SPRINGER BRIEFS IN

ELEC TRIC AL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency
Modulation Made
Easy

123

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer
Engineering

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10059

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency Modulation
Made Easy

123

Saleh Faruque
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks, ND
USA

ISSN 2191-8112
ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)
SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering
ISBN 978-3-319-41200-9
ISBN 978-3-319-41202-3 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945147
© The Author(s) 2017
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Preface

By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897, the Italian physicist Tomaso
Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications. This
enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. For this
epoch-making invention, this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1909. Even today, students of wireless or radio technology remember
this distinguished physicist with reverence. A new era began in Radio
Communications.
The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as
“Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This led to the development of Frequency
Modulation (FM), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), etc.
Today, these technologies are extensively used in various wireless communication
systems. These modulation techniques form an integral part of academic curricula
today.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the various modulation techniques mentioned above. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students
up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital
modulation techniques. In particular, the following topics will be presented in this
book:







Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM
Amplitude shift keying (ASK)
Frequency shift keying (FSK)
Phase shift keying (PSK)
N-ary coding and M-ary modulation
Bandwidth occupancy in ASK, FSK, and PSK

This text has been primarily designed for electrical engineering students in the
area of telecommunications. However, engineers and designers working in the area

v

I am grateful to UND and the School for the Blind. who have enabled me and others visually impaired to work comfortably. I hope that my readers forgive me for them. This book is a collection of my courseware and research activities in wireless communications. North Dakota. In spite of all this support. provided technical support in formulation and experimentation when I needed it. Yasmin. thanks are also to my doctoral student Md. Maruf Ahamed who found time in his busy schedule to assist me with the simulations. an electrical engineer himself. It is assumed that the student is familiar with the general theory of telecommunications. Shams. he deserves my heartfelt thanks. During my teaching tenure at the University of North Dakota. I shall be amply rewarded if they still find this book useful. In closing. For this. illustrations. Grand Forks. an English Literature buff and a writer herself. I developed a number of graduate-level elective courses in the area of telecommunications that combine theory and practice. It came out of my long industrial and academic career. and the verification of equations. for being by my side throughout the writing of this book and for patiently proofreading it. for affording me this opportunity. Finally. there may still be some errors in this book. USA May 2016 Saleh Faruque . This book would never have seen the light of day had UND and the State of North Dakota not provided me with the technology to do so. My heartfelt salute goes out to the dedicated developers of these technologies. I would like to say a few words about how this book was conceived.vi Preface of wireless communications would also find this text useful. My darling son. I would like to thank my beloved wife.

. . . . . . . . .4. .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . .3. . .Contents 1 Introduction to Modulation . . . .2. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii . . . .3. .2 Amplitude Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . .4. . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation. . . . . . . References . . 1. 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 . . . .6 Drawbacks in AM. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .. . . . .3. . . . . .. .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth. . . . . 1. . . . . . .5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance .. . 9 10 11 12 14 15 . . . . . . . . 17 17 19 20 20 21 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 1. . . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Conclusions . . . 23 24 24 . . . 2. 1.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . ..1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Modulation by Digital Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance . . FM. . . . . . . . .. . . .2. . . . 1. . . . . . . .1 Background . . .3. .2 Modulation by Analog Signals . . . .. . .5 AM Demodulation . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . .4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1. . . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . and PM . . . .1 AM. . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . .4 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals . . 1. . . . . . .. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generation of DSBSC Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 45 46 48 49 49 . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 DSBSC Modulation. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ASK Modulation . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . .2 The Basic FM . . . . . 3. . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .1 Why SSB Modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . .4. . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .5. 4. . . . . 4. . . 2. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .4. . . 3. . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii Contents 2. . . . . .1 Introduction .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .3 FM Spectrum . 4. 5. . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . .2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal. 2. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 3. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 4. . . . . . . .5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation . . . . . . . 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 32 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . References . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . 4. . . . . .6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma . . . . . 51 51 53 54 55 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . .4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 DSBSC Drawbacks . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Demodulation . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 44 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 57 57 58 60 . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . . . . .3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . 3. . .4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .4. . . . . . .4 ASK Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7. . . . 7. .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) . . . 61 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . 7. 5. . .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . 63 63 65 67 67 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) . . . . . 6. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ix 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . References .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes .3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance .2. 7. . . . 5. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .4 8PSK Modulation . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal Codes . . . . . .2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes . . . . . .6. . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 7. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation . . 6. . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .4. . . 99 . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder. . . . .4. . . .2. . . . . . .5 2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Correlation Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . 85 85 86 86 86 88 89 91 91 . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 7.. . . . . 104 . . 7. . .4 4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 5. . .5 16PSK Modulation . . .. .2 N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 QPSK Modulation . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .4. . .. .4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . 7. . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FSK Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 75 77 77 79 79 82 82 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 BER Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 103 . 7.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Conclusions . . . . .4. .5 Conclusions . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 BPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 BPSK Spectrum . . . 7. . 6. . . . . . . . .2 BPSK Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 93 94 94 95 95 97 97 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background .

FSK and PSK Bandwidth at a Glance 1. For these reasons. where the modulation block is shown in the inset of the dotted block. Figure 1. referred to as the modulated signal. The preceding two stages have been discussed elaborately in my previous book in this series [1. also known as “carrier frequency. This is the final stage of any radio communication system. 2].1 shows the conceptual block diagram of a modern wireless communication system. Antenna is a reciprocal device that transmits and receives the modulated carrier frequency. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. The output signal of the modulator. Faruque. The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength (k) of the sinusoidal wave where k = c/f m c = Velocity of light = 3  108 m/s f = Frequency of the sinusoidal wave. a carrier frequency much higher than the input signal is required to keep the size of the antenna at an acceptable limit. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy.1 Background Modulation is a technique that changes the characteristics of the carrier frequency in accordance with the input signal. DOI 10.” Therefore. is fed into the antenna for propagation. the © The Author(s) 2017 S. In this process. modulation is performed at the transmit side and demodulation is performed at the receive side.Chapter 1 Introduction to Modulation Topics • • • • • Background Modulation by Analog Signal AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance Modulation by Digital Signal ASK. a high-frequency carrier signal is used in the modulation process. As shown in the figure.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_1 1 .

there are two basic modulation schemes as listed below: • Modulation by analog signals and • Modulation by digital signals. modulation is a very important step in the transmission of information. where the digital signal processing is done keeping in mind the available bandwidth resources. 1. Furthermore. For a head start. The modulation stage is shown as a dotted block low-frequency input signal changes the characteristics of the high-frequency carrier in a certain manner. the input signal (analog or digital) changes the characteristics of the carrier waveform. as the size and speed of digital data networks continue to expand. This book presents a comprehensive overview of these modulation techniques in use today. brief descriptions of each of these modulation techniques are presented below. This is especially true for broadband communication. where the carrier is a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform. bandwidth efficiency becomes increasingly important.2 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. As stated earlier. Therefore. depending on the modulation technique. Hence. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. . The information can be either analog or digital.1 Block diagram of a modern full-duplex communication system.

Even today. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [3. FM. • Phase Modulation (PM). the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. there are three well-known modulation techniques as listed below: • Amplitude Modulation (AM). while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. This is shown in Fig.1 3 Modulation by Analog Signals AM.2 where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.2 1.1. A new era began in Radio Communications. In AM. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. Fig. 1. 4].2 Modulation by analog signal . • Frequency Modulation (FM). and PM For analog signals.2. For this epoch-making invention. 1. students of wireless or radio technology remember this distinguished physicist with reverence.2 Modulation by Analog Signals 1. By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency.

1. which will be addressed in Chap. requiring frequency-domain analysis. Notice that in FM. In fact. 3. For this reason.4 1 Introduction to Modulation As shown in the figure. PM is closely related to FM. the modulated carrier creates an infinite number of spectral components. 3. 2. In FM: • The carrier frequency shifts back and forth from the nominal frequency by Df. • During this process. only the frequency changes while the amplitude remains the same. FM is also bandwidth inefficient. the modulated carrier contains an infinite number of sideband due to modulation. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input modulation signal as shown in Fig.3. in Phase Modulation (PM). where Df is the frequency deviation. the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the phase of the carrier. In Frequency Modulation (FM). the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. it will be shown that in FM. FM is derived from the rate of change of phase of the carrier frequency. We will discuss this more elaborately in Chap. FM is more robust against signal amplitude fading. where higher-order spectral components are negligible.2. 1. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. • The approximate FM bandwidth is given by the Carson’s rule: – – – – – FM BW = 2f (1 + b) f = Base band frequency b = Modulation index b = Df/f Df = Frequency deviation. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change. Both FM and PM belong to the same mathematical family.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance The bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal depends on bandwidth of the input signal and the modulation method as shown in Fig. . For this reason. In Chap. Unlike AM. It may be noted that AM is vulnerable to signal amplitude fading. In AM: • The modulated carrier has two sidebands (upper and lower) and • Total bandwidth = 2  base band.2 [5]. Note that the unmodulated carrier itself has zero bandwidth. FM is more attractive in commercial FM radio. Similarly. It can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. 1. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation.

and PM signals 1. Brief descriptions of each of these digital modulation techniques along with the respective spectral responses and bandwidth are presented below. The three main digital modulation techniques are as follows: • Amplitude shift keying (ASK). is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the . Figure 1.1. FM.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK).4 illustrates the modulated waveforms for an input modulating digital signal. and • Phase shift keying (PSK).3.3 Bandwidth occupancy in AM.3 Modulation by Digital Signal For digital signals. there are several modulation techniques available. 1. also known as on–off keying (OOK). • Frequency shift keying (FSK). 1.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 5 Fig.

this is referred to as binary FSK (BFSK). where the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. Figure 1. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.6 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. the carrier is OFF. .3. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation.4 Modulation by digital signal career frequency [6–8]. in accordance with the input signal.4 shows the ASK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. 1. For the binary signal 0. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. For binary signal 1.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [6–8]. this is referred to as ASK. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. etc. However. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. • Binary 0 (bit 0): Amplitude = Low and • Binary 1 (bit 1): Amplitude = High. interference. • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. as shown. 1. the carrier is ON.

