SPRINGER BRIEFS IN

ELEC TRIC AL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency
Modulation Made
Easy

123

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer
Engineering

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10059

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency Modulation
Made Easy

123

Saleh Faruque
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks, ND
USA

ISSN 2191-8112
ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)
SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering
ISBN 978-3-319-41200-9
ISBN 978-3-319-41202-3 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945147
© The Author(s) 2017
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Preface

By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897, the Italian physicist Tomaso
Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications. This
enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. For this
epoch-making invention, this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1909. Even today, students of wireless or radio technology remember
this distinguished physicist with reverence. A new era began in Radio
Communications.
The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as
“Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This led to the development of Frequency
Modulation (FM), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), etc.
Today, these technologies are extensively used in various wireless communication
systems. These modulation techniques form an integral part of academic curricula
today.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the various modulation techniques mentioned above. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students
up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital
modulation techniques. In particular, the following topics will be presented in this
book:







Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM
Amplitude shift keying (ASK)
Frequency shift keying (FSK)
Phase shift keying (PSK)
N-ary coding and M-ary modulation
Bandwidth occupancy in ASK, FSK, and PSK

This text has been primarily designed for electrical engineering students in the
area of telecommunications. However, engineers and designers working in the area

v

This book would never have seen the light of day had UND and the State of North Dakota not provided me with the technology to do so. illustrations. This book is a collection of my courseware and research activities in wireless communications. there may still be some errors in this book. North Dakota. It came out of my long industrial and academic career. For this. provided technical support in formulation and experimentation when I needed it. Finally. I developed a number of graduate-level elective courses in the area of telecommunications that combine theory and practice. My heartfelt salute goes out to the dedicated developers of these technologies. for affording me this opportunity. I hope that my readers forgive me for them. It is assumed that the student is familiar with the general theory of telecommunications. Grand Forks. for being by my side throughout the writing of this book and for patiently proofreading it. My darling son. thanks are also to my doctoral student Md. Shams. he deserves my heartfelt thanks. I shall be amply rewarded if they still find this book useful. and the verification of equations. I would like to thank my beloved wife. who have enabled me and others visually impaired to work comfortably. Maruf Ahamed who found time in his busy schedule to assist me with the simulations. I am grateful to UND and the School for the Blind. USA May 2016 Saleh Faruque . Yasmin. I would like to say a few words about how this book was conceived.vi Preface of wireless communications would also find this text useful. an English Literature buff and a writer herself. During my teaching tenure at the University of North Dakota. an electrical engineer himself. In closing. In spite of all this support.

. . . 17 17 19 20 20 21 21 . . . . . . . .. . . 1. . . . . .4 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation . . . .. .. . .2. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . References . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . 2. .Contents 1 Introduction to Modulation . .4. . . . . 1. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .4. .. . . .4. . . . . . . . and PM . . .3 Modulation by Digital Signal . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1 AM. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . 1. . .. . .. . . . . 1. . . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation. . . . . . . . . .6 Drawbacks in AM. . . 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 2.. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 Amplitude Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 2. . . . 23 24 24 . . . . . . . vii . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . FM. . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 AM Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .2 Modulation by Analog Signals . . . . . .3. . 2. . . . .3. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .3. . . . . . 2. .2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . 2. . 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) . . . . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . 9 10 11 12 14 15 . . . . .3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation . . 1. . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .

. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Demodulation . . . . 57 57 58 60 . . 2. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DSBSC Modulation. . 2. . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .3. . . . . 3.2 The Basic FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FM Spectrum . 4. 3. . .6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .3. . .4 DSBSC Drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . .2 Generation of DSBSC Signal . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .viii Contents 2. . . . . .4 ASK Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . .4. . . . .2 ASK Modulation . 3. . .3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth . .5 BER Performance . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. References . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 51 51 53 54 55 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) . . . .1 Why SSB Modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 32 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 45 45 46 48 49 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth. . . . . . 4. . . 2. . . . . .4. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal. . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . .3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .4 Conclusions . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . 33 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 44 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) . . . . . . . . . . .

. .1 Introduction . . . . . 7. 5.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 BPSK Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . 93 94 94 95 95 97 97 99 . . . . . . .3 QPSK Modulation .6. .3. . .3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .4. . . . .6 4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . 85 85 86 86 86 88 89 91 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .5 Conclusions . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation 6. . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ix 5. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . .2. . . . . . 6. 5. . . . . . . 6. . 7. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 6. . . .2 N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . .5 2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding .2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . .4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . . . . . .4 FSK Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . .5 16PSK Modulation . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8PSK Modulation . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . .2. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 7. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder. . . .2.. . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .4. . . . 6. . . 5. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .1 Correlation Receiver . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .2 Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . 63 63 65 67 67 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) . . . . . . .3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . 7.2. . . . 7. .3 BPSK Spectrum .. . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 75 77 77 79 79 82 82 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation. 6. . . . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 6. .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . .1 BPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . .7 Conclusions . .4. . . . .. . .

” Therefore. a carrier frequency much higher than the input signal is required to keep the size of the antenna at an acceptable limit. modulation is performed at the transmit side and demodulation is performed at the receive side. a high-frequency carrier signal is used in the modulation process.1 shows the conceptual block diagram of a modern wireless communication system. DOI 10. also known as “carrier frequency.Chapter 1 Introduction to Modulation Topics • • • • • Background Modulation by Analog Signal AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance Modulation by Digital Signal ASK.1 Background Modulation is a technique that changes the characteristics of the carrier frequency in accordance with the input signal.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_1 1 . Antenna is a reciprocal device that transmits and receives the modulated carrier frequency. The preceding two stages have been discussed elaborately in my previous book in this series [1. referred to as the modulated signal. This is the final stage of any radio communication system. FSK and PSK Bandwidth at a Glance 1. is fed into the antenna for propagation. In this process. 2]. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength (k) of the sinusoidal wave where k = c/f m c = Velocity of light = 3  108 m/s f = Frequency of the sinusoidal wave. As shown in the figure. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. Faruque. Figure 1. where the modulation block is shown in the inset of the dotted block. For these reasons. the © The Author(s) 2017 S. The output signal of the modulator.

where the digital signal processing is done keeping in mind the available bandwidth resources. The modulation stage is shown as a dotted block low-frequency input signal changes the characteristics of the high-frequency carrier in a certain manner. This is especially true for broadband communication. as the size and speed of digital data networks continue to expand. modulation is a very important step in the transmission of information. This book presents a comprehensive overview of these modulation techniques in use today. For a head start. brief descriptions of each of these modulation techniques are presented below. where the carrier is a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform. there are two basic modulation schemes as listed below: • Modulation by analog signals and • Modulation by digital signals. . The information can be either analog or digital. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. Therefore.2 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. Furthermore. Hence. bandwidth efficiency becomes increasingly important. the input signal (analog or digital) changes the characteristics of the carrier waveform.1 Block diagram of a modern full-duplex communication system. 1. depending on the modulation technique. As stated earlier.

this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. 4]. FM.2. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM.1. • Frequency Modulation (FM). Fig. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency. This is shown in Fig. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. In AM. A new era began in Radio Communications. students of wireless or radio technology remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. 1.2 Modulation by Analog Signals 1. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [3.2 1.1 3 Modulation by Analog Signals AM.2 where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. and PM For analog signals. 1. • Phase Modulation (PM). Even today.2 Modulation by analog signal . there are three well-known modulation techniques as listed below: • Amplitude Modulation (AM). For this epoch-making invention.

it will be shown that in FM.2. Unlike AM. where Df is the frequency deviation. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change. where higher-order spectral components are negligible. In FM: • The carrier frequency shifts back and forth from the nominal frequency by Df. in Phase Modulation (PM). . 1. • The approximate FM bandwidth is given by the Carson’s rule: – – – – – FM BW = 2f (1 + b) f = Base band frequency b = Modulation index b = Df/f Df = Frequency deviation. the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the phase of the carrier. 2. For this reason. FM is more attractive in commercial FM radio. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier.4 1 Introduction to Modulation As shown in the figure. We will discuss this more elaborately in Chap. FM is more robust against signal amplitude fading. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. only the frequency changes while the amplitude remains the same. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. which will be addressed in Chap.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance The bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal depends on bandwidth of the input signal and the modulation method as shown in Fig. FM is derived from the rate of change of phase of the carrier frequency. the modulated carrier creates an infinite number of spectral components. For this reason.3. 3. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. In AM: • The modulated carrier has two sidebands (upper and lower) and • Total bandwidth = 2  base band. It may be noted that AM is vulnerable to signal amplitude fading. PM is closely related to FM. Note that the unmodulated carrier itself has zero bandwidth. FM is also bandwidth inefficient. 1. 1. 3. the modulated carrier contains an infinite number of sideband due to modulation. In Frequency Modulation (FM). Notice that in FM. Similarly. • During this process. requiring frequency-domain analysis. It can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input modulation signal as shown in Fig. In fact. In Chap. Both FM and PM belong to the same mathematical family.2 [5].

