SPRINGER BRIEFS IN

ELEC TRIC AL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency
Modulation Made
Easy

123

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer
Engineering

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10059

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency Modulation
Made Easy

123

Saleh Faruque
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks, ND
USA

ISSN 2191-8112
ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)
SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering
ISBN 978-3-319-41200-9
ISBN 978-3-319-41202-3 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945147
© The Author(s) 2017
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Preface

By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897, the Italian physicist Tomaso
Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications. This
enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. For this
epoch-making invention, this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1909. Even today, students of wireless or radio technology remember
this distinguished physicist with reverence. A new era began in Radio
Communications.
The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as
“Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This led to the development of Frequency
Modulation (FM), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), etc.
Today, these technologies are extensively used in various wireless communication
systems. These modulation techniques form an integral part of academic curricula
today.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the various modulation techniques mentioned above. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students
up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital
modulation techniques. In particular, the following topics will be presented in this
book:







Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM
Amplitude shift keying (ASK)
Frequency shift keying (FSK)
Phase shift keying (PSK)
N-ary coding and M-ary modulation
Bandwidth occupancy in ASK, FSK, and PSK

This text has been primarily designed for electrical engineering students in the
area of telecommunications. However, engineers and designers working in the area

v

who have enabled me and others visually impaired to work comfortably. My darling son. North Dakota. I would like to say a few words about how this book was conceived. I hope that my readers forgive me for them. It came out of my long industrial and academic career. My heartfelt salute goes out to the dedicated developers of these technologies. Maruf Ahamed who found time in his busy schedule to assist me with the simulations. there may still be some errors in this book. I shall be amply rewarded if they still find this book useful. I would like to thank my beloved wife. Grand Forks. I am grateful to UND and the School for the Blind. an English Literature buff and a writer herself. This book is a collection of my courseware and research activities in wireless communications. During my teaching tenure at the University of North Dakota. In spite of all this support. This book would never have seen the light of day had UND and the State of North Dakota not provided me with the technology to do so. he deserves my heartfelt thanks. thanks are also to my doctoral student Md. For this. for affording me this opportunity. USA May 2016 Saleh Faruque . provided technical support in formulation and experimentation when I needed it. illustrations. Yasmin. and the verification of equations. In closing. It is assumed that the student is familiar with the general theory of telecommunications. Finally. for being by my side throughout the writing of this book and for patiently proofreading it.vi Preface of wireless communications would also find this text useful. Shams. I developed a number of graduate-level elective courses in the area of telecommunications that combine theory and practice. an electrical engineer himself.

.. . . . . . . .3. .. . .4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .3. . . . . . . ... . .1 AM. . . . 1. . . 1. 23 24 24 . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .2 Amplitude Modulation . . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .. . 2. . . 1. . 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 AM Demodulation . . . .Contents 1 Introduction to Modulation . . .1 Introduction . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Drawbacks in AM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1. . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . .5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . .4. . .3 Modulation by Digital Signal .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency .. . . . 2. . . . . vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and PM . . . . . 2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .. . 1. .. . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 1. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation. . . . .2. . . .3. 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . 17 17 19 20 20 21 21 . . . .3. . . . . . . . 2. . . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . .3. 1. . . . . . . . . FM. . . .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation . . . .4 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . References . 9 10 11 12 14 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation . . . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . .3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. .4. .2 Modulation by Analog Signals . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .

5. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal. . . .4 ASK Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . .3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 57 58 60 . . . . . . . . . 3. . . 3. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 32 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . 45 45 46 48 49 49 . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 44 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation . 4. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FM Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2 Generation of DSBSC Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 53 54 55 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . References .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth. . . 2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .3. . . . . . . .4 Conclusions . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal.1 Why SSB Modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ASK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .4 DSBSC Drawbacks . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . 2. . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation . .3. .3. . . . . . . .viii Contents 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .3 ASK Demodulation . . . . . . . . .6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DSBSC Modulation.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . 4. . . . . . . . .2 The Basic FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . 2. . . . 3. . . . . . 3. .5.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . .3 QPSK Modulation . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal Codes . . .2. . .2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . .. . . .7 Conclusions . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . 7. . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. 6. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .2.6. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . .6. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 BPSK Modulation .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder. . . . .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . . . . . 5. 5. . . . .5 16PSK Modulation . . . .5 2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 BPSK Spectrum . . . . . . . 7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .2 N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ix 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 65 67 67 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) . . .. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 103 . . . . .1 Introduction . . .4 4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .4. . .2 Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 . .. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 75 77 77 79 79 82 82 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation 6. . . .1 Correlation Receiver . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . 7. . . . . 93 94 94 95 95 97 97 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . 5. . . . . . 6. . .2 BPSK Demodulation . 85 85 86 86 86 88 89 91 91 . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 FSK Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .4. . . . .. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 . . . . 7. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .4. .2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . .6 4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . .

1007/978-3-319-41202-3_1 1 . referred to as the modulated signal. Faruque. The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength (k) of the sinusoidal wave where k = c/f m c = Velocity of light = 3  108 m/s f = Frequency of the sinusoidal wave. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. DOI 10. In this process.1 shows the conceptual block diagram of a modern wireless communication system. Figure 1. FSK and PSK Bandwidth at a Glance 1. As shown in the figure. The preceding two stages have been discussed elaborately in my previous book in this series [1. where the modulation block is shown in the inset of the dotted block. Antenna is a reciprocal device that transmits and receives the modulated carrier frequency.” Therefore. This is the final stage of any radio communication system. For these reasons. modulation is performed at the transmit side and demodulation is performed at the receive side.Chapter 1 Introduction to Modulation Topics • • • • • Background Modulation by Analog Signal AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance Modulation by Digital Signal ASK. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. The output signal of the modulator. 2]. also known as “carrier frequency.1 Background Modulation is a technique that changes the characteristics of the carrier frequency in accordance with the input signal. the © The Author(s) 2017 S. a high-frequency carrier signal is used in the modulation process. is fed into the antenna for propagation. a carrier frequency much higher than the input signal is required to keep the size of the antenna at an acceptable limit.

The information can be either analog or digital. . The modulation stage is shown as a dotted block low-frequency input signal changes the characteristics of the high-frequency carrier in a certain manner. modulation is a very important step in the transmission of information. For a head start. where the carrier is a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. Therefore. This is especially true for broadband communication. where the digital signal processing is done keeping in mind the available bandwidth resources.1 Block diagram of a modern full-duplex communication system. 1. brief descriptions of each of these modulation techniques are presented below. the input signal (analog or digital) changes the characteristics of the carrier waveform. bandwidth efficiency becomes increasingly important.2 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. As stated earlier. Furthermore. as the size and speed of digital data networks continue to expand. there are two basic modulation schemes as listed below: • Modulation by analog signals and • Modulation by digital signals. This book presents a comprehensive overview of these modulation techniques in use today. Hence. depending on the modulation technique.

• Frequency Modulation (FM). The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This is shown in Fig. Fig. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. FM. and PM For analog signals.2 Modulation by analog signal . This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. students of wireless or radio technology remember this distinguished physicist with reverence.2 where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.2. • Phase Modulation (PM). the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal.2 1. Even today. In AM.1. 1. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. there are three well-known modulation techniques as listed below: • Amplitude Modulation (AM). and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency.2 Modulation by Analog Signals 1.1 3 Modulation by Analog Signals AM. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [3. For this epoch-making invention. A new era began in Radio Communications. 1. 4].

the modulated carrier contains an infinite number of sideband due to modulation. in Phase Modulation (PM). Note that the unmodulated carrier itself has zero bandwidth. In Chap. which will be addressed in Chap. FM is also bandwidth inefficient. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. where Df is the frequency deviation. requiring frequency-domain analysis. It may be noted that AM is vulnerable to signal amplitude fading. PM is closely related to FM. Unlike AM. In Frequency Modulation (FM). We will discuss this more elaborately in Chap. 1. For this reason. Similarly.2 [5]. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. 1. It can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. FM is derived from the rate of change of phase of the carrier frequency. the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the phase of the carrier. 3. only the frequency changes while the amplitude remains the same. In fact. 2. • The approximate FM bandwidth is given by the Carson’s rule: – – – – – FM BW = 2f (1 + b) f = Base band frequency b = Modulation index b = Df/f Df = Frequency deviation. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change. In FM: • The carrier frequency shifts back and forth from the nominal frequency by Df. Notice that in FM. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input modulation signal as shown in Fig. FM is more attractive in commercial FM radio. For this reason. Both FM and PM belong to the same mathematical family.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance The bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal depends on bandwidth of the input signal and the modulation method as shown in Fig. 1. the modulated carrier creates an infinite number of spectral components. In AM: • The modulated carrier has two sidebands (upper and lower) and • Total bandwidth = 2  base band.4 1 Introduction to Modulation As shown in the figure. .2. 3. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. where higher-order spectral components are negligible. • During this process.3. it will be shown that in FM. FM is more robust against signal amplitude fading.

3. Figure 1. FM. also known as on–off keying (OOK). there are several modulation techniques available.4 illustrates the modulated waveforms for an input modulating digital signal. and PM signals 1. 1. and • Phase shift keying (PSK).1. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the . The three main digital modulation techniques are as follows: • Amplitude shift keying (ASK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal For digital signals.3 Bandwidth occupancy in AM. • Frequency shift keying (FSK). Brief descriptions of each of these digital modulation techniques along with the respective spectral responses and bandwidth are presented below. 1.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal 5 Fig.