4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation In wireless communications. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Phase1 = 0°. • Output is the BPSK-modulated carrier. Figure 1. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. respectively. PSK). this is referred to as binary PSK (BPSK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal 7 where the carrier frequency changes in discrete levels.1. where the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. 1. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Frequency = f + Df. Figure 1. For this reason.4 shows the modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit.4 shows the FSK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. and • Modulation type (ASK. etc. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. 1. which has two phases u1 and u2 corresponding to the two information bits. FSK.3. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Frequency = f − Df. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Phase2 = 180°. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data. which has two frequencies x1 and x2. Let us take a closer look! . corresponding to the binary input signal. • These frequencies correspond to the messages binary 0 and 1.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase of the carrier to represent digital signal [6–8].

V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). • Binary-0 = Low. T being the bit duration. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.4. The function can be a voltage .5a). It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. The general equation for two-sided response is given by Za VðxÞ = VðtÞ  ejxt dt a In this case. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1.5b). In practice. where fb = Rb = 1/T. Period = T. The time-domain representation (Fig. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components.8 1 Introduction to Modulation 1. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. is given by VðtÞ ¼ V ¼0 \0\t\T elsewhere ð1:1Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform” [9]: ZT VðxÞ = V  ejxt dt ð1:2Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2      1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 ð1:3Þ Here. In other words. 1. 1. the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. This is plotted in (Fig. Also. Period = T. P(x) is the power spectral density. Therefore.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.

4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 9 Fig. b it is one-sided power spectral density. It has one frequency component. and c two-sided power spectral density.1. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ V p sinðxtc Þ ð1:5Þ . 1.5 a Discrete time digital signal.5c) shows the two-sided response. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 1. 1.2 ð1:4Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. For example. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb.4. where Rb is the bit rate or a current (Fig.

1. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞSðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sinðxm tÞ cosðxc Þ ¼ Am Ac cos ðxc  xm Þ . Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. in accordance with the input signal where • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1.10 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig.6 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. Since the frequency is constant.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. 1.4. • Modulated carrier: S(t) = m(t)C(t) = m(t)Ac cos(xct). its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. • Carrier frequency: C(t) = Ac cos(xct).6 A sine wave and its frequency response where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 1. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels.

1. . For m(t) = 1 S(t) = A cos(x +Dx)t. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.7 ASK bandwidth at a glance. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data The spectral response is depicted in Fig. • A = Amplitude of the carrier. For m(t) = 0 where • S(t) = The modulated carrier. 1.7.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 11 Fig.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. in accordance with the input signals. We have: • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C (t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x −D x)t. Bandwidth is given by. where Rb is the coded bit rate. BW = 2Rb (coded).4. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. 1. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb.1.

1. The spectral response is depicted in Fig. 1. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.12 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. we have: . a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance In BPSK. where Dfc is the frequency deviation.4. in accordance with the input signal. fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data • x = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency.8 FSK bandwidth at a glance. 1. The FSK bandwidth is given by BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. and • Dx = Frequency deviation. where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). Here. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by  Dfc. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc).8.

Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : Figure 1. notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same as the one in ASK modulation.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 13 • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C(t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x + u)t where • A = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. etc. as follows: u = 0° for bit 0 and u = 180° for bit 1. 16. 4. and • u = Phase of the carrier frequency.1. • For BPSK. Also. This is due to the fact that the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. Notice that the spectral response after BPSK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. while the frequency remains the same. Table below shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. centered on the carrier frequency fc. one bit per phase. • x = Angular frequency of the carrier. one bit per phase. 8. 64.9 shows the spectral response of the BPSK modulator. It will be shown that higher-order MPSK modulation schemes (M > 2) are spectrally efficient. u = 2. . 32. The transmission bandwidth is given by BW(BPSK) ¼ 2Rb =Bit per Phase ¼ 2Rb =1 ¼ 2Rb where • Rb is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). the carrier frequency changes in two discrete levels. Since there are two phases.

Amplitude shift keying (ASK). . FSK. In particular. Frequency Modulation (FM). b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.9 PSK bandwidth at a glance. following topics will be presented in this book: • • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM). and PSK.5 Conclusions This chapter presents a brief overview of modulation techniques covered in this book. Phase shift keying (PSK). c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation 1.14 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. Frequency shift keying (FSK). Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. and Bandwidth occupancy in ASK. 1. Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM.

Date of Application 2 June 1896. Joseph Fourier JB (1878) The analytical theory of heat (trans: Freeman A). Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission system. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 8. Prentice-Hall Inc. New York 2.1936. Marconi G (1987) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Complete Specification Left. Complete Specification Left. London . and in apparatus therefor. British patent No. doi:10. The University Press. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. Armstrong EH (1936) A Method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Springer. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency source coding made easy. British patent No. 7th edn. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems.1109/JRPROC. 12. New York 3. Accepted. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Prentice Hall. Leon W. 7.777. ISBN: 0442009178 7.227383 6. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 4.039 . Springer. Accepted. 2 Mar 1897. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Englewood Cliffs. 13 Apr 1901 5. Upper Saddle River 9. 25 Feb 1901.References 15 References 1.

This is shown in Fig. In AM. © The Author(s) 2017 S. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. DOI 10. A new era began in Radio Communications. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal.Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth Single Side Band (SSB) Carrier SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. students of wireless or radio technologies remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. 2]. Faruque. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. which is the main topic of this chapter. 2.1 Introduction By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [1. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_2 17 . Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. For this epoch-making invention.1. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. Even today. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency.

. The frequency of the carrier remains the same As shown in the figure. requiring frequency domain analysis. However. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. In an effort to examine this. 2. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. the above disciplines in AM modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. this chapter will present the following topics: • Amplitude Modulation (AM) and AM spectrum • Double Sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) and DSBSC spectrum • Single sideband (SSB) carrier and SSB spectrum In the following sections. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation.1 AM waveforms.18 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig.

m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. S(t) is the modulated waveform which is transmitted by the antenna . These parameters are described below:   mðtÞ ¼ Am cosð2pfm tÞ CðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞfc  fm  SðtÞ ¼ ½1 þ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ CðtÞ þ mðtÞCðtÞ ð2:1Þ Therefore. When m(t) = 0:  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:2Þ When m(t) = Am cos(2pfmt):  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:3Þ Fig. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. The amplitude of the carrier C(t) changes in accordance with the input modulating signal m(t). This is referred to as AM.2 Illustration of amplitude modulation.2. and S(t) is the output AM-modulated carrier frequency. 2.2 19 Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes amplitude variations of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [3–5].2 shows a functional diagram of a typical AM modulator for a single tone. Here. Figure 2.2 Amplitude Modulation 2.

FM ASK. Since the frequency is constant. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.) Let us take a closer look! 2. which does not have information • The second term contains the information. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. For example. For this reason. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. which has several spectral components. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type (AM. 2.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In AM.3.3 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. etc.20 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) In the above equation. Fig.3 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response . 2. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. PSK. For simplicity. we use a sinusoidal waveform. and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð2:4Þ where • Vp = Peak voltage • xm = 2pfm • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz Figure 2. we see that: • The first term is the carrier only.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. requiring further analysis to quantify them. FSK. It has one frequency component.

3. Since the frequency is constant.3. For example. 2. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð2:5Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 2.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the AM signal again.4 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response ð2:7Þ . which was derived earlier: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:6Þ Using the following trigonometric identity: cosA cosB ¼ 1=2cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2cosðA  BÞ Fig.2 21 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc  fm).2.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. 2. It has one frequency component.

Therefore. The AM bandwidth (BW) is given by BW ¼ 2fm ð2:9Þ Notice that the power is distributed among the sidebands and the carrier. This is shown in Fig.5. Only the sidebands contain the information. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm .5 AM spectrum.22 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) where • A = 2p (fc + fm)t • B = 2p (fc − fm)t we get SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc þ fm Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:8Þ This is the spectral response of the AM-modulated signal. 2. Fig. where the carrier does not contain any information. 2. AM is inefficient in power usage. It has three spectral components: • The carrier: fc • Upper sideband: fc + fm • Lower sideband: fc – fm where fc is the carrier frequency and fm is the input modulating frequency.

