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 5.8 RLC series circuit: (a) circuit, (b) phasors, XL> X C• (c) phasors,
XL= X 0 (d) phasors, XL< Xc
Resistance, inductance and capacitance in series
In figure 5.8
XL= wL = 2njL
X
1
1
c= roC = 2nfC
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
49
circuit impedance= Z =
.j [R 2 +(XLX c) 2 ]
Q
where w is in radians/second, f in hertz, L in henrys and C in farads.
v
current =I =A
z
V R= IR V (in phase with I)
VL =IXL = v;Lv (leading I by 90°)
Vc=IXc=~V(lagging
I
ZwC
by 90°)
~ =tan1 (VL;:c)=tan1 ( XL~X c)=cos1 (~)
apparent power= S =VIVA
power=P=VI cos~ =I 2 RW
reactive power=Q =VI sin~ =I 2 (XLX c)VAr
R
p
power factor =cos~ = = S
z
(1)
When XL> X c or VL>V c, as in figure 5.8b, the circuit has a net
inductance, and the current lags behind the applied voltage. This
condition occurs at frequencies above the resonant frequency (see 2
below).
(2)
When XL= X cor VL =V0 as in figure 5.8c, the condition is known as
resonance, and the current is in phase with the applied voltage.
Resonance occurs at a frequency w 0 , where
or
w0 =
1
.j (L C) rad/s
and
1
fo = 2n .j (LC) Hz
Study Notes in Electrical Science
50
The current in the circuit at resonance has the magnitude I =VIR and is
in phase with V. If the value of R is small, then the current at resonance
has a very large value; since VL=I XL and V c =I X 0 it follows that if the
current has a large value, thenVLandV cbothhave large values (they may
be many times the value of the applied voltage, V). A factor known as the
Qfactor or 'quality' factor is used to indicate the voltage magnification
across the reactive elements in a series circuit, where
c
voltage across L (or C) at resonance
Q.actor =              voltage across R at resonance
IwoL
]R

w L
R
0

2nfoL
R

1
1
w CR
2nf0 CR
0
=~J~
Since the circuit accepts the highest value of current under this
condition, the series resonant circuit is described as an acceptor circuit.
(3)
When XL< X c or VL < V 0 as in figure 5.8d, the circuit has a net
capacitance, and the current leads the applied voltage. This condition
occurs at frequencies below the resonant frequency (see 2 above).
''
/
I

' ..... '
/
/
I
"'r
I
I
I
v
v
v
(a)
(b)
Figure 5.9 Parallel a.c. circuit: (a) circuit, (b) typical phasors
5.3 Parallel Circuits
In parallel circuits (see figure 5.9) the supply voltage is common to all branches,
and this quantity is drawn on the 'real' (horizontal) axis of the phasor diagram.
The current drawn by each branch is calculated by the method outlined in section
5.2.
51
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
Parallel circuit containing resistance, inductance and capacitance
In the phasor diagram in figure 5.9, I 1 and ¢ 1 are the respective values of the
current in and the phase angle of the upper branch ofthe circuit; I 2 and ¢ 2 are the
respective values for the lower branch. The magnitude of the current, I, drawn
from the supply is
III= ~(lh2 +I})
where I h= sum of the horizontal components of the branch currents and I v= sum
of the vertical components of the branch currents.
Ih
power factor =cos¢ =I
apparent power=S=VIVA
power=P=VIcos¢=I/R 1 +I/R 2 W
reactive power= Q =VI sin¢ VAr
Parallel resonance
Resonance occurs in a parallel circuit having reactive components in each arm
when the phase angle of the complete circuit is zero (see figure 5.10), that is, when I
is in phase with V.
Provided that the value of R is small, the resonant frequency of the circuit is
I
w 0 = ~ (L C) rad/s
where L is in henrys and C in farads, or
r1
H
Jo2n~(LC) z
The effective resistance of the parallel circuit at resonance is known as the dynamic
resistance, Ro. where
R = _£_ = (woL )z =
1
n
° CR
R
(w 0 C) 2 R
The current drawn from the supply at resonance is
v
I=A
Ro
If R has a small value, then R 0 has a large value (R 0 is infinity when R is zero!). The
parallel resonant circuit is known as a rejector circuit, and the current drawn from
the supply has a minimum value at resonance.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
52
___:I___.c=:o.__I1
L
R
I,
v
{b)
(a)
Figure 5.10
Parallel resonance: (a) circuit, (b) phasors
5.4 Complex Impedances
Reactance
XL= jwLQ
j
1
Xc==n
jwC
wC
Impedance of series circuits
Series RL circuit
Z =R +jwL
Series RC circuit
j
1
Z=R+=RwC
jwC
Series RL C circuit
53
Singlephase A.C. Circuits
Impedance of parallel circuits
If impedances Z 1 =R 1 +jwL and Z 2 =R 2 j/wC are in parallel with one
another, then the effective impedance of the circuit is
(R 1 + jwL )(R 2  j/wC)
z = (R 1 +jwL )+(R 2 j/wC)
(R 1 R 2 +L/C)+j(wLR 2 RtfwC)
(R 1 +R 2 )+j(wL1jwC)
6
Threephase A.C. Circuits
In this chapter it is assumed that the supply system has a symmetrical set of threephase voltages, which have equal values of phase voltage, and that the three
phasors are displaced from one another by 120°.
6.1 Starconnected Systems
Voltage relationships
In figure 6.1, where N is the neutral point
V RN =voltage of the red line relative to the neutral point
V vN= voltage of the yellow line relative to the neutral point
VaN= voltage of the blue line relative to the neutral point and
V aR =voltage of the blue line relative to the red line
=VaN VRN
V ya= voltage of the yellow line relative to the blue line
= VvN VaN
V Rv= voltage of the red line relative to the yellow line
= VRN VYN
The magnitude of the phase voltage, V"' is equal to the magnitude of the voltage
applied to one phase of the load. In a starconnected system
v p= IV RNI =IVYNI =IV aNI
The magnitude of the line voltage, V L• is equal to the magnitude of the voltage
between any pair of lines. In a starconnected system
VL= IV Rvl = IVaRI = IVYBI = ../ 3Vp
Current relationships
(1)
Fourwire system.
In this case three supply lines and a neutral wire are
55
Threephase A.C. Circuits
B
Is
B
neutral
B
w~re
IN
R
R
R
ly
y
load
generator
lR
y
(b)
(a)
Figure 6.1
phasors
Threephase starconnected system: (a) connections, (b) voltage
used (see figure 6.1), and the relationship of the neutralwire current, IN,
and phase currents is
IN=IR+lv+ls
The magnitude of the line current, I L• in the case of starconnected
balanced loads (that is, when the impedance and phase angle of each
load are equal) is equal to the magnitude of the phase current.
I Rl = II vi = II sl
I L= I
In the case where an unbalanced load is starconnected (that is, a load in
which differing values of impedance are connected in each phase), a
neutral current flows. It should be noted that unbalanced loads are
frequently connected to supply systems.
The magnitude of the phase current, I p, is equal to the magnitude of
the current in the phase of the load. In a balanced starconnected load
I p=I L
(2) Threewire system.
In this case the neutral wire is omitted; hence
IN=IR+lv+l 8 =0
Study Notes in Electrical Science
56
Ie
B
generator
load
Figure 6.2 Threephase deltaconnected system
6.2 Meshconnected or Deltaconnected Systems
Current and voltage relationships
At junction R of the load in figure 6.2
IRv=phasor sum of IR and 1 8 R
or
At junction Y
and at junction B
fs=fsRJYB
In the meshconnected circuit the line voltage is applied directly to each phase
of the load; hence
VL=Vp
In the case of a balanced meshconnected load
I p= II RYI = jiBRI = jiYBI
and
Power consumed in a balanced load
In the case of a balanced load the power consumed by the load is
Threephase A.C. Circuits
voltamperes= S = 3V pi r=
57
.J 3V LI LVA
.J 3Vd Leos¢ W
reactive VA= Q = 3V pipsin¢ = .J 3V LI Lsin¢ VAr
power= P =3V ri pcos¢ =
where V pand I r= phase values of voltage (V) and current (A) respectively, V Land
I L=respective line values and cos¢= power factor of the load.
7 Transformers
7.1 E.M.F. Equation
The r.m.s. values of the e.m.f.s E 1 and E 2 induced in the primary and secondary
windings respectively are, with a sinusoidal supply
£1 =4.44fN1C/Jm
E2 = 4.44fN 2 cp m
where f =supply frequency (Hz), N 1 and N 2 =respective number of turns on the
primary and secondary windings, and cp m=maximum value of the magnetic flux
(Wb) in the core (the flux waveform is assumed to be sinusoidal).
7.2 Basic Relationships in an Ideal Transformer
The basic features of a singlephase transformer are shown in figure 7.1. From the
e.m.f. equations
£1
E2
4.44fC/J m= =  volts/turn
N1
N2
£1
N1
or
When £ 2 has a lower value than £ 1 the transformer is said to have a stepdown
voltage ratio. When £ 2 has a greater value thanE 1 it is said to have a stepup ratio.