1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK).3. The three main digital modulation techniques are as follows: • Amplitude shift keying (ASK).3 Bandwidth occupancy in AM. and PM signals 1. and • Phase shift keying (PSK). Figure 1. • Frequency shift keying (FSK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal For digital signals. 1.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 5 Fig. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the .4 illustrates the modulated waveforms for an input modulating digital signal. there are several modulation techniques available. Brief descriptions of each of these digital modulation techniques along with the respective spectral responses and bandwidth are presented below. also known as on–off keying (OOK). 1.1. FM.

4 shows the ASK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. • Binary 0 (bit 0): Amplitude = Low and • Binary 1 (bit 1): Amplitude = High. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.6 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. For the binary signal 0. . • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. etc. in accordance with the input signal. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. interference. the carrier is ON.4 Modulation by digital signal career frequency [6–8].2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [6–8]. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. as shown. this is referred to as ASK. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. the carrier is OFF. 1. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal.3. Figure 1. However. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. this is referred to as binary FSK (BFSK). 1. For binary signal 1.

where the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels.4 shows the modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. and • Modulation type (ASK. 1. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. Figure 1.1. which has two frequencies x1 and x2. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. For this reason. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Phase2 = 180°. FSK. • These frequencies correspond to the messages binary 0 and 1. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation.3. respectively. Figure 1. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. this is referred to as binary PSK (BPSK). 1. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Phase1 = 0°. PSK). in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Frequency = f + Df.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase of the carrier to represent digital signal [6–8].4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation In wireless communications. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. corresponding to the binary input signal. Let us take a closer look! .4 shows the FSK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. • Output is the BPSK-modulated carrier. etc. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Frequency = f − Df. which has two phases u1 and u2 corresponding to the two information bits.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 7 where the carrier frequency changes in discrete levels. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth.

P(x) is the power spectral density. T being the bit duration. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. The general equation for two-sided response is given by Za VðxÞ = VðtÞ  ejxt dt a In this case. is given by VðtÞ ¼ V ¼0 \0\t\T elsewhere ð1:1Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform” [9]: ZT VðxÞ = V  ejxt dt ð1:2Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2      1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 ð1:3Þ Here.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. Therefore.8 1 Introduction to Modulation 1. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. Period = T. In other words. Period = T. • Binary-0 = Low. The function can be a voltage . The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. 1. This is plotted in (Fig. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). 1.5a). The time-domain representation (Fig.4. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High.5b). where fb = Rb = 1/T. In practice. Also. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1.

and c two-sided power spectral density. It has one frequency component. 1.5c) shows the two-sided response. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 1.5 a Discrete time digital signal. For example. 1.1. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ V p sinðxtc Þ ð1:5Þ .4.2 ð1:4Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. where Rb is the bit rate or a current (Fig.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 9 Fig. b it is one-sided power spectral density. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb.

the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. Since the frequency is constant. • Modulated carrier: S(t) = m(t)C(t) = m(t)Ac cos(xct).3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK.6 A sine wave and its frequency response where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 1. 1.10 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. • Carrier frequency: C(t) = Ac cos(xct). Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. in accordance with the input signal where • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.4. 1.6 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞSðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sinðxm tÞ cosðxc Þ ¼ Am Ac cos ðxc  xm Þ .

For m(t) = 1 S(t) = A cos(x +Dx)t. . the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. We have: • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C (t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x −D x)t. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.1. 1.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 11 Fig. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. BW = 2Rb (coded). where Rb is the coded bit rate. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.7 ASK bandwidth at a glance. in accordance with the input signals. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data The spectral response is depicted in Fig. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. Bandwidth is given by. • A = Amplitude of the carrier. 1. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb.7.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK.4. For m(t) = 0 where • S(t) = The modulated carrier. 1.

The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc).8 FSK bandwidth at a glance. where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by  Dfc. and • Dx = Frequency deviation. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. in accordance with the input signal.5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance In BPSK. 1.8. we have: . 1. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. The FSK bandwidth is given by BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ.12 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. Here. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation.4. The spectral response is depicted in Fig. 1. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data • x = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency.

This is due to the fact that the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 13 • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C(t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x + u)t where • A = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. The transmission bandwidth is given by BW(BPSK) ¼ 2Rb =Bit per Phase ¼ 2Rb =1 ¼ 2Rb where • Rb is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). and • u = Phase of the carrier frequency. u = 2. Since there are two phases. Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : Figure 1. It will be shown that higher-order MPSK modulation schemes (M > 2) are spectrally efficient. 32. • For BPSK. as follows: u = 0° for bit 0 and u = 180° for bit 1. • x = Angular frequency of the carrier. 8. one bit per phase. 4.1. 64. Notice that the spectral response after BPSK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same as the one in ASK modulation. while the frequency remains the same. 16. Table below shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2.9 shows the spectral response of the BPSK modulator. . one bit per phase. the carrier frequency changes in two discrete levels. etc. centered on the carrier frequency fc. Also.

Amplitude shift keying (ASK). Frequency shift keying (FSK). FSK. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation 1.14 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. Phase shift keying (PSK).9 PSK bandwidth at a glance. In particular. and PSK.5 Conclusions This chapter presents a brief overview of modulation techniques covered in this book. 1. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. Frequency Modulation (FM). . and Bandwidth occupancy in ASK. Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM. following topics will be presented in this book: • • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM). Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques.

12. 25 Feb 1901. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 8. Joseph Fourier JB (1878) The analytical theory of heat (trans: Freeman A). Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. Complete Specification Left. Upper Saddle River 9.1109/JRPROC. British patent No. Prentice-Hall Inc. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission system. Date of Application 2 June 1896. British patent No. Accepted. New York 2. ISBN: 0442009178 7. Springer. 13 Apr 1901 5. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 2 Mar 1897. Complete Specification Left. New York 3. Springer. Englewood Cliffs. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Leon W. Prentice Hall. 7th edn. doi:10. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. and in apparatus therefor. The University Press.1936. Accepted. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency source coding made easy. 7. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 4. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Armstrong EH (1936) A Method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation.References 15 References 1. London .777.227383 6.039 . Marconi G (1987) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals.

the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [1. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.1.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_2 17 . while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. In AM. students of wireless or radio technologies remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. This is shown in Fig. Even today. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. which is the main topic of this chapter. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency.1 Introduction By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. 2]. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth Single Side Band (SSB) Carrier SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. © The Author(s) 2017 S. Faruque. DOI 10. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. A new era began in Radio Communications. For this epoch-making invention. 2. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM.

1 AM waveforms. . the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. However. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. requiring frequency domain analysis. 2. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. The frequency of the carrier remains the same As shown in the figure. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. this chapter will present the following topics: • Amplitude Modulation (AM) and AM spectrum • Double Sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) and DSBSC spectrum • Single sideband (SSB) carrier and SSB spectrum In the following sections. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. the above disciplines in AM modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.18 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. In an effort to examine this.

and S(t) is the output AM-modulated carrier frequency.2 19 Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes amplitude variations of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [3–5]. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.2. This is referred to as AM. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. S(t) is the modulated waveform which is transmitted by the antenna . 2. Here. Figure 2.2 Illustration of amplitude modulation. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. When m(t) = 0:  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:2Þ When m(t) = Am cos(2pfmt):  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:3Þ Fig.2 shows a functional diagram of a typical AM modulator for a single tone. These parameters are described below:   mðtÞ ¼ Am cosð2pfm tÞ CðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞfc  fm  SðtÞ ¼ ½1 þ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ CðtÞ þ mðtÞCðtÞ ð2:1Þ Therefore.2 Amplitude Modulation 2. The amplitude of the carrier C(t) changes in accordance with the input modulating signal m(t).

we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation.) Let us take a closer look! 2. which does not have information • The second term contains the information.20 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) In the above equation. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. which has several spectral components. Fig. It has one frequency component.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. For example. FSK. we see that: • The first term is the carrier only.3 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. For this reason. Since the frequency is constant.3 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response . For simplicity. PSK. we use a sinusoidal waveform. FM ASK. and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. 2.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In AM.3. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type (AM. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. 2. etc. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð2:4Þ where • Vp = Peak voltage • xm = 2pfm • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz Figure 2. requiring further analysis to quantify them.

3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. For example. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the AM signal again. which was derived earlier: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:6Þ Using the following trigonometric identity: cosA cosB ¼ 1=2cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2cosðA  BÞ Fig.3. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð2:5Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 2.3. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.2. It has one frequency component. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc  fm). Since the frequency is constant.2 21 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.4 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response ð2:7Þ . 2. 2.

22 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) where • A = 2p (fc + fm)t • B = 2p (fc − fm)t we get SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc þ fm Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:8Þ This is the spectral response of the AM-modulated signal. Therefore. AM is inefficient in power usage. Fig. where the carrier does not contain any information. 2. It has three spectral components: • The carrier: fc • Upper sideband: fc + fm • Lower sideband: fc – fm where fc is the carrier frequency and fm is the input modulating frequency. This is shown in Fig.5 AM spectrum. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm .5. The AM bandwidth (BW) is given by BW ¼ 2fm ð2:9Þ Notice that the power is distributed among the sidebands and the carrier. 2. Only the sidebands contain the information.

