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# SPRINGER BRIEFS IN

ELEC TRIC AL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency

Modulation Made

Easy

123

**SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer
**

Engineering

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10059

Saleh Faruque

**Radio Frequency Modulation
**

Made Easy

123

Saleh Faruque

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of North Dakota

Grand Forks, ND

USA

**ISSN 2191-8112
**

ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering

ISBN 978-3-319-41200-9

ISBN 978-3-319-41202-3 (eBook)

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3

Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945147

© The Author(s) 2017

This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part

of the material is concerned, speciﬁcally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations,

recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microﬁlms or in any other physical way, and transmission

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the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.

The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this

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Preface

**By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897, the Italian physicist Tomaso
**

Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications. This

enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. For this

epoch-making invention, this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize

for Physics in 1909. Even today, students of wireless or radio technology remember

this distinguished physicist with reverence. A new era began in Radio

Communications.

The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as

“Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This led to the development of Frequency

Modulation (FM), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), etc.

Today, these technologies are extensively used in various wireless communication

systems. These modulation techniques form an integral part of academic curricula

today.

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the various modulation techniques mentioned above. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students

up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital

modulation techniques. In particular, the following topics will be presented in this

book:

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM

Amplitude shift keying (ASK)

Frequency shift keying (FSK)

Phase shift keying (PSK)

N-ary coding and M-ary modulation

Bandwidth occupancy in ASK, FSK, and PSK

**This text has been primarily designed for electrical engineering students in the
**

area of telecommunications. However, engineers and designers working in the area

v

provided technical support in formulation and experimentation when I needed it. I would like to thank my beloved wife. This book is a collection of my courseware and research activities in wireless communications. who have enabled me and others visually impaired to work comfortably. Grand Forks. for affording me this opportunity. North Dakota. he deserves my heartfelt thanks. Maruf Ahamed who found time in his busy schedule to assist me with the simulations. I hope that my readers forgive me for them. I am grateful to UND and the School for the Blind. In closing. Finally.vi Preface of wireless communications would also ﬁnd this text useful. I would like to say a few words about how this book was conceived. This book would never have seen the light of day had UND and the State of North Dakota not provided me with the technology to do so. Shams. an electrical engineer himself. there may still be some errors in this book. an English Literature buff and a writer herself. USA May 2016 Saleh Faruque . Yasmin. I developed a number of graduate-level elective courses in the area of telecommunications that combine theory and practice. for being by my side throughout the writing of this book and for patiently proofreading it. My heartfelt salute goes out to the dedicated developers of these technologies. thanks are also to my doctoral student Md. It came out of my long industrial and academic career. For this. illustrations. and the veriﬁcation of equations. It is assumed that the student is familiar with the general theory of telecommunications. During my teaching tenure at the University of North Dakota. I shall be amply rewarded if they still ﬁnd this book useful. In spite of all this support. My darling son.

. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .6 Drawbacks in AM. . 1. . . . . .3. . vii . . . . . ... .3. . . .4 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .. . . 2. .4. . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 AM. . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation. . . 1. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . . 1. .3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .. 1. . . . . . . . . FM. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . and PM . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance.. .Contents 1 Introduction to Modulation . 1. . . 23 24 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . .2 Amplitude Modulation .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation . . 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) . . . . . . . 2. .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . References . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 . . .2. . . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth. . . . . . . 9 10 11 12 14 15 .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . .3 Modulation by Digital Signal . . . .4. . . . . . . ..1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . 17 17 19 20 20 21 21 . . . . .2 Modulation by Analog Signals . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .3.4. . 1. . . . . . . 2. . . 1.5 AM Demodulation . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . References .2 The Basic FM . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . 45 45 46 48 49 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .4 DSBSC Drawbacks . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 53 54 55 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 3. . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency .4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) . .4. . . 2. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .4. . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .1 Introduction . . .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth . . . . . . 4. .3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation . . . . . 3. . . . .5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 4. . . 3. . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Demodulation . . . . . . . . . .3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . .2 Generation of DSBSC Signal . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DSBSC Modulation. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 33 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 44 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 2.3. . 3.5 BER Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . 4. .3.4. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ASK Modulation . . .4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .3 FM Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . .4 ASK Bandwidth . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . .viii Contents 2. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 32 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 57 58 60 . .1 Why SSB Modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Correlation Receiver . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .4.1 Introduction . . . . . . References .. . . .4 FSK Bandwidth. . . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 63 63 65 67 67 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . 7. 7. . .7 Conclusions . .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. .5 16PSK Modulation . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . .5 2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . 93 94 94 95 95 97 97 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . .Contents ix 5. . . . . . . .2. . .4. . References . . .3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . 5.1 BPSK Modulation . . . 85 85 86 86 86 88 89 91 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 75 77 77 79 79 82 82 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. .4. . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . 7. . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .3 BPSK Spectrum . 7. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .4 8PSK Modulation . .2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .2 N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation . .2. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . .2 Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . .4. . . . . . 7. . . . . . .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 BPSK Demodulation . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data .. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . References . . . . . . .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .6. . . . 6. .. . . .3 QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . .4. . .2. . 7. . . . .6 Conclusions . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 . . . . . .

Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. The preceding two stages have been discussed elaborately in my previous book in this series [1.” Therefore. modulation is performed at the transmit side and demodulation is performed at the receive side. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_1 1 .Chapter 1 Introduction to Modulation Topics • • • • • Background Modulation by Analog Signal AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance Modulation by Digital Signal ASK. For these reasons. also known as “carrier frequency. Figure 1. the © The Author(s) 2017 S. Faruque.1 shows the conceptual block diagram of a modern wireless communication system. is fed into the antenna for propagation. As shown in the ﬁgure. referred to as the modulated signal. FSK and PSK Bandwidth at a Glance 1. The output signal of the modulator. DOI 10.1 Background Modulation is a technique that changes the characteristics of the carrier frequency in accordance with the input signal. Antenna is a reciprocal device that transmits and receives the modulated carrier frequency. This is the ﬁnal stage of any radio communication system. where the modulation block is shown in the inset of the dotted block. The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength (k) of the sinusoidal wave where k = c/f m c = Velocity of light = 3 108 m/s f = Frequency of the sinusoidal wave. 2]. In this process. a high-frequency carrier signal is used in the modulation process. a carrier frequency much higher than the input signal is required to keep the size of the antenna at an acceptable limit.

This is especially true for broadband communication. where the digital signal processing is done keeping in mind the available bandwidth resources. Therefore. as the size and speed of digital data networks continue to expand. bandwidth efﬁciency becomes increasingly important. modulation is a very important step in the transmission of information. For a head start. As stated earlier. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. Furthermore. there are two basic modulation schemes as listed below: • Modulation by analog signals and • Modulation by digital signals.2 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig.1 Block diagram of a modern full-duplex communication system. brief descriptions of each of these modulation techniques are presented below. The information can be either analog or digital. 1. Hence. where the carrier is a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform. depending on the modulation technique. . the input signal (analog or digital) changes the characteristics of the carrier waveform. The modulation stage is shown as a dotted block low-frequency input signal changes the characteristics of the high-frequency carrier in a certain manner. This book presents a comprehensive overview of these modulation techniques in use today.

2 where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. Fig. For this epoch-making invention.2 Modulation by Analog Signals 1. 1. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same.2 1. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. 1. 4]. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [3. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.2. students of wireless or radio technology remember this distinguished physicist with reverence.1 3 Modulation by Analog Signals AM. Even today. This is shown in Fig. By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency.1. and PM For analog signals. • Phase Modulation (PM). there are three well-known modulation techniques as listed below: • Amplitude Modulation (AM). In AM. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. A new era began in Radio Communications. FM.2 Modulation by analog signal . • Frequency Modulation (FM). This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires.

2 [5]. the modulated carrier creates an inﬁnite number of spectral components. Both FM and PM belong to the same mathematical family. it will be shown that in FM. 1. We will discuss this more elaborately in Chap. • During this process. FM is also bandwidth inefﬁcient. For this reason. In Frequency Modulation (FM). 1. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input modulation signal as shown in Fig. PM is closely related to FM. It may be noted that AM is vulnerable to signal amplitude fading. 2.4 1 Introduction to Modulation As shown in the ﬁgure. 3. Note that the unmodulated carrier itself has zero bandwidth. In Chap. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the phase of the carrier. 1. where Df is the frequency deviation. where higher-order spectral components are negligible. Unlike AM.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance The bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal depends on bandwidth of the input signal and the modulation method as shown in Fig. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change. In AM: • The modulated carrier has two sidebands (upper and lower) and • Total bandwidth = 2 base band. FM is more robust against signal amplitude fading. • The approximate FM bandwidth is given by the Carson’s rule: – – – – – FM BW = 2f (1 + b) f = Base band frequency b = Modulation index b = Df/f Df = Frequency deviation. requiring frequency-domain analysis. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. the modulated carrier contains an inﬁnite number of sideband due to modulation. It can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. only the frequency changes while the amplitude remains the same. .3. in Phase Modulation (PM). Similarly. which will be addressed in Chap. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.2. In FM: • The carrier frequency shifts back and forth from the nominal frequency by Df. For this reason. FM is derived from the rate of change of phase of the carrier frequency. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. In fact. FM is more attractive in commercial FM radio. 3. Notice that in FM.

and PM signals 1.3 Bandwidth occupancy in AM. there are several modulation techniques available. 1.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 5 Fig. also known as on–off keying (OOK). • Frequency shift keying (FSK).4 illustrates the modulated waveforms for an input modulating digital signal. Brief descriptions of each of these digital modulation techniques along with the respective spectral responses and bandwidth are presented below. 1.1. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the .3 Modulation by Digital Signal For digital signals. The three main digital modulation techniques are as follows: • Amplitude shift keying (ASK). Figure 1. FM. and • Phase shift keying (PSK).3.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK).