For binary signal 1.3. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [6–8]. etc. • Binary 0 (bit 0): Amplitude = Low and • Binary 1 (bit 1): Amplitude = High. the carrier is OFF. 1. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. interference.4 shows the ASK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. in accordance with the input signal.4 Modulation by digital signal career frequency [6–8]. . The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. For the binary signal 0.6 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. 1. the carrier is ON. as shown. this is referred to as ASK. However. Figure 1. this is referred to as binary FSK (BFSK).

4 shows the modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data. 1. which has two frequencies x1 and x2. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Phase2 = 180°. PSK). which has two phases u1 and u2 corresponding to the two information bits. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. and • Modulation type (ASK.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 7 where the carrier frequency changes in discrete levels. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Phase1 = 0°. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Frequency = f − Df. Let us take a closer look! . • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. respectively.3.4 shows the FSK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Frequency = f + Df. corresponding to the binary input signal. where the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.1. 1. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. Figure 1.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase of the carrier to represent digital signal [6–8]. FSK. etc. this is referred to as binary PSK (BPSK). • Output is the BPSK-modulated carrier. Figure 1. • These frequencies correspond to the messages binary 0 and 1. For this reason.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation In wireless communications. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.

8 1 Introduction to Modulation 1.5b).5a). the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. Period = T. T being the bit duration. the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. The function can be a voltage .4. 1. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation. In other words. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. 1. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). This is plotted in (Fig. Therefore. The general equation for two-sided response is given by Za VðxÞ = VðtÞ  ejxt dt a In this case. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. In practice. The time-domain representation (Fig. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. • Binary-0 = Low. P(x) is the power spectral density. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). where fb = Rb = 1/T.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. is given by VðtÞ ¼ V ¼0 \0\t\T elsewhere ð1:1Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform” [9]: ZT VðxÞ = V  ejxt dt ð1:2Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2      1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 ð1:3Þ Here. Also. Period = T.

4.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 9 Fig. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. b it is one-sided power spectral density. For example.5 a Discrete time digital signal.5c) shows the two-sided response. where Rb is the bit rate or a current (Fig. 1. and c two-sided power spectral density. 1.2 ð1:4Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.1. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ V p sinðxtc Þ ð1:5Þ . where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 1. It has one frequency component.

10 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. • Modulated carrier: S(t) = m(t)C(t) = m(t)Ac cos(xct). • Carrier frequency: C(t) = Ac cos(xct). The corresponding bandwidth is zero. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. in accordance with the input signal where • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1. 1.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK.6 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞSðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sinðxm tÞ cosðxc Þ ¼ Am Ac cos ðxc  xm Þ .4.6 A sine wave and its frequency response where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 1. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. Since the frequency is constant. 1.

BW = 2Rb (coded). For m(t) = 1 S(t) = A cos(x +Dx)t.1. We have: • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C (t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x −D x)t. where Rb is the coded bit rate. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. • A = Amplitude of the carrier. 1. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 11 Fig. . c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. Bandwidth is given by. 1. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. 1. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.7. For m(t) = 0 where • S(t) = The modulated carrier.7 ASK bandwidth at a glance. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data The spectral response is depicted in Fig.4. in accordance with the input signals.

and • Dx = Frequency deviation. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by  Dfc. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.4. The FSK bandwidth is given by BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ. where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb).8. Here. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data • x = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. 1.5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance In BPSK. 1. The spectral response is depicted in Fig. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.12 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. 1. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation.8 FSK bandwidth at a glance. we have: . in accordance with the input signal. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc).

centered on the carrier frequency fc. one bit per phase. Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : Figure 1. notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same as the one in ASK modulation. 4. 16.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 13 • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C(t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x + u)t where • A = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. while the frequency remains the same. as follows: u = 0° for bit 0 and u = 180° for bit 1. Table below shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. one bit per phase. The transmission bandwidth is given by BW(BPSK) ¼ 2Rb =Bit per Phase ¼ 2Rb =1 ¼ 2Rb where • Rb is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). Since there are two phases. the carrier frequency changes in two discrete levels. It will be shown that higher-order MPSK modulation schemes (M > 2) are spectrally efficient.1. This is due to the fact that the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. u = 2. etc. Notice that the spectral response after BPSK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. and • u = Phase of the carrier frequency. Also. . 64. 32.9 shows the spectral response of the BPSK modulator. • For BPSK. 8. • x = Angular frequency of the carrier.

c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation 1.14 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. following topics will be presented in this book: • • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM). and PSK. . Frequency shift keying (FSK).5 Conclusions This chapter presents a brief overview of modulation techniques covered in this book. FSK. Frequency Modulation (FM).9 PSK bandwidth at a glance. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. Amplitude shift keying (ASK). In particular. Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM. 1. and Bandwidth occupancy in ASK. Phase shift keying (PSK). b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques.

Complete Specification Left. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. 2 Mar 1897. 7. Prentice Hall. Accepted. Accepted. Marconi G (1987) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. 13 Apr 1901 5. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900.227383 6. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. doi:10. and in apparatus therefor. Leon W. 7th edn. New York 2. Armstrong EH (1936) A Method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation.1109/JRPROC. Springer. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency source coding made easy. British patent No. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 4. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 8. London . Date of Application 2 June 1896. Prentice-Hall Inc. The University Press. Upper Saddle River 9. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency channel coding made easy.039 . Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission system.1936. Englewood Cliffs. 12. Joseph Fourier JB (1878) The analytical theory of heat (trans: Freeman A).References 15 References 1. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems.777. British patent No. ISBN: 0442009178 7. 25 Feb 1901. Complete Specification Left. New York 3. Springer.

Faruque. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM.1 Introduction By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_2 17 . and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [1. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. 2]. This is shown in Fig. For this epoch-making invention. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. which is the main topic of this chapter. students of wireless or radio technologies remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. © The Author(s) 2017 S. Even today.1. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. 2.Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth Single Side Band (SSB) Carrier SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. DOI 10. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. A new era began in Radio Communications. In AM.

the above disciplines in AM modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.1 AM waveforms. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. this chapter will present the following topics: • Amplitude Modulation (AM) and AM spectrum • Double Sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) and DSBSC spectrum • Single sideband (SSB) carrier and SSB spectrum In the following sections. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.18 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. . This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. However. The frequency of the carrier remains the same As shown in the figure. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. 2. requiring frequency domain analysis. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. In an effort to examine this. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal.

and S(t) is the output AM-modulated carrier frequency. Here.2 Amplitude Modulation 2. This is referred to as AM.2 19 Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes amplitude variations of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [3–5]. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. 2. When m(t) = 0:  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:2Þ When m(t) = Am cos(2pfmt):  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:3Þ Fig. The amplitude of the carrier C(t) changes in accordance with the input modulating signal m(t).2 Illustration of amplitude modulation. S(t) is the modulated waveform which is transmitted by the antenna .2. These parameters are described below:   mðtÞ ¼ Am cosð2pfm tÞ CðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞfc  fm  SðtÞ ¼ ½1 þ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ CðtÞ þ mðtÞCðtÞ ð2:1Þ Therefore. Figure 2.2 shows a functional diagram of a typical AM modulator for a single tone. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog.

) Let us take a closer look! 2. PSK. etc. we see that: • The first term is the carrier only. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation.3 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. It has one frequency component. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In AM.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm. Fig. we use a sinusoidal waveform. Since the frequency is constant. FSK. requiring further analysis to quantify them. For this reason. 2. which has several spectral components. which does not have information • The second term contains the information. 2. FM ASK. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð2:4Þ where • Vp = Peak voltage • xm = 2pfm • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz Figure 2. For simplicity. For example. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type (AM. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.3 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response .3. and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.20 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) In the above equation.

the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð2:5Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 2. 2. For example.3. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.2. It has one frequency component. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. 2.3. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc  fm).3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the AM signal again. which was derived earlier: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:6Þ Using the following trigonometric identity: cosA cosB ¼ 1=2cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2cosðA  BÞ Fig.2 21 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. Since the frequency is constant.4 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response ð2:7Þ . The corresponding bandwidth is zero.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.

where the carrier does not contain any information. It has three spectral components: • The carrier: fc • Upper sideband: fc + fm • Lower sideband: fc – fm where fc is the carrier frequency and fm is the input modulating frequency. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm .5.22 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) where • A = 2p (fc + fm)t • B = 2p (fc − fm)t we get SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc þ fm Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:8Þ This is the spectral response of the AM-modulated signal.5 AM spectrum. Only the sidebands contain the information. This is shown in Fig. Fig. 2. AM is inefficient in power usage. Therefore. The AM bandwidth (BW) is given by BW ¼ 2fm ð2:9Þ Notice that the power is distributed among the sidebands and the carrier. 2.

