SPRINGER BRIEFS IN

ELEC TRIC AL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency
Modulation Made
Easy

123

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer
Engineering

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10059

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency Modulation
Made Easy

123

Saleh Faruque
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of North Dakota
Grand Forks, ND
USA

ISSN 2191-8112
ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)
SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering
ISBN 978-3-319-41200-9
ISBN 978-3-319-41202-3 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945147
© The Author(s) 2017
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Preface

By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897, the Italian physicist Tomaso
Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications. This
enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. For this
epoch-making invention, this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize
for Physics in 1909. Even today, students of wireless or radio technology remember
this distinguished physicist with reverence. A new era began in Radio
Communications.
The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as
“Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This led to the development of Frequency
Modulation (FM), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), etc.
Today, these technologies are extensively used in various wireless communication
systems. These modulation techniques form an integral part of academic curricula
today.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the various modulation techniques mentioned above. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students
up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital
modulation techniques. In particular, the following topics will be presented in this
book:







Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM
Amplitude shift keying (ASK)
Frequency shift keying (FSK)
Phase shift keying (PSK)
N-ary coding and M-ary modulation
Bandwidth occupancy in ASK, FSK, and PSK

This text has been primarily designed for electrical engineering students in the
area of telecommunications. However, engineers and designers working in the area

v

Yasmin. I shall be amply rewarded if they still find this book useful. I developed a number of graduate-level elective courses in the area of telecommunications that combine theory and practice. there may still be some errors in this book. I hope that my readers forgive me for them. an electrical engineer himself. In spite of all this support. I am grateful to UND and the School for the Blind. I would like to say a few words about how this book was conceived. and the verification of equations. provided technical support in formulation and experimentation when I needed it. USA May 2016 Saleh Faruque . for affording me this opportunity. It came out of my long industrial and academic career. In closing. It is assumed that the student is familiar with the general theory of telecommunications. North Dakota. he deserves my heartfelt thanks. thanks are also to my doctoral student Md. During my teaching tenure at the University of North Dakota. This book would never have seen the light of day had UND and the State of North Dakota not provided me with the technology to do so. My heartfelt salute goes out to the dedicated developers of these technologies. I would like to thank my beloved wife. My darling son.vi Preface of wireless communications would also find this text useful. Maruf Ahamed who found time in his busy schedule to assist me with the simulations. for being by my side throughout the writing of this book and for patiently proofreading it. This book is a collection of my courseware and research activities in wireless communications. Finally. who have enabled me and others visually impaired to work comfortably. For this. Shams. illustrations. Grand Forks. an English Literature buff and a writer herself.

. ... 2. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 . . . . . . . . . . . ..1 Introduction . . .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation. . . . . . . .2. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . .3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . 1. 17 17 19 20 20 21 21 . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .. . . 2. . .3. . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Modulation by Analog Signals . . . . . . . . . . .2 Amplitude Modulation . 1.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .4 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals .3. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .5 AM Demodulation . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance . . . .. . 1. . . . . . .. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . FM. . . . . . . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth . .4. 2. . . . . 1.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . 1. .4. .. . 1. . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth. . .4. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 1. 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) . . . . and PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . .3. . . .Contents 1 Introduction to Modulation . . . . . 2. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .4. . . . .3 Modulation by Digital Signal . . . . . . . . . 23 24 24 . . . . . . . .1 AM. . .1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Drawbacks in AM. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . 9 10 11 12 14 15 . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .4. .