For binary signal 1. 1. For the binary signal 0. etc. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. 1. the carrier is ON. a small residual signal may remain due to noise.4 Modulation by digital signal career frequency [6–8]. in accordance with the input signal. • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. However. this is referred to as binary FSK (BFSK). Figure 1.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [6–8]. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. this is referred to as ASK. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. the carrier is OFF.4 shows the ASK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit.6 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig.3. • Binary 0 (bit 0): Amplitude = Low and • Binary 1 (bit 1): Amplitude = High. . interference. as shown.

1. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Frequency = f + Df. For this reason. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. respectively. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Frequency = f − Df. PSK). which has two phases u1 and u2 corresponding to the two information bits. 1.4 shows the FSK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. • These frequencies correspond to the messages binary 0 and 1. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.3. which has two frequencies x1 and x2. Let us take a closer look! . FSK. this is referred to as binary PSK (BPSK). we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth. corresponding to the binary input signal. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Phase1 = 0°. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase of the carrier to represent digital signal [6–8]. Figure 1. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Phase2 = 180°. 1. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 7 where the carrier frequency changes in discrete levels. etc.4 shows the modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation In wireless communications. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. Figure 1. and • Modulation type (ASK. where the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels. • Output is the BPSK-modulated carrier.

data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. 1.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. The general equation for two-sided response is given by Za VðxÞ = VðtÞ ejxt dt a In this case.4. The time-domain representation (Fig. In practice.5b). Period = T. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. • Binary-0 = Low. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation. Period = T. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. P(x) is the power spectral density.5a). known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). the side lobes are ﬁltered out since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe. 1. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. Therefore.8 1 Introduction to Modulation 1. In other words. where fb = Rb = 1/T. Also. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. The function can be a voltage . is given by VðtÞ ¼ V ¼0 \0\t\T elsewhere ð1:1Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform” [9]: ZT VðxÞ = V ejxt dt ð1:2Þ 0 jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 ð1:3Þ Here. This is plotted in (Fig. T being the bit duration. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb.

5c) shows the two-sided response. 1. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.4. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ V p sinðxtc Þ ð1:5Þ .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 9 Fig. It has one frequency component. and c two-sided power spectral density. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 1.2 ð1:4Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. 1. For example.1. b it is one-sided power spectral density. where Rb is the bit rate or a current (Fig.5 a Discrete time digital signal. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb.

1. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. • Modulated carrier: S(t) = m(t)C(t) = m(t)Ac cos(xct). we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞSðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sinðxm tÞ cosðxc Þ ¼ Am Ac cos ðxc xm Þ . Since the frequency is constant.4. 1. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an inﬁnite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and ﬁlter out the higher-order components.6 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. • Carrier frequency: C(t) = Ac cos(xct). in accordance with the input signal where • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK.6 A sine wave and its frequency response where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 1.10 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig.

a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data.4. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. We have: • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C (t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x −D x)t. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. where Rb is the coded bit rate. For m(t) = 1 S(t) = A cos(x +Dx)t. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data The spectral response is depicted in Fig.7. 1.1.7 ASK bandwidth at a glance. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. . Bandwidth is given by. • A = Amplitude of the carrier. BW = 2Rb (coded). For m(t) = 0 where • S(t) = The modulated carrier.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. 1. in accordance with the input signals.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 11 Fig. 1.

b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). Here. The spectral response is depicted in Fig. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation.12 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. 1. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). in accordance with the input signal. fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data • x = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. 1. and • Dx = Frequency deviation. 1. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.8.4. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by Dfc.5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance In BPSK. The FSK bandwidth is given by BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. we have: .8 FSK bandwidth at a glance.

Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : Figure 1. the carrier frequency changes in two discrete levels. . • x = Angular frequency of the carrier. one bit per phase. • For BPSK. The transmission bandwidth is given by BW(BPSK) ¼ 2Rb =Bit per Phase ¼ 2Rb =1 ¼ 2Rb where • Rb is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same as the one in ASK modulation. and • u = Phase of the carrier frequency.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 13 • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C(t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x + u)t where • A = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. 64. centered on the carrier frequency fc. while the frequency remains the same. 8. etc. 32. 4. Also. This is due to the fact that the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.1. Since there are two phases. as follows: u = 0° for bit 0 and u = 180° for bit 1.9 shows the spectral response of the BPSK modulator. 16. one bit per phase. Notice that the spectral response after BPSK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. It will be shown that higher-order MPSK modulation schemes (M > 2) are spectrally efﬁcient. Table below shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. u = 2.

a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. In particular. following topics will be presented in this book: • • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM). Phase shift keying (PSK). Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM. and PSK. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. 1. Frequency Modulation (FM). c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation 1. . FSK. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques.14 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. Amplitude shift keying (ASK).9 PSK bandwidth at a glance.5 Conclusions This chapter presents a brief overview of modulation techniques covered in this book. Frequency shift keying (FSK). and Bandwidth occupancy in ASK.

The University Press. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. British patent No. Springer. Accepted. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 8. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. New York 2. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency source coding made easy. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. Accepted. Date of Application 2 June 1896.1936. New York 3. 2 Mar 1897. Leon W. and in apparatus therefor. 7th edn. Armstrong EH (1936) A Method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. Prentice-Hall Inc.References 15 References 1. 7. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. 25 Feb 1901. 12. Springer. doi:10.039 .1109/JRPROC.777. Upper Saddle River 9. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. London . 13 Apr 1901 5. British patent No. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission system. Englewood Cliffs. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 4. Marconi G (1987) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. Prentice Hall. Joseph Fourier JB (1878) The analytical theory of heat (trans: Freeman A). ISBN: 0442009178 7.227383 6. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900.

which is the main topic of this chapter. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_2 17 . DOI 10. 2. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. A new era began in Radio Communications. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal.Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth Single Side Band (SSB) Carrier SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. students of wireless or radio technologies remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. Faruque. For this epoch-making invention.1. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency.1 Introduction By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. In AM. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. Even today. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. 2]. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [1. This is shown in Fig. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. © The Author(s) 2017 S.

However. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. the above disciplines in AM modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. In an effort to examine this. 2. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier.1 AM waveforms. this chapter will present the following topics: • Amplitude Modulation (AM) and AM spectrum • Double Sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) and DSBSC spectrum • Single sideband (SSB) carrier and SSB spectrum In the following sections. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. requiring frequency domain analysis. The frequency of the carrier remains the same As shown in the ﬁgure. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. . The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal.18 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components.

2 Illustration of amplitude modulation. Here. These parameters are described below: mðtÞ ¼ Am cosð2pfm tÞ CðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞfc fm SðtÞ ¼ ½1 þ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ CðtÞ þ mðtÞCðtÞ ð2:1Þ Therefore. The amplitude of the carrier C(t) changes in accordance with the input modulating signal m(t).2 shows a functional diagram of a typical AM modulator for a single tone. When m(t) = 0: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:2Þ When m(t) = Am cos(2pfmt): SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:3Þ Fig. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. This is referred to as AM. 2.2 19 Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes amplitude variations of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [3–5]. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog.2 Amplitude Modulation 2. S(t) is the modulated waveform which is transmitted by the antenna .2. Figure 2. and S(t) is the output AM-modulated carrier frequency.

2. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type (AM.3.3 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response .3 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. For this reason. FSK.) Let us take a closer look! 2. which does not have information • The second term contains the information. For simplicity. which has several spectral components. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. FM ASK.20 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) In the above equation. For example. requiring further analysis to quantify them. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm. Since the frequency is constant. Fig. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. PSK. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð2:4Þ where • Vp = Peak voltage • xm = 2pfm • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz Figure 2. 2.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. we use a sinusoidal waveform. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. It has one frequency component. and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. we see that: • The ﬁrst term is the carrier only. etc.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In AM.

It has one frequency component. 2.3.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the AM signal again.2 21 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.2. 2. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc fm). the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð2:5Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 2. which was derived earlier: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:6Þ Using the following trigonometric identity: cosA cosB ¼ 1=2cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2cosðA BÞ Fig. Since the frequency is constant. For example.4 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response ð2:7Þ .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.3. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.

The AM bandwidth (BW) is given by BW ¼ 2fm ð2:9Þ Notice that the power is distributed among the sidebands and the carrier. 2.5. where the carrier does not contain any information. AM is inefﬁcient in power usage.5 AM spectrum. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm . 2. Therefore.22 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) where • A = 2p (fc + fm)t • B = 2p (fc − fm)t we get SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc þ fm Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc fm Þt ð2:8Þ This is the spectral response of the AM-modulated signal. It has three spectral components: • The carrier: fc • Upper sideband: fc + fm • Lower sideband: fc – fm where fc is the carrier frequency and fm is the input modulating frequency. This is shown in Fig. Fig. Only the sidebands contain the information.

then the modulation is less than 100 %. as shown in Fig.6 Amplitude modulation due to low and high modulating signals ð2:12Þ . 2.4 23 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals If m(t) has a peak positive value of less than +1 and a peak negative value of higher than −1. The percent modulation is described by the following equation: The overall modulation percentage is: Amax Amin % Overall Modulation ¼ 100 Ac max½mðtÞ min½mðtÞ 100: ¼ 2Ac Fig. 2. 2. On the other hand.7.6. This is shown in Fig.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. then the modulation is 100 % [3–5].2. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 1 cosð2pc tÞ ¼ 0 For mðtÞ ¼ þ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ 1cosð2pf c tÞ ¼ 2Ac cosð2pf c tÞ ð2:10Þ ð2:11Þ This is called 100 % modulation. Therefore. if m(t) has a peak positive value of +1 and a peak negative value of −1.3.