 For mðtÞ ¼ 1 :  SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  1 cosð2pc tÞ ¼ 0 For mðtÞ ¼ þ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ 1cosð2pf c tÞ ¼ 2Ac cosð2pf c tÞ ð2:10Þ ð2:11Þ This is called 100 % modulation.6 Amplitude modulation due to low and high modulating signals ð2:12Þ . if m(t) has a peak positive value of +1 and a peak negative value of −1.6. The percent modulation is described by the following equation: The overall modulation percentage is: Amax  Amin % Overall Modulation ¼  100 Ac max½mðtÞ  min½mðtÞ  100: ¼ 2Ac Fig. 2.3. Therefore.7. 2.4 23 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals If m(t) has a peak positive value of less than +1 and a peak negative value of higher than −1. then the modulation is less than 100 %. as shown in Fig.2. On the other hand.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. 2. then the modulation is 100 % [3–5]. This is shown in Fig.

Problem 2.24 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. As the signal enters the receiver.3. Next. AM is inefficient in power usage • Moreover.7 AM demodulation technique.6 Drawbacks in AM • The modulated signal contains the carrier. Therefore.1 Given: • Input modulating frequency fm = 10 kHz • Carrier frequency fc = 400 kHz Find • Spectral components • Bandwidth . Next. 2. since it affects the amplitude of the carrier. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted.7 shows the conceptual model of the AM receiver. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth and power efficiency. 2. it passes through the band-pass filter.5 AM Demodulation Once the modulated analog signal has been transmitted. it needs to be received and demodulated. carrier takes power and it does not have the information • Therefore. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. This is accomplished by the use of a band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. Figure 2. it passes through the band-pass filter. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted 2. As the signal enters the receiver.3. containing the same information • It is bandwidth inefficient • AM is also susceptible to interference. there are two sidebands.

2. we use the following trigonometric identities: • cos(A + B) = cosA cosB − sinA sinB • cos(A − B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB With A = 2pfmt = xmt and B = 2pfct = xct.4. as given below: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pf c tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:13Þ Notice that there are three spectral components: • The first term is the carrier only.2. which is the first term that does not have any information. also known as product modulator.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 25 Solution Spectral Components: • fc = 400 kHz • fc + fm = 400 kHz + 10 kHz = 410 kHz • fc − fm = 400 kHz − 10 kHz = 390 kHz Bandwidth • BW = 2 fm = 2  10 kHz = 20 kHz.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) 2. we obtain: SðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Now. by suppressing the first term we obtain the following: SðtÞ ¼ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:14Þ Next. which does not have any information • The second and third terms contain information. In DSBSC. define • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) • C(t) = Ac cos (xct) ð2:15Þ . is an AM signal that has a suppressed carrier [3–5]. we suppress the carrier.1 DSBSC Modulation Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC). Therefore. Let us take the original AM signal once again.

2. Also.” Proof of DSBSC Consider the DSBSC modulator as shown in Fig.2 Generation of DSBSC Signal A DSBSC signal can be generated using two AM modulators arranged in a balanced configuration as shown in Fig. 2.9 Construction of DSBSC modulator. the AM modulators generate S1(t) and S2(t).26 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. we can write the above equations as: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ ð2:16Þ This is the DSBSC waveform.9 [3–5]. 2. 2. This is why it is called “product modulator. it is also known as product modulator. The output is the product of two signals . The outcome is a cancellation of the discrete carrier. Since the output is the product of two signals. The symbolic representation is given in Fig.9. which are given by: Fig. where m(t) is the input modulating signal and C(t) is the carrier frequency. 2.8 Symbolic representation of DSBSC. also known as product modulator Then. the output is the product of two inputs: S(t) = m(t) C(t). Here. 2.4.8.

SðtÞ ¼ 2 Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:20Þ This is the desired DSBSC waveform for spectral analysis. In other words. hence the name double sidebandsuppressed carrier (DSBSC). the above equation is exactly the same as the desired DSBSC waveform shown earlier.4.2. we essentially cancel the carrier to obtain: SðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:18Þ Therefore. the carrier has been suppressed. 2. except for the scaling factor 2.3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth We begin with the DSBSC-modulated signal: SðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:19Þ where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Therefore.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ 27 ð2:17Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ Subtracting S2(t) from S1(t). Now. use the trigonometric identity:  cos A cos B ¼ 1=2 cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2 cosðA  BÞ ð2:21Þ where A ¼ xm t ¼ 2pfm t and B ¼ xc t ¼ 2pfc t Therefore. SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½cosðxc þ xm Þt þ cosðxc  xm Þt ¼ Ac ½cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt þ cos 2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:22Þ . which does not have the carrier.

4 • • • • ð2:23Þ DSBSC Drawbacks There are two identical sidebands.10 DSBSC spectrum where the carrier frequency is suppressed. 2. 2. as shown below: Find (a) The output waveform S2(t) (b) What is the function of this circuit? Solution S1 ðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ (a) S2 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ CðtÞ ¼ mðtÞC 2 ðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Ac2 cos 2ðxc tÞ (b) The function of the circuit is to demodulate DSBSC signals. it is more efficient.10). Problem 2.2 Given:Two product modulators using identical carriers are connected in a series. where the carrier frequency is filtered out. . The bandwidth is given by 2 fm Notice that the carrier power is distributed among the sidebands (Fig.4. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth efficiency. Each sideband contains the same information Bandwidth is 2 fm Unnecessary power usage Therefore.28 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. The bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2fm 2. Therefore.

5.1 29 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation Why SSB Modulation? • The basic AM has a carrier which does not carry information—Inefficient power usage • The basic AM has two sidebands contain the same information—Additional loss of power • DSBSC has two sidebands. 2.2.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 2. the basic AM and DSBSC are bandwidth and power inefficient • SSB is bandwidth and power efficient. 2.11 [3–5].5 2. 2.2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal Single sideband (SSB) modulation uses two product modulators as shown in Fig.5. containing the same information—Loss of power • Therefore. where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ ð2:24Þ mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:25Þ CðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxc tÞ ð2:26Þ CðtÞ ¼ Ac sinðxc tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:27Þ     Fig.11 Generation of SSB signal .

and S3. 2. The SSB bandwidth is fm ð2:33Þ .12 displays the SSB spectrum. it is more efficient. Fig.3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the SSB signal again: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt ð2:32Þ Here. we obtain:  S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:28Þ  ð2:29Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ  Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ ð2:30Þ Using the following formula: • cosA cosB = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sinA sinB =1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. we see that the SSB spectrum contains only one sideband.30 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Solving for S1. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. 2. Therefore. S2. which is the upper sideband only. The SSB bandwidth is given by: SSB BW ¼ fm Figure 2.5.12 SSB spectrum showing the upper sideband. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ð2:31Þ In the above equation.

is presented below.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 31 Problem 2. which is the lower sideband only. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxm  xc Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc  fm Þt In the above equation. .2. we obtain: • S1(t) = Ac Am cos (xmt) cos (xct) • S2(t) = Ac Am sin (xmt) sin (xct) Obtain S3 as: S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ þ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ Using the following formula: • cos A cos B = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sin A sin B = 1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. Solution Solving for S1 and S2. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. Sketch the spectral response. showing the lower sideband.3 Given: • • • • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) m(t)* = Am sin (xmt) − (Hilbert Transform) C(t) = Ac cos (xct) C(t)* = Ac sin (xct) − (Hilbert Transform) Design an SSB modulator to realize the lower sideband. The spectral response.

Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 7th edn. Complete Specification Left. ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0 . Marconi G (1897) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. the following topics were presented in this chapter: • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM spectrum and bandwidth Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC spectrum and bandwidth Single sideband (SSB) SSB spectrum and bandwidth These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. 88th edn.777. American Radio Relay League. Godse AP. 7. Accepted. It was also shown that the modulated carrier contains several spectral components that lead to DSBSC and SSB modulation techniques. Complete Specification Left. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. British patent No. References 1. Englewood Cliffs. Bakshi UA (2009) Communication engineering. 25 Feb 1901. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. Leon W.6 Conclusions This chapter presents the key concepts and underlying principles of Amplitude Modulation. It was shown how the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier.32 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 2. and in apparatus therefor. Prentice-Hall Inc. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 2. 13 Apr 1901 3. Technical Publications. Date of Application 2 June 1896. Accepted. 12. 2 Mar 1897. p 36. ISBN 978-81-8431-089-4 5. Silver W (ed) (2011) Chapter 14 transceivers. In particular. British patent No. The ARRL handbook for radio communications.039.

In an effort to examine this.1. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. and • FM bandwidth. and • S(t) is the FM-modulated carrier frequency. Faruque. DOI 10. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same [1–5]. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. This is shown in Fig. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains an infinite number of spectral components. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1 Introduction In Frequency Modulation (FM). As shown in the figure. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. • FM spectrum. However. © The Author(s) 2017 S. requiring frequency domain analysis [3].Chapter 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Topics • • • • • • Introduction Frequency Modulation (FM) FM Spectrum Carson’s Rule & FM Bandwidth Bessel Function & FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth Dilemma 3. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. 3. this chapter will present the following topics: • The basic Frequency Modulation (FM). while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_3 33 . the audio waveform changes the frequency of the carrier. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal.

ð3:1Þ . It is a measure of rotation rate or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform as illustrated in Fig. and • h = Phase angle. where the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal.34 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. Magnitude of the angular frequency x is defined by one revolution or 2p radians: x ¼ 2pf ¼ dh=dt Radians per second where. • f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. Here. the angle refers to the angular frequency (x).2. 3.2. • x = Angular frequency in radians per seconds. The angular frequency x is also recognized as angular speed or circular frequency.2 3.1 Illustration of FM 3. 3.1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Background FM is a form of angle modulation.