4 23 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals If m(t) has a peak positive value of less than +1 and a peak negative value of higher than −1. The percent modulation is described by the following equation: The overall modulation percentage is: Amax  Amin % Overall Modulation ¼  100 Ac max½mðtÞ  min½mðtÞ  100: ¼ 2Ac Fig. 2.3.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. This is shown in Fig.  For mðtÞ ¼ 1 :  SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  1 cosð2pc tÞ ¼ 0 For mðtÞ ¼ þ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ 1cosð2pf c tÞ ¼ 2Ac cosð2pf c tÞ ð2:10Þ ð2:11Þ This is called 100 % modulation.6 Amplitude modulation due to low and high modulating signals ð2:12Þ .6. 2.2. Therefore. 2. then the modulation is less than 100 %. On the other hand. if m(t) has a peak positive value of +1 and a peak negative value of −1. as shown in Fig. then the modulation is 100 % [3–5].7.

7 shows the conceptual model of the AM receiver. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted 2. it passes through the band-pass filter. Figure 2. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. it passes through the band-pass filter.3. 2.5 AM Demodulation Once the modulated analog signal has been transmitted.7 AM demodulation technique. Next. since it affects the amplitude of the carrier.6 Drawbacks in AM • The modulated signal contains the carrier. Next. 2. Problem 2. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted. As the signal enters the receiver. AM is inefficient in power usage • Moreover.3. This is accomplished by the use of a band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. containing the same information • It is bandwidth inefficient • AM is also susceptible to interference. Therefore. As the signal enters the receiver. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth and power efficiency.1 Given: • Input modulating frequency fm = 10 kHz • Carrier frequency fc = 400 kHz Find • Spectral components • Bandwidth . carrier takes power and it does not have the information • Therefore.24 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. there are two sidebands. it needs to be received and demodulated. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0.

which does not have any information • The second and third terms contain information. we suppress the carrier.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) 2. we obtain: SðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Now. Let us take the original AM signal once again. by suppressing the first term we obtain the following: SðtÞ ¼ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:14Þ Next. we use the following trigonometric identities: • cos(A + B) = cosA cosB − sinA sinB • cos(A − B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB With A = 2pfmt = xmt and B = 2pfct = xct. which is the first term that does not have any information. define • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) • C(t) = Ac cos (xct) ð2:15Þ .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 25 Solution Spectral Components: • fc = 400 kHz • fc + fm = 400 kHz + 10 kHz = 410 kHz • fc − fm = 400 kHz − 10 kHz = 390 kHz Bandwidth • BW = 2 fm = 2  10 kHz = 20 kHz. In DSBSC.4. as given below: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pf c tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:13Þ Notice that there are three spectral components: • The first term is the carrier only. Therefore.1 DSBSC Modulation Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC). also known as product modulator. is an AM signal that has a suppressed carrier [3–5].2. 2.

9.” Proof of DSBSC Consider the DSBSC modulator as shown in Fig.8 Symbolic representation of DSBSC. The symbolic representation is given in Fig. also known as product modulator Then. The output is the product of two signals .26 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. the AM modulators generate S1(t) and S2(t). Also.9 [3–5]. which are given by: Fig.9 Construction of DSBSC modulator. The outcome is a cancellation of the discrete carrier. This is why it is called “product modulator. we can write the above equations as: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ ð2:16Þ This is the DSBSC waveform. 2. 2. where m(t) is the input modulating signal and C(t) is the carrier frequency. the output is the product of two inputs: S(t) = m(t) C(t). Here. 2.8. it is also known as product modulator. Since the output is the product of two signals. 2.2 Generation of DSBSC Signal A DSBSC signal can be generated using two AM modulators arranged in a balanced configuration as shown in Fig. 2. 2.4.

which does not have the carrier. In other words.4. SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½cosðxc þ xm Þt þ cosðxc  xm Þt ¼ Ac ½cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt þ cos 2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:22Þ .2.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ 27 ð2:17Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ Subtracting S2(t) from S1(t). 2. Now. use the trigonometric identity:  cos A cos B ¼ 1=2 cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2 cosðA  BÞ ð2:21Þ where A ¼ xm t ¼ 2pfm t and B ¼ xc t ¼ 2pfc t Therefore. hence the name double sidebandsuppressed carrier (DSBSC). we essentially cancel the carrier to obtain: SðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:18Þ Therefore. except for the scaling factor 2. the carrier has been suppressed. SðtÞ ¼ 2 Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:20Þ This is the desired DSBSC waveform for spectral analysis.3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth We begin with the DSBSC-modulated signal: SðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:19Þ where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Therefore. the above equation is exactly the same as the desired DSBSC waveform shown earlier.

Problem 2.4. Each sideband contains the same information Bandwidth is 2 fm Unnecessary power usage Therefore. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm Notice that the carrier power is distributed among the sidebands (Fig. as shown below: Find (a) The output waveform S2(t) (b) What is the function of this circuit? Solution S1 ðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ (a) S2 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ CðtÞ ¼ mðtÞC 2 ðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Ac2 cos 2ðxc tÞ (b) The function of the circuit is to demodulate DSBSC signals. where the carrier frequency is filtered out.28 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. 2. 2. . it is more efficient.10 DSBSC spectrum where the carrier frequency is suppressed. Therefore.2 Given:Two product modulators using identical carriers are connected in a series. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth efficiency.4 • • • • ð2:23Þ DSBSC Drawbacks There are two identical sidebands. The bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2fm 2.10).

2. 2.5. where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ ð2:24Þ mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:25Þ CðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxc tÞ ð2:26Þ CðtÞ ¼ Ac sinðxc tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:27Þ     Fig.2.1 29 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation Why SSB Modulation? • The basic AM has a carrier which does not carry information—Inefficient power usage • The basic AM has two sidebands contain the same information—Additional loss of power • DSBSC has two sidebands.11 [3–5].5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 2.11 Generation of SSB signal . the basic AM and DSBSC are bandwidth and power inefficient • SSB is bandwidth and power efficient.2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal Single sideband (SSB) modulation uses two product modulators as shown in Fig. 2. containing the same information—Loss of power • Therefore.5 2.5.

Fig. we see that the SSB spectrum contains only one sideband. we obtain:  S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:28Þ  ð2:29Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ  Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ ð2:30Þ Using the following formula: • cosA cosB = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sinA sinB =1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. Therefore. which is the upper sideband only. The SSB bandwidth is given by: SSB BW ¼ fm Figure 2. The SSB bandwidth is fm ð2:33Þ . 2.3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the SSB signal again: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt ð2:32Þ Here. S2. and S3. 2. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal.30 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Solving for S1.5. it is more efficient.12 displays the SSB spectrum. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ð2:31Þ In the above equation.12 SSB spectrum showing the upper sideband.

is presented below. Solution Solving for S1 and S2. we obtain: • S1(t) = Ac Am cos (xmt) cos (xct) • S2(t) = Ac Am sin (xmt) sin (xct) Obtain S3 as: S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ þ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ Using the following formula: • cos A cos B = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sin A sin B = 1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. which is the lower sideband only. showing the lower sideband. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxm  xc Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc  fm Þt In the above equation.2.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 31 Problem 2. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. Sketch the spectral response. The spectral response. .3 Given: • • • • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) m(t)* = Am sin (xmt) − (Hilbert Transform) C(t) = Ac cos (xct) C(t)* = Ac sin (xct) − (Hilbert Transform) Design an SSB modulator to realize the lower sideband.

American Radio Relay League. Leon W. Technical Publications. Prentice-Hall Inc. and in apparatus therefor. Date of Application 2 June 1896. References 1. Marconi G (1897) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. 7th edn. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. 13 Apr 1901 3. p 36. British patent No. 2 Mar 1897. Silver W (ed) (2011) Chapter 14 transceivers.6 Conclusions This chapter presents the key concepts and underlying principles of Amplitude Modulation. Complete Specification Left. the following topics were presented in this chapter: • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM spectrum and bandwidth Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC spectrum and bandwidth Single sideband (SSB) SSB spectrum and bandwidth These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Godse AP. 25 Feb 1901. Complete Specification Left.777. 12. Bakshi UA (2009) Communication engineering. It was also shown that the modulated carrier contains several spectral components that lead to DSBSC and SSB modulation techniques. ISBN 978-81-8431-089-4 5. In particular. It was shown how the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. Englewood Cliffs. Accepted. The ARRL handbook for radio communications. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 2.039. 88th edn. 7. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Accepted. ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0 .32 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 2. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. British patent No.

where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. As shown in the figure. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. Faruque. requiring frequency domain analysis [3]. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. this chapter will present the following topics: • The basic Frequency Modulation (FM). Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. and • S(t) is the FM-modulated carrier frequency. In an effort to examine this. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same [1–5]. • FM spectrum. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains an infinite number of spectral components. the audio waveform changes the frequency of the carrier. DOI 10. However. 3.1 Introduction In Frequency Modulation (FM). This is shown in Fig. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. © The Author(s) 2017 S.Chapter 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Topics • • • • • • Introduction Frequency Modulation (FM) FM Spectrum Carson’s Rule & FM Bandwidth Bessel Function & FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth Dilemma 3. and • FM bandwidth.1.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_3 33 .