2. if m(t) has a peak positive value of +1 and a peak negative value of −1. 2.  For mðtÞ ¼ 1 :  SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  1 cosð2pc tÞ ¼ 0 For mðtÞ ¼ þ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ 1cosð2pf c tÞ ¼ 2Ac cosð2pf c tÞ ð2:10Þ ð2:11Þ This is called 100 % modulation. This is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.7. Therefore.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.2. The percent modulation is described by the following equation: The overall modulation percentage is: Amax  Amin % Overall Modulation ¼  100 Ac max½mðtÞ  min½mðtÞ  100: ¼ 2Ac Fig. then the modulation is 100 % [3–5]. On the other hand.4 23 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals If m(t) has a peak positive value of less than +1 and a peak negative value of higher than −1.3.6. then the modulation is less than 100 %.6 Amplitude modulation due to low and high modulating signals ð2:12Þ . 2.

carrier takes power and it does not have the information • Therefore. Next. it needs to be received and demodulated. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth and power efficiency.24 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig.6 Drawbacks in AM • The modulated signal contains the carrier.7 AM demodulation technique.7 shows the conceptual model of the AM receiver. Next. it passes through the band-pass filter. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. 2. it passes through the band-pass filter. As the signal enters the receiver. Problem 2. AM is inefficient in power usage • Moreover. since it affects the amplitude of the carrier. containing the same information • It is bandwidth inefficient • AM is also susceptible to interference. Therefore. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted 2. This is accomplished by the use of a band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency.3. As the signal enters the receiver. there are two sidebands. 2.3.1 Given: • Input modulating frequency fm = 10 kHz • Carrier frequency fc = 400 kHz Find • Spectral components • Bandwidth . the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted. Figure 2. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0.5 AM Demodulation Once the modulated analog signal has been transmitted.

define • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) • C(t) = Ac cos (xct) ð2:15Þ . 2.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) 2. we obtain: SðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Now.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 25 Solution Spectral Components: • fc = 400 kHz • fc + fm = 400 kHz + 10 kHz = 410 kHz • fc − fm = 400 kHz − 10 kHz = 390 kHz Bandwidth • BW = 2 fm = 2  10 kHz = 20 kHz.2. In DSBSC. which does not have any information • The second and third terms contain information. Therefore. also known as product modulator. is an AM signal that has a suppressed carrier [3–5]. which is the first term that does not have any information. as given below: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pf c tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:13Þ Notice that there are three spectral components: • The first term is the carrier only. we use the following trigonometric identities: • cos(A + B) = cosA cosB − sinA sinB • cos(A − B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB With A = 2pfmt = xmt and B = 2pfct = xct. we suppress the carrier. Let us take the original AM signal once again.4. by suppressing the first term we obtain the following: SðtÞ ¼ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:14Þ Next.1 DSBSC Modulation Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC).

The outcome is a cancellation of the discrete carrier. The symbolic representation is given in Fig. Also.9. where m(t) is the input modulating signal and C(t) is the carrier frequency.2 Generation of DSBSC Signal A DSBSC signal can be generated using two AM modulators arranged in a balanced configuration as shown in Fig.4. 2. 2. the output is the product of two inputs: S(t) = m(t) C(t). 2.26 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. it is also known as product modulator. This is why it is called “product modulator.9 [3–5].” Proof of DSBSC Consider the DSBSC modulator as shown in Fig. we can write the above equations as: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ ð2:16Þ This is the DSBSC waveform.8. the AM modulators generate S1(t) and S2(t). which are given by: Fig. 2. 2.9 Construction of DSBSC modulator. Since the output is the product of two signals. also known as product modulator Then. Here. The output is the product of two signals . 2.8 Symbolic representation of DSBSC.

except for the scaling factor 2.2. the carrier has been suppressed. which does not have the carrier. 2.4. use the trigonometric identity:  cos A cos B ¼ 1=2 cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2 cosðA  BÞ ð2:21Þ where A ¼ xm t ¼ 2pfm t and B ¼ xc t ¼ 2pfc t Therefore. hence the name double sidebandsuppressed carrier (DSBSC). the above equation is exactly the same as the desired DSBSC waveform shown earlier.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ 27 ð2:17Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ Subtracting S2(t) from S1(t). Now.3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth We begin with the DSBSC-modulated signal: SðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:19Þ where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Therefore. we essentially cancel the carrier to obtain: SðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:18Þ Therefore. In other words. SðtÞ ¼ 2 Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:20Þ This is the desired DSBSC waveform for spectral analysis. SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½cosðxc þ xm Þt þ cosðxc  xm Þt ¼ Ac ½cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt þ cos 2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:22Þ .

2. as shown below: Find (a) The output waveform S2(t) (b) What is the function of this circuit? Solution S1 ðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ (a) S2 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ CðtÞ ¼ mðtÞC 2 ðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Ac2 cos 2ðxc tÞ (b) The function of the circuit is to demodulate DSBSC signals. 2.4 • • • • ð2:23Þ DSBSC Drawbacks There are two identical sidebands.28 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. . Problem 2.2 Given:Two product modulators using identical carriers are connected in a series. where the carrier frequency is filtered out.4. The bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2fm 2. it is more efficient. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm Notice that the carrier power is distributed among the sidebands (Fig.10 DSBSC spectrum where the carrier frequency is suppressed. Therefore.10). Each sideband contains the same information Bandwidth is 2 fm Unnecessary power usage Therefore. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth efficiency.

11 [3–5].5. containing the same information—Loss of power • Therefore.2. 2.5.1 29 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation Why SSB Modulation? • The basic AM has a carrier which does not carry information—Inefficient power usage • The basic AM has two sidebands contain the same information—Additional loss of power • DSBSC has two sidebands. where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ ð2:24Þ mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:25Þ CðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxc tÞ ð2:26Þ CðtÞ ¼ Ac sinðxc tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:27Þ     Fig. 2. 2.2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal Single sideband (SSB) modulation uses two product modulators as shown in Fig. the basic AM and DSBSC are bandwidth and power inefficient • SSB is bandwidth and power efficient.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 2.11 Generation of SSB signal .5 2.

5.12 SSB spectrum showing the upper sideband. Therefore. Fig. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ð2:31Þ In the above equation. it is more efficient. The SSB bandwidth is given by: SSB BW ¼ fm Figure 2. S2. we obtain:  S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:28Þ  ð2:29Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ  Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ ð2:30Þ Using the following formula: • cosA cosB = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sinA sinB =1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. which is the upper sideband only. 2. we see that the SSB spectrum contains only one sideband. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. The SSB bandwidth is fm ð2:33Þ .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the SSB signal again: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt ð2:32Þ Here.12 displays the SSB spectrum. 2.30 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Solving for S1. and S3.

2. The spectral response. we obtain: • S1(t) = Ac Am cos (xmt) cos (xct) • S2(t) = Ac Am sin (xmt) sin (xct) Obtain S3 as: S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ þ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ Using the following formula: • cos A cos B = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sin A sin B = 1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 31 Problem 2. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxm  xc Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc  fm Þt In the above equation. Solution Solving for S1 and S2. Sketch the spectral response. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. showing the lower sideband. is presented below. which is the lower sideband only. .3 Given: • • • • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) m(t)* = Am sin (xmt) − (Hilbert Transform) C(t) = Ac cos (xct) C(t)* = Ac sin (xct) − (Hilbert Transform) Design an SSB modulator to realize the lower sideband.

Technical Publications. Silver W (ed) (2011) Chapter 14 transceivers. Complete Specification Left. Leon W. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. Marconi G (1897) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. In particular.039. 13 Apr 1901 3. Godse AP. It was shown how the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. and in apparatus therefor. References 1. p 36. 88th edn. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. Englewood Cliffs. ISBN 978-81-8431-089-4 5. Date of Application 2 June 1896. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 2. 2 Mar 1897. The ARRL handbook for radio communications. ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0 . British patent No. Accepted. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy.777. Bakshi UA (2009) Communication engineering. Complete Specification Left. British patent No. 25 Feb 1901. American Radio Relay League.32 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 2. the following topics were presented in this chapter: • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM spectrum and bandwidth Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC spectrum and bandwidth Single sideband (SSB) SSB spectrum and bandwidth These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. 7. 12.6 Conclusions This chapter presents the key concepts and underlying principles of Amplitude Modulation. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. It was also shown that the modulated carrier contains several spectral components that lead to DSBSC and SSB modulation techniques. 7th edn. Prentice-Hall Inc. Accepted.

As shown in the figure. Faruque. and • S(t) is the FM-modulated carrier frequency. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. However. this chapter will present the following topics: • The basic Frequency Modulation (FM).1007/978-3-319-41202-3_3 33 . • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1. • FM spectrum. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.Chapter 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Topics • • • • • • Introduction Frequency Modulation (FM) FM Spectrum Carson’s Rule & FM Bandwidth Bessel Function & FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth Dilemma 3. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. DOI 10. © The Author(s) 2017 S. requiring frequency domain analysis [3]. 3. the audio waveform changes the frequency of the carrier. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains an infinite number of spectral components. In an effort to examine this. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same [1–5]. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. This is shown in Fig. and • FM bandwidth.1 Introduction In Frequency Modulation (FM).

and • h = Phase angle. • x = Angular frequency in radians per seconds. Magnitude of the angular frequency x is defined by one revolution or 2p radians: x ¼ 2pf ¼ dh=dt Radians per second where. 3.2.2.34 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. ð3:1Þ . 3.2 3. Here.1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Background FM is a form of angle modulation. The angular frequency x is also recognized as angular speed or circular frequency. where the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal.1 Illustration of FM 3. the angle refers to the angular frequency (x). • f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. It is a measure of rotation rate or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform as illustrated in Fig.