In power transformers ampereturn balance is maintained between the
windings; that is
or
I2
N1
where I 1 and I 2 = r.m.s. values of the primary and secondary currents, respectively. That is
Transformers
59
Hence
or
J input
VA=output VA
I
section of
laminated core
I,
A
•
r~~~4~
•
0
load
IB
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
I
L J
Figure 7.1
Basic transformer
7.3 Transformer Efficiency
The per unit efficiency of a transformer is given by the relationship
output power
per unit efficiency = ::.==mput power
output power
output power+ losses
input power losses
input power
losses
=1input power
per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100%
60
Study Notes in Electrical Science
The power losses in a transformer are divided into two groups: those that vary
with load current (copper loss) and those that vary with core flux (iron loss).
Copper loss
The copper loss for a twowinding transformer is
Pc=l/R 1 +I/R 2 W
where 11 and R 1 =respective values of current and resistance for the primary
winding and 12 and R 2 =respective values for the secondary winding. Copper loss
is due to the heating produced by the flow of current in the winding resistance.
Iron loss
The iron loss is subdivided into the hysteresis loss, Ph, and the eddycurrent loss,
p e· It can be shown that
Ph=kfBmn
p e =Kf2B m2
where k and K =constants of the transformer, f =supply frequency (Hz). B m
=maximum value of the core flux density (T) and n =number in the range 1.62.
The hysteresis loss is due to the energy that has to be supplied during each cycle
of the a. c. supply when the direction of magnetisation is twice reversed. This loss is
dissipated as heat in the magnetic material.
The core material of transformers is a conductor of electricity and, as the
magnetic flux in the core changes, a current (known as an eddy current) is induced
in the core. This gives rise in the core to the power loss known as the eddycurrent
loss. The eddycurrent loss is reduced by constructing the core of iron laminations,
which are insulated from one another (see figure 7.1).
The iron loss (also known as the core loss or noload loss) is
P0 =Ph+P.
Since f and B m are usually constant in the case of the power supply to power
transformers, the value of P0 is approximately constant over the working range of
the transformer.
Condition for maximum efficiency
For maximum efficiency the copper loss is equal to the iron loss.
Pc=Po
61
Transformers
90°
90°
II>
II>
secondary
primary
Figure 7.2
Ideal transformerno load
7.4 Phasor Diagrams
I deal transformer: no load
Referring to figure 7.2, the r.m.s. secondary voltage is
Vz=
Nz
Nt
V~
Ideal transformer: load with a lagging power factor
Referring to figure 7.3
Vz =
Nz
Nt
V~
Nz
/1 =lzNI
cP1 =¢z
~
primary
Figure 7.3
secondary
Ideal transformerinductive load
Study Notes in Electrical Science
62
v, =£,
(a)
Figure 7.4
winding
(b)
Practical transformerno load: (a) primary winding, (b) secondary
Practical transformer: no load
The phasor diagram in figure 7.4 accounts for the noload current, / 0 , but neglects
the effects of the voltage drops in the windings.
lo =
.J {I c + 1 mag
2
2)
where 1 mag is the magnetising component of / 0 and I c is the coreloss component.
noload power factor= cos ¢ 0
I mag= 10 sin¢ 0
lc=l 0 cos¢ 0
core loss= P0 =V1 1 c=V1 10 cos¢ 0 W
V,
and
E;
liz and £ 2
s"'
ell
0
0
....."'
12 sin ¢ 2
(a)
(b)
Figure 7.5 Practical transformerinductive load: (a) primary winding,
(b) secondary winding
63
Transformers
Practical transformer: load with a lagging power factor
In figure 7.5, / 1 ' is the component of the primary current, /1> that is due to 12
flowing in the secondary winding.
11._ 12 N2
N1
I 1 = phasor sum of I; and / 0
7.5 The Transformer as an Impedancematching Device
A transformer is sometimes used as an impedancematching device between a
load of low impedance and an amplifier with a high outputimpedance. The
effective a.c. resistance that appears between the primarywinding terminals of an
ideal transformer (see figure 7.6) is
R1 =RL(z:r
0
where N 1 and N 2 =number of turns on the primary and secondary winding
respectively.
Note: An aid to remembering the effect of the transformation ratio on the
'reflected' or 'referred' resistance is: the resistance value appears to increase when
referred to a winding with a larger number of turns, and to decrease when referred
to a winding with a smaller number of turns.
Figure 7.6 The transformer as an impedancematching device
8
Electrical Machines
8.1 Types of Electrical Machine
An electrical machine is an electromechanical energyconvertor and consists of a
magnetic circuit having two parts separated from each other by an air gap. The
stationary part of the machine is known as the stator and the rotating part as the
rotor. In the case of d.c. machines the fixed and rotating parts are usually referred
to as the frame and armature respectively.
Electrical machines can be divided into singleexcited machines and doubleexcited machines. In singleexcited machines only one member (either the stator or
the rotor) carries a magnetising winding; these machines are of limited practical
value. Doubleexcited machines carry magnetising windings on both the stator
and the rotor; the majority of practical machines are of this type.
Salient and cylindrical magnetic systems
When used in conjunction with machines the word 'salient' means 'jutting out';
either the stator or the rotor can have a salient construction. In the machine in
figure 8.la both the stator and the rotor are salient.
A cylindrical magnetic system is one that is cylindrical about the axis of
rotation. In the machine in figure 8.lb the stator and rotor are both cylindrical.
In practice many machines are designed with either a salient stator and a
cylindrical rotor or a cylindrical stator and a salient rotor.
centre of
rotation
air gap
stator
(a)
Figure 8.1
(b)
Salient and cylindrical machine systems
65
Electrical Machines
8.2 Singleexcited Machines
A singleexcited machine having a salient structure is illustrated in figure 8.2.
Owing to the magnetic poles induced in the stator there is a rotational force that
attempts to pull the rotor and stator into alignment.
Turning the rotor further away from alignment causes the length of the
magnetic path to increase, leading to an increase in the reluctance of the magnetic
path. For this reason the torque causing alignment is called the reluctance torque,
T,. In general a reluctance torque is developed if the reluctance of the magnetic
system changes when the rotor is turned away from the alignment position. Angle
A. is known as the torque angle.
Figure 8.2
Singleexcited machine
If the rotor is excited by d.c., then the machine produces a static torque, which
does not result in continuous rotation. If the rotor is excited by a.c., then once the
rotor is caused initially to rotate by some applied external force, the reversal of the
rotor current causes the rotor to rotate at a constant speed, dependent on the
supply frequency. This speed is known as its synchronous speed. Machines of this
kind are known as reluctance motors and are used in clocks.
The above comments also apply if the stator is excited and the rotor is simply
an iron circuit.
Not all singleexcited machines develop a reluctance torque; the results for
various combinations are listed in table 8.1.
Table 8.1
Is a reluctance torque developed?
Stator
salient
salient
cylindrical
cylindrical
Rotor
Stator excited
Rotor excited
salient
cylindrical
salient
cylindrical
yes
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
66
Study Notes in Electrical Science
8.3 Doubleexcited Machines
When the stator and the rotor both carry windings a torque known as the
excitation torque, T., is developed. Figure 8.3a shows a singleexcited machine
having a cylindrical stator and an excited salient rotor; this machine does not
experience a reluctance torque (see also table 8.1). When the stator carries a
winding, as shown in figure 8.3b, the rotor experiences an excitation torque of
where k =constant of the machine, F 1 and F2 = m.m.f. of the stator and rotor
respectively and A.= angle of misalignment between the stator and rotor fieldsystems. The excitation torque causes the magnetic fields to tend to align. The
machine shown in figure 8.3b produces only an excitation torque. Other doublewound machines, such as those having a salient stator and a salient rotor,
produce both excitation and reluctance torques.
(b)
(a)
Figure 8.3
Excitation torque
8.4 Windings
Windings may be classified as concentrated or distributed. Distributed windings
may be subdivided into a number of categories, the most important of which are
phase windings and commutator windings.
Concentrated windings
A concentrated winding is one carried by a salientpole construction; that is, it is a
multiturn coil that is wound on to a protruding branch of the iron circuit. Field
windings for a d.c. machine and for salientpole alternators are examples of this
type.
Electrical Machines
67
Distributed windings
A distributed winding consists of a number of coils, each having a 'spread' of
about one pole pitch, the coils being connected in seriesparallel arrangements
depending on the voltage and current requirements of the winding.
Phase winding. This is a distributed winding that is located in slots
around the face of the magnetic circuit, the coils being joined together in
series. A simple way of representing the arrangement is by means of the
developed view of the winding in figure 8.4. In this type of drawing it is
assumed that the magnetic circuit can be cut at some convenient point
and unrolled flat.
Figure 8.4 shows the general arrangement of a singlelayer phase
winding (that is, one coil side per slot) that is used to accommodate
phase A of a threephase machine. The winding for phase B is
accommodated in slots b and b' and that for phase C in slots c and c .