. . . . . . . . . . .5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . 3. . .2 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . .viii Contents 2. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . .3 ASK Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . .4 DSBSC Drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 ASK Bandwidth . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . .3 FM Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .2 ASK Modulation . . 4. . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . .2 Generation of DSBSC Signal . . . 2. . . . . . . . 57 57 58 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 53 54 55 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) . . . .4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth. . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . References . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 32 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . 3. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 45 45 46 48 49 49 . . 4. . . .3. 2. . . . . . 4. . . .3. .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Introduction . . . . . 33 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 44 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .5. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation . . .2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal. . . 2. . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth . . .4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) . . . . . . . . . 2. . .1 DSBSC Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . .2 The Basic FM . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . 4. . . 2. 2. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . 3. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Why SSB Modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Correlation Receiver . . . .1 BPSK Modulation . . . .2. . .2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes . . 7. . . . . . . . .. . 7. . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation 6. . .3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 85 86 86 86 88 89 91 91 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 6. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 6. . . . . .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . .. 7. .4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation .6. . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . 99 . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 FSK Bandwidth. . . .2. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes . . . . . 93 94 94 95 95 97 97 99 . . . . . . . . . . .6 4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . .5 Conclusions . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . 6. . .6. . References . . . . 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 75 77 77 79 79 82 82 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal Codes . . ..4. .2 Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 104 . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ix 5. . . . . . . . . . 5. 6. . 6.3. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 BPSK Demodulation . . . . . . 103 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Conclusions . . . .2. . .4. . . . . . . . . .3 BPSK Spectrum . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 6. . . 7. . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 63 63 65 67 67 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) . . . .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) .1 Background . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 7.5 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1007/978-3-319-41202-3_1 1 . is fed into the antenna for propagation. The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength (k) of the sinusoidal wave where k = c/f m c = Velocity of light = 3  108 m/s f = Frequency of the sinusoidal wave. Faruque.1 shows the conceptual block diagram of a modern wireless communication system. the © The Author(s) 2017 S. DOI 10. a carrier frequency much higher than the input signal is required to keep the size of the antenna at an acceptable limit. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. 2]. FSK and PSK Bandwidth at a Glance 1. modulation is performed at the transmit side and demodulation is performed at the receive side. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. referred to as the modulated signal. also known as “carrier frequency.Chapter 1 Introduction to Modulation Topics • • • • • Background Modulation by Analog Signal AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance Modulation by Digital Signal ASK. Antenna is a reciprocal device that transmits and receives the modulated carrier frequency. The output signal of the modulator. As shown in the figure. Figure 1. where the modulation block is shown in the inset of the dotted block.” Therefore. a high-frequency carrier signal is used in the modulation process. For these reasons. This is the final stage of any radio communication system.1 Background Modulation is a technique that changes the characteristics of the carrier frequency in accordance with the input signal. The preceding two stages have been discussed elaborately in my previous book in this series [1. In this process.

The information can be either analog or digital. .1 Block diagram of a modern full-duplex communication system. As stated earlier. as the size and speed of digital data networks continue to expand. The modulation stage is shown as a dotted block low-frequency input signal changes the characteristics of the high-frequency carrier in a certain manner.2 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. For a head start. Therefore. brief descriptions of each of these modulation techniques are presented below. where the carrier is a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform. there are two basic modulation schemes as listed below: • Modulation by analog signals and • Modulation by digital signals. This is especially true for broadband communication. Furthermore. where the digital signal processing is done keeping in mind the available bandwidth resources. This book presents a comprehensive overview of these modulation techniques in use today. bandwidth efficiency becomes increasingly important. depending on the modulation technique. modulation is a very important step in the transmission of information. the input signal (analog or digital) changes the characteristics of the carrier waveform. 1. Hence. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques.

• Phase Modulation (PM). Fig. This is shown in Fig. 1.1.2. 4]. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. students of wireless or radio technology remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. there are three well-known modulation techniques as listed below: • Amplitude Modulation (AM). For this epoch-making invention. and PM For analog signals.2 1. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.2 Modulation by Analog Signals 1. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires.2 Modulation by analog signal . 1. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. • Frequency Modulation (FM).2 where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897.1 3 Modulation by Analog Signals AM. FM. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [3. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. In AM. A new era began in Radio Communications. Even today.

only the frequency changes while the amplitude remains the same. .2. requiring frequency-domain analysis. FM is more robust against signal amplitude fading. where higher-order spectral components are negligible. In Frequency Modulation (FM). Both FM and PM belong to the same mathematical family. in Phase Modulation (PM). 2. 3. 1. the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the phase of the carrier. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input modulation signal as shown in Fig. • During this process.4 1 Introduction to Modulation As shown in the figure. It may be noted that AM is vulnerable to signal amplitude fading. In AM: • The modulated carrier has two sidebands (upper and lower) and • Total bandwidth = 2  base band. In Chap. the modulated carrier contains an infinite number of sideband due to modulation. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. • The approximate FM bandwidth is given by the Carson’s rule: – – – – – FM BW = 2f (1 + b) f = Base band frequency b = Modulation index b = Df/f Df = Frequency deviation. Similarly. Unlike AM. FM is also bandwidth inefficient. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change. FM is more attractive in commercial FM radio. It can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components.3. For this reason. 1. which will be addressed in Chap. 3.2 [5]. FM is derived from the rate of change of phase of the carrier frequency. it will be shown that in FM. In FM: • The carrier frequency shifts back and forth from the nominal frequency by Df. For this reason. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. Note that the unmodulated carrier itself has zero bandwidth. Notice that in FM. We will discuss this more elaborately in Chap. where Df is the frequency deviation.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance The bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal depends on bandwidth of the input signal and the modulation method as shown in Fig. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. In fact. the modulated carrier creates an infinite number of spectral components. 1. PM is closely related to FM.