Now solving for the phase angle.2 The Basic FM Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes frequency variation of the relative frequency of the career [1]. using a single-tone modulating signal. the angular frequency x is greater than the frequency f by a factor of 2p.2 A sinusoidal waveform in the time domain and its representation in the phase domain Notice that in Eq. Zt hi ðtÞ ¼ 2p fi dt ð3:2Þ 0 • hi = Instantaneous phase angle and • fi = Instantaneous frequency. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog.2. . Figure 3. This is referred to as FM.3 shows the functional diagram of a typical FM. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency. where the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. 3. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit.1. The modulated carrier frequency fc varies back and forth and depends on amplitude Am and frequency fm of the input signal.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 35 Fig. These parameters are described below. we obtain. This forms the basis of our derivation of FM as presented in the following section. 3. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. 3. Here.3.

Substituting Eq.3 A functional diagram of a typical FM modulator using a single-tone input modulating signal.5) for fi. 3. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency We examine this by means of a single-tone input modulating signal and its angular frequency as shown in Fig. (3. (3. The FM-modulated signal is given by SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðhi Þ ð3:4Þ where Ac is the amplitude of the carrier frequency and hi is the instantaneous angle. Since the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. and m(t) = Am cos (wmt).2) into Eq. Substituting Eq. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is given by fi ðtÞ ¼ fc ðtÞ þ Df mðtÞ ð3:3Þ where. Df = Constant.3) into Eq. (3. we get Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p fi dt ð3:5Þ 0 where fi is the instantaneous frequency.2. we obtain Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p ffcðtÞ þ Df mðtÞgdt 0 ð3:6Þ .36 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. 3. fc = Carrier frequency. Here. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. (3. • • • • fi = Instantaneous frequency.4) for hi.

For this reason. 3. It is directly related to FM bandwidth. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal. Δf = DfAm = Frequency deviation. For simplicity. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. Df = A constant parameter. which is periodic and . Ac = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. and b = Df/fm = Modulation index. Let’s take a closer look! 3. fm = Input modulating frequency.3.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In FM. we use a sinusoidal waveform. we obtain the desired FM signal as follows:     Df SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos 2pfc t þ sinð2pfm tÞ fm ¼ Ac cos½2pfc t þ bsinð2pfm tÞ   Df b¼ ¼ Modulation Index fm ð3:7Þ Df ¼ DfAm ¼ Freq. Let us take a closer look. Integrating the above equation.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. Note that the modulation index b is an important design parameter in FM. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. • • • • • • • • S(t) = FM-modulated carrier signal. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.3. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. and • Modulation type.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 37 where mðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxm tÞ is the input modulating signal. Deviation where. Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. It may also be noted that FM bandwidth depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input modulating signal. fc = Frequency of the carrier.

its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. It has one frequency component. For example. 3. Figure 3. Since the frequency is constant.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.3. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc » fm). the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: Fig.5 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response before modulation . • Vp = Peak voltage.4 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response continuous with respect to time.38 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. • xm = 2pfm. and • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz. For example. It has one frequency component. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð3:8Þ where. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. 3.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. 3.

5 shows the characteristics of a high-frequency sine wave and its spectral response.6. spaced from carrier by amounts N  fi. • Higher order spectral components are negligible. 3. The spectral response is given in Fig. • Strength of individual sidebands far away from the carrier is proportional to (freq. Df = DfAm = Frequency deviation. b = Df/fm = Modulation index. . • Frequency deviation is proportional to the input signal voltage. Since the frequency is constant. we have:    Input Signal : mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Carrier Frequency : C ðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðxc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ð3:10Þ where • • • • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier.3 FM Spectrum In FM. In Fig. Notice that the carrier frequency after modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc as depicted in the figure. 3. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.3. 3. we observe that S(t) depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input signal. • A group of many sidebands is created. Df = Constant.3. By inspecting the modulated carrier frequency.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 39 V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð3:9Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc and • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. and Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.6. • Relative strength of each sideband depends on Bessel function. Ac = Frequency of the carrier. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal. xc = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. Here. we see that: • As time passes. Figure 3. deviation  input frequency).

states that more than 98 % of the power of FM signal lies within a bandwidth given by the following approximation: FM Bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2fm ð1 þ bÞ where ð3:11Þ .40 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. 3.6 FM spectrum. As time passes.4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth The Carson’s rule. 3.3. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal and generates an infinite number of sidebands • Carson’s rule can be used to determine the approximate bandwidth: bandwidth required = 2  (highest input frequency + frequency deviation). a rule of thumb.

etc.35 0. J2.02 0.5 1 1. . and the remaining spectral components are the sidebands. representing the amplitude of the sidebands. • Df = Peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center of the carrier frequency.03 J5 • b = Df/fm = Modulation index.22 0. J3.5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth can be estimated by means of Bessel function of the first kind.11 0. . Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency.51 0.94 0.23 0.12 0.  J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t  xm tÞ  J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t  2xm tÞ  J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t  3xm tÞ þ . These values are also available as a standard Bessel function table. J’s are the Bessel functions.….3.1 Bessel function table 41 b J0 J1 J2 J3 J4 0 0. .98 0. ð3:12Þ Here.58 0.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth Table 3.56 0.01 0.77 0.03 0.06 0.44 0. 3.7 FM sidebands. 3. For a single-tone modulation. Power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.13 0. the solution for S(t) is given as follows: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ¼ J0 ðbÞ cosðxc tÞ þ J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ xm tÞ þ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 2xm tÞ þ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 3xm tÞ þ . it can be obtained as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index.3. J0 (b) is the amplitude of the fundamental spectral component.25 0. Fig. Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm .5 2 1 0. . For a given b. and • fm = Highest frequency of the modulating signal.24 0.

the total bandwidth includes spectral components from both sides of the carrier. the occupied bandwidth is also high.1 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼1 . In this table. J0 is carrier power before modulation. we notice that if the modulation index is low.3.42 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. 3. with a given value of b. J1. J1. power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sidebands. depending on the modulation index b. J0 is the spectral component of the carrier. if the modulation index is high.. Here. More power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.8 shows another scenario where b is large..7. For a given low b. Note that. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency fm. are presented for different values of b. J4. there is a unique value of b. However. for which the carrier amplitude becomes zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands. After modulation. etc.… Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm As an example. requiring more bandwidth.1 provides a few Bessel parameters to illustrate the concept. On the other hand.8 FM sidebands for large b. are the sidebands. J2. This is a dilemma in FM. In this case. J0. 3. After modulation. the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier. J2. 3. while the sidebands retain most of the power. while creating more significant sidebands. J3. etc. Here. Also. in FM. the carrier and sideband amplitude powers. FM is more popular because it is less sensitive to noise. J3. Table 3.6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma In FM. Figure 3. power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands. the occupied bandwidth is low and the sidebands take less power from the carrier. Problem 3. this is shown in Fig. making the modulation less efficient. J2. Therefore. making the modulation more efficient at the expense of bandwidth. more power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sideband.….

35.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 43 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 1) = 4 kHz.1: • J0 = 0. See figure below. Problem 3. there are two significant upper and lower sidebands. and each sideband is separated by 1 kHz. Since the J4 is negligible. J1 = 0. (b) For b = 1. See Table 3. Therefore. the FM bandwidth is 2  3 = 6 kHz.13. FM bandwidth is 2  Number of significant sidebands = 2  2 = 4 kHz.11. Here. Therefore. J4 = 0.2 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼2 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 2) = 6 kHz. J2. Therefore. J3 = 0. (b) For b = 2. See Table 3.03 Here.44.1: • J0 = 0. J2 = 0. J1 = 0. J3 = 0.22. and each sideband is 1 kHz apart.58.77. See figure below. we take 3 upper sidebands and 3 lower sidebands. J2 = 0. and J3 are the sidebands. we have 4 upper and 4 lower sidebands.02 where J0 is the carrier and J1.3. . we can neglect J3 since it has a negligible power.

• FM spectrum is addressed with illustrations. pp 214–217. 7th edn. • FM bandwidth dilemma is explained.227383 2.44 3. Armstrong EH (1936) A method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. • The key concept and the underlying principle of FM are presented with numerous illustrations to make them easier for readers to grasp.4 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Conclusions • This chapter presents a brief overview of Frequency Modulation (FM) and its attributes. Wiley. Wiley. • FM bandwidth is estimated by means of Carson’s rule and Bessel function. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4.1936. New York. Felix MO (1965) FM systems of exceptional bandwidth. Leon W. Proc IEEE 112(9):1664 .1109/JRPROC. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. New York 5. Englewood Cliffs. doi:10. References 1. Prentice-Hall Inc. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Lathi BP (1968) Communication systems. 4th edn. and problems are given to illustrate the concept. ISBN 0-471-51832-8 3. Haykin S (2001) Communication systems.