Alternatively a doublelayer winding may be used in which each slot
accommodates two coil sides, one below the other, belonging to two
different coils. In this case the coils have the same span.
(2) Commutator winding. This is invariably on the rotor (armature) of the
machine, the coils being connected in the form of a continuous circuit
without a break. Junctions at various points on the winding are each
connected to individual segments on the commutator. Current is either
taken from or injected into the winding via brushes, which make contact
with the commutator.
(1)
There are two types of commutator winding
(a) lap winding, which gives as many parallel paths through the armature as
there are poles on the machine (frequently used in highcurrent
machines)
(b) wave winding, which gives two parallel paths for current flow through
the armature (frequently used in highvoltage machines).
Figure 8.4 Singlelayer phase winding
Study Notes in Electrical Science
68
8.5 D.C. Machines
E.M.F. equation
induced e.m.f. = E =!!_cf>Zn V
a
p
a
w
=cf>ZV
2n
where p =number of pairs of poles, a= number of pairs of parallel paths through
the armature (a= 1 for wave windings, a= p for lap windings), cf> =flux entering or
leaving each pole (Wb), Z =total number of active conductors on the armature,
n =speed of rotation of the armature (revjs) and w =speed of rotation of the
armature (rad/s).
Methods of connection
Referring to figure 8.5, the main types of connection are classified by means of the
fieldwinding connections as
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
separate excitation
shunt excitation
series excitation
compound excitation: (i) longshunt version, and (ii) shortshunt
version.
8.6 Characteristic Curves of D.C. Generators
Separately excited generator
The basic e.m.f. equation is that given in section 8.5, that is
In a given machine the values of p, a and Z are constants; hence
E=kcf>nV
where k is a constant of the machine.
If the field current, I r. is maintained at a constant value then cf> is also constant
(see figure 8.6a) and
E oc n for constant I r
If the speed, n, is maintained at a constant value, then
E oc cf> for constant n
69
Electrical Machines
field regulator
separate d.c.
supply
(a)
(b)
field regulator
I shunt
:field
I
(i)
______ ...JI
L_.L(ii)
(d)
(c)
Figure 8.5
D.C. machine connections
slope= R.
E
:::..
.;
.,
"'
E
"'
E
g
g
0
>
It constant
~
! 1 constant
n
constant
.e
speed, n
field current, I
(a)
(b)
Figure 8.6
1
load current, I
L
(c)
Separately excited generator characteristics
The curve of E plotted to a base of I r (see figure 8.6b) therefore follows the
magnetisation curve for the magnetic material of the machine.
The load characteristic is shown in figure 8.6c. The terminal voltage is
V=EILRa
where I L =load current (A) and R. =armature resistance (Q) of the generator.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
70
Note: The equation for Vhas the form of the straight line y =ax+ b, where y = V,
b =vertical intercept= E, and a= slope of the line=  R a·
Shuntexcited generator
As with the separately excited generator the generated e.m.f. is
E=kfPnV
If n is maintained at a constant value, then
Eoc.fP
The plot of e.m.f. against field current, I r. (see figure 8.7a) follows the
magnetisation curve of the machine. The generated voltage rises to a value of E 1 ,
which corresponds to the intersection of the opencircuit characteristic of the
machine with a straight line whose slope is equal to the total resistance of the field
circuit, R r· The generator fails to excite when R ris either equal to or is greater than
the critical resistance of the field circuit (see figure 8.7a).
criticalI
resistance  . I
line
1
El
I
/
    ;    
I
/

/
1
n constant
.........
.....
'
\
'
I
I
,,...,~"'
... ,/'
field current, It
load current ,IL
(a)
(b)
/
I
I
I
Figure 8.7 Shuntgenerator characteristics
The load characteristic is shown in figure 8. 7b. The terminal voltage is
V=EIaRa
where I a= armature current= load current+ field current (A), and Ra =armature
resistance ( 0 ). The reduction in V with increase in load current, I L• causes I rto
reduce, which in turn reduces E. Consequently the reduction in V with increase in
I Lis far more rapid than in the case of the separately excited generator.
Electrical Machines
71
Seriesexcited generator
The load characteristic is shown in figure 8.8. Since the load current in this
machine also acts as the exciting current, the plot of terminal voltage, V, against
load current, I L> follows the magnetisation curve of the machine. Since V varies
with the value of I L this type of machine is unsuitable for use as a generalpurpose
generator.
load current, I
Figure 8.8
L
Seriesgenerator load characteristics
Compoundwound generator
Compoundwound machines in which the magnetic fluxes produced by the series
and shunt windings act in the same direction, are known as cumulativecompound
machines. Typical of these machines are the over, level and undercompound
characteristics in figure 8.9. The degree of compounding depends on the number
of turns of wire on the series winding. A large number of turns results in an overcompound characteristic in which the fullload terminal voltage exceeds the noload voltage. A levelcompound machine has equal values of noload and fullload
terminal voltage, while in an undercompound machine the fullload terminal
voltage is less than the noload voltage.
If the flux produced by the series field opposes that of the shunt field, then the
machine is known as a differentialcompound machine.
The terminalvoltageloadcurrent characteristic for a shunt machine is
shown in figure 8.9 for the purpose of comparison.
8.7 Power Required to Drive a D.C. Generator
The mechanical input power supplied by the prime mover is
Tw=2nnTW
Study Notes in Electrical Science
72
~+overcompound
levelcompound
under compound
shunt
differential compound
100%
load current, I
Figure 8.9
L
Compoundgenerator characteristics
where T =torque (N m) applied to the generator shaft, w = shaft speed (rad/s) and
n = shaft speed (rev Is).
8.8 D.C. Motors
The construction of d.c. motors and the methods of connection of the field
windings are generally similar to those of the d.c. generator (see section 8.5).
Torque equation
The torque developed by the armature of a d.c. motor is
where E ='back' e.m.f. (V) induced in the armature conductors when they rotate
at speed w (rad/s) in the magnetic field, I.= armature current (A), p =number of
pairs of magnetic poles on the machine, a =number of pairs of parallel paths
through the armature circuit (a= 1 for wave windings, a= p for lap windings),
4> =magnetic flux (Wb) entering or leaving each pole and Z =total number of
active conductors on the armature.
For a given motor the values of p, a and Z are constant; hence
T=k4>1 .Nm
where k =constant of the machine.
Electrical Machines
73
Faceplate starter
To limit the current drawn by d.c. machines during starting, a resistor is inserted
in series with the supply. The value of the resistance is progressively reduced either
automatically or by an operator until, at full speed, its value is zero. A typical
starter for a shunt motor is illustrated in figure 8.10; undervoltage and
overcurrent protection are normally provided but are omitted from the figure for
simplicity.
r1I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A I
~<~~
I
+
:~
co
F I
I
I
1
,.1
L L______ s~r~r_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ...JI
shunt
field
supply
Figure 8.10
Shuntmotor starter
8.9 Characteristic Curves of D.C. Motors
Shunt motor
Shuntmotor characteristics are shown in figure 8.11.
(1)
Torquearmaturecurrent curve.
If
if>
is constant (that is, the field current, I r, is constant), then
Trx:.I.
(2)
Speedarmaturecurrent curve. The 'back' e.m.f. of rotation is
E = kf/>w
but in the shunt motor
E=VI.R.
where V =supply voltage and I .R. ='internal' p.d. in the internal
resistance of the armature. If If> (that is, I r) is constant, then
speed rxV I .R.
74
Study Notes in Electrical Science
no lood speed
g
0
l"'
It constant
armature current
Shuntmotor characteristics
Figure 8.11
Series motor
Seriesmotor characteristics are shown in figure 8.12.
(1) Torquearmaturecurrent curve.
armature current
Figure 8.12
Seriesmotor characteristics
Electrical Machines
75
In a serieswound machine the armature current produces the flux and
4> oc I a· For low values of I a the torque equation is
Tocia2
At higher values of I a the iron circuit approaches magnetic saturation
and 4> becomes nearly constant; hence for high values of I a the torque
equation becomes
Tocl a
(2)
Speedarmaturecurrent curve. The 'back' e.m.f.of rotation is
E=kf/Jw
E
w= kf/J =
VlaRm
kf/J
where R m =resistance (Q) of the series motor. If Vis constant, and if
I aRm can be neglected, then
1
woc4>
Since 4> oc I
a
1
speedocIa
Note: Series motors are not normally operated under noload conditions, since
the small value of I a results in an excessively large value of w.
differentialcampound
shunt
l"'

cumulative cam pound
  senes
armature current
Figure 8.13 Compoundmotor characteristics
Study Notes in Electrical Science
76
Compoundwound motor
In cumulativecompound motors the fluxes produced by the series and the shunt
windings assist each other. In differentialcompound motors the fluxes oppose one
another. The speedarmaturecurrent characteristics of the two types are shown
in figure 8.13. The characteristics of shunt and series motors are given for
comparison purposes.