3. we obtain. Now solving for the phase angle. 3. using a single-tone modulating signal. where the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.1. Zt hi ðtÞ ¼ 2p fi dt ð3:2Þ 0 • hi = Instantaneous phase angle and • fi = Instantaneous frequency. .2. The modulated carrier frequency fc varies back and forth and depends on amplitude Am and frequency fm of the input signal. This forms the basis of our derivation of FM as presented in the following section. These parameters are described below. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. This is referred to as FM. Here.2 A sinusoidal waveform in the time domain and its representation in the phase domain Notice that in Eq. 3.2 The Basic FM Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes frequency variation of the relative frequency of the career [1].2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 35 Fig.3 shows the functional diagram of a typical FM. Figure 3. the angular frequency x is greater than the frequency f by a factor of 2p. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency. 3. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.

and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency We examine this by means of a single-tone input modulating signal and its angular frequency as shown in Fig. (3. (3.2) into Eq. Df = Constant.4) for hi. the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is given by fi ðtÞ ¼ fc ðtÞ þ Df mðtÞ ð3:3Þ where. The FM-modulated signal is given by SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðhi Þ ð3:4Þ where Ac is the amplitude of the carrier frequency and hi is the instantaneous angle. Since the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. Substituting Eq. • • • • fi = Instantaneous frequency. fc = Carrier frequency. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.3 A functional diagram of a typical FM modulator using a single-tone input modulating signal.36 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig.5) for fi. (3. Substituting Eq. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. we obtain Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p ffcðtÞ þ Df mðtÞgdt 0 ð3:6Þ . we get Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p fi dt ð3:5Þ 0 where fi is the instantaneous frequency. 3. Here. and m(t) = Am cos (wmt). (3.2. 3.3) into Eq.

Let us take a closer look. which is periodic and . For this reason. and • Modulation type. Note that the modulation index b is an important design parameter in FM. • • • • • • • • S(t) = FM-modulated carrier signal. For simplicity. Deviation where.3. It is directly related to FM bandwidth. Df = A constant parameter. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In FM. Δf = DfAm = Frequency deviation.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 37 where mðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxm tÞ is the input modulating signal.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. Integrating the above equation. and b = Df/fm = Modulation index. fm = Input modulating frequency. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal.3. we use a sinusoidal waveform. 3. It may also be noted that FM bandwidth depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input modulating signal. fc = Frequency of the carrier. we obtain the desired FM signal as follows:     Df SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos 2pfc t þ sinð2pfm tÞ fm ¼ Ac cos½2pfc t þ bsinð2pfm tÞ   Df b¼ ¼ Modulation Index fm ð3:7Þ Df ¼ DfAm ¼ Freq. Ac = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. Let’s take a closer look! 3.

the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: Fig. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc » fm).4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.5 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response before modulation . its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. • xm = 2pfm. 3. For example. Figure 3. 3.3.38 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. For example. 3.4 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response continuous with respect to time. It has one frequency component.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. Since the frequency is constant. and • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð3:8Þ where. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. • Vp = Peak voltage. It has one frequency component.

Figure 3.3. 3. we observe that S(t) depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input signal. By inspecting the modulated carrier frequency.5 shows the characteristics of a high-frequency sine wave and its spectral response. The spectral response is given in Fig. Since the frequency is constant.6. 3. In Fig. b = Df/fm = Modulation index. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal. we see that: • As time passes. • Strength of individual sidebands far away from the carrier is proportional to (freq. we have:    Input Signal : mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Carrier Frequency : C ðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðxc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ð3:10Þ where • • • • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier. • Higher order spectral components are negligible. spaced from carrier by amounts N  fi. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. Here.6.3. xc = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. .3 FM Spectrum In FM. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. and Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. deviation  input frequency). The corresponding bandwidth is zero. • A group of many sidebands is created. Ac = Frequency of the carrier. Df = DfAm = Frequency deviation. 3. Df = Constant.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 39 V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð3:9Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc and • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz. • Relative strength of each sideband depends on Bessel function. Notice that the carrier frequency after modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc as depicted in the figure. • Frequency deviation is proportional to the input signal voltage.

As time passes. 3.40 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig.6 FM spectrum. states that more than 98 % of the power of FM signal lies within a bandwidth given by the following approximation: FM Bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2fm ð1 þ bÞ where ð3:11Þ . 3. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal and generates an infinite number of sidebands • Carson’s rule can be used to determine the approximate bandwidth: bandwidth required = 2  (highest input frequency + frequency deviation). a rule of thumb.4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth The Carson’s rule.3.

03 J5 • b = Df/fm = Modulation index.01 0.24 0. . Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm . .13 0. J2.11 0. ð3:12Þ Here.94 0. etc.56 0.02 0.25 0. J’s are the Bessel functions.03 0. J0 (b) is the amplitude of the fundamental spectral component.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth Table 3. 3.3.51 0. representing the amplitude of the sidebands.44 0.…. These values are also available as a standard Bessel function table.  J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t  xm tÞ  J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t  2xm tÞ  J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t  3xm tÞ þ . Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency.7 FM sidebands. and • fm = Highest frequency of the modulating signal.12 0. it can be obtained as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index. J3. For a single-tone modulation. .98 0.06 0.1 Bessel function table 41 b J0 J1 J2 J3 J4 0 0.22 0.3. For a given b. • Df = Peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center of the carrier frequency.23 0.58 0. and the remaining spectral components are the sidebands. .5 2 1 0. Power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.77 0. Fig. the solution for S(t) is given as follows: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ¼ J0 ðbÞ cosðxc tÞ þ J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ xm tÞ þ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 2xm tÞ þ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 3xm tÞ þ .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth can be estimated by means of Bessel function of the first kind. 3.5 1 1.35 0.

while creating more significant sidebands. are presented for different values of b. For a given low b. Therefore. etc. More power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1. J3. in FM. the occupied bandwidth is also high. this is shown in Fig. etc. requiring more bandwidth. However. This is a dilemma in FM. J0. if the modulation index is high. the occupied bandwidth is low and the sidebands take less power from the carrier. J2. for which the carrier amplitude becomes zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands. J0 is carrier power before modulation. Table 3. are the sidebands.8 shows another scenario where b is large. On the other hand. Here.6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma In FM. Here. J0 is the spectral component of the carrier. In this case.7.3. J3. making the modulation more efficient at the expense of bandwidth.8 FM sidebands for large b. with a given value of b. the carrier and sideband amplitude powers. J1. making the modulation less efficient. In this table. Also. FM is more popular because it is less sensitive to noise. 3. J4. the total bandwidth includes spectral components from both sides of the carrier. power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands. power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sidebands. J2.1 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼1 . Note that. 3. Figure 3. J2.… Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm As an example. depending on the modulation index b..1 provides a few Bessel parameters to illustrate the concept. Problem 3.42 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. After modulation. while the sidebands retain most of the power.…. After modulation. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency fm. there is a unique value of b. the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier. J1. we notice that if the modulation index is low. 3. more power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sideband..

there are two significant upper and lower sidebands.11. we take 3 upper sidebands and 3 lower sidebands. J3 = 0. we can neglect J3 since it has a negligible power. we have 4 upper and 4 lower sidebands. J3 = 0.44. and J3 are the sidebands. See Table 3. FM bandwidth is 2  Number of significant sidebands = 2  2 = 4 kHz. (b) For b = 1.3.13.03 Here. Therefore. Since the J4 is negligible. Therefore. J4 = 0. J2 = 0. . Here.1: • J0 = 0. J2 = 0. J2.02 where J0 is the carrier and J1. and each sideband is separated by 1 kHz.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 43 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 1) = 4 kHz. Therefore. See Table 3. See figure below. Problem 3. See figure below.35. (b) For b = 2. J1 = 0.77.1: • J0 = 0. the FM bandwidth is 2  3 = 6 kHz.2 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼2 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 2) = 6 kHz.58.22. and each sideband is 1 kHz apart. J1 = 0.

4th edn.1109/JRPROC. 7th edn. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. and problems are given to illustrate the concept. Englewood Cliffs. References 1. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. New York 5. Felix MO (1965) FM systems of exceptional bandwidth. Wiley.4 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Conclusions • This chapter presents a brief overview of Frequency Modulation (FM) and its attributes. Haykin S (2001) Communication systems. • FM spectrum is addressed with illustrations. pp 214–217. doi:10.227383 2. Leon W. Armstrong EH (1936) A method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. • The key concept and the underlying principle of FM are presented with numerous illustrations to make them easier for readers to grasp. Lathi BP (1968) Communication systems. • FM bandwidth is estimated by means of Carson’s rule and Bessel function. New York. Prentice-Hall Inc. Proc IEEE 112(9):1664 . ISBN 0-471-51832-8 3. • FM bandwidth dilemma is explained.1936. Wiley.44 3.

• C(t) is the carrier frequency. Faruque. and • S(t) is the ASK-modulated carrier frequency. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal.1 Introduction In amplitude shift keying (ASK). This is shown in Fig. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.Chapter 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ASK spectrum ASK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 4. the above disciplines in ASK modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. In the following sections. DOI 10. the digital binary signal changes the amplitude of the carrier in two discrete levels.1. However. requiring frequency domain analysis. 4. © The Author(s) 2017 S. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. As shown in the figure.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_4 45 . Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation.