These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. Faruque. the digital binary signal changes the amplitude of the carrier in two discrete levels. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. However. As shown in the figure. In the following sections. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation.Chapter 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ASK spectrum ASK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 4. requiring frequency domain analysis. the above disciplines in ASK modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. © The Author(s) 2017 S.1 Introduction In amplitude shift keying (ASK). and • S(t) is the ASK-modulated carrier frequency. 4.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_4 45 . • C(t) is the carrier frequency. This is shown in Fig. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal.1. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. DOI 10.

also known as on–off keying (OOK). known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. N = 2).2 shows an encoded ASK modulation scheme using (15. which is then ASK modulated and transmitted row by row. which is encoded before modulation. 4. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.2 ASK Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. The frequency of the carrier remains the same 4. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. Figure 4. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. While there are many error-coding schemes available. The rate of this coding scheme is given by . 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [1–3].1 ASK waveforms. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. we will use a simple coding technique. Next. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors.46 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15.

As shown in the figure.2 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is also known as on–off keying (OOK). etc. For binary signal 1. the carrier is OFF. For the binary signal 0.. 4. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. The amplitude of the carrier frequency changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate: r = (MNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ = (4  2)/(5  3) = 8/15 ð4:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate = Rb1 =r = Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð4:2Þ Next.2 Ask Modulation 47 Fig. however. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. Here.4. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. as indicated in the figure. the coded bits are modulated by means of the ASK modulator as shown in the figure. interference. where . the carrier is ON. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. in accordance with the input signal. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier.

it passes through the filter and a decision as to the value of each bit is made to recover the encoded data block. If there is an error. along with horizontal and vertical parities.3 having no errors. i:e: the carrier is OFF ð4:4Þ Therefore. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error. 4. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error . 4.3 ASK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. If there is an error. This is often accomplished with the use of a band-pass filter. Next.48 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 ðcoded dataÞ Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cos(xtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ¼mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)A cos(xtÞ ð4:3Þ For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = A cos(xt) i:e: the carrier is ON For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = 0. This is shown in Fig. where A is the amplitude and x is the frequency of the carrier.3 Data recovery process in ASK. In the case of ASK. the receiver needs to utilize one band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. showing no errors. the receiver appends horizontal and vertical parities PH* and PV* to check parity failures and recovers the data block. As the signal enters the receiver. it needs to be received and demodulated. 4. Fig.

known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. For this reason. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. 4.4. In practice. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.4 Ask Bandwidth 4. Period = T Also.4 49 ASK Bandwidth In wireless communications.4a). the one-sided bandwidth is . the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. Therefore. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. This is plotted in Fig. and • Modulation type. 4. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High.4. 4.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V =0 \0\t \T elsewhere ð4:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð4:6Þ 0   sinðxT=2Þ jV ðxÞj ¼ VT xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 PðxÞ ¼ jV ðxÞj2 ¼ V 2 T T xT=2 ð4:7Þ Here. P(x) is the power spectral density.4b.

where Rb is the bit rate . T being the bit duration. 4. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data is 2Rb.4 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t).4c shows the two-sided response. In other words. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth (BW) = 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before coding) ð4:8Þ Fig. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. Figure 4.50 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) given by the ratio f/fb = 1. The function can be a voltage or a current. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ V ðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. where fb = Rb = 1/T.

The corresponding bandwidth is zero. and if the data is NRZ. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz.5 = 20 kb/s.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. 4.4 Ask Bandwidth 51 Important Notes 1. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. For example. where . 4.4. Since the frequency is constant.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. For example. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. and if the data is NRZ. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V(t) ¼ Vp sin(xtc Þ ð4:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 4. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2.4.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/ r.4. then the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. code rate is r. 2. It has one frequency component. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. in accordance with the input signal. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. For example. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)r. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.

4.6). Bandwidth is given by: BW = 2Rb (coded). 4.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2  18.5 High-frequency carrier frequency response    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ Ac cos(xc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)Ac cos(xc tÞ Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. Problem 1 Given: • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate: r = 8/15 • Modulation: ASK Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2) RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18.5 kHz. .75 kb/s = 37.52 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data.14. where Rb is the coded bit rate (Fig. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sin(xm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ m(t)SðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sin(xm tÞcos(xm tÞ ¼ 1=2 Am Ac ½sinðxc  xm Þt þ sinðxc þ xm Þt ð4:10Þ The spectral response is depicted in Fig. 3.

The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. n = number of coded bits. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data 4. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. Then. where k = number of information bits. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð4:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU). we write: WERU ¼ 1  ð1  BERU Þk ð4:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). We examine this by means of the following analytical means.4. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). with ASK modulation. the coded BERc will be: . Therefore. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU with the coded word WERC. the coded bit energy to noise ratio will be modified to Ec/N0.6 ASK bandwidth at a glance. 5]. Thus. k) bock code. can correct t errors [4.5 BER Performance 53 Fig. Since n > k. 4.

(4.6 Conclusions • This chapter presents ASK modulation and its attributes. k = 8. Eq. t = 1). 4. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves.14) can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð4:15Þ Using (15. 4. 4.54 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig.7. therefore. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and ASK bandwidth is calculated. 8) block code (n = 15. Notice that at least 3–4 db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. . the first term in the summation is the dominant one.5.7 Typical error performance in AWGN BERC ¼ 0:5 EXP(  EC =2N0 Þ ð4:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is given as: WERC ¼ n X n k¼t þ 1 k ! BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk ð4:14Þ When BERc < 0. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal.

Ebert PM. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. p 35.4. Lin S. Huffman W. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 2nd edn. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Inc. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Technical report. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Inc. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Englewood Cliffs 4. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Prentice Hall. Kohlenbero A. Springer. Springer. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. p 31. Prentice-Hall. References 1. Holmdel. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Bell Telephone Laboratories.. New York 14. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Prentice-Hall. Leon W.6 Conclusions 55 • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Addison-Wesley. Englewood Cliffs. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Reading 9. Plenum press. GTM 86.. Englewood Cliffs 8. New Jersey . ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. North-Holland. 7th edn. New York 6. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Mac Williams FJ. Wiley. Cambridge University Press. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes.

Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy.1 where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. Faruque. 5. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. requiring frequency-domain analysis. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. and • S(t) is the FSK-modulated carrier frequency. © The Author(s) 2017 S.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_5 57 . As shown in the figure. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. the above disciplines in FSK modulation will be presented.Chapter 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) FSK spectrum FSK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 5. However. In the following sections.1 Introduction In frequency shift keying (FSK). This is shown in Fig. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. DOI 10. the digital binary signal changes the frequency of the carrier on two discrete levels. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.

which is encoded before modulation. Figure 5.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [1–3]. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. N = 2). known as “block coding” to illustrate the concept. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. 5.58 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. While there are many error-coding schemes available.2 shows an encoded FSK modulation scheme using (15. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M rows and N columns (M = 4.1 FSK waveforms. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 5. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) . Next. we will use a simple coding technique. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.

• The total frequency deviation is 2Df. • For binary signal 1. . the coded bits are modulated by means of the FSK modulator as shown in the figure. which has two frequencies corresponding to the binary input signal. which is then FSK-modulated and transmitted row by row.5. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. 5. • For binary signal 0.2 Binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. The rate of this coding scheme is given by: Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð5:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð5:2Þ Next. the carrier changes to fc + Df. the carrier changes to fc – Df.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 59 Fig. Here. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal (N + 1) = n = 15. • The input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit.

it needs to be received and demodulated.60 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) As shown in Fig. This is often accomplished by the use of band-pass filters. 3. In the case of binary FSK. This is shown in Fig. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx þ DxÞt. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels. For mðtÞ ¼ 0 ð5:3Þ where    5. this is relatively straightforward.3 Binary FSK detector utilizing two matched band-pass filters . Fig. the frequency deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the filters in mind to eliminate crossover.3. One band-pass filter will be centered at the frequency x1 and the other at x2 .3 A ¼ Frequency of the carrier x ¼ Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency Dx ¼ Frequency deviation: ð5:4Þ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. Since the nominal carrier frequency and the frequency deviation are known. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. 5. We have:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ AcosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx  DxÞt. 5. the receiver needs to utilize two band-pass filters that are tuned to the appropriate frequencies. it passes through the respective filter and the corresponding bit value is made. in accordance with the input signals. As the signal enters into the receiver.8.

For this reason.4b. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency. It has two values: • Binary 1 = high. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. period = T • Binary 0 = low.4 61 FSK Bandwidth In wireless communications. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the . is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \ 0 \ t \ T = 0 .4 FSK Bandwidth 5. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ).4. 5. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.5. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation The time-domain representation (Fig. period = T Also.4a). 5. 5. P(x) is the power spectral density. while side lobes correspond to harmonic components. This is plotted in Fig. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. elsewhere ð5:5Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð5:6Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2  ð5:7Þ     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 Here. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.

Therefore. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The function can be either a voltage or a current. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ ð5:8Þ . The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb.4 a Discrete-time digital signal. where Rb is the bit rate frequency. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. the side lobes are filtered out. where fb = Rb = 1/T. b its one-sided power spectral density. In practice. 5. Figure 5.4c shows the two-sided response. T being the bit duration. In other words.62 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. and c two-sided power spectral density. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t).

2.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. in accordance with the input signals. It has one frequency component. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. 5. We have: . the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb(uncoded)r. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. code rate is r. For example. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxtc Þ ð5:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 5. and if the data is NRZ.5 = 20 kb/s. and if the data is NRZ. Since the frequency is constant. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.4.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. For example.4 FSK Bandwidth 63 Important Notes: 1.5. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. For example.3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK.4. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/r. 5.