Next. Problem 2.1 Given: • Input modulating frequency fm = 10 kHz • Carrier frequency fc = 400 kHz Find • Spectral components • Bandwidth . Therefore. Figure 2.24 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. Next. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0.3.6 Drawbacks in AM • The modulated signal contains the carrier. there are two sidebands. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted. 2. 2. it passes through the band-pass ﬁlter. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted 2. As the signal enters the receiver. since it affects the amplitude of the carrier. This is accomplished by the use of a band-pass ﬁlter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency.5 AM Demodulation Once the modulated analog signal has been transmitted. it needs to be received and demodulated. carrier takes power and it does not have the information • Therefore. AM is inefﬁcient in power usage • Moreover.7 shows the conceptual model of the AM receiver. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. it passes through the band-pass ﬁlter.7 AM demodulation technique. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth and power efﬁciency. containing the same information • It is bandwidth inefﬁcient • AM is also susceptible to interference. As the signal enters the receiver.3.

which is the ﬁrst term that does not have any information. deﬁne • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) • C(t) = Ac cos (xct) ð2:15Þ . is an AM signal that has a suppressed carrier [3–5]. also known as product modulator.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 25 Solution Spectral Components: • fc = 400 kHz • fc + fm = 400 kHz + 10 kHz = 410 kHz • fc − fm = 400 kHz − 10 kHz = 390 kHz Bandwidth • BW = 2 fm = 2 10 kHz = 20 kHz.2. as given below: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pf c tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c f m Þt ð2:13Þ Notice that there are three spectral components: • The ﬁrst term is the carrier only.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) 2. by suppressing the ﬁrst term we obtain the following: SðtÞ ¼ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c f m Þt ð2:14Þ Next. we use the following trigonometric identities: • cos(A + B) = cosA cosB − sinA sinB • cos(A − B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB With A = 2pfmt = xmt and B = 2pfct = xct. Therefore. In DSBSC. which does not have any information • The second and third terms contain information.1 DSBSC Modulation Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC). Let us take the original AM signal once again.4. 2. we obtain: SðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Now. we suppress the carrier.

9.8. 2.9 [3–5]. it is also known as product modulator. which are given by: Fig. The symbolic representation is given in Fig. Since the output is the product of two signals. The outcome is a cancellation of the discrete carrier. also known as product modulator Then.26 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig.9 Construction of DSBSC modulator. This is why it is called “product modulator. 2. 2. the AM modulators generate S1(t) and S2(t). Also. 2. the output is the product of two inputs: S(t) = m(t) C(t). 2.” Proof of DSBSC Consider the DSBSC modulator as shown in Fig. Here.2 Generation of DSBSC Signal A DSBSC signal can be generated using two AM modulators arranged in a balanced conﬁguration as shown in Fig. 2.8 Symbolic representation of DSBSC. The output is the product of two signals .4. where m(t) is the input modulating signal and C(t) is the carrier frequency. we can write the above equations as: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ ð2:16Þ This is the DSBSC waveform.

4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ 27 ð2:17Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ Subtracting S2(t) from S1(t). the carrier has been suppressed. which does not have the carrier. hence the name double sidebandsuppressed carrier (DSBSC).3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth We begin with the DSBSC-modulated signal: SðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:19Þ where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Therefore. SðtÞ ¼ 2 Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:20Þ This is the desired DSBSC waveform for spectral analysis.2. In other words. except for the scaling factor 2. SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½cosðxc þ xm Þt þ cosðxc xm Þt ¼ Ac ½cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt þ cos 2pðfc fm Þt ð2:22Þ .4. we essentially cancel the carrier to obtain: SðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ S2 ðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:18Þ Therefore. Now. 2. use the trigonometric identity: cos A cos B ¼ 1=2 cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2 cosðA BÞ ð2:21Þ where A ¼ xm t ¼ 2pfm t and B ¼ xc t ¼ 2pfc t Therefore. the above equation is exactly the same as the desired DSBSC waveform shown earlier.

2. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth efﬁciency. where the carrier frequency is ﬁltered out.4. it is more efﬁcient.10).2 Given:Two product modulators using identical carriers are connected in a series. 2. Therefore. The bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2fm 2. as shown below: Find (a) The output waveform S2(t) (b) What is the function of this circuit? Solution S1 ðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ (a) S2 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ CðtÞ ¼ mðtÞC 2 ðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Ac2 cos 2ðxc tÞ (b) The function of the circuit is to demodulate DSBSC signals. Problem 2.28 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig.10 DSBSC spectrum where the carrier frequency is suppressed. Each sideband contains the same information Bandwidth is 2 fm Unnecessary power usage Therefore.4 • • • • ð2:23Þ DSBSC Drawbacks There are two identical sidebands. . The bandwidth is given by 2 fm Notice that the carrier power is distributed among the sidebands (Fig.

containing the same information—Loss of power • Therefore.11 Generation of SSB signal . 2. the basic AM and DSBSC are bandwidth and power inefﬁcient • SSB is bandwidth and power efﬁcient.5 2.5. 2.2. where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ ð2:24Þ mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:25Þ CðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxc tÞ ð2:26Þ CðtÞ ¼ Ac sinðxc tÞ ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:27Þ Fig.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 2.2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal Single sideband (SSB) modulation uses two product modulators as shown in Fig.5. 2.11 [3–5].1 29 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation Why SSB Modulation? • The basic AM has a carrier which does not carry information—Inefﬁcient power usage • The basic AM has two sidebands contain the same information—Additional loss of power • DSBSC has two sidebands.

S2. it is more efﬁcient. which is the upper sideband only. 2.5.12 SSB spectrum showing the upper sideband. Fig. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ð2:31Þ In the above equation. The SSB bandwidth is given by: SSB BW ¼ fm Figure 2. Therefore. The SSB bandwidth is fm ð2:33Þ .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the SSB signal again: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt ð2:32Þ Here. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. 2. we see that the SSB spectrum contains only one sideband. we obtain: S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:28Þ ð2:29Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ ð2:30Þ Using the following formula: • cosA cosB = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sinA sinB =1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3.12 displays the SSB spectrum.30 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Solving for S1. and S3.

.3 Given: • • • • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) m(t)* = Am sin (xmt) − (Hilbert Transform) C(t) = Ac cos (xct) C(t)* = Ac sin (xct) − (Hilbert Transform) Design an SSB modulator to realize the lower sideband.2. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxm xc Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc fm Þt In the above equation. Solution Solving for S1 and S2. showing the lower sideband. we obtain: • S1(t) = Ac Am cos (xmt) cos (xct) • S2(t) = Ac Am sin (xmt) sin (xct) Obtain S3 as: S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ þ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ Using the following formula: • cos A cos B = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sin A sin B = 1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 31 Problem 2. Sketch the spectral response. is presented below. The spectral response. which is the lower sideband only.

References 1. 88th edn. Leon W. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 2. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Englewood Cliffs. Date of Application 2 June 1896. It was also shown that the modulated carrier contains several spectral components that lead to DSBSC and SSB modulation techniques. 7th edn. Bakshi UA (2009) Communication engineering. Accepted. 25 Feb 1901. ISBN 978-81-8431-089-4 5.777. Accepted. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. 13 Apr 1901 3. The ARRL handbook for radio communications. ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0 . Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. p 36. and in apparatus therefor. Silver W (ed) (2011) Chapter 14 transceivers. British patent No. 2 Mar 1897. the following topics were presented in this chapter: • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM spectrum and bandwidth Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC spectrum and bandwidth Single sideband (SSB) SSB spectrum and bandwidth These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Technical Publications. 12. It was shown how the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. In particular.32 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 2. American Radio Relay League. 7.6 Conclusions This chapter presents the key concepts and underlying principles of Amplitude Modulation. Marconi G (1897) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. British patent No.039. Godse AP. Prentice-Hall Inc.

DOI 10. As shown in the ﬁgure. However. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. In an effort to examine this. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. this chapter will present the following topics: • The basic Frequency Modulation (FM). SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_3 33 . Faruque. © The Author(s) 2017 S. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same [1–5].1 Introduction In Frequency Modulation (FM). the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. the audio waveform changes the frequency of the carrier. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. • FM spectrum. 3. and • FM bandwidth. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation.1. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. and • S(t) is the FM-modulated carrier frequency. requiring frequency domain analysis [3]. This is shown in Fig.Chapter 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Topics • • • • • • Introduction Frequency Modulation (FM) FM Spectrum Carson’s Rule & FM Bandwidth Bessel Function & FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth Dilemma 3. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains an inﬁnite number of spectral components.

ð3:1Þ . where the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. 3.2 3. • x = Angular frequency in radians per seconds. and • h = Phase angle. Here. The angular frequency x is also recognized as angular speed or circular frequency.2.34 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. • f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second.1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Background FM is a form of angle modulation.1 Illustration of FM 3. It is a measure of rotation rate or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform as illustrated in Fig. 3. Magnitude of the angular frequency x is deﬁned by one revolution or 2p radians: x ¼ 2pf ¼ dh=dt Radians per second where. the angle refers to the angular frequency (x).2.