8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. if they occur during transmission [4–16].2 shows an encoded ASK modulation scheme using (15. Next. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.46 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. we will use a simple coding technique. which is then ASK modulated and transmitted row by row. which is encoded before modulation.2 ASK Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. 4. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. Figure 4. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. While there are many error-coding schemes available. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [1–3]. also known as on–off keying (OOK).1 ASK waveforms. The rate of this coding scheme is given by . This is an indispensable task in digital communications. The frequency of the carrier remains the same 4. N = 2).

For the binary signal 0.. 4.2 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is also known as on–off keying (OOK). where . a small residual signal may remain due to noise. the coded bits are modulated by means of the ASK modulator as shown in the figure. the carrier is OFF. As shown in the figure. the carrier is ON. in accordance with the input signal. etc. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. Here. interference. For binary signal 1. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels.2 Ask Modulation 47 Fig.4. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. however. as indicated in the figure. The amplitude of the carrier frequency changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate: r = (MNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ = (4  2)/(5  3) = 8/15 ð4:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate = Rb1 =r = Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð4:2Þ Next.

along with horizontal and vertical parities. 4. it needs to be received and demodulated. where A is the amplitude and x is the frequency of the carrier. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error . the receiver needs to utilize one band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. If there is an error.3 having no errors.48 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 ðcoded dataÞ Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cos(xtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ¼mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)A cos(xtÞ ð4:3Þ For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = A cos(xt) i:e: the carrier is ON For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = 0. 4. This is often accomplished with the use of a band-pass filter. 4. it passes through the filter and a decision as to the value of each bit is made to recover the encoded data block.3 Data recovery process in ASK. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error.3 ASK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. showing no errors. If there is an error. i:e: the carrier is OFF ð4:4Þ Therefore. Fig. As the signal enters the receiver. This is shown in Fig. Next. the receiver appends horizontal and vertical parities PH* and PV* to check parity failures and recovers the data block. In the case of ASK.

In practice.4. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ).4 Ask Bandwidth 4.4b. 4. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. For this reason. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V =0 \0\t \T elsewhere ð4:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð4:6Þ 0   sinðxT=2Þ jV ðxÞj ¼ VT xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 PðxÞ ¼ jV ðxÞj2 ¼ V 2 T T xT=2 ð4:7Þ Here.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.4 49 ASK Bandwidth In wireless communications. Period = T Also. Therefore. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. This is plotted in Fig.4. the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. 4. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. the one-sided bandwidth is . 4. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. and • Modulation type. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components.4a). Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. P(x) is the power spectral density. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.

50 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) given by the ratio f/fb = 1. 4. where Rb is the bit rate . T being the bit duration. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. where fb = Rb = 1/T. The function can be a voltage or a current. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data is 2Rb. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ V ðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. In other words.4c shows the two-sided response.4 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth (BW) = 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before coding) ð4:8Þ Fig. Figure 4.

For example.5 = 20 kb/s. For example. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. in accordance with the input signal. 4. 2.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)r. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/ r. code rate is r. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. For example. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V(t) ¼ Vp sin(xtc Þ ð4:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 4.4 Ask Bandwidth 51 Important Notes 1. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.4. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. and if the data is NRZ. where . 4. then the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. It has one frequency component.4. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. Since the frequency is constant.4.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. and if the data is NRZ.

4. 4. Problem 1 Given: • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate: r = 8/15 • Modulation: ASK Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2) RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18.6). we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sin(xm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ m(t)SðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sin(xm tÞcos(xm tÞ ¼ 1=2 Am Ac ½sinðxc  xm Þt þ sinðxc þ xm Þt ð4:10Þ The spectral response is depicted in Fig.52 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. .5 High-frequency carrier frequency response    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ Ac cos(xc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)Ac cos(xc tÞ Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. where Rb is the coded bit rate (Fig.5 kHz.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2  18. 3.75 kb/s = 37.14. Bandwidth is given by: BW = 2Rb (coded). Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data.

5 BER Performance 53 Fig. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. Then. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU with the coded word WERC. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data 4. 5]. k) bock code. can correct t errors [4.4. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. with ASK modulation. the coded BERc will be: . The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. Since n > k. we write: WERU ¼ 1  ð1  BERU Þk ð4:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU). n = number of coded bits. the coded bit energy to noise ratio will be modified to Ec/N0. Therefore. where k = number of information bits. Thus. 4. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.6 ASK bandwidth at a glance.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð4:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly.

• Numerous illustrations are provided to show how amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and ASK bandwidth is calculated. the first term in the summation is the dominant one. therefore. 4. . we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. (4. Notice that at least 3–4 db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. Eq.7 Typical error performance in AWGN BERC ¼ 0:5 EXP(  EC =2N0 Þ ð4:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is given as: WERC ¼ n X n k¼t þ 1 k ! BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk ð4:14Þ When BERc < 0. t = 1).6 Conclusions • This chapter presents ASK modulation and its attributes. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves.7.14) can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð4:15Þ Using (15.54 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig.5. 4. 4. 8) block code (n = 15. k = 8.

Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Leon W. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. GTM 86. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Addison-Wesley. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Technical report. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Kohlenbero A. Holmdel. North-Holland. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes.. Huffman W. New Jersey . p 31.. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Prentice-Hall. Cambridge University Press. References 1. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. 7th edn. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Inc. 2nd edn. Lin S. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Englewood Cliffs 8. Wiley. New York 14. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs 4. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Springer. Inc.6 Conclusions 55 • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Plenum press. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications.4. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ebert PM. New York 6. Prentice-Hall. Reading 9. p 35. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Englewood Cliffs. Springer. Mac Williams FJ.

These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. the above disciplines in FSK modulation will be presented. Faruque.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_5 57 . © The Author(s) 2017 S. As shown in the figure. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. the digital binary signal changes the frequency of the carrier on two discrete levels.1 where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. 5. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. requiring frequency-domain analysis. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. This is shown in Fig. and • S(t) is the FSK-modulated carrier frequency. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.1 Introduction In frequency shift keying (FSK). This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. In the following sections.Chapter 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) FSK spectrum FSK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 5. However. DOI 10.

if they occur during transmission [4–16]. Next. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding.1 FSK waveforms. 5. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.58 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. which is encoded before modulation. we will use a simple coding technique. N = 2). While there are many error-coding schemes available. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M rows and N columns (M = 4. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [1–3].2 shows an encoded FSK modulation scheme using (15. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 5. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) . Figure 5. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. known as “block coding” to illustrate the concept. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.

Here. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. • For binary signal 0. the carrier changes to fc + Df. the carrier changes to fc – Df. • For binary signal 1. . which is then FSK-modulated and transmitted row by row. • The input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. 5.5. The rate of this coding scheme is given by: Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð5:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð5:2Þ Next. the coded bits are modulated by means of the FSK modulator as shown in the figure.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 59 Fig. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row.2 Binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation. which has two frequencies corresponding to the binary input signal. • The total frequency deviation is 2Df. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal (N + 1) = n = 15.

For mðtÞ ¼ 0 ð5:3Þ where    5.8. the receiver needs to utilize two band-pass filters that are tuned to the appropriate frequencies. As the signal enters into the receiver. the frequency deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the filters in mind to eliminate crossover.3 Binary FSK detector utilizing two matched band-pass filters . the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels.3 A ¼ Frequency of the carrier x ¼ Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency Dx ¼ Frequency deviation: ð5:4Þ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. this is relatively straightforward. This is often accomplished by the use of band-pass filters. This is shown in Fig.3. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. in accordance with the input signals. 3. 5. it needs to be received and demodulated. One band-pass filter will be centered at the frequency x1 and the other at x2 .60 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) As shown in Fig. 5. Fig. Since the nominal carrier frequency and the frequency deviation are known. In the case of binary FSK. it passes through the respective filter and the corresponding bit value is made. We have:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ AcosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx  DxÞt. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx þ DxÞt.

This is plotted in Fig. 5. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type.4b.4a). while side lobes correspond to harmonic components. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. P(x) is the power spectral density.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. 5. elsewhere ð5:5Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð5:6Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2  ð5:7Þ     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 Here. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.4 FSK Bandwidth 5. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the . is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \ 0 \ t \ T = 0 . It has two values: • Binary 1 = high. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). period = T Also. period = T • Binary 0 = low. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation The time-domain representation (Fig. For this reason.4.4 61 FSK Bandwidth In wireless communications. 5.5. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.

4 a Discrete-time digital signal. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.4c shows the two-sided response. In other words. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. Figure 5. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ ð5:8Þ . the side lobes are filtered out. b its one-sided power spectral density. where fb = Rb = 1/T. where Rb is the bit rate frequency.62 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. The function can be either a voltage or a current. In practice. 5. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. Therefore. and c two-sided power spectral density. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). T being the bit duration.

3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. For example. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. We have: . then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb(uncoded)r.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. in accordance with the input signals. 5. 2. and if the data is NRZ.5 = 20 kb/s. 5. code rate is r. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/r. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxtc Þ ð5:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 5. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. and if the data is NRZ.4. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. For example.5.4. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.4 FSK Bandwidth 63 Important Notes: 1. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. Since the frequency is constant. For example. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. It has one frequency component.