For mðtÞ ¼ 0 where • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier A = Amplitude of the carrier x = Nominal frequency of the carrier Dx = Frequency deviation The spectral response is depicted in Fig.5 High-frequency carrier response  Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1  Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxtÞ  Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx  DxÞt. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by +Dfc. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx þ DxÞt. 5. The above equation is also known as “Carson’s rule.” Problem Given: • • • • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Modulation: FSK Modulation index b = 1 . 5.6. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. The FSK bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ð5:10Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb).64 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig.

where k = number of information bits and n = number of coded bits.6 FSK bandwidth at a glance. 5. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.75 kb/s (1 + 1) = 75 kHz.5. to the coded word WERC. . 5.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 RB2(1+b) = 2  18. 5]. fb where fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation =1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2): RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. We examine this by means of the following analytical means.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. k) bock code. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. can correct t errors [4.4 FSK Bandwidth 65 Fig.

5. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n).66 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU). Notice that at least 3–4-db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. the coded BERc will be: BERC ¼ 0:5 EXPðEc =2N0 Þ ð5:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is: WERC ¼ ! n BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk k n X k¼t þ 1 ð5:14Þ When BERc < 0. equation can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð5:15Þ Using (15. the ratio of coded bit energy to noise will be modified to Ec/N0. Since n > k. with FSK modulation.7. t = 1). k = 8. Then. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. the first term in the summation is the dominant one. we write: WERU ¼ 1ð1BERU Þk ð5:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð5:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly.7 Typical error performance in AWGN . 5. Thus. 8) block code (n = 15. Fig. therefore. Therefore.5.

Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. New York 14. p 31. New Jersey . IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. 7th edn. Englewood Cliffs 4. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes.. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Plenum press. p 35. Reading 9. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. GTM 86. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 3. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Springer. Mac Williams FJ. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. Bell Telephone Laboratories.6 Conclusions 5. Kohlenbero A. References 1. Holmdel. Cambridge University Press. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Lin S.6 67 Conclusions • This chapter presents FSK modulation and its attributes. Ebert PM. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Prentice-Hall. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Inc. Englewood Cliffs. North-Holland. Technical report. Prentice Hall. • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Huffman W. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components. Englewood Cliffs 8. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. ISBN: 0442009178 2.. New York 6. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Leon W. Prentice-Hall Inc. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Springer. Wiley. Addison-Wesley. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. 2nd edn. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12.5. and FSK bandwidth is calculated. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes.

6.Chapter 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation QPSK Modulation 8PSK Modulation 16PSK Modulation PSK spectrum and Bandwidth SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 6.1 Introduction In phase shift keying (PSK). Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. the above disciplines in PSK modulation will be presented. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. DOI 10. This is shown in Fig.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_6 69 . Notice that the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1. the digital binary signal changes the phase of the carrier on two discrete levels. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. In the following sections. However. © The Author(s) 2017 S. As shown in the figure. Faruque. the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. requiring frequency domain analysis. and • S(t) is the PSK-modulated carrier frequency. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.

2 6. which is encoded before modulation. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 6. we will use a simple coding technique.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) BPSK Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase shifting of the relative phase content of the signal [1–3]. Figure 6. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. The rate of this coding scheme is given by . Next. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.2. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enable the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15.1 Binary PSK (BPSK) waveforms. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. which is then PSK modulated and transmitted row by row. 6.70 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. N = 2). While there are many error-coding schemes available. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4.2 shows an encoded BPSK modulation scheme using (15.

. As shown in Fig.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 71 Fig. 6. Here. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.2 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. . The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð6:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð6:2Þ Next. Here.2. the coded bits are modulated by means of the PSK modulator as shown in the figure. • Output is the PSK-modulated carrier. 6. M  1 ð6:3Þ . 3. • For binary signal 0. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. u = 0°. . in accordance with the input signals. 1. we have the following:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxct Þ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ 2p=M ÞmðtÞ mðtÞ ¼ 0. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. 2. which has two phases corresponding to the binary input signals. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. and • For binary signal 1.6. u = 180°.

8. . 6.3 BPSK signal constellation having 2 symbols. there are 8 phases. M ¼ 4 In 8PSK. . The encoded data. is modulated by the BPSK modulator as shown in Fig. Fig. 4-bits=phase. . there are two phases 1 bit=phaseðM ¼ 2Þ In QPSK. This is shown in Fig. there are four phases.3. having a bit rate Rb1. M ¼ 16 ð6:4Þ We can also represent the BPSK modulator as a signal constellation diagram with M = 2. M ¼ 8 In 16PSK. also known as “Symbols.3. In BPSK. where the input raw data. 16. 6. 1 bit per phase. The symbol rate is therefore the same as the encoded bit rate Rb2. The BPSK modulator takes one bit at a time to construct the phase constellation having two phases.” where each symbol represents one bit. 1-bit per symbol . there are 16 phases. 6. 2-bits=phase. having a bit rate Rb2. = Rb1r (r < 1).72 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) where.        Ac ¼ Amplitude of the carrier frequency xc ¼ Angular frequency of the carrier M ¼ 2. 4. is encoded by means of a rate r encoder. 3-bits=phase.

Figure 6. the BPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 2 phases or 2 symbols. As the signal enters the receiver. as we shall see later.4 shows a simplified diagram of a BPSK demodulator along with the data recovery process. The PLL locks the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and phase. the phase deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the PLL in mind to eliminate crossover.6. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. where the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the receiver. This is known as coherent detection technique. Fig.2 BPSK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 73 Therefore. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly.2.4 Binary PSK detector showing data recovery process . • 1-bit/symbol. it passes through the PLL. typically known as phase-locked loop (PLL). it needs to be received and demodulated. 6. This is often accomplished with the use of a phase detector. 6.

6. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of two. The encoded data. is modulated by the QPSK modulator as shown in Fig. 2-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. Fig.3 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) QPSK Modulation In QPSK. 2-bits per symbol . the QPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 4 phases or 4 symbols • 2-bits/symbol The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. Therefore. 6. the input raw data. The QPSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having four phases. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. is serial to parallel converted into two parallel streams. now reduced in speed by a factor of two. having a bit rate Rb1.” where each symbol represents two bits. also known as “Symbols. The QPSK modulator has four phases or 4 symbols. The encoded bit rate.5 QPSK signal constellation having 4 symbols.74 6.5. as we shall see later.

the input raw data.” where each symbol represents 3-bits.5 16PSK Modulation In 16PSK. The encoded data. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r.6 8PSK signal constellation having 8 symbols. is serial to parallel converted into four parallel streams. The 8PSK modulator has 8 phases or 8 symbols.6. is serial to parallel converted into three parallel streams. having a bit rate Rb1. the 8PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 8 phases or 8 symbols.4 8psk Modulation 75 Fig. now reduced in speed by a factor of four. is modulated by the 8PSK modulator as shown in Fig. • 3-bits/symbol. 3-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. is encoded by means of a rate r (r < 1) encoder. 6. 6.7. also known as “Symbols. is modulated by the 16PSK modulator as shown in Fig. now reduced in speed by a factor of three. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. 3-bits per symbol 6. Therefore. 6. the input raw data.6. The encoded bit rate. . 6.4 8PSK Modulation In 8PSK. having a bit rate Rb1. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. The encoded data. The encoded bit rate. The 8PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 8 phases. as we shall see later. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of 3.

Here. 32.76 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. Therefore. 4-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. the 16PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 16 phases or 16 symbols. where each dot represents 4-bits The 16PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 16 phases. Table 6. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. 8. M = 2. each symbol is represented by a dot. etc. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of four. 6. 16. and 32 Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : . 64. also known as “Symbols. 4.” where each symbol represents four bits.1 MPSK modulation parameters. the 16PSK modulator has 16 phases or 16 symbols. 16. Table 6.1 shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. 4-bits per symbol. as we shall see later. 8. • 4-bits/symbol.7 16PSK signal constellation having 16 symbols. 4. Therefore.

• Spectral response of the carrier phase. 6.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. Period = T Also.8a). the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). It has two values: • Binary-1 = High.6.6. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig.6 77 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. For this reason. and • Modulation type. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. Let us take a closer look: 6. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \0\t\T ¼ 0 elsewhere ð6:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier Transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð6:6Þ 0       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT x 2 xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 jVðxÞj ¼ 2 ð6:7Þ . The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data.

The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. P(x) is the power spectral density. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.78 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. T being the bit duration. while the side lobes correspond to harmonic components. the side lobes are filtered out. The function can be either a . Therefore. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. This is plotted in Fig. where Rb is the bit rate Here.8 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. In practice. 6. In other words. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe.8b. 6. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. where fb = Rb = 1/T. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.

where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 6.6.9 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. 6.6. the input is a digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.1): Fig. This is given by (see Sect. 6. For example.8c shows the two-sided response.6.2 ð6:8Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation A carrier frequency is a sinusoidal waveform. Figure 6. 6.3 BPSK Spectrum In BPSK. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.6. It has one phase component.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 79 voltage or a current. Since the phase is constant.9 High-frequency carrier response . its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð6:9Þ Where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier phase in Hz Figure 6.

which is the shifted version of the NRZ data.10. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. V (x) is the frequency domain representation of the input digital signal.80 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT j V ðx Þj ¼ 2 x 2 xT=2 ð6:10Þ Here. the spectral response after BPSK modulation also has a sin(x)/x response. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation . we write the following as: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ b mðtÞ ð6:11Þ where b is the phase deviation index of the carrier and m(t) has a sin(x)/x response. 6. 6. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. centered on the carrier frequency fc. as shown in Fig. which has a sin(x)/x response that governs the phase of the carrier frequency. With V(t) = m(t). which is given by   sinðxmT=2Þ mðtÞ ¼ VT xmT=2 ð6:12Þ Therefore. The transmission bandwidth associated with the main lobe is given by Fig.10 BPSK bandwidth.