8.10 Induction Motors
Inductionmotor principle
When the magnetic flux in figure 8.14a moves in the direction shown relative to
the conductor, the direction of the current induced in the conductor is predicted
by Fleming's righthand rule (rule for generators). The direction of the magnetic
flux produced by the induced current in the conductor is shown in figure 8.14b
and the resulting magneticfield distribution is as shown in figure 8.14c. The
conductor experiences a force that causes it to move from the stronger magnetic
magnetic flux
I!!!!
/,
( t@ \ \
,..._
@conductor
\ '
J
I
/
direction of movement of
flux relative to the conductor
(b)
direction of movement of
conductor rela I ive to the flux
(a)
magnetic flux
I
I
I
t t t
I) /
I /,.. _,
I
I
I
t
I
I
I•
1,1~@
\ <',
I
'
I I
direction of the
force on the conductor
I
I
(c)
Figure 8.14
Inductionmotor principle
77
Electrical Machines
field into the weaker; hence the force on the conductor acts in the direction of
movement of the magnetic field.
Synchronous speed of the magnetic field
In conventional forms of induction motor the magnetic field is generated inside
the stationary cylindrical part (the stator) of the motor. The field rotates within
the cylinder and is described as a rotating magnetic field. The speed of rotation of
the magnetic field or synchronous speed is
n,=£rev/s
p
where f =supply frequency (Hz) and p =number of pairs of magnetic poles
produced by the stator.
Fractional slip
I 1.
n , n,
n,
.
fractwna
s Ip=s== 1  
n,
n,
where n, =speed of rotation (rev /s) of the rotor or rotating part of the motor.
8.11 Efficiency of Electrical Machines
.
.
output power
per umt efficiency=:.mput power
output power
output power+ losses
input power losses
input power
losses
input power
=1.,
per cent efficiency= per unit efficiency x 100%
9
Measurements
9.1 Analog and Digital Instruments
An analog instrument indicates the value of the quantity being measured by
means of a pointer, whose indication varies smoothly with the measured quantity.
Digital instruments give an indication in the form of a complete number
(usually in decimal form). The smallest change that can be indicated corresponds
to the change of one digit in the least significant position of the number.
9.2 Effects Utilised in Measuring Instruments
Practical measuring instruments utilise one of five effects.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Magnetic effect is used by the majority of analog electrical instruments, such as the normal range of pointertype ammeters and
voltmeters.
Heating effects are utilised in thermocouple instruments.
Chemical effects are used in a small range of instruments such as some
types of amperehour meter.
Electrostatic effect is principally applied to electrostatic voltmeters,
which have a high input resistance between their terminals.
Electromagneticinduction effects are utilised in a.c. watthour meters
(for example the domestic energymeter) and also in some a.c. ammeters,
voltmeters and wattmeters.
9.3 Analog Indicating Instruments
There are three forces acting on the moving systems of analog indicating
instruments.
(1) The deflecting force or operating force causes the moving system to
deflect from its 'zero' position.
(2) The controlling force ensures that the magnitude of the steady deflection
is always the same for a given value of measured quantity.
(3) The damping force quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final
position.
79
Measurements
Controlling force
(1) Spring control. A controlling hairspring (usually of phosphor bronze)
controls the angular movement of the moving system (see figure 9.5).
The controlling torque produced by the spring increases linearly with
the angular movement of the moving system. Consequently, in a springcontrolled system the law of the scale of the instrument has the same
form as that of the deflecting force.
(2) Gravity control. A small weight is attached to the moving system so
that it produces a controlling torque when the system deflects.
Instruments using gravity control must be used in an upright position;
this method of control is not suitable for portable instruments.
Damping force
(1) Eddycurrent damping. When a conductor moves in a magnetic field
an e.m.f. is induced in it. If this conductor is part of a complete circuit
within the magnetic field of the instrument, then a current (an eddy
current) flows in it and dissipates energy in the resistance of the
conductor. This phenomenon is used as one method of damping
moving systems. The eddy currents are induced either in the metallic
former that supports the element of the moving system (see figure 9.5) or
in a disc that is mechanically connected to the moving system.
(2) Airfriction damping. One form of airfriction damping mechanism is
shown in figure 9.1. An aluminium piston is attached to the moving
system and moves inside a chamber that is closed at one end (the
chamber may have any convenient section). A damping force is
generated when the air pressure in the chamber is either increased or
decreased by the movement of the piston.
(3) Fluidfriction damping. In this method a vane enclosed in a cylinder
containing oil is mechanically connected to the moving system. The
viscous frictional drag of the oil on the vane is used to damp the
movement of the system.
spindle of moving element
Figure 9.1
Airdamping
80
Study Notes in Electrical Science
jewel
spindle
Figure 9.2
Pivoted support
Methods of supporting moving systems
The most popular methods are pivoted support, tautribbon suspension and
thread suspension.
(1) Pivoted support. The ends of the spindle (see figure 9.2), which is of
hardened steel, are located in jewelled bearings (usually sapphire). The
moving element is attached to the spindle.
(2) Tautribbon suspension. A section through one end of a tautribbon
suspension is shown in figure 9.3. The movement is suspended by
ribbons (of beryllium copper) under tension at either end of the shaft.
The moving element is attached to the shaft.
(3) Thread suspension. The movement is supported on a thread (of
phosphor bronze). These suspensions are delicate but provide a
suspension with very low friction.
spring
frame of instrument
Figure 9.3 Tautribbon suspension
Instrument scales
The type of scale depends on the controlling mechanism and the relationship
between the torque produced by the moving element and the measured quantity.
Measurements
81
The scale length depends on the construction of the instrument, and deflecting
angles in the range 9(}250° are commercially available. The scale calibration may
be either linear or nonlinear (see figures 9.4a and b).
6
4
(a)
20
(b)
Figure 9.4
Instrument scales
9.4 Movingcoil Instruments or Galvanometers
Construction and uses
The internal construction of one type of movingcoil instrument is shown in figure
9.5. The coil is supported on a metallic former (which provides eddycurrent
damping), the coil former being supported on either a pivoted suspension (shown)
or a tautribbon suspension. Current is supplied to the coil either via the control
springs or by flexible ligaments. In figure 9.5 the coil rotates around a softiron
core, the permanent magnet being external to the coil. The magnetic system is
designed so that the flux distribution in the air gap is radial. With this
arrangement the average torque produced by the coil is proportional to the
average value of current in the coil. The net result is a linear scale calibration (see
figure 9.4a).
An alternative magnetic circuit arrangement is to place the magnet inside the
coil (this is the socalled coremagnet or internalmagnet movement). In this case
the iron core is in the form of a cylinder surrounding the movement.
Movingcoil instruments are essentially milliammeters (or microammeters)
Study Notes in Electrical Science
82
and are used in conjunction with either shunt resistors, to allow them to read
higher values of current, or voltage multipliers (series voltagedropping resistors),
to allow them to read high voltages.
These instruments require a direct (or unidirectional) current flow. One of the
terminals is marked with a'+' and the other with a''; current must flow from
the external circuit into the '+' terminal and out of the '' terminal.
pointer
balance arm
Figure 9.5
Movingcoil instrument
Extending the current range of a movingcoil instrument
The general arrangement is shown in figure 9.6, where I g= meter current (A) to
give fullscale deflection (f.s.d.), R g=resistance (0) of the meter, I,= current (A) in
the shunt at f.s.d., S = resistance (n) of the shunt and I =current (A) in the external
circuit at f.s.d.
Since the meter and the shunt are connected in parallel with one another
I gRg= I ,SV
and
I=I 8 +I,A
Measurements
83
Solving gives
I
I
Figure 9.6 Extension of current range
Extending the voltage range of a movingcoil instrument
The movingcoil instrument can be converted into a voltmeter by connecting
resistor R (see figure 9.7) in series with the instrument. Resistor R is known as a
voltage multiplier or a voltagedropping resistor. Its function is to absorb a large
proportion of the applied voltage, V. The circuit equation is
V=lg(R+RJ
Hence
v
R=R 8
Is
Quite often the effective sensitivity of the instrument is expressed in ohms per volt
at f.s.d. This value is in fact given by
1
ohms per volt at f.s.d. = Is
For example, an instrument giving f.s.d. with a current of 50 J.LA is sometimes
referred to as a 1/(50 x 10 6 ) = 20000 ohms per volt (o.p.v.) instrument.
+
R
v
Figure 9.7 Extension of voltage range
84
Study Notes in Electrical Science
I
I
I
I
I
I
L __     
I
c:=J  _____ J
R (unknown)
I
(a)
OHMS
100
0
'o
(b)
Figure 9.8 Ohmmeter
The movingcoil instrument as an ohmmeter
A typical ohmmeter circuit is shown in figure 9.8a. The resistance of resistor R is
determined by measuring the current flowing through it from the cell of e.m.f. E,
which is included within the meter. The cell is connected so that the current flows
in the 'correct' direction through the meter; a consequence is that when the
instrument is used in the Ohms mode the '+' terminal of the instrument has a
negative potential with respect to its '' terminal.