For mðtÞ ¼ 0 where • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier A = Amplitude of the carrier x = Nominal frequency of the carrier Dx = Frequency deviation The spectral response is depicted in Fig.6. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by +Dfc. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx þ DxÞt.5 High-frequency carrier response  Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1  Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxtÞ  Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx  DxÞt.64 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. The above equation is also known as “Carson’s rule. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. The FSK bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ð5:10Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). 5.” Problem Given: • • • • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Modulation: FSK Modulation index b = 1 . 5.

a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.5. where k = number of information bits and n = number of coded bits. k) bock code. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). 5. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 RB2(1+b) = 2  18.6 FSK bandwidth at a glance. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. fb where fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation =1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2): RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. can correct t errors [4.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. 5. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. 5]. .4 FSK Bandwidth 65 Fig.75 kb/s (1 + 1) = 75 kHz. to the coded word WERC. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU.

Notice that at least 3–4-db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. the coded BERc will be: BERC ¼ 0:5 EXPðEc =2N0 Þ ð5:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is: WERC ¼ ! n BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk k n X k¼t þ 1 ð5:14Þ When BERc < 0. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. Then. 8) block code (n = 15. with FSK modulation.5. we write: WERU ¼ 1ð1BERU Þk ð5:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). Therefore. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). therefore. the ratio of coded bit energy to noise will be modified to Ec/N0.7 Typical error performance in AWGN . k = 8. the first term in the summation is the dominant one. 5. Thus. t = 1). the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð5:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. Since n > k. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. 5. Fig. equation can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð5:15Þ Using (15.66 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU).7.

ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Leon W. Holmdel. Huffman W. GTM 86. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. North-Holland. Inc. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. and FSK bandwidth is calculated. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Bell Telephone Laboratories. p 35. References 1.6 Conclusions 5. Technical report. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 7th edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York 6. 2nd edn. Kohlenbero A. Wiley.5. Reading 9. Plenum press. Lin S.6 67 Conclusions • This chapter presents FSK modulation and its attributes. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Cambridge University Press. p 31. Prentice-Hall. Addison-Wesley. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. Prentice Hall. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Englewood Cliffs 8. New York 14. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 3. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Englewood Cliffs 4. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Prentice-Hall Inc. • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals.. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components.. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Springer. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Englewood Cliffs. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Mac Williams FJ. Ebert PM. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. New Jersey . • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Springer.

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. requiring frequency domain analysis. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_6 69 . However. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy.Chapter 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation QPSK Modulation 8PSK Modulation 16PSK Modulation PSK spectrum and Bandwidth SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. As shown in the figure. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.1. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. 6. and • S(t) is the PSK-modulated carrier frequency. the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. © The Author(s) 2017 S. Faruque. the above disciplines in PSK modulation will be presented.1 Introduction In phase shift keying (PSK). This is shown in Fig. Notice that the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. DOI 10. the digital binary signal changes the phase of the carrier on two discrete levels. In the following sections.

The rate of this coding scheme is given by . known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. which is encoded before modulation. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. While there are many error-coding schemes available. Figure 6. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enable the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 6. N = 2).2.70 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. which is then PSK modulated and transmitted row by row.2 shows an encoded BPSK modulation scheme using (15. Next.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) BPSK Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase shifting of the relative phase content of the signal [1–3].1 Binary PSK (BPSK) waveforms. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. we will use a simple coding technique.2 6. 6.

in accordance with the input signals. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. . we have the following:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxct Þ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ 2p=M ÞmðtÞ mðtÞ ¼ 0. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. u = 180°. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð6:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð6:2Þ Next. 3. the coded bits are modulated by means of the PSK modulator as shown in the figure. and • For binary signal 1.2. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. Here. 6.6. which has two phases corresponding to the binary input signals. M  1 ð6:3Þ . 1. • Output is the PSK-modulated carrier.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 71 Fig. 2. . 6. Here. • For binary signal 0. u = 0°. . • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation.2 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. As shown in Fig.

16.3. 4.        Ac ¼ Amplitude of the carrier frequency xc ¼ Angular frequency of the carrier M ¼ 2. . also known as “Symbols. 2-bits=phase. . there are two phases 1 bit=phaseðM ¼ 2Þ In QPSK. 1 bit per phase. 6.” where each symbol represents one bit. This is shown in Fig. The symbol rate is therefore the same as the encoded bit rate Rb2. The encoded data. M ¼ 16 ð6:4Þ We can also represent the BPSK modulator as a signal constellation diagram with M = 2. M ¼ 8 In 16PSK. there are four phases. there are 8 phases.3 BPSK signal constellation having 2 symbols. 8. Fig. 4-bits=phase. where the input raw data. having a bit rate Rb2. . 1-bit per symbol . M ¼ 4 In 8PSK. is encoded by means of a rate r encoder.72 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) where. there are 16 phases. = Rb1r (r < 1). is modulated by the BPSK modulator as shown in Fig. The BPSK modulator takes one bit at a time to construct the phase constellation having two phases.3. having a bit rate Rb1. 6. In BPSK. 3-bits=phase. 6.

6. Figure 6.4 shows a simplified diagram of a BPSK demodulator along with the data recovery process. This is often accomplished with the use of a phase detector. 6. Fig.2. 6. the BPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 2 phases or 2 symbols. as we shall see later. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. • 1-bit/symbol.4 Binary PSK detector showing data recovery process . In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. The PLL locks the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and phase. it needs to be received and demodulated.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 73 Therefore. it passes through the PLL.2 BPSK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. As the signal enters the receiver. the phase deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the PLL in mind to eliminate crossover. where the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the receiver. This is known as coherent detection technique. typically known as phase-locked loop (PLL).

having a bit rate Rb1. 2-bits per symbol . The QPSK modulator has four phases or 4 symbols. The encoded bit rate. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. is serial to parallel converted into two parallel streams.5 QPSK signal constellation having 4 symbols.5. now reduced in speed by a factor of two. 6. Fig. the input raw data. 6. Therefore. is modulated by the QPSK modulator as shown in Fig. also known as “Symbols. 2-bits/symbol as shown in the figure.3 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) QPSK Modulation In QPSK. The encoded data. the QPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 4 phases or 4 symbols • 2-bits/symbol The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth.74 6.” where each symbol represents two bits. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of two. The QPSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having four phases. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. as we shall see later.

the 8PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 8 phases or 8 symbols.5 16PSK Modulation In 16PSK. 6.4 8PSK Modulation In 8PSK. 6. the input raw data. The 8PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 8 phases.4 8psk Modulation 75 Fig. is serial to parallel converted into three parallel streams. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of 3. also known as “Symbols. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. is modulated by the 16PSK modulator as shown in Fig. 6. having a bit rate Rb1. now reduced in speed by a factor of four.6. 3-bits per symbol 6. the input raw data. The encoded data. is serial to parallel converted into four parallel streams. having a bit rate Rb1. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. The encoded bit rate.6. now reduced in speed by a factor of three. 3-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. The encoded bit rate.6 8PSK signal constellation having 8 symbols. The 8PSK modulator has 8 phases or 8 symbols. is encoded by means of a rate r (r < 1) encoder.7. as we shall see later.” where each symbol represents 3-bits. Therefore. • 3-bits/symbol. . The encoded data. 6. is modulated by the 8PSK modulator as shown in Fig.

Therefore. also known as “Symbols. 6.7 16PSK signal constellation having 16 symbols. 4-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. 32. M = 2. the 16PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 16 phases or 16 symbols. as we shall see later. Table 6.1 shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of four. 16. etc. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. 16. where each dot represents 4-bits The 16PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 16 phases.76 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. Table 6. Here.” where each symbol represents four bits.1 MPSK modulation parameters. 4-bits per symbol. 4. 8. • 4-bits/symbol. 64. 8. the 16PSK modulator has 16 phases or 16 symbols. each symbol is represented by a dot. Therefore. 4. and 32 Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : .

and • Modulation type.6 77 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \0\t\T ¼ 0 elsewhere ð6:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier Transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð6:6Þ 0       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT x 2 xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 jVðxÞj ¼ 2 ð6:7Þ . Let us take a closer look: 6. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. • Spectral response of the carrier phase. 6. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low.6.8a). For this reason.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ).6. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Period = T Also. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig.

where fb = Rb = 1/T. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. P(x) is the power spectral density. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. the side lobes are filtered out. The function can be either a . while the side lobes correspond to harmonic components.8b. 6. In other words. This is plotted in Fig. T being the bit duration.8 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). In practice. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. Therefore.78 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. 6. where Rb is the bit rate Here. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.

6. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.3 BPSK Spectrum In BPSK. This is given by (see Sect.6. Since the phase is constant. the input is a digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms.1): Fig. For example. It has one phase component.8c shows the two-sided response.9 High-frequency carrier response .6.6. 6.2 ð6:8Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation A carrier frequency is a sinusoidal waveform.9 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.6. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð6:9Þ Where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier phase in Hz Figure 6. 6. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 6. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. Figure 6.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 79 voltage or a current.