3.2 3.2. where the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. ð3:1Þ . and • h = Phase angle. 3.1 Illustration of FM 3. Here.34 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig.1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Background FM is a form of angle modulation.2. the angle refers to the angular frequency (x). • f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. It is a measure of rotation rate or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform as illustrated in Fig. Magnitude of the angular frequency x is defined by one revolution or 2p radians: x ¼ 2pf ¼ dh=dt Radians per second where. The angular frequency x is also recognized as angular speed or circular frequency. • x = Angular frequency in radians per seconds.

m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit.2 The Basic FM Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes frequency variation of the relative frequency of the career [1]. The modulated carrier frequency fc varies back and forth and depends on amplitude Am and frequency fm of the input signal. where the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. This forms the basis of our derivation of FM as presented in the following section.1. 3. using a single-tone modulating signal. Now solving for the phase angle. These parameters are described below.3 shows the functional diagram of a typical FM.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 35 Fig.2. we obtain.2 A sinusoidal waveform in the time domain and its representation in the phase domain Notice that in Eq. 3. Figure 3. This is referred to as FM. Here.3. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. the angular frequency x is greater than the frequency f by a factor of 2p. 3. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency. Zt hi ðtÞ ¼ 2p fi dt ð3:2Þ 0 • hi = Instantaneous phase angle and • fi = Instantaneous frequency. .

2.5) for fi. Substituting Eq. The FM-modulated signal is given by SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðhi Þ ð3:4Þ where Ac is the amplitude of the carrier frequency and hi is the instantaneous angle.3 A functional diagram of a typical FM modulator using a single-tone input modulating signal. we obtain Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p ffcðtÞ þ Df mðtÞgdt 0 ð3:6Þ . (3. (3.4) for hi. and m(t) = Am cos (wmt). m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. (3.3) into Eq. Substituting Eq. fc = Carrier frequency.36 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. we get Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p fi dt ð3:5Þ 0 where fi is the instantaneous frequency. Here. (3. 3. Df = Constant.2) into Eq. 3. Since the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. • • • • fi = Instantaneous frequency. the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is given by fi ðtÞ ¼ fc ðtÞ þ Df mðtÞ ð3:3Þ where. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency We examine this by means of a single-tone input modulating signal and its angular frequency as shown in Fig. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.

2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 37 where mðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxm tÞ is the input modulating signal. we obtain the desired FM signal as follows:     Df SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos 2pfc t þ sinð2pfm tÞ fm ¼ Ac cos½2pfc t þ bsinð2pfm tÞ   Df b¼ ¼ Modulation Index fm ð3:7Þ Df ¼ DfAm ¼ Freq. Let’s take a closer look! 3.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. For simplicity. Note that the modulation index b is an important design parameter in FM.3. which is periodic and . the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. fc = Frequency of the carrier. Ac = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. Integrating the above equation. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In FM. For this reason. we use a sinusoidal waveform. Deviation where. Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. and • Modulation type. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. • • • • • • • • S(t) = FM-modulated carrier signal.3. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. 3. and b = Df/fm = Modulation index. Let us take a closer look. It is directly related to FM bandwidth. fm = Input modulating frequency. It may also be noted that FM bandwidth depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input modulating signal. Df = A constant parameter. Δf = DfAm = Frequency deviation.

For example. 3.5 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response before modulation . 3. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð3:8Þ where. Figure 3. Since the frequency is constant. It has one frequency component. It has one frequency component.4 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response continuous with respect to time.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc » fm). The corresponding bandwidth is zero. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. 3. and • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz. For example. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: Fig. • xm = 2pfm.3.38 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. • Vp = Peak voltage.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.

3. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 39 V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð3:9Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc and • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz. Notice that the carrier frequency after modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc as depicted in the figure. Ac = Frequency of the carrier. Here. Figure 3.6. By inspecting the modulated carrier frequency. Df = DfAm = Frequency deviation. In Fig. xc = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. 3. Df = Constant. • Frequency deviation is proportional to the input signal voltage. . we have:    Input Signal : mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Carrier Frequency : C ðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðxc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ð3:10Þ where • • • • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier.3 FM Spectrum In FM. • Higher order spectral components are negligible.3. The spectral response is given in Fig. • Strength of individual sidebands far away from the carrier is proportional to (freq. • Relative strength of each sideband depends on Bessel function.5 shows the characteristics of a high-frequency sine wave and its spectral response.3. Since the frequency is constant. we observe that S(t) depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input signal. b = Df/fm = Modulation index. and Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. 3. deviation  input frequency). its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. spaced from carrier by amounts N  fi. • A group of many sidebands is created.6. we see that: • As time passes. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal.

3. states that more than 98 % of the power of FM signal lies within a bandwidth given by the following approximation: FM Bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2fm ð1 þ bÞ where ð3:11Þ . the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal and generates an infinite number of sidebands • Carson’s rule can be used to determine the approximate bandwidth: bandwidth required = 2  (highest input frequency + frequency deviation).3. As time passes. a rule of thumb.6 FM spectrum.4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth The Carson’s rule.40 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.01 0. Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm .3. J0 (b) is the amplitude of the fundamental spectral component. .5 1 1. it can be obtained as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index.5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth can be estimated by means of Bessel function of the first kind. J’s are the Bessel functions.12 0. For a given b.56 0.77 0.5 2 1 0.06 0. 3. .51 0.44 0. ð3:12Þ Here.02 0. and • fm = Highest frequency of the modulating signal. These values are also available as a standard Bessel function table. etc.35 0. • Df = Peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center of the carrier frequency.3.94 0. . For a single-tone modulation.23 0.03 J5 • b = Df/fm = Modulation index.22 0.24 0. J2.25 0. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency.  J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t  xm tÞ  J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t  2xm tÞ  J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t  3xm tÞ þ .58 0.13 0.11 0. J3.7 FM sidebands.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth Table 3. . Power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.98 0.03 0.…. representing the amplitude of the sidebands. the solution for S(t) is given as follows: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ¼ J0 ðbÞ cosðxc tÞ þ J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ xm tÞ þ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 2xm tÞ þ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 3xm tÞ þ .1 Bessel function table 41 b J0 J1 J2 J3 J4 0 0. and the remaining spectral components are the sidebands.

More power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.1 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼1 . depending on the modulation index b. we notice that if the modulation index is low. 3. the occupied bandwidth is also high. Therefore. FM is more popular because it is less sensitive to noise. the total bandwidth includes spectral components from both sides of the carrier. J2. 3. more power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sideband.1 provides a few Bessel parameters to illustrate the concept. 3. After modulation. Also. this is shown in Fig.… Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm As an example. However. After modulation. making the modulation more efficient at the expense of bandwidth. J3. For a given low b. are presented for different values of b. J2. in FM. J2. Figure 3. J4. J0. there is a unique value of b. if the modulation index is high. Problem 3. etc. the occupied bandwidth is low and the sidebands take less power from the carrier. with a given value of b.3. J0 is carrier power before modulation.8 shows another scenario where b is large.42 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. In this table. Table 3. are the sidebands. Here. etc.. while creating more significant sidebands. making the modulation less efficient. Here. J1. J3. the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier.6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma In FM. On the other hand.…. J0 is the spectral component of the carrier. power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands.8 FM sidebands for large b. This is a dilemma in FM. for which the carrier amplitude becomes zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands. power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sidebands.. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency fm. while the sidebands retain most of the power. requiring more bandwidth.7. In this case. J1. the carrier and sideband amplitude powers. Note that.

See figure below. Here. Therefore. and J3 are the sidebands.77.11. FM bandwidth is 2  Number of significant sidebands = 2  2 = 4 kHz. we have 4 upper and 4 lower sidebands. J1 = 0. J4 = 0.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 43 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 1) = 4 kHz.1: • J0 = 0.02 where J0 is the carrier and J1. J2 = 0.3.03 Here. there are two significant upper and lower sidebands. Problem 3. J1 = 0. J2 = 0. the FM bandwidth is 2  3 = 6 kHz. J2. See Table 3. and each sideband is 1 kHz apart. See figure below. we take 3 upper sidebands and 3 lower sidebands.2 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼2 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 2) = 6 kHz.35. (b) For b = 1. (b) For b = 2.13.58. . J3 = 0.1: • J0 = 0. Since the J4 is negligible. and each sideband is separated by 1 kHz. See Table 3. we can neglect J3 since it has a negligible power. J3 = 0.44. Therefore.22. Therefore.

7th edn. • FM bandwidth is estimated by means of Carson’s rule and Bessel function. Wiley. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. pp 214–217. References 1. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 4th edn. Lathi BP (1968) Communication systems. Felix MO (1965) FM systems of exceptional bandwidth.44 3. Englewood Cliffs. • The key concept and the underlying principle of FM are presented with numerous illustrations to make them easier for readers to grasp.1936. and problems are given to illustrate the concept. New York 5. New York. • FM spectrum is addressed with illustrations. Prentice-Hall Inc. doi:10. Proc IEEE 112(9):1664 . ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. ISBN 0-471-51832-8 3.4 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Conclusions • This chapter presents a brief overview of Frequency Modulation (FM) and its attributes. • FM bandwidth dilemma is explained. Haykin S (2001) Communication systems.1109/JRPROC.227383 2. Armstrong EH (1936) A method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Leon W. Wiley.