Resistor RVis used to 'zero' the ir.strument on the Ohms scale; this is done by
shortcircuiting the terminals of the instrument and adjusting RVto give f.s.d.
When a resistance that is equal to the internal resistance of the instrument is
connected between its terminals, the current is half that for f.s.d. Hence the midpoint of the Ohms scale is equal to the internal resistance of the meter. When the
current in the external circuit is zero the resistance ofthe external circuit is infinity.
The Ohms scale of the instrument is nonlinear, a typical scale being illustrated in
figure 9.8b.
Rectifier Instruments
When used in conjunction with a rectifier, a movingcoil instrument can be used
85
Measurements
+
I,
movingcoil
meter
a.c.
signal
Figure 9.9 Rectifier instrument
to provide an indication of alternating quantities. A milliammeter circuit that uses
a bridge rectifier is shown in figure 9.9 (the principle of the rectifier is described in
chapter 10). The equivalent d.c. current, I 2 , corresponding to the a.c. current I 1 is
given by the expression
I 2 
I1
(form factor of the a.c. waveform)
For a sinusoidal waveform
Rectifier instruments have their scales calibrated in terms ofr.m.s. quantities, and
it is assumed by the instrument maker that the a.c. signal has a sine wave. If the a.c.
signal is nonsinusoidal, then the indication given by the meter is not strictly
accurate.
airdamping
chamber
I
Figure 9.10 Movingiron instrument: attraction type
Study Notes in Electrical Science
86
9.5 Movingiron Instruments
Construction and use
There are two types of movingiron instrument.
The attraction type, in which an eccentrically pivoted softiron vane is
attracted towards a solenoid (see figure 9.10).
(2) The repulsion type, in which two parallel vanes or rods of soft iron,
similarly magnetised inside a solenoid, are repelled from one another
(see figure 9.11 ).
(1)
pointer
airdampilg chamber
Figure 9.11
Movingiron instrument: repulsion type
The average torque produced by the movingiron movement is proportional to
the square of the value of the current in the coil. The net result is a nonlinear scale
calibration; the scale calibration can be 'linearised' over much of its length by
modifying the design of the vane system so that the inductance of the coil varies
over the deflecting angle.
These instruments can be used to measure either d.c. current or the r.m.s. value
of a.c. current. Because current does not need to be conveyed to the moving part of
the instrument, only one control spring is required. Airdamping is used with
these instruments. To prevent electromagnetic interference from affecting the
accuracy of the instrument, the coil and movement are surrounded by a
nickel iron screen (not shown).
Ammeters
Equal magnetic fluxes require equal values of m.m.f., and a lowcurrent
Measurements
87
instrument merely requires more turns of wire on the coil than does a largecurrent instrument.
For the measurement of very high values of alternating current, a current
transformer is used in conjunction with a lowcurrent instrument (usually a 01 A
or 05 A meter).
Voltmeters
The coil usually has a large number of turns of fine wire, and the current required
to give f.s.d. is in the range 0.050.1 A. For a.c. voltages greater than about 750 V a
voltage transformer is used in conjunction with a 0llOV instrument.
moving ooil
Figure 9.12
Electrodynamic instrument
9.6 Electrodynamic Instruments
The usual form of construction (see figure 9.12) consists of two seriesconnected
coils that are fixed to the frame of the instrument and another coil that is free to
rotate within the fixed coils. The deflecting force is proportional to the product
I 112.
This type of instrument is most frequently used as a wattmeter, in which the
load current flows through the fixed coils, and the p.d. across the load is applied to
the moving coil (a voltagemultiplier resistor is connected in series with this coil).
The mean angular deflection of the pointer is proportional to the average power
consumed by the load. The range of the wattmeter can be extended by using it in
conjunction with a current transformer and a voltage transformer. When the
instrument is used as a wattmeter the scale calibration is linear.
It can also be used as an ammeter by connecting the fixed and moving coils in
88
Study Notes in Electrical Science
parallel with one another. When the fixed and moving coils are connected in series
the instrument can be used as a voltmeter. When the instrument is used as either
an ammeter or a voltmeter, the scale calibration is nonlinear and is cramped at
the lowcurrent end of the scale.
Airdamping is used, and th~ movement is usually spring controlled.
9.7 The D.C. Potentiometer
The d.c. potentiometer is a nullbalance instrument used for determining values of
e.m.f. by a comparison method. In the circuit in figure 9.13, Vis a supply source
whose voltage need not be known accurately. The slide wire has a uniform crosssectional area, so that the p.d. per unit length is uniform. The slider is moved along
the wire until balance is obtained (that is, until the galvanometer deflection is
zero). The p.d. per unit length of wire is then E/IV/m. If E 1 is the e.m.f. of a
standard cell and 11 is its balance position, and E 2 is the e.m.f. of another cell,
which gives balance at 12 , then
or
v
slide wire
slider
Figure 9.13 The d.c. potentiometer
9.8 The Wheatstone Bridge
The basic circuit is shown in figure 9.14, in which G is a sensitive galvanometer, P
and Q are resistors and are known as the 'ratio arms' of the potentiometer, R is a
calibrated variable resistance and X is a resistor of unknown value. At balance the
potential at A is the same as that at B and the galvanometer deflection is zero.
89
Measurements
When this occurs
PX=QR
That is, the products of diagonally opposed resistances are equal to one another;
hence
RQ
X=p
A
8
Figure 9.14 The Wheatstone bridge
9.9 A.C. Bridges
Basic fourarm bridge
The general configuration of a fourarm a.c. bridge is shown in figure 9.15. At
balance the a.c. detector gives zero indication, and the general condition of
balance is
ZxZ3=ZlZ2
That is, the products of diagonally opposed impedances are equal to one another.
Impedance Z xis the element (the unknown) whose value is being determined.
Elements Z 1, Z 2 and Z 3 are other (known) components in the bridge. Hence
z2
Zx=Zl
z3
Balance is obtained in an a.c. bridge when both the magnitude and the phase angle
of the potentials at A and B are equal to one another.
90
Study Notes in Electrical Science
A
Figure 9.15 Basic fourarm a.c. bridge
Figure 9.16 De Sauty's bridge
De Sauty's capacitance bridge
This bridge (see figure 9.16) is suitable for measuring the capacitance of ideal lossfree capacitors. At balance
Measurements
91
p
jwCx
Q
jwC
or
PC
Cx=
Q
Figure 9.17
Schering's bridge
Schering's bridge
This circuit (see figure 9.17) is suitable for determining the capacitance and phaseangle values of capacitors; it is frequently used for measurements on cables,
insulators and equipment having small capacitance values. The unknown
components are r x and C". At balance
Solving yields
Study Notes in Electrical Science
92
~,~r~
Figure 9.18
Maxwell's bridge
Maxwell's bridge
This bridge (see figure 9.18) is suited to measuring the components of lossy
inductors. At balance
Solving gives
R1R2
rx=R3
Lx=R 1 R 2 C 3
Hay's bridge
This bridge (see figure 9.19) is particularly suitable for measuring the components
of lowloss inductors and for measuring large values of inductance. The
measurements may be made with direct current flowing in the inductor.
At balance the condition
ZxZ3 =Z1Z2
applies (see also figure 9.15), but since the unknown elements are in parallel with
one another it is more convenient to write the condition of balance as
93
Measurements
where Y x= (1/r x)+(1jjwLx). At balance
R 3 +(1/jwC 3 ) _ R R
(1/rx)+(1/jwLx) 1 2
Solving yields
RtRz
rx=R3
Lx=R 1 R 2 C3
'( rv f       '
Figure 9.19
Hay's bridge
9.10 The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
The cathode ray oscilloscope (c.r.o.), illustrated in figure 9.20, consists of a cathode
ray tube (c.r.t.) together with its controls and power supplies. The principal
components of the c.r.t. are the electron gun, electron lens system, deflection
system and c.r.t. screen.
Electron gun
The cathode, which is usually indirectly heated, has a flat surface directed towards
the screen so that it provides high electronemission in that direction. The control
grid is in the form of a metal cup with a small hole in it to allow a narrow beam of
electrons to pass through it. The intensity of the spot on the face of the tube
depends on the value of the beam current, which is adjusted by the brilliance
control.
94
Study Notes in Electrical Science
Yonput
signal
Xinput
signal
electron
electron
gun
lens system
~~
heater
screen
v
cathode
e.h. I. supply
Lf11•1•1+
Figure 9.20
Cathode ray oscilloscope
Electron lens system
The diverging beam leaving the electron gun is formed into a converging beam by
the electron lens system. This system usually contains three anodes, the potential
of the second anode being adjusted by means of the focus control.
Focusing can also be brought about by electromagnetic means; in this
arrangement coils are wound around the neck of the tube and the beam is focused
by passing a current through the coils.
Deflection system
The electron beam is deflected in the Y and X directions by means of voltages
applied to theY and X deflection plates respectively. Two signals are applied to
each set of plates.