8PSK. 8PSK.5 kHz QPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/2 = 2  18. It may be noted that the higher-order spectral components are filtered out.75/2 = 18. QPSK.375 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient.2 Given: • Input bit rate Rb1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate r = 1/2 • Modulation: BPSK. Notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same the ASK bandwidth.755/4 = 9. 16PSK Find: (a) Bit rate after coding Rb2 (b) Transmission bandwidth BW Solution: (a) Rb2 = Rb1/r = 10 kb/s  2 = 20 kb/s (b) Transmission bandwidth: .75/3 = 12.75 kHz 8PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/3 = 2  18.75 kb/s BPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/1 = 2  18.5 kHz 16PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/4 = 2  18.75 = 37.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 81 BW ðBPSKÞ  2Rb2 =Bit per Phase  2Rb2 =1  2Rb2 ð6:13Þ where Rb2 is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). Problem 6. and 16PSK Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate Rb2 BPSK bandwidth (BW) QPSK bandwidth (BW) 8PSK bandwidth (BW) 16PSK bandwidth (BW) Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate: RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/(15/8) = 18.6.1 Given: • • • • Uncoded input bit rate: Rb1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz Modulation: BPSK. Problem 6. QPSK.

Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. ISBN: 0442009178 2. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12.: Englewood Cliffs. pp 729–742 13. 2nd ed. Couch II LW (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error correcting codes. Prentice Hall 4. GTM 86. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.82 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) • • • • BPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per Symbol = 2  20 kb/s/1 = 40 kHz QPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/2 = 20 kHz 8PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/3 = 13. p 36. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Bell Syst Tech. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. p 31. New York . Springer. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. North-Holland. Plenum press 6. Cambridge University Press. Englewood Cliffs 8. Smith DR (1986) Digital transmission systems. Inc. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Huffman W. Lin S. References 1. reading.. Mac Williams FJ. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and PSK bandwidth is calculated.33 kHz 16PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/4 = 10 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient. Ebert PM. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Massachusetts 9. Springer. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Prentice-Hall. 6. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Prentice-Hall. 7th edn. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Inc. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. John Wiley.7 Conclusions • This chapter presents PSK modulation and its attributes.

1968 15. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory.A. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Bell Telephone Laboratories. M. Holmdel. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Technical Report. 618–626. Information Theory IT-14. “Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Reddy. New Jersey .References 83 14. M. IEEE Trans. Kohlenbero A. S.

the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. Faruque. underlying principles and practical application of N-ary coded modulation schemes. now reduced in speed. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. These parallel bit streams.1 Introduction N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. are mapped into a bank of N unique convolutional or orthogonal codes.Chapter 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Topics • • • • • Introduction N-ary Complementary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation N-ary Complementary Orthogonal Coding and M-ary Modulation Coding Gain and Bandwidth Conclusions 7. DOI 10. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. At the receiver. offering spectrum efficiency with improved error correction capabilities. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_7 85 . where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. In this chapter. In its most basic construction. we will present the key concept. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. The coded information bits are then modulated by an M-ary PSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. © The Author(s) 2017 S. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes will be presented to illustrate the concept.

2 7. This type of error control is also classified as forward error control coding (FECC). Therefore. it is also too complex to realize. known as parallel concatenated codes or turbo codes [7–9]. In short.1 once again and assume that the input bit sequence to the encoder is: m ðtÞ ¼ 1 0 1 ð7:1Þ . a typical convolutional encoder is taken as the basis to generate a block of n-convolutional codes. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. N-ary complementary convolutional coding is a multi-level convolutional code. thereby limiting high-speed data communications in wireless communications. as shown in Fig. each convolutional code is inverted to construct a block of n-antipodal codes. defined as N-ary complementary convolutional coding.2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes In a typical convolutional encoder. 7. 7. The proposed N-ary convolutional codes are a block of nconvolutional codes and their complements.2. The coded information bits are modulated and transmitted through a channel. Yet.86 7. we shall define this as N-ary complementary convolutional codes. where more than two convolutional codes can be used simultaneously to further enhance coding gain without concatenation and interleaving. is presented to overcome these problems. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. turbo codes are limited to two convolutional codes connected in parallel. for a total of 2n = N complementary convolutional codes. is popular in wireless communications because of its superior error control capabilities.1. along with M-ary modulation. In its most basic construction. In a typical convolutional encoder. The convolutional encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). The code rate is defined as r = k/n.1 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background In convolutional coding. The encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. Next.2. where delays are introduced due to concatenation and interleaving. In this section. a block of N-ary convolutional code has n-convolutional codes and n-antipodal codes. because these methods are often used to correct errors that are caused by channel noise. Let us consider Fig. In addition. Another class of convolutional codes. 7. a sequence of data signals is transformed into a longer sequence that contains enough redundancy to protect the data [1–6]. a modified technique.

the product of polynomials for the encoder can be described as follows: m ðXÞg1ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 3 þ X 4 m ðXÞg2ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X 4 ð7:4Þ with X2 + X2 = 0. 7.7.1) ð7:5Þ .-------------U1U2 = (1. the output bit sequence can be found as U(X) = m(X)g1(X) multiplexed with m(X)g2(X).0) + (1.0) + (0.1 Generation of N-ary complimentary convolutional codes Which is described by the following polynomial? m ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ 0X þ 1X 2 ¼ 1 þ X2 ð7:2Þ The encoder is described by the following generator polynomials: g1ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 2 g2ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X 2 ð7:3Þ Then.0) + (1. where m(X) is the input bit sequence [7]. We write the above two equations as follows: m(X)g1(X) = 1 + 1X + 0X2 + 1X3 + 1X4 m(X)g2(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X2 + 0X3 + 1X4 --------------------------------------------------------.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 87 Fig.1) + (1.

are partitioned into two 8  3 data blocks. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit . 7.88 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. This is given by: Antipodal Code ¼ 0 0 01 11 01 00 ð7:7Þ As can be seen. 7. These code blocks are stored in two 8  10 ROMs. These bit streams.3. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. Antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. and the next 8  3 data block maps the next 8  10 antipodal code block. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6.3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary (N = 2) coded QPSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams as shown in Fig.2. 7. we obtain the desired convolutional code sequence corresponding to the input bit sequence m(T) = 101 as follows: Convolutional Code ¼ 1 1 10 00 10 11 ð7:6Þ The corresponding antipodal code is obtained simply by inverting the convolutional code as shown in the figure.2. The first 8  3 data block maps the 8  10 convolutional code block. each 3-bit data corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes.2 N-ary complimentary convolutional code blocks Taking only the coefficients. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. 7.

are partitioned into four 4  2 data . the transmission bandwidth is also reduced.3 2-ary convolutional coding with QPSK modulation convolutional/antipodal code.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 89 Fig. 7.4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation A 4-ary (N = 4) coded 16PSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams as shown in Fig. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. 7. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. which is modulated by a QPSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.7. The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 6=10 ¼ 3=5 ð7:8Þ Since there are two convolutional waveforms (one convolutional and one antipodal). These bit streams.2. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz B ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 ð7:9Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r.4. Moreover. 7. the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Rb2 is the coded bit rate.

the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. the transmission bandwidth is further reduced. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. Moreover. These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs. 7. The code rate is given by: Code Rate:r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 ð7:10Þ Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). Rb2 is the coded bit rate.90 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. Each 4  2 data block maps corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ð7:11Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. . which is modulated by a 16PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.4 4-ary convolutional coding with 16PSK modulation blocks. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

Now.3 91 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. 2. the receiver compares the received data with the expected data set to recover the actual data. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation). • For m = 3. 5. In this process. Let us examine the correlation process using the following example: • The input bit pattern m = 0 1 1 • Encoded transmit data: U = 00 11 01 01 11 • Received data with errors U* = 00 11 01 01 00 Notice that the last two bits are in error. • For each combination of 3-bit data.7. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. let us determine how the receiver recovers the correct data. requiring several tests to validate the actual data. The correlation process is described below: Test 0: This test compares the received data with the 1st row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. • Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. 1.1]: • The lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. The expected data is stored into a lookup table [see Table 7. there are 8 possible output combinations of 3-bit data. The result is presented below: • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 • 1st row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 00 00 00 • Mod-2 Add: 00 11 01 01 00 Table 7. 6. 7. 4. where the actual input data is m = 0 1 1.1 Lookup table a Input (m) Output (U) 0. 3.3.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7.1 Correlation Receiver Decoding is a process of code correlation. there is a unique encoded 10-bit data (see table). • The receiver receives one of 8 output sequences. identified in bold. This is a correlation process. 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 00 11 11 10 10 01 01 00 11 10 01 11 00 01 10 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 .