This is shown in Fig.Chapter 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ASK spectrum ASK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 4. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation.1.1 Introduction In amplitude shift keying (ASK). However. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. the above disciplines in ASK modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. 4. and • S(t) is the ASK-modulated carrier frequency. © The Author(s) 2017 S.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_4 45 . Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. In the following sections. the digital binary signal changes the amplitude of the carrier in two discrete levels. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. As shown in the figure. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. DOI 10. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. Faruque. requiring frequency domain analysis. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation.

is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [1–3]. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. The frequency of the carrier remains the same 4.2 shows an encoded ASK modulation scheme using (15. While there are many error-coding schemes available. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. Figure 4. we will use a simple coding technique. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. N = 2). 4. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15.46 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. which is then ASK modulated and transmitted row by row. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. which is encoded before modulation.2 ASK Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). also known as on–off keying (OOK). Next. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.1 ASK waveforms. The rate of this coding scheme is given by .

in accordance with the input signal. etc. the coded bits are modulated by means of the ASK modulator as shown in the figure. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. the carrier is OFF. a small residual signal may remain due to noise.. interference. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. As shown in the figure. The amplitude of the carrier frequency changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate: r = (MNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ = (4  2)/(5  3) = 8/15 ð4:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate = Rb1 =r = Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð4:2Þ Next. Here. For binary signal 1. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. 4. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. as indicated in the figure.4.2 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is also known as on–off keying (OOK). For the binary signal 0. where . however. the carrier is ON.2 Ask Modulation 47 Fig.

This is shown in Fig. the receiver appends horizontal and vertical parities PH* and PV* to check parity failures and recovers the data block. the receiver needs to utilize one band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. If there is an error. it needs to be received and demodulated. showing no errors. 4. In the case of ASK. This is often accomplished with the use of a band-pass filter. it passes through the filter and a decision as to the value of each bit is made to recover the encoded data block. Fig. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error . If there is an error.3 ASK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. where A is the amplitude and x is the frequency of the carrier. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error.48 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 ðcoded dataÞ Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cos(xtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ¼mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)A cos(xtÞ ð4:3Þ For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = A cos(xt) i:e: the carrier is ON For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = 0.3 having no errors. i:e: the carrier is OFF ð4:4Þ Therefore. along with horizontal and vertical parities. 4. 4.3 Data recovery process in ASK. As the signal enters the receiver. Next.

the one-sided bandwidth is . the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low.4a). The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. For this reason.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications.4b. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. and • Modulation type. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig.4. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V =0 \0\t \T elsewhere ð4:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð4:6Þ 0   sinðxT=2Þ jV ðxÞj ¼ VT xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 PðxÞ ¼ jV ðxÞj2 ¼ V 2 T T xT=2 ð4:7Þ Here. 4. In practice.4 Ask Bandwidth 4. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. This is plotted in Fig. 4. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. Therefore. 4. the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. P(x) is the power spectral density. Period = T Also.4 49 ASK Bandwidth In wireless communications.4.

the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data is 2Rb. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth (BW) = 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before coding) ð4:8Þ Fig. 4.4c shows the two-sided response. T being the bit duration. where Rb is the bit rate .50 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) given by the ratio f/fb = 1. where fb = Rb = 1/T. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ V ðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. In other words. The function can be a voltage or a current. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.4 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. Figure 4. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t).

It has one frequency component. where . in accordance with the input signal. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. 4.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. code rate is r. Since the frequency is constant. 4. then the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.5 = 20 kb/s.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s.4. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V(t) ¼ Vp sin(xtc Þ ð4:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 4.4 Ask Bandwidth 51 Important Notes 1. and if the data is NRZ. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz.4. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/ r. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)r. 2. For example. For example. If Rb is the bit rate before coding.4. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. For example. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. and if the data is NRZ.

Bandwidth is given by: BW = 2Rb (coded). 4. where Rb is the coded bit rate (Fig.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2  18. 4.5 High-frequency carrier frequency response    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ Ac cos(xc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)Ac cos(xc tÞ Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sin(xm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ m(t)SðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sin(xm tÞcos(xm tÞ ¼ 1=2 Am Ac ½sinðxc  xm Þt þ sinðxc þ xm Þt ð4:10Þ The spectral response is depicted in Fig.6). . Problem 1 Given: • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate: r = 8/15 • Modulation: ASK Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2) RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18.5 kHz.75 kb/s = 37. 3.14.52 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data.

Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU). a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. the coded bit energy to noise ratio will be modified to Ec/N0. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. 4. Thus. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data 4.5 BER Performance 53 Fig. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). Therefore. we write: WERU ¼ 1  ð1  BERU Þk ð4:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). 5]. We examine this by means of the following analytical means.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. Then. can correct t errors [4. Since n > k.6 ASK bandwidth at a glance. k) bock code. n = number of coded bits. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU with the coded word WERC.4. with ASK modulation. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð4:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. the coded BERc will be: . where k = number of information bits. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb.

therefore. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. t = 1). 4. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal.5. 4. the first term in the summation is the dominant one. 4. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and ASK bandwidth is calculated.7 Typical error performance in AWGN BERC ¼ 0:5 EXP(  EC =2N0 Þ ð4:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is given as: WERC ¼ n X n k¼t þ 1 k ! BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk ð4:14Þ When BERc < 0. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same.14) can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð4:15Þ Using (15. . (4.54 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig.6 Conclusions • This chapter presents ASK modulation and its attributes. k = 8.7. Eq. Notice that at least 3–4 db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. 8) block code (n = 15.

Springer. Ebert PM. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Mac Williams FJ. Inc. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Leon W. 7th edn. Cambridge University Press. Wiley. Englewood Cliffs 8. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. New Jersey . van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Prentice-Hall. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Holmdel. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Kohlenbero A. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. GTM 86. p 31. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Technical report. Lin S. ISBN: 0442009178 2. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Prentice-Hall. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. New York 14. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15.4. Reading 9. Englewood Cliffs.. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Plenum press. Englewood Cliffs 4. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. 2nd edn. p 35. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Huffman W. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications.6 Conclusions 55 • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Inc. Addison-Wesley. New York 6. North-Holland.. References 1. Springer. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5.

Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. 5.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_5 57 . along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Faruque. and • S(t) is the FSK-modulated carrier frequency. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. As shown in the figure. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. However. This is shown in Fig.1 Introduction In frequency shift keying (FSK). Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. the above disciplines in FSK modulation will be presented. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. DOI 10. © The Author(s) 2017 S. In the following sections.Chapter 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) FSK spectrum FSK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 5. the digital binary signal changes the frequency of the carrier on two discrete levels. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation.1 where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. requiring frequency-domain analysis.

This is an indispensable task in digital communications. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. which is encoded before modulation. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) . Next. While there are many error-coding schemes available.58 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. 5. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. Figure 5. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. N = 2).2 shows an encoded FSK modulation scheme using (15. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 5. we will use a simple coding technique. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M rows and N columns (M = 4. known as “block coding” to illustrate the concept. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [1–3].1 FSK waveforms. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.

the coded bits are modulated by means of the FSK modulator as shown in the figure. • The total frequency deviation is 2Df. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. The rate of this coding scheme is given by: Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð5:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð5:2Þ Next. . • For binary signal 0. 5.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 59 Fig. • For binary signal 1. • The input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. which is then FSK-modulated and transmitted row by row. the carrier changes to fc + Df.5. Here. which has two frequencies corresponding to the binary input signal.2 Binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal (N + 1) = n = 15. the carrier changes to fc – Df. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row.

the frequency deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the filters in mind to eliminate crossover.3. the receiver needs to utilize two band-pass filters that are tuned to the appropriate frequencies. 3. We have:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ AcosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx  DxÞt.60 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) As shown in Fig. In the case of binary FSK. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. it passes through the respective filter and the corresponding bit value is made. One band-pass filter will be centered at the frequency x1 and the other at x2 . Fig. As the signal enters into the receiver. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx þ DxÞt. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels. This is shown in Fig. For mðtÞ ¼ 0 ð5:3Þ where    5. this is relatively straightforward.3 A ¼ Frequency of the carrier x ¼ Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency Dx ¼ Frequency deviation: ð5:4Þ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. in accordance with the input signals.8. Since the nominal carrier frequency and the frequency deviation are known. This is often accomplished by the use of band-pass filters. 5.3 Binary FSK detector utilizing two matched band-pass filters . 5. it needs to be received and demodulated.

data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation The time-domain representation (Fig. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \ 0 \ t \ T = 0 . It has two values: • Binary 1 = high. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.4a). elsewhere ð5:5Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð5:6Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2  ð5:7Þ     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 Here. while side lobes correspond to harmonic components. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type.4. P(x) is the power spectral density. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.5. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. 5. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). For this reason.4 FSK Bandwidth 5. 5. 5.4b. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the .4 61 FSK Bandwidth In wireless communications. period = T • Binary 0 = low.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. This is plotted in Fig. period = T Also.

and c two-sided power spectral density. b its one-sided power spectral density. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. Figure 5. Therefore. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. the side lobes are filtered out. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. 5. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. T being the bit duration.62 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. In practice. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). where Rb is the bit rate frequency.4 a Discrete-time digital signal. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe.4c shows the two-sided response. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ ð5:8Þ . In other words. The function can be either a voltage or a current. where fb = Rb = 1/T.

5.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. code rate is r. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb.4. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb(uncoded)r. Since the frequency is constant. in accordance with the input signals. 2. and if the data is NRZ. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxtc Þ ð5:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 5. the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz. and if the data is NRZ.5 = 20 kb/s. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. We have: . if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. If Rb is the bit rate before coding.5.4. For example. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. It has one frequency component. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/r. For example. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. 5.4 FSK Bandwidth 63 Important Notes: 1. For example. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.