In the case of theYdeflection plates, one signal is a d.c. potential from theYshift
control and the other signal, theYinput signal, is the signal to be observed on the
face of the tube.
In the case of the X deflection plates, one signal is a d.c. potential from the Xshift control and the other signal, known as the timebase signal, causes the spot to
deflect at a constant speed from the lefthand side of the screen to the righthand
Measurements
95
side. When the spot reaches the righthand end of the timebase sweep the timebase
signal causes the spot to return to the lefthand side of the screen (this is known as
flyback).
The spot can also be deflected by electromagnetic means.
C.RI. screen
The inside face of the screen is coated with a phosphor. When the electron beam
strikes the phosphor it causes it to fluoresce, allowing the user to observe the
movement of the spot on the face of the tube. Having given their energy up to the
screen the electrons return to the positive pole of the e.h.t. supply via the graphite
coating inside the neck of the tube.
Principal controls of the c.r.o.
The brilliance and focus controls respectively control the brilliance and focus of
the spot on the face of the tube. In most oscilloscopes the effects of these controls
interact with one another so that both must be adjusted to provide a satisfactory
display.
The Yshift and X shift controls allow the user to position the trace on the
screen of the tube. TheYgain control (usually calibrated in VOLTS/CM) permits
the vertical trace size to be adjusted (a popular range of Ygain settings is from
0.1 V/em to 50 V/em). The X gain control or TIME/CM control allows the
horizontaldeflection speed of the spot to be adjusted (a popular range of Xgain
settings is from lOOms/em to 1 JlS/cm).
Triggering controls are provided to allow a repetitive waveform to be displayed
as a steady trace on the screen.
J0
Rectifiers
10.1 Semiconductors
Semiconductors include a wide range of materials whose resistivities are midway
between those of good conductors and those of good insulators. The most widely
used semiconductor materials are silicon and germanium, with other materials
being used in more specialised applications.
itype semiconductors or intrinsic semiconductors
Intrinsic semiconductors or itype semiconductors are the natural puretype
semiconductor materials. The majority of semiconductors used in practice are
either ntype or ptype materials (see below), which are formed by doping itype
materials with suitable dopants.
ntype semiconductors
Anntype semiconductor is one having mobile negativecharge carriers (electrons)
in its structure. Current flow in semiconductors is due largely to the movement of
what are known as majoritycharge carriers in that material; inntype materials
electrons are the majoritycharge carriers. A small proportion of current flow in
semiconductors is due to minoritycharge carriers; inntype materials positivecharge carriers (known as holes) are the minoritycharge carriers.
ptype semiconductors
A ptype semiconductor is one having mobile positivecharge carriers (holes) in its
structure. In ptype materials, current flow is due largely to the movement of holes
(which are in this case the majoritycharge carriers) while a small proportion of
current flow is due to electrons (which are in this case the minoritycharge
carriers).
10.2 Rectifiers
Diode characteristics
A rectifier is a twoterminal device (diode) that offers low resistance to current
97
Rectifiers
flow in one direction and a very high resistance to current flow in the reverse
direction.
A diode has two electrodes: an anode and a cathode. It offers low resistance to
current flow when the anode is positive with respect to the cathode; in this mode it
is said to be forwardbiased. It offers very high resistance to current flow when the
anode is negative with respect to the cathode; in this mode it is said to be reversebiased.
The characteristics of both ideal and practical diodes are shown in figure 10.1.
An ideal diode (characteristic shown in bold line in the figure) offers no resistance
to current flow in the forwardbiased mode (first quadrant) and infinite resistance
to flow in the reversebiased mode (third quadrant). A practical diode offers a
small resistance to current flow in the forwardbiased mode, when forward
conduction takes place. In the reversebiased mode a leakage current of small
value passes through the diode, in which case it is said to operate in its reverseblocking mode; as the reversebias voltage is increased a point is reached at which
the current through the diode increases rapidly, from when it is said to operate in
its reversebreakdown mode.
+
forward
conduction
reverse
blocking
Figure 10.1
Diode characteristics
pn junction diode
The pn junction diode is a single crystal of semiconductor material that has both
p and nregions within the crystal (see figure 10.2). The diode conducts when the
pregion (the anode) is positive with respect to the nregion (the cathode).
When the diode is reversebiased the mobile charge carriers are drawn back
from the junction and a depletion layer, which is depleted of charge carriers, exists
at the junction. This region effectively becomes an insulating region.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
98
n
p
cathode
anode
Figure 10.2
pn junction diode
Zener diode
Certain types of diode, known as Zener diodes, are operated in their reversebreakdown mode. The diode is not damaged provided that the rating of the device
is not exceeded. For example, the maximum 'reverse' current through a 1 W, 10 V
Zener diode should not exceed 0.1 A. A feature of Zener diodes is that, when
operated in the reversebreakdown mode, the voltage across them does not alter
significantly over a fairly wide current range. Applications of Zener diodes include
voltagereference sources, meter protection and biasvoltage supplies.
Thermionic diode or valve diode
This is an electronic valve containing an anode and a cathode inside a container
(usually made of glass) that may be either evacuated or gasfilled. The symbol for a
vacuum diode (known as a 'hard' valve) is shown in figure 10.3. The cathode emits
electrons when heated, the source of heat in the valve in figure 10.3 being the
heating element (this type of valve is known as an indirectly heated diode).
anode
'"""'~"'
Figure 10.3
Thermionic diode
A typical vacuumdiode characteristic is shown in figure 10.4. Current I Ao is
known as the splash current and is due to energetic electrons that arrive at the
anode at zero anode voltage; its value is usually very small. Region A on the
characteristic is known as the spacechargelimited region, since in this region of
the characteristic the magnitude of the anode current is limited in value by the
'space charge' surrounding the cathode. The diode is normally operated in this
region of the curve. Region B is known as the temperaturelimited region, since in
99
Rectifiers
+
saturation
current
lAO
anode voltage
+
Figure 10.4 Thermionic vacuumdiode characteristic
this region the anode current is limited by the temperature of the cathode. The
device is not normally operated in this region of the curve, since doing so may
result in damage to the surface of the cathode.
~
.£ L~L~~~~
~
0
+
a.c.
load
supply
(a)
I
time
Figure 10.5 Singlephase halfwave rectifier
100
Study Notes in Electrical Science
10.3 Rectifier Circuits
Singlephase halfwave circuit
The diode in figure 10.5 conducts when the anode is positive with respect to the
cathode. In the case of a sinusoidal a.c. supply voltage
vm
Vd.c.= = 0.318Vm= 0.45V,
1t
where Vd.c =mean value of the d.c. output voltage, V m= maximum value ofthe a.c.
supply, and V, = r.m.s. value of the a.c. supply= V rnl 2.
.J
~
..: : ';+,.. .<.)
ci
A
if\!}\
8
~
(a)
time
(b)
Figure 10.6
Singlephase fullwave rectifier
Singlephase fullwave centretap circuit
Diodes A and Bin figure 10.6 conduct in alternate halfcycles, ensuring that the
potential of terminal X is always positive with respect to Y. With a sinusoidal
input
2Vm
V d.c. =  = 0.636Vm= 0.9V,
1t
where V mand V, refer to the voltage between one of the secondarywinding
terminals and the centre tap. Owing to the cost and weight of the transformer this
circuit is only used either when an unusual value of d.c. voltage is required or
where the load must be electrically isolated from the a.c. supply. This circuit is also
known as a biphase circuit.
Rectifiers
101
+
t
vd.c.
load
a.c
supply
Figure 10.7
Singlephase bridge rectifier
Singlephase bridge circuit
The circuit is shown in figure 10.7. Four diodes are used, and diagonally opposed
diodes conduct simultaneously; that is, diodes A and B conduct during one halfcycle of the supply waveform, and diodes C and D conduct in the other halfcycle.
The waveforms are generally like those shown in figure 10.6, and
V d.c. = 0.636V m = 0.9V,
The circuit does not require a transformer but must not be operated with earth
connections on both the a.c. and d.c. sides of the circuit.
+
QJ
~
u
~
E
,g
1~1
I
[
I
+
time
"0
0
E
.g
reservoir LC filter
capacitor
\
\
I
I
\ I
(a)
(b)
Figure 10.8
Smoothing circuit
Smoothing circuit
The output waveform from rectifier circuits is not smooth enough for some
applications. Smoothing is usually brought about by using a reservoir capacitor in
conjunction with some form of LC filter circuit (see figure 10.8). Electrolytic
capacitors are used both as reservoir and as filter capacitors.
11
Transistors, Triodes
and Amplifiers
11.1 Bipolar Junction Tramoistors
Construction
A bipolar junction transistor (see figure 11.1) is formed in a single crystal of
semiconductor material, and there are two types: n p n and p n p. Each
contains three regions known as the emitter, the base and the collector. When the
transistor is used in amplifier circuits the base emitter junction is forwardbiased
and the collector base junction is reversebiased. The arrow on the circuit
symbols points in the direction of conventional current flow (that is, of hole flow).