3. Figure 1.1. and • Phase shift keying (PSK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal 5 Fig. 1. 1.3 Modulation by Digital Signal For digital signals. and PM signals 1. there are several modulation techniques available.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). • Frequency shift keying (FSK). FM. The three main digital modulation techniques are as follows: • Amplitude shift keying (ASK). also known as on–off keying (OOK). Brief descriptions of each of these digital modulation techniques along with the respective spectral responses and bandwidth are presented below. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the .3 Bandwidth occupancy in AM.4 illustrates the modulated waveforms for an input modulating digital signal.

3. the carrier is OFF.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [6–8]. For the binary signal 0. However. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.4 shows the ASK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. the carrier is ON. 1. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. 1.4 Modulation by digital signal career frequency [6–8]. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. For binary signal 1. this is referred to as binary FSK (BFSK). which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. . • Binary 0 (bit 0): Amplitude = Low and • Binary 1 (bit 1): Amplitude = High. interference. as shown. Figure 1.6 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. this is referred to as ASK. etc. • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. in accordance with the input signal.

1. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation.4 shows the FSK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. corresponding to the binary input signal. Figure 1. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. 1. respectively.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 7 where the carrier frequency changes in discrete levels. which has two frequencies x1 and x2. FSK. where the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Phase1 = 0°.4 shows the modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. • These frequencies correspond to the messages binary 0 and 1. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Let us take a closer look! . • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Phase2 = 180°.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase of the carrier to represent digital signal [6–8]. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. and • Modulation type (ASK. PSK). • Binary 1 (bit 1): Frequency = f − Df. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data. which has two phases u1 and u2 corresponding to the two information bits.3. this is referred to as binary PSK (BPSK). etc. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Frequency = f + Df. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. • Output is the BPSK-modulated carrier.1. For this reason.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation In wireless communications. Figure 1.

Also. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency.5a). the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. • Binary-0 = Low. where fb = Rb = 1/T. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. Period = T. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). Period = T. 1.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. 1. Therefore. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. The function can be a voltage . P(x) is the power spectral density. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). In other words. The general equation for two-sided response is given by Za VðxÞ = VðtÞ  ejxt dt a In this case. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. The time-domain representation (Fig. is given by VðtÞ ¼ V ¼0 \0\t\T elsewhere ð1:1Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform” [9]: ZT VðxÞ = V  ejxt dt ð1:2Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2      1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 ð1:3Þ Here.4. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. T being the bit duration. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation. This is plotted in (Fig.8 1 Introduction to Modulation 1. In practice. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb.5b).

1.5c) shows the two-sided response. It has one frequency component.4.2 ð1:4Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. and c two-sided power spectral density. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 1.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 9 Fig. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. 1. 1. For example. b it is one-sided power spectral density. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ V p sinðxtc Þ ð1:5Þ . The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. where Rb is the bit rate or a current (Fig.5 a Discrete time digital signal.

6 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. Since the frequency is constant.6 A sine wave and its frequency response where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 1. in accordance with the input signal where • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1.4. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞSðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sinðxm tÞ cosðxc Þ ¼ Am Ac cos ðxc  xm Þ . • Carrier frequency: C(t) = Ac cos(xct). its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. 1. 1. Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. • Modulated carrier: S(t) = m(t)C(t) = m(t)Ac cos(xct). the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels.10 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.

BW = 2Rb (coded).1. For m(t) = 0 where • S(t) = The modulated carrier. 1.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 11 Fig. 1. • A = Amplitude of the carrier.7. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. .7 ASK bandwidth at a glance. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. in accordance with the input signals. 1. For m(t) = 1 S(t) = A cos(x +Dx)t. Bandwidth is given by. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. We have: • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C (t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x −D x)t. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data The spectral response is depicted in Fig.4. where Rb is the coded bit rate. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK.

The spectral response is depicted in Fig. where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). 1. Here. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance In BPSK. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. we have: . 1. fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data • x = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency.12 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. where Dfc is the frequency deviation.8. in accordance with the input signal. and • Dx = Frequency deviation. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by  Dfc. The FSK bandwidth is given by BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ.4.8 FSK bandwidth at a glance. 1. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc).