For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx þ DxÞt.” Problem Given: • • • • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Modulation: FSK Modulation index b = 1 .5 High-frequency carrier response  Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1  Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxtÞ  Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx  DxÞt.64 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. 5. The above equation is also known as “Carson’s rule. The FSK bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ð5:10Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb).6. For mðtÞ ¼ 0 where • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier A = Amplitude of the carrier x = Nominal frequency of the carrier Dx = Frequency deviation The spectral response is depicted in Fig. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by +Dfc. 5.

can correct t errors [4. fb where fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation =1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2): RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. 5. 5]. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 RB2(1+b) = 2  18.5. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. to the coded word WERC. .75 kb/s (1 + 1) = 75 kHz. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. k) bock code.4 FSK Bandwidth 65 Fig. 5. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc).6 FSK bandwidth at a glance. where k = number of information bits and n = number of coded bits.

t = 1). we write: WERU ¼ 1ð1BERU Þk ð5:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). k = 8. Fig. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves.5. Notice that at least 3–4-db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. Then. 5.66 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU). with FSK modulation.7. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð5:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. equation can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð5:15Þ Using (15. Thus. Therefore. the first term in the summation is the dominant one. the ratio of coded bit energy to noise will be modified to Ec/N0. Since n > k. the coded BERc will be: BERC ¼ 0:5 EXPðEc =2N0 Þ ð5:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is: WERC ¼ ! n BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk k n X k¼t þ 1 ð5:14Þ When BERc < 0. therefore. 5. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n).7 Typical error performance in AWGN . 8) block code (n = 15.

IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10.. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Prentice-Hall Inc. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15.6 67 Conclusions • This chapter presents FSK modulation and its attributes. Huffman W. Wiley. Springer. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Addison-Wesley. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Lin S. Englewood Cliffs 4.6 Conclusions 5. Ebert PM. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Kohlenbero A. • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. References 1. Inc. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels.5. New York 6. Englewood Cliffs. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. ISBN: 0442009178 2. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 3. Cambridge University Press. p 35. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components. North-Holland. GTM 86. Prentice-Hall. Holmdel. New York 14. New Jersey . Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. p 31. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Plenum press. Prentice Hall. 7th edn. Springer. Mac Williams FJ. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13.. Technical report. 2nd edn. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Reading 9. Leon W. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. and FSK bandwidth is calculated. Englewood Cliffs 8.

1007/978-3-319-41202-3_6 69 .1. the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Faruque. This is shown in Fig.Chapter 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation QPSK Modulation 8PSK Modulation 16PSK Modulation PSK spectrum and Bandwidth SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. 6. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. and • S(t) is the PSK-modulated carrier frequency. Notice that the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. requiring frequency domain analysis. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. However. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. In the following sections. DOI 10. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.1 Introduction In phase shift keying (PSK). As shown in the figure. © The Author(s) 2017 S. the above disciplines in PSK modulation will be presented. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. the digital binary signal changes the phase of the carrier on two discrete levels.

The rate of this coding scheme is given by .70 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. Figure 6. N = 2). Next. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15.2. which is encoded before modulation.2 shows an encoded BPSK modulation scheme using (15. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. which is then PSK modulated and transmitted row by row. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enable the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.1 Binary PSK (BPSK) waveforms.2 6. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 6. While there are many error-coding schemes available. 6. we will use a simple coding technique. This is an indispensable task in digital communications.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) BPSK Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase shifting of the relative phase content of the signal [1–3].

The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð6:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð6:2Þ Next. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. As shown in Fig. • For binary signal 0. Here. u = 180°. • Output is the PSK-modulated carrier. M  1 ð6:3Þ .2. 6. . Here.6. 6. in accordance with the input signals. . and • For binary signal 1. which has two phases corresponding to the binary input signals. 3. we have the following:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxct Þ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ 2p=M ÞmðtÞ mðtÞ ¼ 0. .2 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. 1. 2. u = 0°. the coded bits are modulated by means of the PSK modulator as shown in the figure.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 71 Fig. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit.

The symbol rate is therefore the same as the encoded bit rate Rb2. .        Ac ¼ Amplitude of the carrier frequency xc ¼ Angular frequency of the carrier M ¼ 2. 4. This is shown in Fig. 1 bit per phase. 6. 3-bits=phase. The encoded data. M ¼ 8 In 16PSK. = Rb1r (r < 1). there are four phases. is encoded by means of a rate r encoder. 2-bits=phase. also known as “Symbols.” where each symbol represents one bit.3. is modulated by the BPSK modulator as shown in Fig. 6. having a bit rate Rb1. there are two phases 1 bit=phaseðM ¼ 2Þ In QPSK.72 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) where. 4-bits=phase. 6. . . 1-bit per symbol .3. Fig. 16. there are 8 phases. having a bit rate Rb2. 8. M ¼ 16 ð6:4Þ We can also represent the BPSK modulator as a signal constellation diagram with M = 2. The BPSK modulator takes one bit at a time to construct the phase constellation having two phases. M ¼ 4 In 8PSK. there are 16 phases.3 BPSK signal constellation having 2 symbols. where the input raw data. In BPSK.

4 Binary PSK detector showing data recovery process . typically known as phase-locked loop (PLL). This is often accomplished with the use of a phase detector.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 73 Therefore. 6.4 shows a simplified diagram of a BPSK demodulator along with the data recovery process.6.2. the phase deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the PLL in mind to eliminate crossover. Figure 6. it passes through the PLL.2 BPSK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. As the signal enters the receiver. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. This is known as coherent detection technique. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. where the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the receiver. Fig. it needs to be received and demodulated. The PLL locks the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and phase. • 1-bit/symbol. as we shall see later. 6. the BPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 2 phases or 2 symbols.

6. 2-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. is serial to parallel converted into two parallel streams.” where each symbol represents two bits. the QPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 4 phases or 4 symbols • 2-bits/symbol The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. also known as “Symbols. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder.5 QPSK signal constellation having 4 symbols.74 6. Therefore. The QPSK modulator has four phases or 4 symbols.3 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) QPSK Modulation In QPSK. now reduced in speed by a factor of two. as we shall see later. The encoded bit rate. having a bit rate Rb1. the input raw data. is modulated by the QPSK modulator as shown in Fig.5. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. 6. Fig. 2-bits per symbol . The encoded data. The QPSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having four phases. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of two.

the input raw data. 3-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. as we shall see later. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder.5 16PSK Modulation In 16PSK.” where each symbol represents 3-bits.4 8PSK Modulation In 8PSK. Therefore. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. 6. 6. is serial to parallel converted into four parallel streams. is modulated by the 16PSK modulator as shown in Fig. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of 3. The encoded bit rate. also known as “Symbols.6 8PSK signal constellation having 8 symbols. • 3-bits/symbol. The 8PSK modulator has 8 phases or 8 symbols. is encoded by means of a rate r (r < 1) encoder. having a bit rate Rb1. 6.6. The encoded bit rate. is modulated by the 8PSK modulator as shown in Fig. the 8PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 8 phases or 8 symbols. having a bit rate Rb1. the input raw data. 6.4 8psk Modulation 75 Fig. now reduced in speed by a factor of three. The encoded data.6.7. . 3-bits per symbol 6. now reduced in speed by a factor of four. The 8PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 8 phases. is serial to parallel converted into three parallel streams. The encoded data. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth.

Table 6. 4-bits per symbol. 16. M = 2. also known as “Symbols. Therefore. Therefore. 64. etc. as we shall see later. Here. Table 6. 6. each symbol is represented by a dot. 4.1 shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2.7 16PSK signal constellation having 16 symbols. and 32 Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : .76 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. 32.” where each symbol represents four bits. 16. the 16PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 16 phases or 16 symbols. • 4-bits/symbol. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of four. 4-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. where each dot represents 4-bits The 16PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 16 phases. the 16PSK modulator has 16 phases or 16 symbols. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. 8. 4. 8.1 MPSK modulation parameters.

8a).6. Let us take a closer look: 6. For this reason. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. • Spectral response of the carrier phase. and • Modulation type. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \0\t\T ¼ 0 elsewhere ð6:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier Transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð6:6Þ 0       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT x 2 xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 jVðxÞj ¼ 2 ð6:7Þ .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 6.6 77 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ).6. Period = T Also. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. 6.

where fb = Rb = 1/T. P(x) is the power spectral density. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. In other words. where Rb is the bit rate Here.8 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. 6. Therefore. In practice. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. This is plotted in Fig. 6. T being the bit duration. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency.8b. while the side lobes correspond to harmonic components. the side lobes are filtered out.78 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The function can be either a . V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t).

Figure 6.6. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the input is a digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms. 6.6.2 ð6:8Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation A carrier frequency is a sinusoidal waveform.3 BPSK Spectrum In BPSK.6.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 79 voltage or a current.8c shows the two-sided response. 6.9 High-frequency carrier response . where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 6. 6.9 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.6. Since the phase is constant. This is given by (see Sect. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð6:9Þ Where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier phase in Hz Figure 6. It has one phase component. For example. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.1): Fig. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.