The most widely used type is the npn silicon transistor.
collector
p
n
p
collector
junction
collector
n
base
p
base
npn
symbol
n
emitter
junction
emitter
emitter
(a)
(b)
Figure 11.1
Bipolar junction transistors
Basic configurations
Amplifier circuits have an input terminal, an output terminal and a 'common'
connection between the input and output signals. Any one of the three regions of
the transistor (the emitter, base or collector) may be connected to the 'common'
line. The name given to the circuit connection or configuration in which the
transistor is used is that of the electrode that is connected to the common line.
103
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
Hence we have the commonemitter configuration, the commonbase corifiguration
and the commoncollector corifiguration (see figure 11.2). All the transistors in the
figure are npn types.
The commonemitter configuration (figure 11.2a) is the most widely used
circuit and provides reasonably high values of voltage gain, power gain and input
impedance. The commonbase configuration (figure 11.2b) provides reasonably
high values of voltage and power gain but has a low value of input impedance; it
maintains its current gain at higher frequencies than does the commonemitter
configuration. The commoncollector configuration (figure 11.2c) has a very high
input impedance, a very low output impedance and a voltage gain of slightly less
than unity.
input o+..
signal
(a)
common line
collector :
o~tput
s1gnal
(b)
base
common line
(c)
~_e_m_it_t_er_0 output
signal
input ob_a_s_e_~
signal
common line
Figure 11.2 Transistor configurations
104
Study Notes in Electrical Science
Static characteristic curves in the commonemitter configuration
Typical input characteristics, which show the way in which the input current (the
base current, I 8 ) varies with the input voltage (the base voltage, V 8 ) for various
values of output voltage (the collector voltage, V c), are shown in figure 11.3a.
A family of output characteristics, which show the way in which the output
current (the collector current, I c) varies with the output voltage (the collector
voltage, V c) for various values of input current (the base current, I 8 ), are
illustrated in figure 11.3b. It should be noted that the value of I c increases with I 8 •
150
30
Vc =5 v
Vc
=10
I 6 =100 f.LA
v
20
100
<i
<1
E
j.
.._,m
10
50
I L             ! 6 =20 f.LA
0
250
500
750
0
5
15
10
V6 (mV)
Vc (V)
~
~
20
25
Figure 11.3 Commonemitter characteristics
Static output characteristics in the commonbase corifiguration
A typical set of output characteristics (collector current plotted to a base of
voltage for various values of emitter current) is shown in figure 11.4. The output
characteristics are seen to be almost parallel not only with one another but also
with the base of the graph.
11.2 Fieldeffect Transistors
Fieldeffect transistors (FETs) are so named because an electrical field (or
electrical potential) controls the flow of current through the device. The two types
are junctiongate FETs (JUGFET) and insulatedgate FETs (IGFET or
M OSFET). The input resistance of both types of FET is very high, being typically
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
105
IE= 40 rnA
40 ~~
";;i
.§.
30
c
~::>
0
2
IE=20 rnA
20
0
~
0
h =10
0
10
rnA
/Ico
0~.~.
20
10
0
collector to base voltage (V)
Figure 11.4
Commonbase output characteristics
several hundred megohms. These transistors are generally used in applications in
which this feature is of paramount importance.
source

+
(a)
drain voltage
(b)
n channel
p channel
(C)
(d)
Figure 11.5
Junctiongate FET
Study Notes in Electrical Science
106
Junctiongate F EJ's
One form of JUGFET is shown in figure 11.5a; this type is known as annchannel
device since the conducting channel linking the source electrode and the drain
electrode is of ntype material. The source electrode is so named because it acts as
the source of charge carriers, and the drain is the electrode where they are
'drained' from the device.
The application of a reversebias voltage, V c;, between the ptype gate region
and the ntype conductingchannel causes a depletion region to form in the
channel. Increasing the negative value of V 0 reduces or depletes the value of the
drain current (see figure 11.5b). This type of device is known as a depletionmode
device. A reverse gate bias voltage equal to V P (the pinchoff voltage) causes the
drain current to become zero.
The circuit symbols for annchannel device and a pchannel device are shown in
figure 11.5. The arrow on the symbol indicates the nature of the gatetochannel
junction, since it points in the direction of the arrow in a conventional pn
junction diode; an arrow pointing towards the channel indicates that the gate is of
ptype material and that the channel is of ntype material.
Insulatedgate FEJ's
In an IGFET the gate is insulated from the body (or substrate) of the FET by a
aluminium contact
(a)
drain voltage (V)
(b)
p channel
nchannel
(c)
(d)
Figure 11.6
Insulatedgate FET
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
107
siliconoxide (that is, glass) insulating layer. This type of device is also described as
a MOSFET (MetalOxideSemiconductor FET) because of the gatetochannel
structure.
The device in figure 11.6a is known asapchannel MOSFET; as shown below, a
ptype conductingchannel is formed between the source and drain regions.
When the gate voltage, V a. is zero no current flows between the source and the
drain (see figure 11.6b ). The application of a negative potential to the gate attracts
positive charges (holes) in the substrate to the underside of the oxide layer to form
an inversion channel of ptype material in the ntype substrate. Below a value of
voltage known as the threshold voltage, V n no current flows between the source
and drain electrodes. When the gate voltage becomes more negative than V T•
current begins to flow; thus the gate voltage increases or enhances the value of the
drain current (see figure 11.6b). This type of device is described as an enhancementmode device.
The circuit symbols in figure 11.6 give information about the channel type.
When the arrow on the symbol points towards the conducting channel it indicates
that the substrate is of ptype material and that the conducting channel is of ntype
material.
anode
control grid
~
~athode
(a)
anode voltage ( V)
(b)
Figure 11.7 The triode
11.3 Triodes
A triode (see figure 11. 7) is a threeelectrode thermionic valve, the electrodes being
the anode, the cathode and the control grid. The triode is operated with its anode
positive with respect to the cathode and its control grid negative with respect to
the cathode.
Study Notes in Electrical Science
108
11.4 Amplifiers
Classification
Amplifiers can be classified in many ways. For example, they may be classified as
either voltage amplifiers or power amplifiers. Voltage amplifiers are those that
faithfully reproduce the input waveform but only provide a relatively small
amount of power output; they are also known as smallsignal amplifiers.
Power amplifiers are capable of providing a large power output but their
output waveform may not be a faithful reproduction of the input signal.
Amplifiers may also be classified according to the band offrequencies they are
capable of faithfully reproducing. This is illustrated in figure 11.8. D.C. amplifiers
are capable of reproducing a range of frequencies down to zero frequency (d.c.).
However, the gain of a.c. amplifiers reduces rapidly at low frequencies and they are
incapable of operating at zero frequency; this type is sometimes described as a
wideband a.c. amplifier. Tuned amplifiers can only provide a moreorless uniform
amplification to a very narrow band of frequencies.Low:frequency amplifiers have
a uniform gain at a small range of frequencies above zero frequency.
d.c. amplifier
c
g,
frequency
Figure 11.8
Amplifier frequencyresponse curves
Amplifiers may also be classified according to the type of device used in them.
For example, solidstate amplifiers contain semiconductor devices, while thermionic amplifiers contain such devices as triodes and pentodes. Rotating amplifiers
use special types of rotating generator (which may be either d.c. or a.c., the former
being more popular), while magnetic amplifiers contain saturable reactors and
diodes.
Amplifiers are also classified by the point on the characteristic to which the
electronic devices are biased as follows.
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
109
Class A:
current flows in the load during the whole period of the inputsignal cycle.
Class B: current flows in the load for onehalf of the period of each inputsignal cycle.
Class C: current flows in the load for less than onehalf of the period of
each inputsignal cycle.
Other classifications such as class AB are possible. Class A amplifiers are used in
tuned and untuned voltageamplifiers and in lowpower audiofrequency
amplifiers. Many audiofrequency poweramplifiers and some radiofrequency
amplifiers work in class B. Tuned oscillators and some radiofrequency amplifiers
work in class C.
Fixedbias smallsignal amplifier using bipolar transistors
Figure 11.9 shows a simple amplifier using a fixedbias arrangement. The
functions of the important components in the circuit are: TR =transistor, C 1 and
C2 =blocking capacitors, R 1 =basebias resistor, R L =collectorload resistor
and V cc =collectorsupply voltage.
cl
input signal
Figure 11.9
Bipolartransistor amplifier with fixed bias
The amplifier is phaseinverting and has an effective a.c. input resistance, Rio•
whose value is equal to R 1 in parallel with parameter hie (this parameter is
discussed in section 11.5). The voltage gain of the amplifier is approximately equal
to h r.R d R in (parameter h re also is discussed in section 11.5). The output
resistance of the circuit is approximately equal to R L· The thermal stability of this
circuit is poor, and a variation in temperature causes the quiescent value of the
collector voltage to change. The latter arises from a change in collector current
110
Study Notes in Electrical Science
with temperature through the transistor, the overall result being a change in the
voltage gain, power gain, power dissipation, etc., of the amplifier.
For a silicon transistor the quiescent base potential is about 0.6 V, and the
quiescent collector voltage should be about V cd2.