. These parameters are described below. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. 3. Now solving for the phase angle. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency. the angular frequency x is greater than the frequency f by a factor of 2p. 3. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.3 shows the functional diagram of a typical FM. we obtain. This is referred to as FM. using a single-tone modulating signal. Figure 3.2. Here. The modulated carrier frequency fc varies back and forth and depends on amplitude Am and frequency fm of the input signal.2 The Basic FM Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes frequency variation of the relative frequency of the career [1].2 A sinusoidal waveform in the time domain and its representation in the phase domain Notice that in Eq.3. Zt hi ðtÞ ¼ 2p fi dt ð3:2Þ 0 • hi = Instantaneous phase angle and • fi = Instantaneous frequency.1.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 35 Fig. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. This forms the basis of our derivation of FM as presented in the following section. 3. where the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.

(3. (3. 3. we obtain Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p ffcðtÞ þ Df mðtÞgdt 0 ð3:6Þ .2.2) into Eq. • • • • fi = Instantaneous frequency. we get Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p fi dt ð3:5Þ 0 where fi is the instantaneous frequency. Substituting Eq.4) for hi. the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is given by fi ðtÞ ¼ fc ðtÞ þ Df mðtÞ ð3:3Þ where. Here. 3. The FM-modulated signal is given by SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðhi Þ ð3:4Þ where Ac is the amplitude of the carrier frequency and hi is the instantaneous angle.36 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. and m(t) = Am cos (wmt). Since the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. fc = Carrier frequency.5) for ﬁ. Substituting Eq. (3.3 A functional diagram of a typical FM modulator using a single-tone input modulating signal. (3. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency We examine this by means of a single-tone input modulating signal and its angular frequency as shown in Fig.3) into Eq. Df = Constant.

• Spectral response of the carrier frequency. Ac = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. For simplicity.3. Let’s take a closer look! 3.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. Deviation where. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Δf = DfAm = Frequency deviation. For this reason. fm = Input modulating frequency. Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal.3. which is periodic and . • • • • • • • • S(t) = FM-modulated carrier signal. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal. Integrating the above equation. we obtain the desired FM signal as follows: Df SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos 2pfc t þ sinð2pfm tÞ fm ¼ Ac cos½2pfc t þ bsinð2pfm tÞ Df b¼ ¼ Modulation Index fm ð3:7Þ Df ¼ DfAm ¼ Freq. we use a sinusoidal waveform. fc = Frequency of the carrier. Let us take a closer look. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 37 where mðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxm tÞ is the input modulating signal. and b = Df/fm = Modulation index. Df = A constant parameter. and • Modulation type. 3. It is directly related to FM bandwidth.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In FM. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. It may also be noted that FM bandwidth depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input modulating signal. Note that the modulation index b is an important design parameter in FM.

which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc » fm). For example. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. Since the frequency is constant.5 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response before modulation . • Vp = Peak voltage. It has one frequency component. 3. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. 3. It has one frequency component. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: Fig. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð3:8Þ where. • xm = 2pfm.4 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response continuous with respect to time.38 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. and • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz.3. Figure 3. 3. For example.

5 shows the characteristics of a high-frequency sine wave and its spectral response. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. • Relative strength of each sideband depends on Bessel function. and Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. • Higher order spectral components are negligible. we have: Input Signal : mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Carrier Frequency : C ðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðxc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ð3:10Þ where • • • • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier. we see that: • As time passes. 3. By inspecting the modulated carrier frequency. Df = DfAm = Frequency deviation. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. Ac = Frequency of the carrier. 3. The spectral response is given in Fig. we observe that S(t) depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input signal. Since the frequency is constant. b = Df/fm = Modulation index.3. • Frequency deviation is proportional to the input signal voltage. deviation input frequency). Here. Notice that the carrier frequency after modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc as depicted in the ﬁgure. Df = Constant. • Strength of individual sidebands far away from the carrier is proportional to (freq. Figure 3. 3. spaced from carrier by amounts N fi.6. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 39 V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð3:9Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc and • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz. • A group of many sidebands is created. In Fig. . The corresponding bandwidth is zero.6. xc = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency.3 FM Spectrum In FM.3.

40 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. a rule of thumb. As time passes. 3. 3.4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth The Carson’s rule.6 FM spectrum.3. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal and generates an inﬁnite number of sidebands • Carson’s rule can be used to determine the approximate bandwidth: bandwidth required = 2 (highest input frequency + frequency deviation). states that more than 98 % of the power of FM signal lies within a bandwidth given by the following approximation: FM Bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2fm ð1 þ bÞ where ð3:11Þ .

. .22 0. J0 (b) is the amplitude of the fundamental spectral component.23 0.77 0.03 0. J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t xm tÞ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t 2xm tÞ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t 3xm tÞ þ . and the remaining spectral components are the sidebands. the solution for S(t) is given as follows: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ¼ J0 ðbÞ cosðxc tÞ þ J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ xm tÞ þ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 2xm tÞ þ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 3xm tÞ þ .98 0. Fig. ð3:12Þ Here.3.5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth can be estimated by means of Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind.94 0.11 0. . For a given b.03 J5 • b = Df/fm = Modulation index.5 1 1. 3.7 FM sidebands. J3. J’s are the Bessel functions.24 0.….02 0. .13 0.25 0.44 0.5 2 1 0.12 0.58 0. etc. • Df = Peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center of the carrier frequency.35 0.06 0.01 0.3. For a single-tone modulation. it can be obtained as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth Table 3. representing the amplitude of the sidebands. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency. J2. and • fm = Highest frequency of the modulating signal.56 0. Power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1. These values are also available as a standard Bessel function table. Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm . 3.1 Bessel function table 41 b J0 J1 J2 J3 J4 0 0.51 0.

… Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm As an example. J0 is carrier power before modulation. J3. depending on the modulation index b. 3. More power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.7. the occupied bandwidth is also high. making the modulation less efﬁcient.3. with a given value of b. in FM. the total bandwidth includes spectral components from both sides of the carrier. After modulation. J2. making the modulation more efﬁcient at the expense of bandwidth. Here. there is a unique value of b. more power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sideband. etc. Table 3.1 provides a few Bessel parameters to illustrate the concept. the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency fm. the occupied bandwidth is low and the sidebands take less power from the carrier. Problem 3.. we notice that if the modulation index is low. 3. while creating more signiﬁcant sidebands. This is a dilemma in FM. However. J4. while the sidebands retain most of the power.42 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. J2. the carrier and sideband amplitude powers. J0 is the spectral component of the carrier. if the modulation index is high. Therefore. power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands.1 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼1 . this is shown in Fig.8 shows another scenario where b is large. etc. After modulation. In this table. J1. Note that. FM is more popular because it is less sensitive to noise.. power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sidebands.…. 3. On the other hand. are the sidebands. For a given low b. J1. J3. Also. Figure 3. J0. Here.6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma In FM. J2.8 FM sidebands for large b. requiring more bandwidth. In this case. for which the carrier amplitude becomes zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands. are presented for different values of b.

3.44. . and each sideband is 1 kHz apart. we take 3 upper sidebands and 3 lower sidebands.77.2 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼2 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2 1 kHz (1 + 2) = 6 kHz. J1 = 0. See ﬁgure below. J1 = 0.35. See Table 3. J3 = 0. we have 4 upper and 4 lower sidebands. See ﬁgure below. FM bandwidth is 2 Number of signiﬁcant sidebands = 2 2 = 4 kHz. Since the J4 is negligible. Problem 3. J4 = 0. J2 = 0. (b) For b = 2. there are two signiﬁcant upper and lower sidebands. See Table 3. (b) For b = 1.03 Here. Here. J2 = 0.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 43 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2 1 kHz (1 + 1) = 4 kHz. and J3 are the sidebands.1: • J0 = 0. and each sideband is separated by 1 kHz.02 where J0 is the carrier and J1. Therefore. Therefore. J3 = 0.11.1: • J0 = 0. Therefore. we can neglect J3 since it has a negligible power.13.58.22. the FM bandwidth is 2 3 = 6 kHz. J2.

44 3. doi:10.227383 2. Lathi BP (1968) Communication systems. ISBN 0-471-51832-8 3. • The key concept and the underlying principle of FM are presented with numerous illustrations to make them easier for readers to grasp. Wiley. References 1. 4th edn.4 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Conclusions • This chapter presents a brief overview of Frequency Modulation (FM) and its attributes. New York 5.1109/JRPROC. Prentice-Hall Inc.1936. Armstrong EH (1936) A method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Haykin S (2001) Communication systems. Leon W. New York. and problems are given to illustrate the concept. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 7th edn. • FM spectrum is addressed with illustrations. • FM bandwidth dilemma is explained. Proc IEEE 112(9):1664 . pp 214–217. Wiley. • FM bandwidth is estimated by means of Carson’s rule and Bessel function. Englewood Cliffs. Felix MO (1965) FM systems of exceptional bandwidth.

This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. the digital binary signal changes the amplitude of the carrier in two discrete levels.1 Introduction In amplitude shift keying (ASK). © The Author(s) 2017 S. However. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. As shown in the ﬁgure. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_4 45 . the above disciplines in ASK modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.Chapter 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ASK spectrum ASK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 4. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. and • S(t) is the ASK-modulated carrier frequency.1. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. Faruque. requiring frequency domain analysis. DOI 10. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. 4. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. This is shown in Fig. In the following sections.

The rate of this coding scheme is given by .1 ASK waveforms. we will use a simple coding technique. also known as on–off keying (OOK).2 shows an encoded ASK modulation scheme using (15. which is then ASK modulated and transmitted row by row. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. 4. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. N = 2).2 ASK Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK).46 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. which is encoded before modulation. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [1–3]. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. Next. The frequency of the carrier remains the same 4. Figure 4. While there are many error-coding schemes available. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.

the carrier is OFF. For binary signal 1. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. the carrier is ON. in accordance with the input signal. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal..2 Ask Modulation 47 Fig. as indicated in the ﬁgure. etc. Here. The amplitude of the carrier frequency changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate: r = (MNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ = (4 2)/(5 3) = 8/15 ð4:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate = Rb1 =r = Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð4:2Þ Next. For the binary signal 0. interference. however. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. 4.2 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is also known as on–off keying (OOK). where . • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. the coded bits are modulated by means of the ASK modulator as shown in the ﬁgure.4. As shown in the ﬁgure.