The result is presented below: • • • • • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 2nd row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 11 10 11 Mod-2 Add: 00 11 10 111 11 Correlation value = 7 Verdict: No match.92 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation • Correlation value = 4 (count the number of 1’s in MOD2 Add) • Verdict: No match. continue search. continue search The remaining tests may be conducted by using the same method to reach the final verdict as given below: Final Verdict: Collect the correlation values and validate the data that indicates the lowest correlation value. . This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation). This is presented in the following lookup table. Test 1: This test compares the received data with the 2nd row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match.

7. It can be shown that an n-bit convolutional code can correct the errors. a rate ½ convolutional encoder with K = 3 generates 00 when the initial content of the shift register is 000. each 3-bit data sequence corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. the value of n is reduced by 2. • The corresponding data is m = 0 1 1. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. where .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 93 In examining the above table. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes. we find that: • The lowest correlation value is 2. Therefore. K is the length of the shift register and the factor −2 is due to the initial content of the shift register. 7. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. which is 000. each code is unique and there is a minimum distance dmin between any two convolutional codes where dmin  n=2 ð7:13Þ This distance property can be used to detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two convolutional codes. For example. As can be seen. • This is the data which has been transmitted to the receiver. Therefore. 7. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. The antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes.3.2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes An n-bit convolutional code is generated by a rate ½ encoder of constraint length K where n ¼ 4K  2 ð7:12Þ In the above equation.2.

94 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Table 7. This chapter presents a method of channel coding based on N-ary orthogonal codes [17– 20]. At the receiver. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. Therefore.4. These parallel bit streams. now reduced in speed. This type of channel coding is bandwidth efficient and further enhances the coding gain with bandwidth efficiency. In the proposed scheme. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. 7. The proposed coded modulation scheme is bandwidth efficient and offers a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. The coded information bits are then modulated by means of MPSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. .2 Error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes Constraint length (K) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (BPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (QPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (16PSK) 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 t  dmin =2  n=4  ð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:14Þ where • t = Number of errors that can be corrected by means of a single convolutional code • n = Code length • K = Constraint length The proposed N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding technique.1 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA cellular communications for spectrum spreading and user ID [10–13]. we modify the above equation to obtain N t  N dmin =2  Nn=4  Nð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:15Þ Table 7. N-ary orthogonal coding is a multi-level channel coding technique.2 displays error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. The use of orthogonal codes for forward error control coding has also been investigated by a limited number of authors [14–16]. are mapped into N-ary orthogonal codes.4 7.

We now show that code rates such as rate ½. 7.2 Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are binary-valued and have equal numbers of 1’s and 0’s. 7. Antipodal codes. where a k-bit data set is represented by a unique n-bit orthogonal code (k < n). 7. Similarly. a 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes. These bit streams.4.3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary orthogonal coded QPSK modulator with n = 8. The principle is presented below. as shown in Fig. on the other hand. as depicted in the figure. Antipodal codes are also orthogonal among them. an 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes.7.7. k) block codes. . Therefore. For example.4. We note that orthogonal codes are essentially (n.5 [12].5 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 8. 7.6. are partitioned into two data blocks. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. and rate 1 are indeed available out of orthogonal codes. are just the inverse of orthogonal codes. An 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes 7. as shown in Fig. for a total of 2n bi-orthogonal codes. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams. for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes. Each data block is mapped into an 8  8 code block.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 95 Fig. rate ¾. an n-bit orthogonal code has n-orthogonal codes and n-antipodal codes. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. as shown in Fig. 7.

A 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes Fig.7 2-ary orthogonal coding with N = 2 .6 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 16.96 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. 7. 7.

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

97

According to the communication scheme, when a 3-bit data pattern needs to be
transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead,
requiring a QPSK modulator. The modulated waveforms are in orthogonal space
and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 6=8 ¼ 3=4
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Moreover, the transmission
bandwidth is also reduced, which is given by:
Transmission Bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 Hz

ð7:16Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.4

4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation

A 4-ary orthogonal coded 16PSK modulator, with n = 8, having 16 complementary
orthogonal codes, can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into
8-parallel streams, as shown in Fig. 7.8. The bit streams, now reduced in speed by a
factor of 8, are partitioned into four data blocks. Each data block is mapped into a
4  8 code block as depicted in the figure. According to the communication scheme,
when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/
antipodal code is transmitted instead, requiring a 16PSK modulator. The modulated
waveforms are in orthogonal space and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1

ð7:17Þ

This is achieved without bandwidth expansion.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Moreover, the transmission bandwidth is further reduced, which is given by:
Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 Hz

ð7:18Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate, and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.5

2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into two code blocks. Each code block represents a data block as shown
in Fig. 7.9. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with each

98

Fig. 7.8 N-ary orthogonal coding with N = 4

Fig. 7.9 2-ary orthogonal decoding

7 N-Ary Coded Modulation

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

99

entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 2  1 = 2. Moreover, the
bandwidth is also reduced, as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2

7.4.6

ð7:19Þ

4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into four code blocks. Each code block represents a data block, as
shown in Fig. 7.10. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with
each entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 4  1 = 4. Moreover, the
bandwidth is further reduced as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2

7.4.7

ð7:20Þ

Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal
Codes

Error correction capabilities of orthogonal codes have been discussed earlier [16].
We present it again for convenience. An n-bit orthogonal code has n/2 1’s and n/2
0’s; i.e., there are n/2 positions where 1’s and 0’s differ. Therefore, the distance
between two orthogonal codes is d = n/2. This distance property can be used to
detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two
orthogonal codes as shown in Fig. 7.11, where the received code is shown as a
dotted line. This is given by:
dth ¼

n
4

ð7:21Þ

where n is the code length and dth is the threshold, which is midway between two
valid orthogonal codes. Therefore, for the given 8-bit orthogonal code, we have

7.11 Distance properties of orthogonal codes 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation .100 Fig.10 4-ary orthogonal decoding Fig. 7.

8. 2. 7. 7. yielding: t ¼ n  Rðx. an additional 1-bit offset is added to Eq. a single-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of an 8-bit orthogonal code (n = 8).3 Error correction capabilities of N-ary orthogonal codes Code length n Number of errors corrected per code t Number of errors corrected by N-ary code Nt N = 1. Problem 7. y) is the autocorrelation function. yÞ ¼ n X xi yi  ðn  dth Þ þ 1 ð7:22Þ i¼1 where x and y are two n-bit orthogonal codes. where the incoming impaired orthogonal code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. 4. The following correlation process governs this.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 101 dth = 8/4 = 2. n is the code length.22. where an impaired orthogonal code is compared with a pair of n-bit orthogonal codes to yield: Rðx.1 This problem relates to N-ary convolutional codes and M-ary PSK modulation.21 and Eq. a three-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of a 16-bit orthogonal code (n = 16) and so on. R(x. 7. and dth is the threshold as defined earlier. Since the threshold is in the midway between two valid codes. otherwise. Table 7. The acceptance criterion for a valid code is that an n-bit comparison must yield a good autocorrelation value.3 shows a few orthogonal codes and the corresponding error-correcting capabilities. For example. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • K = 3. a false detection will occur. … 8 16 32 64 1 3 7 15 N 3N 7N 15 N . Rate ½ complementary convolutional codes • 4-ary convolutional coding (N = 4) Table 7.21 for reliable detection. This mechanism offers a decision process. The received code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. yÞ ¼ n 1 4 ð7:23Þ In the above equation. Similarly. t is the number of errors that can be corrected by means of an n-bit orthogonal code. The average number of errors that can be corrected by means of this process can be estimated by combining Eq.7.

These bit streams. M = 16. are partitioned into four 4  2 data blocks. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. Each 4  2 data block maps a corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. Therefore.102 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected Solution: (a) A 4-ary (N = 4) coded modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel stream. 4t = 4  2 = 8 [Each code corrects 2 errors. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadruple. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8.2 This example relates to N-ary orthogonal codes and M-ary PSK modulation. which is modulated by a 24 = 16 PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.5 kb/s (d) Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ¼ ð12:50 kb=sÞ=2 ¼ 6:25 kHz (e) Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 (c) Bit rate after coding Rb2 = Rb1/r = (5/4) 10 kb/s = 12.] Problem 7. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • n = 8 orthogonal codes having 16 complementary orthogonal codes • 4-ary orthogonal Coding Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected . These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs.

e. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes is presented to illustrate the concept. when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted..7. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. According to the communication scheme. The bit streams. with n = 8. Therefore. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. is presented. At the receiver. i. the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead. based on N-ary complementary codes and M-ary PSK (MPSK) modulation. (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1 (c) The bit rate after coding is given by: Rb2 ¼ Rb1 r ¼ 10 kb=s ðr ¼ 1Þ (d) The transmission bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ 2  10 kb=s=4 ¼ 5 k Hz (e) Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal). requiring a 24 = 16 PSK modulator. The proposed coded modulation schemes are bandwidth efficient and offer a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 103 Solution: (a) A 4-ary orthogonal coded modulator. 4t ¼ 4  1 ¼ 4 7. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. . M = 416. are partitioned into four data blocks.5 Conclusions A method of coded modulation. Each data block is mapped into a 4  8 code block.

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