Practical smallsignal amplifier using bipolar transistors
A circuit with improved thermal stability is shown in figure 11.1 0. The functions
of the important components are: TR =transistor, C 1 and C2 =blocking
capacitors, C E= bypass capacitorfor the emitter resistor, R E> and R 1 , R 2 andRE
=bias and thermalstability resistors .
....o Vee (+l
Figure 11.10 A practical amplifier circuit
The amplifier is phaseinverting, and its a.c. input resistance, Rio• is equivalent
to the parallel combination of R 1 , R 2 and hie· The voltage gain is about
 hc.Rc I Riw and the output resistance is approximately equal to Rc Any change
in the collector current due to temperature change is partially compensated for by
a change in baseemitter voltage; the latter change restricts the change in
collector current to a small value.
The d.c. potential across R Eis about O.lVceo and the quiescent base voltage is
111
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
about 0.5 V greater than this value. The quiescent collector voltage is about
midway between the emitter voltage and Vee·
Loadline construction for resistive loads
For the circuit in figure 11.9
supply voltage =collector voltage+ p.d. across R L
hence
Vee=Ve+leRL
Vee
1)
le= ( RL Ve+ RL
The above equation is known as the loadline equation and shows how the
collector current, I e. varies with the collector voltage, V e• for given values ofVee
and Rvlt should be compared with the straightline equation y = mx + c relating
the variables y and x, from which it can be seen that the slope, m, of the load line is
1/RL and that the vertical intercept, c, is equal to VcciRL· A load line
corresponding to this equation is shown in figure 11.11.
load line of slope= 1/RL
Vcc
co I lector voltage
Figure 11.11
Load line
Example
The commonemitter characteristics of a npn transistor are linear over the
range given in table 11.1. The transistor is used in an amplifier circuit like that
Study Notes in Electrical Science
112
shown in figure 11.9 and has a collector load resistor, R L• of 1500 Q and a collector
supply voltage, V cc• of 8 V. If the base bias current, I 8 , is 50 J.lA, estimate
(a)
(b)
(c)
the quiescent values of the collector current, I c. and collector voltage, V c
the quiescent power dissipated by the transistor
the total power dissipated in the circuit.
If a sinusoidal inputsignal causes I 8 to change by± 10 J.lA, determine the
current gain of the amplifier and also the r.m.s. value of the a.c. components of I c
and Vc.
Table 11.1
I c (rnA) for
20
40
50
60
80
Vc=2V
Vc=9V
0.9
1.8
2.3
2.8
3.9
1.7
2.8
3.5
4.2
5.5
Solution
From figure 11.12 it can be seen that the vertical intercept of the load line on the I c
axis is
8V
1500 Q = 0.00533 A= 5.33 rnA
The load line has a slope of
1 A
1500 v
1 rnA
1.5 v
=
and cuts the V c axis at V cc or 8 V. The quiescent point, Q, of the circuit is given by
the intersection of the load line and the static output characteristic corresponding
to the d.c. bias current (that is, the characteristic for I 8 = 50 J.lA = 0.05 rnA). From
figure 11.12
quiescent collector current= I co= 2.65 rnA
quiescent collector voltage = V co= 4 V
(b) quiescent power dissipated by the transistor
=Vcof co=4 x 2.65mW = 10.6mW
(a)
113
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
(c)
total power dissipated by the circuit
=(I cQ+I 8 ) xVcc
=(2.65+0.05) x 8mW =21.6mW
(Note: The total power is given approximately by I cQXVcc=21.2mW.)
The input signal causes I 8 to change from 50 10 = 40 11A to 50+ 10 = 60 JlA;
that is, the change in I 8 is
M 8 = 20 11A = 0.02 rnA
The resulting change in I c is
M c= 3.062.18 =0.88mA
Hence the current gain of the amplifier is
OI c
8J B
0.88 X 10 3
20 X 10 6 = 44
6·0
5·33
5·0
;;:;
4·0
E
c
"'::>t:
<.>
3·0
0
u
~
0
<.>
2·0
1•0
0
2
4
6
collector voltage ( V)
Figure 11.12
8
9
10
114
Study Notes in Electrical Science
and since the input signal is sinusoidal the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of I c
is given by
oi c
(peaktopeak change in I c)
2.J2
=2.J2
=
~~82 = 0.311 rnA
The corresponding change in V c is
0Vc=4.7 3.4= 1.3 V
and the corresponding r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of V cis
2
.J 2 =0.46V
1.3
Smallsignal commoncathode triode amplifier
The circuit is shown in figure 11.13. The following components are used: V 1
=triode valve, R L=anode load resistor, R K =cathode bias resistor, R a= grid
resistor, Cl and C2 =blocking Capacitors and C K =bypaSS Capacitor for resistor
RK.
The amplifier is phaseinverting and has an a.c. inputimpedance equal to R G·
The voltage gain is JLRJ(r a+ RL), where Jl and r aare the voltageamplification
factor and slope resistance, respectively, of the valve at its operating point. The
output resistance of the amplifier is equal to the parallel combination of R Land r a·
tIl
outp~t signal
C2
input voltage
RG
Figure 11.13
A triode amplifier
+
1AA
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
115
11.5 Electronicdevice Parameters and Equivalent Circuits
Use of parameters
Transistors can be regarded as circuit elements having a pair of input terminals
and a pair of output terminals. The relationships existing between the input and
output quantities are expressed by equations that contain certain coefficients or
parameters. The parameters used to describe the operation of devices depend to a
great extent on the ease with which they can be measured. In the case of bipolar
transistors it has been found that the most useful set of parameters is the hybrid
parameters or hparameters. In the case of FETs and valves other sets of
parameters are used.
The resulting equations can then be developed to give electrically equivalent
circuits ofthe devices, which are in the form of voltage sources (Thevenin's circuit)
or current sources (Norton's circuit). It should be noted that the equivalent
circuits are only accurate over a limited range of the characteristics.
I,
input
signal
[2
v,!
transis1or
Figure 11.14
)~
out put
signal
Transistor parameters
Hybrid parameters or hparameters
The hybrid parameters are so named because the dimensions of the parameters
are mixed. They are defined for 'blackbox' devices in figure 11.14 by the equations
vl =hJ1 +h,v2
(11.1)
l2=hrl1 +hoV2
(11.2)
where
hi=inputresistance parameter and has dimensions of resistance
h r =reversefeedback parameter and is dimensionless
h r= forwardcurrentgain parameter and is dimensionless
ho=outputconductance parameter and has dimensions of conductance
Depending on the circuit configuration used, that is, commonemitter, commonbase or commoncollector, other subscripts are given as follows
e =commonemitter configuration
116
Study Notes in Electrical Science
b =commonbase configuration
c =commoncollector configuration
If the transistor in figure 11.14 is in the commonemitter configuration, then
equations 11.1 and 11.2 are written
V b= hie/ b+ h,.Vc
(11.3)
I c= hrel b+hoeVc
(11.4)
If the transistor is in the commonbase configuration, then equations 11.1 and
11.2 are written
V.= hibl .+h,bVc
(11.5)
J c= hfb/ .+hobVc
(11.6)
,,
lz
ho
v,
t
Figure 11.15
General hparameter equivalent circuit
Equivalent circuits
The equivalent circuit of the transistor is derived from the above equations. The
general equivalent circuit using the hparameters in figure 11.15 is derived from
equations 11.1 and 11.2 as follows. From equations 11.1 and 11.5, the equivalent
inputcircuit is
input voltage= p.d. due to I 1 +voltage generator due to V 2
From equations 11.2 and 11.6 the equivalent outputcircuit is
output current= current generator due to I 1 +current due to V2
When the bipolar transistor is used in one of its three operating modes the
parameters and variables in the equivalent circuit in figure 11.15 are replaced by
those in table 11.2.
Transistors, Triodes and Amplifiers
117
Table 11.2
Variables and
Variables and parameters used in equivalent circuits
parameters in
figure 11.15
Commonemitter
Commonbase
Commoncollector
vl
Il
vb
Ib
v.
I.
vc
Ic
v.
I.
hie
hib
h,b
hie
hrc
v2
I2
vc
Ic
h,
he
ho
h,.
he.
hoe
hi
hfb
hob
vb
Ib
hec
hoc
In many cases the values of the parameters hi and h 0 are small enough to cause
the voltage across and the current in the respective elements to be neglected. This
I,
Vj
Figure 11.16 Simplified hparameter equivalent circuit
Table 11.3
Parameter
hi(kQ)
h,
hr
ho (J.LS)
Commonemitter
2.0
3 X 10 4
100
15
Commonbase
Commoncollector
0.02
2.0
0.9997
101
15
3 X 10 4
0.99
0.15
118
Study Notes in Electrical Science
means that equations 11.1 and 11.2 respectively can be reduced to
v~
=h;ll
12 =h 111
which result in the simplified equivalent circuit in figure 11.16.
Typical parameter values for one transistor when used in the three configurations are given in table 11.3.