Fig. 4. 4. This is often accomplished with the use of a band-pass ﬁlter. the receiver needs to utilize one band-pass ﬁlter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. If there is an error. 4.3 Data recovery process in ASK. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error.3 ASK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. i:e: the carrier is OFF ð4:4Þ Therefore. This is shown in Fig. If there is an error. along with horizontal and vertical parities. it passes through the ﬁlter and a decision as to the value of each bit is made to recover the encoded data block.3 having no errors. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error . it needs to be received and demodulated. Next. the receiver appends horizontal and vertical parities PH* and PV* to check parity failures and recovers the data block.48 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 ðcoded dataÞ Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cos(xtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ¼mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)A cos(xtÞ ð4:3Þ For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = A cos(xt) i:e: the carrier is ON For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = 0. As the signal enters the receiver. In the case of ASK. showing no errors. where A is the amplitude and x is the frequency of the carrier.

data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. and • Modulation type. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V =0 \0\t \T elsewhere ð4:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V ejxt dt ð4:6Þ 0 sinðxT=2Þ jV ðxÞj ¼ VT xT=2 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 PðxÞ ¼ jV ðxÞj2 ¼ V 2 T T xT=2 ð4:7Þ Here. Period = T Also. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.4. 4. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. the side lobes are ﬁltered out since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe.4. the one-sided bandwidth is . It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. For this reason. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. This is plotted in Fig. Therefore.4a). the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.4 49 ASK Bandwidth In wireless communications.4b. P(x) is the power spectral density. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). 4. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low.4 Ask Bandwidth 4. 4. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. In practice.

This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. where fb = Rb = 1/T. 4.4c shows the two-sided response. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ V ðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ ejxt dt / In this case. T being the bit duration. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data is 2Rb. In other words. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. Figure 4. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). The function can be a voltage or a current. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth (BW) = 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before coding) ð4:8Þ Fig.4 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density.50 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) given by the ratio f/fb = 1. where Rb is the bit rate .

If Rb is the bit rate before coding.4.4 Ask Bandwidth 51 Important Notes 1. in accordance with the input signal.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. It has one frequency component. Since the frequency is constant. 2. 4. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/ r. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. and if the data is NRZ. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V(t) ¼ Vp sin(xtc Þ ð4:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 4. 4. and if the data is NRZ. code rate is r. For example. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb.5 = 20 kb/s. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)r.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK.4. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. where . then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2 10 kb/s = 20 kHz. For example. then the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2 20 = 40 kHz. For example. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.4.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.

.5 High-frequency carrier frequency response Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ Ac cos(xc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)Ac cos(xc tÞ Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an inﬁnite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and ﬁlter out the higher-order components. 4.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 18.14.52 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. where Rb is the coded bit rate (Fig.6). we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sin(xm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ m(t)SðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sin(xm tÞcos(xm tÞ ¼ 1=2 Am Ac ½sinðxc xm Þt þ sinðxc þ xm Þt ð4:10Þ The spectral response is depicted in Fig.5 kHz.75 kb/s = 37. 3. Problem 1 Given: • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate: r = 8/15 • Modulation: ASK Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2) RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. 4. Bandwidth is given by: BW = 2Rb (coded).

where k = number of information bits. 5].6 ASK bandwidth at a glance. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. with ASK modulation. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). n = number of coded bits. we write: WERU ¼ 1 ð1 BERU Þk ð4:12Þ Let the coded word error be deﬁned as (WERC). Thus. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. 4. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð4:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU with the coded word WERC. k) bock code. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.4. Therefore. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data 4.5 BER Performance 53 Fig.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. Since n > k. the coded bit energy to noise ratio will be modiﬁed to Ec/N0. can correct t errors [4. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. the coded BERc will be: . Let the uncoded word error be deﬁned as (WERU). Then.

5. t = 1).54 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. Notice that at least 3–4 db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15.6 Conclusions • This chapter presents ASK modulation and its attributes.7 Typical error performance in AWGN BERC ¼ 0:5 EXP( EC =2N0 Þ ð4:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is given as: WERC ¼ n X n k¼t þ 1 k ! BERKC ð1 BERC Þnk ð4:14Þ When BERc < 0. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. therefore. 4. the ﬁrst term in the summation is the dominant one. 4. k = 8. Eq. (4.7. 8) block code (n = 15. 4. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. . • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and ASK bandwidth is calculated.14) can be simpliﬁed as WERC n k ! BERkc ð1 BERc Þnk ð4:15Þ Using (15.

Inc. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. p 35. Reading 9. Technical report. Englewood Cliffs. Inc. Holmdel. New York 6. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. New York 14. Huffman W. Lin S. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Prentice-Hall. Mac Williams FJ. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications.. Springer. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. Ebert PM. Prentice Hall. Plenum press. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. p 31. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Englewood Cliffs 4. Kohlenbero A. North-Holland. 2nd edn. Wiley. New Jersey . Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes.. Leon W. Englewood Cliffs 8. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Springer. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Addison-Wesley. 7th edn. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Cambridge University Press. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Prentice-Hall. GTM 86. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. References 1.4.6 Conclusions 55 • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems.

1007/978-3-319-41202-3_5 57 . This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.1 Introduction In frequency shift keying (FSK). © The Author(s) 2017 S. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. However. 5. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. the digital binary signal changes the frequency of the carrier on two discrete levels. As shown in the ﬁgure. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. DOI 10. and • S(t) is the FSK-modulated carrier frequency. This is shown in Fig.1 where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. Faruque. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. In the following sections. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. the above disciplines in FSK modulation will be presented. requiring frequency-domain analysis. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same.Chapter 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) FSK spectrum FSK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 5.

we will use a simple coding technique. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) . This is an indispensable task in digital communications. known as “block coding” to illustrate the concept. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. N = 2). The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 5. if they occur during transmission [4–16].2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [1–3]. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. While there are many error-coding schemes available. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. Figure 5. Next. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M rows and N columns (M = 4.1 FSK waveforms. 5.2 shows an encoded FSK modulation scheme using (15. which is encoded before modulation.58 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig.

5. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. . The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. the carrier changes to fc + Df. Here. the carrier changes to fc – Df.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 59 Fig. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. which has two frequencies corresponding to the binary input signal.2 Binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation.5. • For binary signal 0. • For binary signal 1. • The total frequency deviation is 2Df. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal (N + 1) = n = 15. which is then FSK-modulated and transmitted row by row. the coded bits are modulated by means of the FSK modulator as shown in the ﬁgure. The rate of this coding scheme is given by: Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4 2Þ=5 3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð5:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð5:2Þ Next. • The input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit.

In the case of binary FSK. 5. As the signal enters into the receiver. it needs to be received and demodulated. 5. This is often accomplished by the use of band-pass ﬁlters. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels.3 A ¼ Frequency of the carrier x ¼ Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency Dx ¼ Frequency deviation: ð5:4Þ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. Since the nominal carrier frequency and the frequency deviation are known.3 Binary FSK detector utilizing two matched band-pass ﬁlters . For mðtÞ ¼ 0 ð5:3Þ where 5. the receiver needs to utilize two band-pass ﬁlters that are tuned to the appropriate frequencies. it passes through the respective ﬁlter and the corresponding bit value is made. This is shown in Fig. the frequency deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the ﬁlters in mind to eliminate crossover. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. in accordance with the input signals. We have: Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ AcosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx DxÞt. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx þ DxÞt. Fig.60 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) As shown in Fig. this is relatively straightforward.8. One band-pass ﬁlter will be centered at the frequency x1 and the other at x2 .3. 3.

known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). This is plotted in Fig. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. 5. For this reason. P(x) is the power spectral density. while side lobes correspond to harmonic components.4. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \ 0 \ t \ T = 0 . 5. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.5. period = T Also.4 FSK Bandwidth 5.4a). The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation The time-domain representation (Fig. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the .4b. elsewhere ð5:5Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V ejxt dt ð5:6Þ 0 jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2 ð5:7Þ 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 Here. It has two values: • Binary 1 = high. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. 5. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications.4 61 FSK Bandwidth In wireless communications. period = T • Binary 0 = low.

the side lobes are ﬁltered out. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). T being the bit duration.62 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. where Rb is the bit rate frequency. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ ejxt dt / In this case. since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. Therefore.4c shows the two-sided response. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ ð5:8Þ . and c two-sided power spectral density. Figure 5.4 a Discrete-time digital signal. The function can be either a voltage or a current. In practice. where fb = Rb = 1/T. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. In other words. 5. b its one-sided power spectral density.

If Rb is the bit rate before coding. code rate is r. It has one frequency component. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2 10 kb/s = 20 kHz. For example. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. and if the data is NRZ.5 = 20 kb/s. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. 2. 5. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. For example. Since the frequency is constant. and if the data is NRZ. We have: . The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2 20 = 40 kHz. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/r.4 FSK Bandwidth 63 Important Notes: 1.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. in accordance with the input signals. For example. the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0.3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK.4. 5.4. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.5. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxtc Þ ð5:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 5.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb(uncoded)r.