Also. The transmission bandwidth is given by BW(BPSK) ¼ 2Rb =Bit per Phase ¼ 2Rb =1 ¼ 2Rb where • Rb is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). while the frequency remains the same. 16. one bit per phase. centered on the carrier frequency fc. • x = Angular frequency of the carrier. Table below shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. etc. It will be shown that higher-order MPSK modulation schemes (M > 2) are spectrally efficient. . Since there are two phases. • For BPSK.9 shows the spectral response of the BPSK modulator. 4. 64. as follows: u = 0° for bit 0 and u = 180° for bit 1. and • u = Phase of the carrier frequency. u = 2. Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : Figure 1. Notice that the spectral response after BPSK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. 8. one bit per phase. This is due to the fact that the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. 32. the carrier frequency changes in two discrete levels. notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same as the one in ASK modulation.1.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 13 • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C(t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x + u)t where • A = Amplitude of the carrier frequency.

1. FSK. . Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. Phase shift keying (PSK).9 PSK bandwidth at a glance. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation 1. Amplitude shift keying (ASK).14 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM. following topics will be presented in this book: • • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM). In particular. Frequency shift keying (FSK). b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. and Bandwidth occupancy in ASK. Frequency Modulation (FM). and PSK.5 Conclusions This chapter presents a brief overview of modulation techniques covered in this book.

Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency source coding made easy. Marconi G (1987) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. Prentice-Hall Inc. Complete Specification Left. British patent No. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. Springer. 7th edn. doi:10.References 15 References 1.777. New York 3. 7. Upper Saddle River 9.1109/JRPROC. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission system. and in apparatus therefor.039 . 12. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. 2 Mar 1897. Leon W. Prentice Hall. Springer.1936. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. ISBN: 0442009178 7. 13 Apr 1901 5. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Englewood Cliffs. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Armstrong EH (1936) A Method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 4. Accepted. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 8. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740.227383 6. 25 Feb 1901. Joseph Fourier JB (1878) The analytical theory of heat (trans: Freeman A). Accepted. London . New York 2. British patent No. Date of Application 2 June 1896. Complete Specification Left. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. The University Press.

Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth Single Side Band (SSB) Carrier SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. This is shown in Fig. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. 2]. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency. Even today. © The Author(s) 2017 S. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. For this epoch-making invention. Faruque. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM.1. 2. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_2 17 . the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [1. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. students of wireless or radio technologies remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. which is the main topic of this chapter. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. In AM.1 Introduction By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. A new era began in Radio Communications.

. this chapter will present the following topics: • Amplitude Modulation (AM) and AM spectrum • Double Sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) and DSBSC spectrum • Single sideband (SSB) carrier and SSB spectrum In the following sections. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. In an effort to examine this.18 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. The frequency of the carrier remains the same As shown in the figure. the above disciplines in AM modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.1 AM waveforms. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. However. requiring frequency domain analysis. 2. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation.

The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. 2. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. and S(t) is the output AM-modulated carrier frequency.2 Amplitude Modulation 2. Figure 2. These parameters are described below:   mðtÞ ¼ Am cosð2pfm tÞ CðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞfc  fm  SðtÞ ¼ ½1 þ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ CðtÞ þ mðtÞCðtÞ ð2:1Þ Therefore.2. When m(t) = 0:  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:2Þ When m(t) = Am cos(2pfmt):  SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:3Þ Fig.2 Illustration of amplitude modulation.2 19 Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes amplitude variations of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [3–5]. The amplitude of the carrier C(t) changes in accordance with the input modulating signal m(t). S(t) is the modulated waveform which is transmitted by the antenna . Here. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. This is referred to as AM. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.2 shows a functional diagram of a typical AM modulator for a single tone.

2.3 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response . requiring further analysis to quantify them.20 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) In the above equation. It has one frequency component. we use a sinusoidal waveform. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. FSK. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation.3 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.3.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In AM. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. etc. which has several spectral components. PSK. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm. 2. we see that: • The first term is the carrier only.) Let us take a closer look! 2. Since the frequency is constant. FM ASK. which does not have information • The second term contains the information. Fig. For simplicity. For example. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type (AM. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð2:4Þ where • Vp = Peak voltage • xm = 2pfm • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz Figure 2. For this reason. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal.