10 BPSK bandwidth.80 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT j V ðx Þj ¼ 2 x 2 xT=2 ð6:10Þ Here. The transmission bandwidth associated with the main lobe is given by Fig. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. which is the shifted version of the NRZ data. we write the following as: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ b mðtÞ ð6:11Þ where b is the phase deviation index of the carrier and m(t) has a sin(x)/x response. 6.10. the spectral response after BPSK modulation also has a sin(x)/x response. With V(t) = m(t). V (x) is the frequency domain representation of the input digital signal. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation . centered on the carrier frequency fc. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. which has a sin(x)/x response that governs the phase of the carrier frequency. as shown in Fig. 6. which is given by   sinðxmT=2Þ mðtÞ ¼ VT xmT=2 ð6:12Þ Therefore.

5 kHz QPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/2 = 2  18. 8PSK.75/2 = 18.75/3 = 12. and 16PSK Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate Rb2 BPSK bandwidth (BW) QPSK bandwidth (BW) 8PSK bandwidth (BW) 16PSK bandwidth (BW) Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate: RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/(15/8) = 18. 16PSK Find: (a) Bit rate after coding Rb2 (b) Transmission bandwidth BW Solution: (a) Rb2 = Rb1/r = 10 kb/s  2 = 20 kb/s (b) Transmission bandwidth: . Notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same the ASK bandwidth.755/4 = 9.1 Given: • • • • Uncoded input bit rate: Rb1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz Modulation: BPSK.75 = 37. Problem 6. It may be noted that the higher-order spectral components are filtered out.5 kHz 16PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/4 = 2  18.75 kb/s BPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/1 = 2  18.75 kHz 8PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/3 = 2  18.6. QPSK. Problem 6. 8PSK. QPSK.2 Given: • Input bit rate Rb1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate r = 1/2 • Modulation: BPSK.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 81 BW ðBPSKÞ  2Rb2 =Bit per Phase  2Rb2 =1  2Rb2 ð6:13Þ where Rb2 is the coded bit rate (bit frequency).375 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient.

Couch II LW (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Prentice Hall 4.. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Plenum press 6. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Addison-Wesley. Massachusetts 9.: Englewood Cliffs. Ebert PM. p 31. Prentice-Hall. Bell Syst Tech. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Inc. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. GTM 86. 6. Inc. Huffman W. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Lin S. New York . reading. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. References 1. 2nd ed. Springer. p 36. Springer. Cambridge University Press. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications.82 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) • • • • BPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per Symbol = 2  20 kb/s/1 = 40 kHz QPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/2 = 20 kHz 8PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/3 = 13.7 Conclusions • This chapter presents PSK modulation and its attributes. Englewood Cliffs 8. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error correcting codes. pp 729–742 13. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. 7th edn. John Wiley. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and PSK bandwidth is calculated. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Smith DR (1986) Digital transmission systems. Mac Williams FJ. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Prentice-Hall.33 kHz 16PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/4 = 10 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient. ISBN: 0442009178 2. North-Holland.

Information Theory IT-14. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. New Jersey . Holmdel.A. 618–626. “Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. S. Kohlenbero A. Reddy. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory.References 83 14. 1968 15. Technical Report. IEEE Trans. M. M.

The coded information bits are then modulated by an M-ary PSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. we will present the key concept. DOI 10. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. © The Author(s) 2017 S. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_7 85 . In this chapter.1 Introduction N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. In its most basic construction. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes will be presented to illustrate the concept. underlying principles and practical application of N-ary coded modulation schemes.Chapter 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Topics • • • • • Introduction N-ary Complementary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation N-ary Complementary Orthogonal Coding and M-ary Modulation Coding Gain and Bandwidth Conclusions 7. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. Faruque. At the receiver. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. offering spectrum efficiency with improved error correction capabilities. are mapped into a bank of N unique convolutional or orthogonal codes. These parallel bit streams. now reduced in speed.

where delays are introduced due to concatenation and interleaving. because these methods are often used to correct errors that are caused by channel noise. Let us consider Fig. it is also too complex to realize.2.2. we shall define this as N-ary complementary convolutional codes. known as parallel concatenated codes or turbo codes [7–9]. a sequence of data signals is transformed into a longer sequence that contains enough redundancy to protect the data [1–6]. The proposed N-ary convolutional codes are a block of nconvolutional codes and their complements. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. a modified technique. as shown in Fig. for a total of 2n = N complementary convolutional codes. In this section. Yet. In addition. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. Therefore.1 once again and assume that the input bit sequence to the encoder is: m ðtÞ ¼ 1 0 1 ð7:1Þ . This type of error control is also classified as forward error control coding (FECC). where more than two convolutional codes can be used simultaneously to further enhance coding gain without concatenation and interleaving. 7. Another class of convolutional codes. defined as N-ary complementary convolutional coding. along with M-ary modulation.2 7. The coded information bits are modulated and transmitted through a channel.1. is presented to overcome these problems. thereby limiting high-speed data communications in wireless communications.2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes In a typical convolutional encoder. a block of N-ary convolutional code has n-convolutional codes and n-antipodal codes. Next. The encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). In a typical convolutional encoder. each convolutional code is inverted to construct a block of n-antipodal codes. In its most basic construction. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. N-ary complementary convolutional coding is a multi-level convolutional code. a typical convolutional encoder is taken as the basis to generate a block of n-convolutional codes. In short.86 7. 7. turbo codes are limited to two convolutional codes connected in parallel. The convolutional encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). is popular in wireless communications because of its superior error control capabilities. 7.1 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background In convolutional coding.

the output bit sequence can be found as U(X) = m(X)g1(X) multiplexed with m(X)g2(X).0) + (0. 7.1) + (1.-------------U1U2 = (1.7.0) + (1.1 Generation of N-ary complimentary convolutional codes Which is described by the following polynomial? m ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ 0X þ 1X 2 ¼ 1 þ X2 ð7:2Þ The encoder is described by the following generator polynomials: g1ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 2 g2ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X 2 ð7:3Þ Then.0) + (1. the product of polynomials for the encoder can be described as follows: m ðXÞg1ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 3 þ X 4 m ðXÞg2ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X 4 ð7:4Þ with X2 + X2 = 0. We write the above two equations as follows: m(X)g1(X) = 1 + 1X + 0X2 + 1X3 + 1X4 m(X)g2(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X2 + 0X3 + 1X4 --------------------------------------------------------.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 87 Fig. where m(X) is the input bit sequence [7].1) ð7:5Þ .

These code blocks are displayed in Fig.3. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. The first 8  3 data block maps the 8  10 convolutional code block. each 3-bit data corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. 7. are partitioned into two 8  3 data blocks. 7. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes.2 N-ary complimentary convolutional code blocks Taking only the coefficients. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit . Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations.3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary (N = 2) coded QPSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams as shown in Fig. Antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. we obtain the desired convolutional code sequence corresponding to the input bit sequence m(T) = 101 as follows: Convolutional Code ¼ 1 1 10 00 10 11 ð7:6Þ The corresponding antipodal code is obtained simply by inverting the convolutional code as shown in the figure.2. These bit streams. These code blocks are stored in two 8  10 ROMs. and the next 8  3 data block maps the next 8  10 antipodal code block.88 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. 7.2. This is given by: Antipodal Code ¼ 0 0 01 11 01 00 ð7:7Þ As can be seen. 7.

which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz B ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 ð7:9Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. are partitioned into four 4  2 data . These bit streams.4. which is modulated by a QPSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation A 4-ary (N = 4) coded 16PSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams as shown in Fig. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 6=10 ¼ 3=5 ð7:8Þ Since there are two convolutional waveforms (one convolutional and one antipodal). the transmission bandwidth is also reduced. Rb2 is the coded bit rate.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 89 Fig.2. 7. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. 7. the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. 7.7. Moreover.3 2-ary convolutional coding with QPSK modulation convolutional/antipodal code.

These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled.90 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code.4 4-ary convolutional coding with 16PSK modulation blocks. Each 4  2 data block maps corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. the transmission bandwidth is further reduced. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ð7:11Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. 7. . which is modulated by a 16PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. The code rate is given by: Code Rate:r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 ð7:10Þ Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). Moreover.

there are 8 possible output combinations of 3-bit data. Let us examine the correlation process using the following example: • The input bit pattern m = 0 1 1 • Encoded transmit data: U = 00 11 01 01 11 • Received data with errors U* = 00 11 01 01 00 Notice that the last two bits are in error. In this process. • Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. 2. The expected data is stored into a lookup table [see Table 7. 3. The result is presented below: • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 • 1st row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 00 00 00 • Mod-2 Add: 00 11 01 01 00 Table 7. 4. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation). identified in bold. • For m = 3. Now. The correlation process is described below: Test 0: This test compares the received data with the 1st row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. • The receiver receives one of 8 output sequences. 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 00 11 11 10 10 01 01 00 11 10 01 11 00 01 10 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 .3 91 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. there is a unique encoded 10-bit data (see table). let us determine how the receiver recovers the correct data. 1. where the actual input data is m = 0 1 1. 5. This is a correlation process. 7.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7.1 Correlation Receiver Decoding is a process of code correlation. • For each combination of 3-bit data.7. requiring several tests to validate the actual data.3. the receiver compares the received data with the expected data set to recover the actual data.1 Lookup table a Input (m) Output (U) 0.1]: • The lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. 6.