5 High-frequency carrier response Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx DxÞt. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx þ DxÞt. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by +Dfc. 5.” Problem Given: • • • • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Modulation: FSK Modulation index b = 1 . 5. The above equation is also known as “Carson’s rule. For mðtÞ ¼ 0 where • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier A = Amplitude of the carrier x = Nominal frequency of the carrier Dx = Frequency deviation The spectral response is depicted in Fig.6.64 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. The FSK bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ð5:10Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb).

75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 RB2(1+b) = 2 18. . can correct t errors [4. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. fb where fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation =1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2): RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18.5. to the coded word WERC. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). 5.75 kb/s (1 + 1) = 75 kHz. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. where k = number of information bits and n = number of coded bits.6 FSK bandwidth at a glance. 5]. k) bock code. 5.4 FSK Bandwidth 65 Fig.

Thus.66 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Let the uncoded word error be deﬁned as (WERU). t = 1). the coded BERc will be: BERC ¼ 0:5 EXPðEc =2N0 Þ ð5:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is: WERC ¼ ! n BERKC ð1 BERC Þnk k n X k¼t þ 1 ð5:14Þ When BERc < 0. 5. we write: WERU ¼ 1ð1BERU Þk ð5:12Þ Let the coded word error be deﬁned as (WERC). 8) block code (n = 15. Since n > k. Then. k = 8.7 Typical error performance in AWGN . the ﬁrst term in the summation is the dominant one. equation can be simpliﬁed as WERC n k ! BERkc ð1 BERc Þnk ð5:15Þ Using (15. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. 5. Notice that at least 3–4-db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. Therefore. the ratio of coded bit energy to noise will be modiﬁed to Ec/N0.5.7. with FSK modulation. therefore. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð5:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. Fig.

IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. New York 6. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 3. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Kohlenbero A. Cambridge University Press. Springer. Wiley. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Reading 9. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. and FSK bandwidth is calculated. p 31. Englewood Cliffs 8. Holmdel. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. 2nd edn. Prentice Hall. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Addison-Wesley.6 Conclusions 5. Ebert PM. Huffman W. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems.5. Lin S. Springer.. Prentice-Hall. Bell Telephone Laboratories. p 35. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Mac Williams FJ. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13.. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Englewood Cliffs 4. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. GTM 86. Englewood Cliffs. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. North-Holland. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Inc. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. New York 14. New Jersey . References 1.6 67 Conclusions • This chapter presents FSK modulation and its attributes. Technical report. Prentice-Hall Inc. 7th edn. Plenum press. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Leon W. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12.

In the following sections. the above disciplines in PSK modulation will be presented. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.Chapter 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation QPSK Modulation 8PSK Modulation 16PSK Modulation PSK spectrum and Bandwidth SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. However. the digital binary signal changes the phase of the carrier on two discrete levels. requiring frequency domain analysis. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. As shown in the ﬁgure. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. DOI 10. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation.1 Introduction In phase shift keying (PSK). SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. Faruque. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. Notice that the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. © The Author(s) 2017 S. 6.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_6 69 . This is shown in Fig. the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. and • S(t) is the PSK-modulated carrier frequency. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.

1 Binary PSK (BPSK) waveforms. 6. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 6. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.2 shows an encoded BPSK modulation scheme using (15.70 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. N = 2). The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. While there are many error-coding schemes available. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. which is then PSK modulated and transmitted row by row.2 6.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) BPSK Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase shifting of the relative phase content of the signal [1–3]. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enable the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. we will use a simple coding technique. The rate of this coding scheme is given by . 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. which is encoded before modulation. Figure 6.2. Next. This is an indispensable task in digital communications.

6. which has two phases corresponding to the binary input signals. . Here. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. 3.2. 6. As shown in Fig. u = 180°. 1. . u = 0°. the coded bits are modulated by means of the PSK modulator as shown in the ﬁgure. 2. • Output is the PSK-modulated carrier. Here.6. M 1 ð6:3Þ .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 71 Fig. in accordance with the input signals. and • For binary signal 1. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4 2Þ=5 3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð6:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð6:2Þ Next.2 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. we have the following: Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxct Þ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ 2p=M ÞmðtÞ mðtÞ ¼ 0. • For binary signal 0. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. .

M ¼ 4 In 8PSK. 4-bits=phase. 6. M ¼ 8 In 16PSK. 4. is encoded by means of a rate r encoder. . . In BPSK. also known as “Symbols. This is shown in Fig. = Rb1r (r < 1). 8. there are four phases. 16.” where each symbol represents one bit. 6. having a bit rate Rb2. Fig. where the input raw data. The encoded data.72 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) where.3 BPSK signal constellation having 2 symbols. there are 8 phases. 2-bits=phase. having a bit rate Rb1. 1 bit per phase. 6. Ac ¼ Amplitude of the carrier frequency xc ¼ Angular frequency of the carrier M ¼ 2. 1-bit per symbol . M ¼ 16 ð6:4Þ We can also represent the BPSK modulator as a signal constellation diagram with M = 2. 3-bits=phase. is modulated by the BPSK modulator as shown in Fig.3.3. The symbol rate is therefore the same as the encoded bit rate Rb2. there are 16 phases. there are two phases 1 bit=phaseðM ¼ 2Þ In QPSK. The BPSK modulator takes one bit at a time to construct the phase constellation having two phases. .

where the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the receiver. Figure 6.2. • 1-bit/symbol. This is known as coherent detection technique.4 Binary PSK detector showing data recovery process . it passes through the PLL.6.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 73 Therefore. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. the phase deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the PLL in mind to eliminate crossover. As the signal enters the receiver. typically known as phase-locked loop (PLL).4 shows a simpliﬁed diagram of a BPSK demodulator along with the data recovery process. 6.2 BPSK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. the BPSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 2 phases or 2 symbols. The PLL locks the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and phase. as we shall see later. This is often accomplished with the use of a phase detector. Fig. it needs to be received and demodulated. 6. The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth.

is serial to parallel converted into two parallel streams. The QPSK modulator has four phases or 4 symbols. as we shall see later.74 6. The encoded data. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. The QPSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having four phases.5 QPSK signal constellation having 4 symbols. the input raw data. 6. is modulated by the QPSK modulator as shown in Fig. 2-bits per symbol . also known as “Symbols. 2-bits/symbol as shown in the ﬁgure. now reduced in speed by a factor of two. 6.” where each symbol represents two bits.3 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) QPSK Modulation In QPSK. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of two. the QPSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 4 phases or 4 symbols • 2-bits/symbol The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth. Fig.5. having a bit rate Rb1. The encoded bit rate. Therefore.

is serial to parallel converted into three parallel streams.4 8PSK Modulation In 8PSK. the 8PSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 8 phases or 8 symbols.7. is encoded by means of a rate r (r < 1) encoder. having a bit rate Rb1. Therefore. the input raw data. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of 3.” where each symbol represents 3-bits. 3-bits/symbol as shown in the ﬁgure. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. now reduced in speed by a factor of three. is serial to parallel converted into four parallel streams. 3-bits per symbol 6. The 8PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 8 phases.6. 6.5 16PSK Modulation In 16PSK. having a bit rate Rb1. is modulated by the 8PSK modulator as shown in Fig. The encoded bit rate. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. the input raw data. • 3-bits/symbol. The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth.6 8PSK signal constellation having 8 symbols. now reduced in speed by a factor of four. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. .6. The encoded data. 6. also known as “Symbols. The encoded bit rate.4 8psk Modulation 75 Fig. as we shall see later. The 8PSK modulator has 8 phases or 8 symbols. 6. is modulated by the 16PSK modulator as shown in Fig. 6. The encoded data.

Here. 8. Therefore. 16. • 4-bits/symbol. as we shall see later. M = 2. 6. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of four. 4. each symbol is represented by a dot.7 16PSK signal constellation having 16 symbols. The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth. also known as “Symbols. 4. 16. etc.1 shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. Therefore. 64. where each dot represents 4-bits The 16PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 16 phases. and 32 Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : . the 16PSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 16 phases or 16 symbols. Table 6.” where each symbol represents four bits.1 MPSK modulation parameters. 8. 4-bits/symbol as shown in the ﬁgure. Table 6.76 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. the 16PSK modulator has 16 phases or 16 symbols. 32. 4-bits per symbol.

Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data.6. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Period = T Also.6 77 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. 6.8a).6. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. Let us take a closer look: 6.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \0\t\T ¼ 0 elsewhere ð6:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier Transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V ejxt dt ð6:6Þ 0 V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT x 2 xT=2 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 jVðxÞj ¼ 2 ð6:7Þ . data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. and • Modulation type.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. For this reason. • Spectral response of the carrier phase.

In practice. This is plotted in Fig. T being the bit duration. Therefore. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. The function can be either a . 6. where fb = Rb = 1/T. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t).78 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. 6. where Rb is the bit rate Here. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency.8 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. while the side lobes correspond to harmonic components. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe. In other words. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ ejxt dt / In this case. the side lobes are ﬁltered out. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency. P(x) is the power spectral density.8b. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.

the input is a digital signal and it contains an inﬁnite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms. 6. This is given by (see Sect.3 BPSK Spectrum In BPSK. Since the phase is constant.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 79 voltage or a current. It has one phase component. Figure 6. 6. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 6.6. For example. 6.6.2 ð6:8Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation A carrier frequency is a sinusoidal waveform.6.9 High-frequency carrier response .8c shows the two-sided response. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.9 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.6. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.1): Fig. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð6:9Þ Where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier phase in Hz Figure 6.

a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. which is given by sinðxmT=2Þ mðtÞ ¼ VT xmT=2 ð6:12Þ Therefore. 6.80 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT j V ðx Þj ¼ 2 x 2 xT=2 ð6:10Þ Here. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation . the spectral response after BPSK modulation also has a sin(x)/x response.10. which is the shifted version of the NRZ data. The transmission bandwidth associated with the main lobe is given by Fig. centered on the carrier frequency fc. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. V (x) is the frequency domain representation of the input digital signal. we write the following as: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ b mðtÞ ð6:11Þ where b is the phase deviation index of the carrier and m(t) has a sin(x)/x response. which has a sin(x)/x response that governs the phase of the carrier frequency. 6.10 BPSK bandwidth. as shown in Fig. With V(t) = m(t).