80 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT j V ðx Þj ¼ 2 x 2 xT=2 ð6:10Þ Here. which is the shifted version of the NRZ data. 6. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. The transmission bandwidth associated with the main lobe is given by Fig. we write the following as: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ b mðtÞ ð6:11Þ where b is the phase deviation index of the carrier and m(t) has a sin(x)/x response. centered on the carrier frequency fc. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. 6. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation .10. which is given by   sinðxmT=2Þ mðtÞ ¼ VT xmT=2 ð6:12Þ Therefore. as shown in Fig. the spectral response after BPSK modulation also has a sin(x)/x response. With V(t) = m(t). V (x) is the frequency domain representation of the input digital signal. which has a sin(x)/x response that governs the phase of the carrier frequency.10 BPSK bandwidth.

75 kb/s BPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/1 = 2  18.75 kHz 8PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/3 = 2  18.75/3 = 12.375 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient. and 16PSK Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate Rb2 BPSK bandwidth (BW) QPSK bandwidth (BW) 8PSK bandwidth (BW) 16PSK bandwidth (BW) Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate: RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/(15/8) = 18. 8PSK.75/2 = 18.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 81 BW ðBPSKÞ  2Rb2 =Bit per Phase  2Rb2 =1  2Rb2 ð6:13Þ where Rb2 is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). QPSK. Problem 6.2 Given: • Input bit rate Rb1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate r = 1/2 • Modulation: BPSK. 8PSK.5 kHz QPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/2 = 2  18. Problem 6.1 Given: • • • • Uncoded input bit rate: Rb1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz Modulation: BPSK.75 = 37. 16PSK Find: (a) Bit rate after coding Rb2 (b) Transmission bandwidth BW Solution: (a) Rb2 = Rb1/r = 10 kb/s  2 = 20 kb/s (b) Transmission bandwidth: .5 kHz 16PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/4 = 2  18. It may be noted that the higher-order spectral components are filtered out. Notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same the ASK bandwidth.6. QPSK.755/4 = 9.

References 1.. Prentice-Hall. Springer. Ebert PM. Prentice-Hall.7 Conclusions • This chapter presents PSK modulation and its attributes. Addison-Wesley. Mac Williams FJ.: Englewood Cliffs. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. New York . Englewood Cliffs 8. Cambridge University Press. Couch II LW (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. GTM 86. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. 6. reading. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Inc. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Huffman W. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Prentice Hall 4. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal.33 kHz 16PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/4 = 10 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient. pp 729–742 13. Inc. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. p 31. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. 7th edn. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Lin S. Springer. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error correcting codes. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Massachusetts 9. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Bell Syst Tech. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and PSK bandwidth is calculated. Smith DR (1986) Digital transmission systems. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. North-Holland. Plenum press 6. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. John Wiley.82 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) • • • • BPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per Symbol = 2  20 kb/s/1 = 40 kHz QPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/2 = 20 kHz 8PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/3 = 13. p 36.

Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory.A. IEEE Trans.References 83 14. M. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Technical Report. Holmdel. 618–626. Reddy. 1968 15. New Jersey . “Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. S. Bell Telephone Laboratories. M. Kohlenbero A. Information Theory IT-14. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels.

In this chapter.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_7 85 . The coded information bits are then modulated by an M-ary PSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern.1 Introduction N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. Faruque. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. are mapped into a bank of N unique convolutional or orthogonal codes. These parallel bit streams. now reduced in speed. DOI 10. © The Author(s) 2017 S. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. we will present the key concept. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes will be presented to illustrate the concept. offering spectrum efficiency with improved error correction capabilities.Chapter 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Topics • • • • • Introduction N-ary Complementary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation N-ary Complementary Orthogonal Coding and M-ary Modulation Coding Gain and Bandwidth Conclusions 7. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. In its most basic construction. underlying principles and practical application of N-ary coded modulation schemes. At the receiver.

each convolutional code is inverted to construct a block of n-antipodal codes. along with M-ary modulation.2. 7. a modified technique. The convolutional encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). where delays are introduced due to concatenation and interleaving. because these methods are often used to correct errors that are caused by channel noise. it is also too complex to realize. we shall define this as N-ary complementary convolutional codes. turbo codes are limited to two convolutional codes connected in parallel. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. as shown in Fig. The encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). N-ary complementary convolutional coding is a multi-level convolutional code. for a total of 2n = N complementary convolutional codes.86 7. known as parallel concatenated codes or turbo codes [7–9]. a typical convolutional encoder is taken as the basis to generate a block of n-convolutional codes. The proposed N-ary convolutional codes are a block of nconvolutional codes and their complements.2 7. Yet.1. thereby limiting high-speed data communications in wireless communications. In short. defined as N-ary complementary convolutional coding. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. In this section. a block of N-ary convolutional code has n-convolutional codes and n-antipodal codes. In its most basic construction.2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes In a typical convolutional encoder. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. is presented to overcome these problems. In addition. This type of error control is also classified as forward error control coding (FECC). In a typical convolutional encoder. 7. is popular in wireless communications because of its superior error control capabilities. where more than two convolutional codes can be used simultaneously to further enhance coding gain without concatenation and interleaving. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. Next. Let us consider Fig. Another class of convolutional codes.1 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background In convolutional coding.2. The coded information bits are modulated and transmitted through a channel. 7.1 once again and assume that the input bit sequence to the encoder is: m ðtÞ ¼ 1 0 1 ð7:1Þ . a sequence of data signals is transformed into a longer sequence that contains enough redundancy to protect the data [1–6]. Therefore.

7. the output bit sequence can be found as U(X) = m(X)g1(X) multiplexed with m(X)g2(X).0) + (1.1 Generation of N-ary complimentary convolutional codes Which is described by the following polynomial? m ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ 0X þ 1X 2 ¼ 1 þ X2 ð7:2Þ The encoder is described by the following generator polynomials: g1ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 2 g2ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X 2 ð7:3Þ Then. the product of polynomials for the encoder can be described as follows: m ðXÞg1ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 3 þ X 4 m ðXÞg2ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X 4 ð7:4Þ with X2 + X2 = 0.1) + (1. where m(X) is the input bit sequence [7].0) + (1.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 87 Fig.1) ð7:5Þ .0) + (0. We write the above two equations as follows: m(X)g1(X) = 1 + 1X + 0X2 + 1X3 + 1X4 m(X)g2(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X2 + 0X3 + 1X4 --------------------------------------------------------.-------------U1U2 = (1.7.

The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit . 7.88 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. The first 8  3 data block maps the 8  10 convolutional code block.2 N-ary complimentary convolutional code blocks Taking only the coefficients. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. These code blocks are stored in two 8  10 ROMs. are partitioned into two 8  3 data blocks.2. These bit streams. 7. This is given by: Antipodal Code ¼ 0 0 01 11 01 00 ð7:7Þ As can be seen.2. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. each 3-bit data corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. 7. 7. we obtain the desired convolutional code sequence corresponding to the input bit sequence m(T) = 101 as follows: Convolutional Code ¼ 1 1 10 00 10 11 ð7:6Þ The corresponding antipodal code is obtained simply by inverting the convolutional code as shown in the figure. Antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes.3. and the next 8  3 data block maps the next 8  10 antipodal code block. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes.3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary (N = 2) coded QPSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams as shown in Fig.

The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 6=10 ¼ 3=5 ð7:8Þ Since there are two convolutional waveforms (one convolutional and one antipodal).2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 89 Fig.7.4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation A 4-ary (N = 4) coded 16PSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams as shown in Fig. Moreover. the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled.4.2. 7. 7. are partitioned into four 4  2 data . which is modulated by a QPSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. the transmission bandwidth is also reduced. These bit streams.3 2-ary convolutional coding with QPSK modulation convolutional/antipodal code. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz B ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 ð7:9Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. 7.

which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ð7:11Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. which is modulated by a 16PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.90 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. 7. . Rb2 is the coded bit rate. Each 4  2 data block maps corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. Moreover. The code rate is given by: Code Rate:r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 ð7:10Þ Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs. the transmission bandwidth is further reduced.4 4-ary convolutional coding with 16PSK modulation blocks. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code.

• For each combination of 3-bit data. 3. 1.1]: • The lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. This is a correlation process. let us determine how the receiver recovers the correct data.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. there are 8 possible output combinations of 3-bit data. 4. The result is presented below: • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 • 1st row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 00 00 00 • Mod-2 Add: 00 11 01 01 00 Table 7.3. 2. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation).1 Correlation Receiver Decoding is a process of code correlation. identified in bold.1 Lookup table a Input (m) Output (U) 0. the receiver compares the received data with the expected data set to recover the actual data.7. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. 5. Now. The expected data is stored into a lookup table [see Table 7. requiring several tests to validate the actual data. • The receiver receives one of 8 output sequences. • Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. 6. 7. 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 00 11 11 10 10 01 01 00 11 10 01 11 00 01 10 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 . where the actual input data is m = 0 1 1. • For m = 3. Let us examine the correlation process using the following example: • The input bit pattern m = 0 1 1 • Encoded transmit data: U = 00 11 01 01 11 • Received data with errors U* = 00 11 01 01 00 Notice that the last two bits are in error.3 91 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. there is a unique encoded 10-bit data (see table). The correlation process is described below: Test 0: This test compares the received data with the 1st row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. In this process.

continue search The remaining tests may be conducted by using the same method to reach the final verdict as given below: Final Verdict: Collect the correlation values and validate the data that indicates the lowest correlation value. The result is presented below: • • • • • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 2nd row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 11 10 11 Mod-2 Add: 00 11 10 111 11 Correlation value = 7 Verdict: No match. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation). continue search. . Test 1: This test compares the received data with the 2nd row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. This is presented in the following lookup table.92 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation • Correlation value = 4 (count the number of 1’s in MOD2 Add) • Verdict: No match.