4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. For example.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the AM signal again. 2.4 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response ð2:7Þ . It has one frequency component. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð2:5Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 2. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. 2. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc  fm). Since the frequency is constant. which was derived earlier: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:6Þ Using the following trigonometric identity: cosA cosB ¼ 1=2cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2cosðA  BÞ Fig.2 21 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.2.3. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.3.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.

where the carrier does not contain any information. 2. Fig. AM is inefficient in power usage. Therefore. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm .5 AM spectrum.22 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) where • A = 2p (fc + fm)t • B = 2p (fc − fm)t we get SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc þ fm Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:8Þ This is the spectral response of the AM-modulated signal. It has three spectral components: • The carrier: fc • Upper sideband: fc + fm • Lower sideband: fc – fm where fc is the carrier frequency and fm is the input modulating frequency. This is shown in Fig. Only the sidebands contain the information.5. 2. The AM bandwidth (BW) is given by BW ¼ 2fm ð2:9Þ Notice that the power is distributed among the sidebands and the carrier.

7.3. then the modulation is less than 100 %. as shown in Fig. 2. On the other hand.6.4 23 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals If m(t) has a peak positive value of less than +1 and a peak negative value of higher than −1. if m(t) has a peak positive value of +1 and a peak negative value of −1.  For mðtÞ ¼ 1 :  SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  1 cosð2pc tÞ ¼ 0 For mðtÞ ¼ þ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ 1cosð2pf c tÞ ¼ 2Ac cosð2pf c tÞ ð2:10Þ ð2:11Þ This is called 100 % modulation. Therefore. then the modulation is 100 % [3–5]. 2.6 Amplitude modulation due to low and high modulating signals ð2:12Þ . 2.2. The percent modulation is described by the following equation: The overall modulation percentage is: Amax  Amin % Overall Modulation ¼  100 Ac max½mðtÞ  min½mðtÞ  100: ¼ 2Ac Fig. This is shown in Fig.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.

7 shows the conceptual model of the AM receiver. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. As the signal enters the receiver. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth and power efficiency.1 Given: • Input modulating frequency fm = 10 kHz • Carrier frequency fc = 400 kHz Find • Spectral components • Bandwidth . it passes through the band-pass filter. AM is inefficient in power usage • Moreover. it passes through the band-pass filter. This is accomplished by the use of a band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency.6 Drawbacks in AM • The modulated signal contains the carrier. Next. Next.5 AM Demodulation Once the modulated analog signal has been transmitted. As the signal enters the receiver. Problem 2.24 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted 2. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0.7 AM demodulation technique. Therefore. there are two sidebands. it needs to be received and demodulated. since it affects the amplitude of the carrier.3. containing the same information • It is bandwidth inefficient • AM is also susceptible to interference.3. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted. 2. Figure 2. 2. carrier takes power and it does not have the information • Therefore.

In DSBSC. also known as product modulator.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) 2. which is the first term that does not have any information.1 DSBSC Modulation Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC). we suppress the carrier. which does not have any information • The second and third terms contain information. Let us take the original AM signal once again. by suppressing the first term we obtain the following: SðtÞ ¼ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:14Þ Next. is an AM signal that has a suppressed carrier [3–5].4. define • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) • C(t) = Ac cos (xct) ð2:15Þ . Therefore. we use the following trigonometric identities: • cos(A + B) = cosA cosB − sinA sinB • cos(A − B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB With A = 2pfmt = xmt and B = 2pfct = xct. 2. we obtain: SðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Now.2.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 25 Solution Spectral Components: • fc = 400 kHz • fc + fm = 400 kHz + 10 kHz = 410 kHz • fc − fm = 400 kHz − 10 kHz = 390 kHz Bandwidth • BW = 2 fm = 2  10 kHz = 20 kHz. as given below: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pf c tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c  f m Þt ð2:13Þ Notice that there are three spectral components: • The first term is the carrier only.

also known as product modulator Then. it is also known as product modulator. 2. 2. we can write the above equations as: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ ð2:16Þ This is the DSBSC waveform.” Proof of DSBSC Consider the DSBSC modulator as shown in Fig.8 Symbolic representation of DSBSC.9 [3–5]. Since the output is the product of two signals. the output is the product of two inputs: S(t) = m(t) C(t).9 Construction of DSBSC modulator. 2.9. Also. The outcome is a cancellation of the discrete carrier. 2.2 Generation of DSBSC Signal A DSBSC signal can be generated using two AM modulators arranged in a balanced configuration as shown in Fig.8. This is why it is called “product modulator. 2.4. the AM modulators generate S1(t) and S2(t). which are given by: Fig. where m(t) is the input modulating signal and C(t) is the carrier frequency.26 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. The output is the product of two signals . 2. The symbolic representation is given in Fig. Here.