6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 81 BW ðBPSKÞ 2Rb2 =Bit per Phase 2Rb2 =1 2Rb2 ð6:13Þ where Rb2 is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). Problem 6.2 Given: • Input bit rate Rb1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate r = 1/2 • Modulation: BPSK. It may be noted that the higher-order spectral components are ﬁltered out.75 = 37. QPSK.75/2 = 18.5 kHz 16PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/4 = 2 18.75 kHz 8PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/3 = 2 18.6. 8PSK. QPSK. Notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same the ASK bandwidth.75/3 = 12.1 Given: • • • • Uncoded input bit rate: Rb1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz Modulation: BPSK.5 kHz QPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/2 = 2 18.75 kb/s BPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/1 = 2 18.375 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efﬁcient. 8PSK. 16PSK Find: (a) Bit rate after coding Rb2 (b) Transmission bandwidth BW Solution: (a) Rb2 = Rb1/r = 10 kb/s 2 = 20 kb/s (b) Transmission bandwidth: . and 16PSK Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate Rb2 BPSK bandwidth (BW) QPSK bandwidth (BW) 8PSK bandwidth (BW) 16PSK bandwidth (BW) Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate: RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/(15/8) = 18. Problem 6.755/4 = 9.

van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Ebert PM. p 31. Springer. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error correcting codes. pp 729–742 13. References 1. Prentice-Hall. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. p 36. 6. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Inc. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Cambridge University Press. 7th edn. Massachusetts 9. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and PSK bandwidth is calculated. Lin S. New York . Inc. North-Holland. Englewood Cliffs 8.82 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) • • • • BPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per Symbol = 2 20 kb/s/1 = 40 kHz QPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2 20 kb/s/2 = 20 kHz 8PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2 20 kb/s/3 = 13. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Bell Syst Tech. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Prentice-Hall.: Englewood Cliffs. Springer. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. reading. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Mac Williams FJ. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Couch II LW (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Prentice Hall 4. 2nd ed.. Plenum press 6. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Huffman W. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. GTM 86. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes.33 kHz 16PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2 20 kb/s/4 = 10 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efﬁcient. John Wiley. Smith DR (1986) Digital transmission systems. Addison-Wesley.7 Conclusions • This chapter presents PSK modulation and its attributes.

A. S. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. M. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Reddy. IEEE Trans. New Jersey . M.References 83 14. 618–626. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Technical Report. “Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Kohlenbero A. Information Theory IT-14. Bell Telephone Laboratories. 1968 15. Holmdel.

Faruque. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. offering spectrum efﬁciency with improved error correction capabilities. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. The coded information bits are then modulated by an M-ary PSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. In this chapter. we will present the key concept.Chapter 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Topics • • • • • Introduction N-ary Complementary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation N-ary Complementary Orthogonal Coding and M-ary Modulation Coding Gain and Bandwidth Conclusions 7. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. At the receiver.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_7 85 . In its most basic construction. These parallel bit streams. © The Author(s) 2017 S. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. now reduced in speed. are mapped into a bank of N unique convolutional or orthogonal codes. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams.1 Introduction N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. DOI 10. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes will be presented to illustrate the concept. underlying principles and practical application of N-ary coded modulation schemes.

a typical convolutional encoder is taken as the basis to generate a block of n-convolutional codes. a block of N-ary convolutional code has n-convolutional codes and n-antipodal codes. thereby limiting high-speed data communications in wireless communications. In addition. The proposed N-ary convolutional codes are a block of nconvolutional codes and their complements. 7. Next. Yet. Let us consider Fig.1 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background In convolutional coding. The coded information bits are modulated and transmitted through a channel. a sequence of data signals is transformed into a longer sequence that contains enough redundancy to protect the data [1–6]. is popular in wireless communications because of its superior error control capabilities. The encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). The code rate is deﬁned as r = k/n. In this section. we shall deﬁne this as N-ary complementary convolutional codes.86 7. N-ary complementary convolutional coding is a multi-level convolutional code. turbo codes are limited to two convolutional codes connected in parallel. deﬁned as N-ary complementary convolutional coding. Another class of convolutional codes. because these methods are often used to correct errors that are caused by channel noise. known as parallel concatenated codes or turbo codes [7–9]. In a typical convolutional encoder.2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes In a typical convolutional encoder. where delays are introduced due to concatenation and interleaving. where more than two convolutional codes can be used simultaneously to further enhance coding gain without concatenation and interleaving. 7.2. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. Therefore.2. each convolutional code is inverted to construct a block of n-antipodal codes. This type of error control is also classiﬁed as forward error control coding (FECC).1. a modiﬁed technique. The convolutional encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). as shown in Fig.1 once again and assume that the input bit sequence to the encoder is: m ðtÞ ¼ 1 0 1 ð7:1Þ . is presented to overcome these problems. The code rate is deﬁned as r = k/n.2 7. for a total of 2n = N complementary convolutional codes. it is also too complex to realize. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. In its most basic construction. 7. along with M-ary modulation. In short.

1 Generation of N-ary complimentary convolutional codes Which is described by the following polynomial? m ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ 0X þ 1X 2 ¼ 1 þ X2 ð7:2Þ The encoder is described by the following generator polynomials: g1ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 2 g2ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X 2 ð7:3Þ Then.0) + (0.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 87 Fig. 7.-------------U1U2 = (1.0) + (1.7.1) ð7:5Þ .1) + (1.0) + (1. the product of polynomials for the encoder can be described as follows: m ðXÞg1ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 3 þ X 4 m ðXÞg2ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X 4 ð7:4Þ with X2 + X2 = 0. We write the above two equations as follows: m(X)g1(X) = 1 + 1X + 0X2 + 1X3 + 1X4 m(X)g2(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X2 + 0X3 + 1X4 --------------------------------------------------------. the output bit sequence can be found as U(X) = m(X)g1(X) multiplexed with m(X)g2(X). where m(X) is the input bit sequence [7].

and the next 8 3 data block maps the next 8 10 antipodal code block.88 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig.2. The ﬁrst 8 3 data block maps the 8 10 convolutional code block.3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary (N = 2) coded QPSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 6-parallel streams as shown in Fig. each 3-bit data corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. These code blocks are stored in two 8 10 ROMs. These bit streams.2 N-ary complimentary convolutional code blocks Taking only the coefﬁcients. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. 7. we obtain the desired convolutional code sequence corresponding to the input bit sequence m(T) = 101 as follows: Convolutional Code ¼ 1 1 10 00 10 11 ð7:6Þ The corresponding antipodal code is obtained simply by inverting the convolutional code as shown in the ﬁgure. are partitioned into two 8 3 data blocks. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit . 7.3. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. Antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes.2. 7. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. 7. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. This is given by: Antipodal Code ¼ 0 0 01 11 01 00 ð7:7Þ As can be seen.

Moreover. the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. 7. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz B ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 ð7:9Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. which is modulated by a QPSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. 7. These bit streams. the transmission bandwidth is also reduced. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. are partitioned into four 4 2 data . and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. 7. The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 6=10 ¼ 3=5 ð7:8Þ Since there are two convolutional waveforms (one convolutional and one antipodal).3 2-ary convolutional coding with QPSK modulation convolutional/antipodal code.7.4. Rb2 is the coded bit rate.4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation A 4-ary (N = 4) coded 16PSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 8-parallel streams as shown in Fig.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 89 Fig.2.

7.4 4-ary convolutional coding with 16PSK modulation blocks. Each 4 2 data block maps corresponding 4 10 convolutional code blocks. . The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. which is modulated by a 16PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. These code blocks are stored in four 4 10 ROMs. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. The code rate is given by: Code Rate:r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 ð7:10Þ Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal).90 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. Moreover. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. the transmission bandwidth is further reduced. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ð7:11Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r.

4. 2. there is a unique encoded 10-bit data (see table). 6. 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 00 11 11 10 10 01 01 00 11 10 01 11 00 01 10 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 . 5. The expected data is stored into a lookup table [see Table 7.3 91 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. 1.7. Now.1 Lookup table a Input (m) Output (U) 0. 7. there are 8 possible output combinations of 3-bit data.3. where the actual input data is m = 0 1 1. requiring several tests to validate the actual data. identiﬁed in bold. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation).3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. • Upon receiving an encoded data pattern.1]: • The lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation.1 Correlation Receiver Decoding is a process of code correlation. The result is presented below: • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 • 1st row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 00 00 00 • Mod-2 Add: 00 11 01 01 00 Table 7. • For m = 3. The correlation process is described below: Test 0: This test compares the received data with the 1st row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. the receiver compares the received data with the expected data set to recover the actual data. In this process. Let us examine the correlation process using the following example: • The input bit pattern m = 0 1 1 • Encoded transmit data: U = 00 11 01 01 11 • Received data with errors U* = 00 11 01 01 00 Notice that the last two bits are in error. This is a correlation process. 3. • For each combination of 3-bit data. let us determine how the receiver recovers the correct data. • The receiver receives one of 8 output sequences.

continue search The remaining tests may be conducted by using the same method to reach the ﬁnal verdict as given below: Final Verdict: Collect the correlation values and validate the data that indicates the lowest correlation value. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation).92 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation • Correlation value = 4 (count the number of 1’s in MOD2 Add) • Verdict: No match. Test 1: This test compares the received data with the 2nd row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. continue search. The result is presented below: • • • • • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 2nd row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 11 10 11 Mod-2 Add: 00 11 10 111 11 Correlation value = 7 Verdict: No match. This is presented in the following lookup table. .

each code is unique and there is a minimum distance dmin between any two convolutional codes where dmin n=2 ð7:13Þ This distance property can be used to detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two convolutional codes. K is the length of the shift register and the factor −2 is due to the initial content of the shift register. Therefore. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. 7. 7. where . • This is the data which has been transmitted to the receiver.2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes An n-bit convolutional code is generated by a rate ½ encoder of constraint length K where n ¼ 4K 2 ð7:12Þ In the above equation.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 93 In examining the above table. Therefore. the value of n is reduced by 2.3. each 3-bit data sequence corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. we ﬁnd that: • The lowest correlation value is 2.2. • The corresponding data is m = 0 1 1. It can be shown that an n-bit convolutional code can correct the errors. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes. As can be seen. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. For example. a rate ½ convolutional encoder with K = 3 generates 00 when the initial content of the shift register is 000. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. which is 000.7. The antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes.