This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation). continue search The remaining tests may be conducted by using the same method to reach the final verdict as given below: Final Verdict: Collect the correlation values and validate the data that indicates the lowest correlation value. . This is presented in the following lookup table. Test 1: This test compares the received data with the 2nd row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match.92 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation • Correlation value = 4 (count the number of 1’s in MOD2 Add) • Verdict: No match. The result is presented below: • • • • • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 2nd row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 11 10 11 Mod-2 Add: 00 11 10 111 11 Correlation value = 7 Verdict: No match. continue search.

a rate ½ convolutional encoder with K = 3 generates 00 when the initial content of the shift register is 000. each code is unique and there is a minimum distance dmin between any two convolutional codes where dmin  n=2 ð7:13Þ This distance property can be used to detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two convolutional codes. These code blocks are displayed in Fig.7. The antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. • The corresponding data is m = 0 1 1. It can be shown that an n-bit convolutional code can correct the errors. where . 7. we find that: • The lowest correlation value is 2. Therefore. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. For example. each 3-bit data sequence corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code.2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes An n-bit convolutional code is generated by a rate ½ encoder of constraint length K where n ¼ 4K  2 ð7:12Þ In the above equation.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 93 In examining the above table. 7. K is the length of the shift register and the factor −2 is due to the initial content of the shift register. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes.2. • This is the data which has been transmitted to the receiver. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. As can be seen. the value of n is reduced by 2. Therefore. which is 000.3.

we modify the above equation to obtain N t  N dmin =2  Nn=4  Nð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:15Þ Table 7. These parallel bit streams. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. The use of orthogonal codes for forward error control coding has also been investigated by a limited number of authors [14–16]. .1 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA cellular communications for spectrum spreading and user ID [10–13].4 7. N-ary orthogonal coding is a multi-level channel coding technique. This chapter presents a method of channel coding based on N-ary orthogonal codes [17– 20]. The proposed coded modulation scheme is bandwidth efficient and offers a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. At the receiver. are mapped into N-ary orthogonal codes. Therefore. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously.2 Error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes Constraint length (K) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (BPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (QPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (16PSK) 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 t  dmin =2  n=4  ð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:14Þ where • t = Number of errors that can be corrected by means of a single convolutional code • n = Code length • K = Constraint length The proposed N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding technique.4. now reduced in speed. This type of channel coding is bandwidth efficient and further enhances the coding gain with bandwidth efficiency. In the proposed scheme. The coded information bits are then modulated by means of MPSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. 7.2 displays error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes.94 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Table 7.

rate ¾. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. and rate 1 are indeed available out of orthogonal codes. where a k-bit data set is represented by a unique n-bit orthogonal code (k < n).4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 95 Fig.5 [12].3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary orthogonal coded QPSK modulator with n = 8. 7.7. are just the inverse of orthogonal codes. as shown in Fig. An 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes 7. Antipodal codes are also orthogonal among them.4. on the other hand. 7.7.5 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 8. 7. For example. . k) block codes. an 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes. as shown in Fig. for a total of 2n bi-orthogonal codes. These bit streams. Antipodal codes.6. a 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes. We now show that code rates such as rate ½. We note that orthogonal codes are essentially (n.2 Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are binary-valued and have equal numbers of 1’s and 0’s. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams. 7. 7. Each data block is mapped into an 8  8 code block. for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes. The principle is presented below. are partitioned into two data blocks. as shown in Fig.4. an n-bit orthogonal code has n-orthogonal codes and n-antipodal codes. as depicted in the figure. Similarly. Therefore.

96 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. 7.7 2-ary orthogonal coding with N = 2 . 7. A 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes Fig.6 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 16.

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

97

According to the communication scheme, when a 3-bit data pattern needs to be
transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead,
requiring a QPSK modulator. The modulated waveforms are in orthogonal space
and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 6=8 ¼ 3=4
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Moreover, the transmission
bandwidth is also reduced, which is given by:
Transmission Bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 Hz

ð7:16Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.4

4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation

A 4-ary orthogonal coded 16PSK modulator, with n = 8, having 16 complementary
orthogonal codes, can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into
8-parallel streams, as shown in Fig. 7.8. The bit streams, now reduced in speed by a
factor of 8, are partitioned into four data blocks. Each data block is mapped into a
4  8 code block as depicted in the figure. According to the communication scheme,
when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/
antipodal code is transmitted instead, requiring a 16PSK modulator. The modulated
waveforms are in orthogonal space and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1

ð7:17Þ

This is achieved without bandwidth expansion.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Moreover, the transmission bandwidth is further reduced, which is given by:
Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 Hz

ð7:18Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate, and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.5

2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into two code blocks. Each code block represents a data block as shown
in Fig. 7.9. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with each

98

Fig. 7.8 N-ary orthogonal coding with N = 4

Fig. 7.9 2-ary orthogonal decoding

7 N-Ary Coded Modulation

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

99

entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 2  1 = 2. Moreover, the
bandwidth is also reduced, as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2

7.4.6

ð7:19Þ

4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into four code blocks. Each code block represents a data block, as
shown in Fig. 7.10. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with
each entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 4  1 = 4. Moreover, the
bandwidth is further reduced as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2

7.4.7

ð7:20Þ

Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal
Codes

Error correction capabilities of orthogonal codes have been discussed earlier [16].
We present it again for convenience. An n-bit orthogonal code has n/2 1’s and n/2
0’s; i.e., there are n/2 positions where 1’s and 0’s differ. Therefore, the distance
between two orthogonal codes is d = n/2. This distance property can be used to
detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two
orthogonal codes as shown in Fig. 7.11, where the received code is shown as a
dotted line. This is given by:
dth ¼

n
4

ð7:21Þ

where n is the code length and dth is the threshold, which is midway between two
valid orthogonal codes. Therefore, for the given 8-bit orthogonal code, we have

100 Fig.11 Distance properties of orthogonal codes 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation .10 4-ary orthogonal decoding Fig. 7. 7.

Rate ½ complementary convolutional codes • 4-ary convolutional coding (N = 4) Table 7. Similarly.22. The received code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. This mechanism offers a decision process.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 101 dth = 8/4 = 2.21 and Eq. where the incoming impaired orthogonal code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. yielding: t ¼ n  Rðx. 8. Table 7. a false detection will occur. For example. and dth is the threshold as defined earlier. The average number of errors that can be corrected by means of this process can be estimated by combining Eq. a single-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of an 8-bit orthogonal code (n = 8). a three-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of a 16-bit orthogonal code (n = 16) and so on. The following correlation process governs this. 2. 4. t is the number of errors that can be corrected by means of an n-bit orthogonal code. yÞ ¼ n X xi yi  ðn  dth Þ þ 1 ð7:22Þ i¼1 where x and y are two n-bit orthogonal codes. … 8 16 32 64 1 3 7 15 N 3N 7N 15 N . where an impaired orthogonal code is compared with a pair of n-bit orthogonal codes to yield: Rðx.3 Error correction capabilities of N-ary orthogonal codes Code length n Number of errors corrected per code t Number of errors corrected by N-ary code Nt N = 1. 7. Since the threshold is in the midway between two valid codes. yÞ ¼ n 1 4 ð7:23Þ In the above equation. R(x.1 This problem relates to N-ary convolutional codes and M-ary PSK modulation.21 for reliable detection. 7. n is the code length. y) is the autocorrelation function. The acceptance criterion for a valid code is that an n-bit comparison must yield a good autocorrelation value. an additional 1-bit offset is added to Eq. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • K = 3. 7. Problem 7. otherwise.3 shows a few orthogonal codes and the corresponding error-correcting capabilities.7.

5 kb/s (d) Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ¼ ð12:50 kb=sÞ=2 ¼ 6:25 kHz (e) Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). the number of errors that can be corrected is quadruple. M = 16. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • n = 8 orthogonal codes having 16 complementary orthogonal codes • 4-ary orthogonal Coding Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected . These bit streams.102 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected Solution: (a) A 4-ary (N = 4) coded modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel stream. which is modulated by a 24 = 16 PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code.] Problem 7. These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs. Each 4  2 data block maps a corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks.2 This example relates to N-ary orthogonal codes and M-ary PSK modulation. 4t = 4  2 = 8 [Each code corrects 2 errors. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. Therefore. (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 (c) Bit rate after coding Rb2 = Rb1/r = (5/4) 10 kb/s = 12. are partitioned into four 4  2 data blocks.

is presented. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes is presented to illustrate the concept. . Therefore. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. Each data block is mapped into a 4  8 code block. requiring a 24 = 16 PSK modulator. N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8.e. The bit streams.7. with n = 8. (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1 (c) The bit rate after coding is given by: Rb2 ¼ Rb1 r ¼ 10 kb=s ðr ¼ 1Þ (d) The transmission bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ 2  10 kb=s=4 ¼ 5 k Hz (e) Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal). At the receiver.5 Conclusions A method of coded modulation. i. M = 416.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 103 Solution: (a) A 4-ary orthogonal coded modulator. The proposed coded modulation schemes are bandwidth efficient and offer a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. based on N-ary complementary codes and M-ary PSK (MPSK) modulation. are partitioned into four data blocks. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences.. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted. 4t ¼ 4  1 ¼ 4 7. According to the communication scheme. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation.

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