4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ 27 ð2:17Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1  mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ Subtracting S2(t) from S1(t). hence the name double sidebandsuppressed carrier (DSBSC). the carrier has been suppressed. the above equation is exactly the same as the desired DSBSC waveform shown earlier. In other words.3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth We begin with the DSBSC-modulated signal: SðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:19Þ where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Therefore. except for the scaling factor 2. we essentially cancel the carrier to obtain: SðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:18Þ Therefore.4. SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½cosðxc þ xm Þt þ cosðxc  xm Þt ¼ Ac ½cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt þ cos 2pðfc  fm Þt ð2:22Þ . use the trigonometric identity:  cos A cos B ¼ 1=2 cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2 cosðA  BÞ ð2:21Þ where A ¼ xm t ¼ 2pfm t and B ¼ xc t ¼ 2pfc t Therefore. Now. 2. SðtÞ ¼ 2 Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:20Þ This is the desired DSBSC waveform for spectral analysis. which does not have the carrier.2.

2. 2. where the carrier frequency is filtered out.10 DSBSC spectrum where the carrier frequency is suppressed.4 • • • • ð2:23Þ DSBSC Drawbacks There are two identical sidebands. The bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2fm 2. it is more efficient.28 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth efficiency.2 Given:Two product modulators using identical carriers are connected in a series. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm Notice that the carrier power is distributed among the sidebands (Fig.4. as shown below: Find (a) The output waveform S2(t) (b) What is the function of this circuit? Solution S1 ðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ (a) S2 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ CðtÞ ¼ mðtÞC 2 ðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Ac2 cos 2ðxc tÞ (b) The function of the circuit is to demodulate DSBSC signals. Each sideband contains the same information Bandwidth is 2 fm Unnecessary power usage Therefore. . Therefore.10). Problem 2.

5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 2.1 29 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation Why SSB Modulation? • The basic AM has a carrier which does not carry information—Inefficient power usage • The basic AM has two sidebands contain the same information—Additional loss of power • DSBSC has two sidebands.5.11 [3–5]. 2.11 Generation of SSB signal . 2. the basic AM and DSBSC are bandwidth and power inefficient • SSB is bandwidth and power efficient.5 2.2. containing the same information—Loss of power • Therefore. 2. where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ ð2:24Þ mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:25Þ CðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxc tÞ ð2:26Þ CðtÞ ¼ Ac sinðxc tÞ  ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:27Þ     Fig.2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal Single sideband (SSB) modulation uses two product modulators as shown in Fig.5.

we see that the SSB spectrum contains only one sideband. 2. The SSB bandwidth is given by: SSB BW ¼ fm Figure 2. 2. we obtain:  S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:28Þ  ð2:29Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ  S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ  Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ ð2:30Þ Using the following formula: • cosA cosB = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sinA sinB =1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. which is the upper sideband only. it is more efficient.30 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Solving for S1.12 SSB spectrum showing the upper sideband. Fig.12 displays the SSB spectrum. Therefore. S2. and S3. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ð2:31Þ In the above equation.5. The SSB bandwidth is fm ð2:33Þ .3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the SSB signal again: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt ð2:32Þ Here.

showing the lower sideband. we obtain: • S1(t) = Ac Am cos (xmt) cos (xct) • S2(t) = Ac Am sin (xmt) sin (xct) Obtain S3 as: S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ þ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ Using the following formula: • cos A cos B = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sin A sin B = 1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxm  xc Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc  fm Þt In the above equation. The spectral response. is presented below. which is the lower sideband only. Solution Solving for S1 and S2. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 31 Problem 2. Sketch the spectral response.2. .3 Given: • • • • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) m(t)* = Am sin (xmt) − (Hilbert Transform) C(t) = Ac cos (xct) C(t)* = Ac sin (xct) − (Hilbert Transform) Design an SSB modulator to realize the lower sideband.

British patent No. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Technical Publications. p 36.039. 2 Mar 1897. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. Date of Application 2 June 1896. 25 Feb 1901. Accepted. Bakshi UA (2009) Communication engineering. Marconi G (1897) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. It was also shown that the modulated carrier contains several spectral components that lead to DSBSC and SSB modulation techniques. 13 Apr 1901 3. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4.32 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 2. Englewood Cliffs. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 2. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900. Leon W. It was shown how the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. Complete Specification Left. American Radio Relay League. Silver W (ed) (2011) Chapter 14 transceivers. and in apparatus therefor. Complete Specification Left. ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0 .777. 88th edn. the following topics were presented in this chapter: • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM spectrum and bandwidth Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC spectrum and bandwidth Single sideband (SSB) SSB spectrum and bandwidth These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. 7th edn. 7. 12. In particular.6 Conclusions This chapter presents the key concepts and underlying principles of Amplitude Modulation. Prentice-Hall Inc. The ARRL handbook for radio communications. Accepted. References 1. British patent No. ISBN 978-81-8431-089-4 5. Godse AP.