Therefore. • The corresponding data is m = 0 1 1. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. 7. the value of n is reduced by 2. For example. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. which is 000. 7. As can be seen. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes.3. a rate ½ convolutional encoder with K = 3 generates 00 when the initial content of the shift register is 000. K is the length of the shift register and the factor −2 is due to the initial content of the shift register.2. each code is unique and there is a minimum distance dmin between any two convolutional codes where dmin  n=2 ð7:13Þ This distance property can be used to detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two convolutional codes. The antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. each 3-bit data sequence corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. we find that: • The lowest correlation value is 2. where .7. • This is the data which has been transmitted to the receiver. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations.2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes An n-bit convolutional code is generated by a rate ½ encoder of constraint length K where n ¼ 4K  2 ð7:12Þ In the above equation. It can be shown that an n-bit convolutional code can correct the errors.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 93 In examining the above table. Therefore.

These parallel bit streams. The coded information bits are then modulated by means of MPSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. now reduced in speed. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation.4. we modify the above equation to obtain N t  N dmin =2  Nn=4  Nð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:15Þ Table 7. 7.2 Error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes Constraint length (K) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (BPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (QPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (16PSK) 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 t  dmin =2  n=4  ð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:14Þ where • t = Number of errors that can be corrected by means of a single convolutional code • n = Code length • K = Constraint length The proposed N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding technique. In the proposed scheme. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. This chapter presents a method of channel coding based on N-ary orthogonal codes [17– 20]. The proposed coded modulation scheme is bandwidth efficient and offers a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. The use of orthogonal codes for forward error control coding has also been investigated by a limited number of authors [14–16]. This type of channel coding is bandwidth efficient and further enhances the coding gain with bandwidth efficiency.2 displays error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes. At the receiver. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. . Therefore.1 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA cellular communications for spectrum spreading and user ID [10–13].94 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Table 7. are mapped into N-ary orthogonal codes. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams.4 7. N-ary orthogonal coding is a multi-level channel coding technique.

as shown in Fig.7. for a total of 2n bi-orthogonal codes. rate ¾.3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary orthogonal coded QPSK modulator with n = 8. Antipodal codes are also orthogonal among them. The principle is presented below. an n-bit orthogonal code has n-orthogonal codes and n-antipodal codes. as depicted in the figure. Each data block is mapped into an 8  8 code block. 7. These bit streams. are partitioned into two data blocks. as shown in Fig. 7. k) block codes.7.4. We note that orthogonal codes are essentially (n. Similarly. an 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes.2 Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are binary-valued and have equal numbers of 1’s and 0’s. are just the inverse of orthogonal codes. 7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 95 Fig. Antipodal codes. 7. An 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes 7. For example. on the other hand. where a k-bit data set is represented by a unique n-bit orthogonal code (k < n). a 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. Therefore.4. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams. and rate 1 are indeed available out of orthogonal codes.5 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 8. We now show that code rates such as rate ½.6. 7.5 [12]. for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes. . as shown in Fig.

7.7 2-ary orthogonal coding with N = 2 . 7.6 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 16. A 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes Fig.96 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig.

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

97

According to the communication scheme, when a 3-bit data pattern needs to be
transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead,
requiring a QPSK modulator. The modulated waveforms are in orthogonal space
and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 6=8 ¼ 3=4
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Moreover, the transmission
bandwidth is also reduced, which is given by:
Transmission Bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 Hz

ð7:16Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.4

4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation

A 4-ary orthogonal coded 16PSK modulator, with n = 8, having 16 complementary
orthogonal codes, can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into
8-parallel streams, as shown in Fig. 7.8. The bit streams, now reduced in speed by a
factor of 8, are partitioned into four data blocks. Each data block is mapped into a
4  8 code block as depicted in the figure. According to the communication scheme,
when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/
antipodal code is transmitted instead, requiring a 16PSK modulator. The modulated
waveforms are in orthogonal space and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1

ð7:17Þ

This is achieved without bandwidth expansion.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Moreover, the transmission bandwidth is further reduced, which is given by:
Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 Hz

ð7:18Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate, and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.5

2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into two code blocks. Each code block represents a data block as shown
in Fig. 7.9. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with each

98

Fig. 7.8 N-ary orthogonal coding with N = 4

Fig. 7.9 2-ary orthogonal decoding

7 N-Ary Coded Modulation

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

99

entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 2  1 = 2. Moreover, the
bandwidth is also reduced, as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2

7.4.6

ð7:19Þ

4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into four code blocks. Each code block represents a data block, as
shown in Fig. 7.10. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with
each entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 4  1 = 4. Moreover, the
bandwidth is further reduced as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2

7.4.7

ð7:20Þ

Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal
Codes

Error correction capabilities of orthogonal codes have been discussed earlier [16].
We present it again for convenience. An n-bit orthogonal code has n/2 1’s and n/2
0’s; i.e., there are n/2 positions where 1’s and 0’s differ. Therefore, the distance
between two orthogonal codes is d = n/2. This distance property can be used to
detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two
orthogonal codes as shown in Fig. 7.11, where the received code is shown as a
dotted line. This is given by:
dth ¼

n
4

ð7:21Þ

where n is the code length and dth is the threshold, which is midway between two
valid orthogonal codes. Therefore, for the given 8-bit orthogonal code, we have

11 Distance properties of orthogonal codes 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation .10 4-ary orthogonal decoding Fig. 7.100 Fig. 7.

a false detection will occur. The received code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. n is the code length. 4.22. yielding: t ¼ n  Rðx. 2. Rate ½ complementary convolutional codes • 4-ary convolutional coding (N = 4) Table 7. an additional 1-bit offset is added to Eq. This mechanism offers a decision process. For example. 7. Problem 7. The acceptance criterion for a valid code is that an n-bit comparison must yield a good autocorrelation value. a three-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of a 16-bit orthogonal code (n = 16) and so on. where an impaired orthogonal code is compared with a pair of n-bit orthogonal codes to yield: Rðx. R(x. … 8 16 32 64 1 3 7 15 N 3N 7N 15 N . The average number of errors that can be corrected by means of this process can be estimated by combining Eq. yÞ ¼ n 1 4 ð7:23Þ In the above equation. yÞ ¼ n X xi yi  ðn  dth Þ þ 1 ð7:22Þ i¼1 where x and y are two n-bit orthogonal codes. Since the threshold is in the midway between two valid codes. 8. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • K = 3. t is the number of errors that can be corrected by means of an n-bit orthogonal code.1 This problem relates to N-ary convolutional codes and M-ary PSK modulation. The following correlation process governs this.3 Error correction capabilities of N-ary orthogonal codes Code length n Number of errors corrected per code t Number of errors corrected by N-ary code Nt N = 1.7. y) is the autocorrelation function. a single-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of an 8-bit orthogonal code (n = 8).4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 101 dth = 8/4 = 2. Table 7.21 for reliable detection. otherwise. 7. and dth is the threshold as defined earlier. Similarly. 7.21 and Eq. where the incoming impaired orthogonal code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match.3 shows a few orthogonal codes and the corresponding error-correcting capabilities.

are partitioned into four 4  2 data blocks. 4t = 4  2 = 8 [Each code corrects 2 errors. These bit streams.] Problem 7. These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadruple. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • n = 8 orthogonal codes having 16 complementary orthogonal codes • 4-ary orthogonal Coding Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected . M = 16.5 kb/s (d) Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ¼ ð12:50 kb=sÞ=2 ¼ 6:25 kHz (e) Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 (c) Bit rate after coding Rb2 = Rb1/r = (5/4) 10 kb/s = 12. Therefore. which is modulated by a 24 = 16 PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.102 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected Solution: (a) A 4-ary (N = 4) coded modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel stream.2 This example relates to N-ary orthogonal codes and M-ary PSK modulation. Each 4  2 data block maps a corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8.

the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. The bit streams. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. M = 416. i. N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique.5 Conclusions A method of coded modulation. The proposed coded modulation schemes are bandwidth efficient and offer a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. Each data block is mapped into a 4  8 code block. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. are partitioned into four data blocks. Therefore. . based on N-ary complementary codes and M-ary PSK (MPSK) modulation. when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted. requiring a 24 = 16 PSK modulator.e. with n = 8. the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. 4t ¼ 4  1 ¼ 4 7. (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1 (c) The bit rate after coding is given by: Rb2 ¼ Rb1 r ¼ 10 kb=s ðr ¼ 1Þ (d) The transmission bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ 2  10 kb=s=4 ¼ 5 k Hz (e) Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal).. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes is presented to illustrate the concept.7. is presented.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 103 Solution: (a) A 4-ary orthogonal coded modulator. At the receiver. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. According to the communication scheme. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams.

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