N-ary orthogonal coding is a multi-level channel coding technique. .4. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. Therefore.2 Error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes Constraint length (K) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (BPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (QPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (16PSK) 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 t dmin =2 n=4 ð4K 2Þ=4 ð7:14Þ where • t = Number of errors that can be corrected by means of a single convolutional code • n = Code length • K = Constraint length The proposed N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding technique. At the receiver. 7. The coded information bits are then modulated by means of MPSK modulator and transmitted through a channel.94 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Table 7. The proposed coded modulation scheme is bandwidth efﬁcient and offers a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit.1 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA cellular communications for spectrum spreading and user ID [10–13]. The use of orthogonal codes for forward error control coding has also been investigated by a limited number of authors [14–16]. These parallel bit streams.2 displays error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. In the proposed scheme. This type of channel coding is bandwidth efﬁcient and further enhances the coding gain with bandwidth efﬁciency. This chapter presents a method of channel coding based on N-ary orthogonal codes [17– 20]. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. now reduced in speed. we modify the above equation to obtain N t N dmin =2 Nn=4 Nð4K 2Þ=4 ð7:15Þ Table 7. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation.4 7. are mapped into N-ary orthogonal codes.

. 7. 7. Antipodal codes are also orthogonal among them.5 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 8. 7.7.3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary orthogonal coded QPSK modulator with n = 8. an 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes. The principle is presented below. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. 7. 7. Each data block is mapped into an 8 8 code block. k) block codes. rate ¾.4. We note that orthogonal codes are essentially (n. For example. Antipodal codes. a 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 95 Fig. for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes. an n-bit orthogonal code has n-orthogonal codes and n-antipodal codes.5 [12]. on the other hand. as depicted in the ﬁgure.2 Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are binary-valued and have equal numbers of 1’s and 0’s. Similarly. These bit streams. We now show that code rates such as rate ½.7. are partitioned into two data blocks.6.4. as shown in Fig. Therefore. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 6-parallel streams. and rate 1 are indeed available out of orthogonal codes. as shown in Fig. An 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes 7. are just the inverse of orthogonal codes. where a k-bit data set is represented by a unique n-bit orthogonal code (k < n). as shown in Fig. for a total of 2n bi-orthogonal codes. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes.

6 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 16.96 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. A 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes Fig. 7. 7.7 2-ary orthogonal coding with N = 2 .

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

97

**According to the communication scheme, when a 3-bit data pattern needs to be
**

transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead,

requiring a QPSK modulator. The modulated waveforms are in orthogonal space

and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:

Code Rate: r ¼ 6=8 ¼ 3=4

Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Moreover, the transmission

bandwidth is also reduced, which is given by:

Transmission Bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz

¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 Hz

ð7:16Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.4

4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation

**A 4-ary orthogonal coded 16PSK modulator, with n = 8, having 16 complementary
**

orthogonal codes, can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into

8-parallel streams, as shown in Fig. 7.8. The bit streams, now reduced in speed by a

factor of 8, are partitioned into four data blocks. Each data block is mapped into a

4 8 code block as depicted in the ﬁgure. According to the communication scheme,

when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/

antipodal code is transmitted instead, requiring a 16PSK modulator. The modulated

waveforms are in orthogonal space and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:

Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1

ð7:17Þ

**This is achieved without bandwidth expansion.
**

Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Moreover, the transmission bandwidth is further reduced, which is given by:

Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz

¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 Hz

ð7:18Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate, and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.5

2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

**Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
**

partitioned into two code blocks. Each code block represents a data block as shown

in Fig. 7.9. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with each

98

Fig. 7.8 N-ary orthogonal coding with N = 4

Fig. 7.9 2-ary orthogonal decoding

7 N-Ary Coded Modulation

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

99

**entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
**

A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be

seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the ﬁgure. The

corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.

Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 2 1 = 2. Moreover, the

bandwidth is also reduced, as presented below:

BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2

7.4.6

ð7:19Þ

4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

**Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
**

partitioned into four code blocks. Each code block represents a data block, as

shown in Fig. 7.10. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with

each entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.

A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be

seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the ﬁgure. The

corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.

Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 4 1 = 4. Moreover, the

bandwidth is further reduced as presented below:

BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2

7.4.7

ð7:20Þ

**Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal
**

Codes

**Error correction capabilities of orthogonal codes have been discussed earlier [16].
**

We present it again for convenience. An n-bit orthogonal code has n/2 1’s and n/2

0’s; i.e., there are n/2 positions where 1’s and 0’s differ. Therefore, the distance

between two orthogonal codes is d = n/2. This distance property can be used to

detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two

orthogonal codes as shown in Fig. 7.11, where the received code is shown as a

dotted line. This is given by:

dth ¼

n

4

ð7:21Þ

**where n is the code length and dth is the threshold, which is midway between two
**

valid orthogonal codes. Therefore, for the given 8-bit orthogonal code, we have

10 4-ary orthogonal decoding Fig. 7.100 Fig. 7.11 Distance properties of orthogonal codes 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation .

8. Table 7. The average number of errors that can be corrected by means of this process can be estimated by combining Eq. Rate ½ complementary convolutional codes • 4-ary convolutional coding (N = 4) Table 7. where an impaired orthogonal code is compared with a pair of n-bit orthogonal codes to yield: Rðx. 2. R(x. t is the number of errors that can be corrected by means of an n-bit orthogonal code. a three-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of a 16-bit orthogonal code (n = 16) and so on.7. where the incoming impaired orthogonal code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. an additional 1-bit offset is added to Eq. … 8 16 32 64 1 3 7 15 N 3N 7N 15 N . a false detection will occur. 4. a single-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of an 8-bit orthogonal code (n = 8).3 Error correction capabilities of N-ary orthogonal codes Code length n Number of errors corrected per code t Number of errors corrected by N-ary code Nt N = 1. Problem 7. yÞ ¼ n 1 4 ð7:23Þ In the above equation. otherwise. 7.22. yielding: t ¼ n Rðx. n is the code length.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 101 dth = 8/4 = 2. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • K = 3. and dth is the threshold as deﬁned earlier.3 shows a few orthogonal codes and the corresponding error-correcting capabilities. Similarly. yÞ ¼ n X xi yi ðn dth Þ þ 1 ð7:22Þ i¼1 where x and y are two n-bit orthogonal codes. Since the threshold is in the midway between two valid codes. The received code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. 7. For example. The following correlation process governs this. y) is the autocorrelation function.21 and Eq.1 This problem relates to N-ary convolutional codes and M-ary PSK modulation. This mechanism offers a decision process. 7. The acceptance criterion for a valid code is that an n-bit comparison must yield a good autocorrelation value.21 for reliable detection.

Each 4 2 data block maps a corresponding 4 10 convolutional code blocks. These bit streams.2 This example relates to N-ary orthogonal codes and M-ary PSK modulation. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. M = 16. which is modulated by a 24 = 16 PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • n = 8 orthogonal codes having 16 complementary orthogonal codes • 4-ary orthogonal Coding Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected . Therefore. are partitioned into four 4 2 data blocks.] Problem 7. (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 (c) Bit rate after coding Rb2 = Rb1/r = (5/4) 10 kb/s = 12. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadruple.102 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected Solution: (a) A 4-ary (N = 4) coded modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 8-parallel stream. These code blocks are stored in four 4 10 ROMs.5 kb/s (d) Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ¼ ð12:50 kb=sÞ=2 ¼ 6:25 kHz (e) Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. 4t = 4 2 = 8 [Each code corrects 2 errors.

(b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1 (c) The bit rate after coding is given by: Rb2 ¼ Rb1 r ¼ 10 kb=s ðr ¼ 1Þ (d) The transmission bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ 2 10 kb=s=4 ¼ 5 k Hz (e) Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal). Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. At the receiver. 4t ¼ 4 1 ¼ 4 7. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes is presented to illustrate the concept. The bit streams. are partitioned into four data blocks. i. Therefore.. the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead. Each data block is mapped into a 4 8 code block. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. based on N-ary complementary codes and M-ary PSK (MPSK) modulation. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. . According to the communication scheme.e. N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. is presented. when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted.7. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. requiring a 24 = 16 PSK modulator.5 Conclusions A method of coded modulation. with n = 8.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 103 Solution: (a) A 4-ary orthogonal coded modulator. M = 416. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 8-parallel streams. The proposed coded modulation schemes are bandwidth efﬁcient and offer a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit.

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