In an effort to examine this. DOI 10. Faruque. © The Author(s) 2017 S. the audio waveform changes the frequency of the carrier. and • FM bandwidth.1.1 Introduction In Frequency Modulation (FM). 3.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_3 33 . • FM spectrum. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains an infinite number of spectral components. As shown in the figure. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. However. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same [1–5].Chapter 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Topics • • • • • • Introduction Frequency Modulation (FM) FM Spectrum Carson’s Rule & FM Bandwidth Bessel Function & FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth Dilemma 3. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. this chapter will present the following topics: • The basic Frequency Modulation (FM). This is shown in Fig. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. and • S(t) is the FM-modulated carrier frequency. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. requiring frequency domain analysis [3]. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.

and • h = Phase angle. the angle refers to the angular frequency (x). 3.1 Illustration of FM 3.2. • x = Angular frequency in radians per seconds. 3. where the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. • f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second.1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Background FM is a form of angle modulation. The angular frequency x is also recognized as angular speed or circular frequency.2.2 3.34 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. Here. Magnitude of the angular frequency x is defined by one revolution or 2p radians: x ¼ 2pf ¼ dh=dt Radians per second where. It is a measure of rotation rate or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform as illustrated in Fig. ð3:1Þ .

m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. . we obtain. 3. 3.1. The modulated carrier frequency fc varies back and forth and depends on amplitude Am and frequency fm of the input signal. This forms the basis of our derivation of FM as presented in the following section. Here.2 The Basic FM Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes frequency variation of the relative frequency of the career [1]. This is referred to as FM.2 A sinusoidal waveform in the time domain and its representation in the phase domain Notice that in Eq. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. the angular frequency x is greater than the frequency f by a factor of 2p.2. 3. Zt hi ðtÞ ¼ 2p fi dt ð3:2Þ 0 • hi = Instantaneous phase angle and • fi = Instantaneous frequency. Now solving for the phase angle.3. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 35 Fig. These parameters are described below.3 shows the functional diagram of a typical FM. Figure 3. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency. where the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. using a single-tone modulating signal.

• • • • fi = Instantaneous frequency. The FM-modulated signal is given by SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðhi Þ ð3:4Þ where Ac is the amplitude of the carrier frequency and hi is the instantaneous angle. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. and m(t) = Am cos (wmt).2) into Eq.3) into Eq. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. Here. (3. Since the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. we get Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p fi dt ð3:5Þ 0 where fi is the instantaneous frequency. (3.2. we obtain Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p ffcðtÞ þ Df mðtÞgdt 0 ð3:6Þ . 3.36 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. (3. Substituting Eq. Substituting Eq. the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is given by fi ðtÞ ¼ fc ðtÞ þ Df mðtÞ ð3:3Þ where.3 A functional diagram of a typical FM modulator using a single-tone input modulating signal.5) for fi. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency We examine this by means of a single-tone input modulating signal and its angular frequency as shown in Fig. fc = Carrier frequency. (3.4) for hi. Df = Constant. 3.

• • • • • • • • S(t) = FM-modulated carrier signal. For simplicity. For this reason. Ac = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal. 3. Deviation where. and b = Df/fm = Modulation index. fm = Input modulating frequency. we use a sinusoidal waveform. It may also be noted that FM bandwidth depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input modulating signal. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. fc = Frequency of the carrier. and • Modulation type.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. which is periodic and . • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. Integrating the above equation.3. Let’s take a closer look! 3. Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In FM.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 37 where mðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxm tÞ is the input modulating signal. It is directly related to FM bandwidth. Let us take a closer look. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation.3. Note that the modulation index b is an important design parameter in FM. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. we obtain the desired FM signal as follows:     Df SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos 2pfc t þ sinð2pfm tÞ fm ¼ Ac cos½2pfc t þ bsinð2pfm tÞ   Df b¼ ¼ Modulation Index fm ð3:7Þ Df ¼ DfAm ¼ Freq. Df = A constant parameter. Δf = DfAm = Frequency deviation.

It has one frequency component. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð3:8Þ where.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. • xm = 2pfm.38 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig.3. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc » fm). 3.5 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response before modulation . • Vp = Peak voltage. It has one frequency component. Figure 3. and • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz. For example. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. 3. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. For example. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: Fig. 3.4 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response continuous with respect to time. Since the frequency is constant.

the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal. and Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal.5 shows the characteristics of a high-frequency sine wave and its spectral response. we have:    Input Signal : mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Carrier Frequency : C ðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðxc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ð3:10Þ where • • • • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier. 3. Ac = Frequency of the carrier. • Strength of individual sidebands far away from the carrier is proportional to (freq. In Fig. b = Df/fm = Modulation index.6. Since the frequency is constant. xc = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. Df = Constant. Figure 3. Notice that the carrier frequency after modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc as depicted in the figure. Here. we observe that S(t) depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input signal. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.3. spaced from carrier by amounts N  fi. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. • Higher order spectral components are negligible. 3. By inspecting the modulated carrier frequency. • Relative strength of each sideband depends on Bessel function. Df = DfAm = Frequency deviation. . The spectral response is given in Fig.3.6. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 39 V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð3:9Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc and • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz. deviation  input frequency). 3. • Frequency deviation is proportional to the input signal voltage. • A group of many sidebands is created. we see that: • As time passes.3 FM Spectrum In FM.

3. states that more than 98 % of the power of FM signal lies within a bandwidth given by the following approximation: FM Bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2fm ð1 þ bÞ where ð3:11Þ .6 FM spectrum. a rule of thumb. As time passes.40 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig.4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth The Carson’s rule. 3. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal and generates an infinite number of sidebands • Carson’s rule can be used to determine the approximate bandwidth: bandwidth required = 2  (highest input frequency + frequency deviation).3.

94 0.58 0. the solution for S(t) is given as follows: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ¼ J0 ðbÞ cosðxc tÞ þ J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ xm tÞ þ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 2xm tÞ þ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 3xm tÞ þ .1 Bessel function table 41 b J0 J1 J2 J3 J4 0 0. it can be obtained as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index.3. J’s are the Bessel functions. and • fm = Highest frequency of the modulating signal. J0 (b) is the amplitude of the fundamental spectral component.35 0. . .11 0.25 0.  J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t  xm tÞ  J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t  2xm tÞ  J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t  3xm tÞ þ . .7 FM sidebands. 3. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency. Power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1. • Df = Peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center of the carrier frequency.77 0.5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth can be estimated by means of Bessel function of the first kind.02 0. These values are also available as a standard Bessel function table.03 0.5 1 1. Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm .51 0. . and the remaining spectral components are the sidebands.98 0.24 0. Fig.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth Table 3.03 J5 • b = Df/fm = Modulation index.13 0.01 0. For a single-tone modulation.56 0.3.12 0. J2.5 2 1 0.44 0.…. 3.22 0. For a given b.23 0. etc. ð3:12Þ Here. J3. representing the amplitude of the sidebands.06 0.

42 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. are presented for different values of b. this is shown in Fig. 3. etc. Here. Also.6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma In FM. J1. there is a unique value of b. more power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sideband. J3.…. J4. However. On the other hand.3. while creating more significant sidebands. for which the carrier amplitude becomes zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands. J1. making the modulation less efficient.7. In this case. the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier. 3. depending on the modulation index b.8 shows another scenario where b is large.8 FM sidebands for large b. After modulation. J2. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency fm. in FM. if the modulation index is high. J2.. J0 is the spectral component of the carrier. with a given value of b. For a given low b. power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands. More power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1. the occupied bandwidth is also high.. Table 3. the total bandwidth includes spectral components from both sides of the carrier. After modulation.1 provides a few Bessel parameters to illustrate the concept. are the sidebands. etc. making the modulation more efficient at the expense of bandwidth. J0 is carrier power before modulation. Problem 3. the carrier and sideband amplitude powers. Here. 3. This is a dilemma in FM. Therefore. Note that.1 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼1 . FM is more popular because it is less sensitive to noise. we notice that if the modulation index is low. In this table. power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sidebands. Figure 3. requiring more bandwidth. J0. the occupied bandwidth is low and the sidebands take less power from the carrier. J3. J2. while the sidebands retain most of the power.… Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm As an example.

Here. See figure below. Since the J4 is negligible.35. J2.58.77. See figure below. See Table 3.03 Here. (b) For b = 1.1: • J0 = 0. Therefore.13. J3 = 0. we can neglect J3 since it has a negligible power. we have 4 upper and 4 lower sidebands. Therefore. there are two significant upper and lower sidebands. and J3 are the sidebands. Therefore.3. . the FM bandwidth is 2  3 = 6 kHz. we take 3 upper sidebands and 3 lower sidebands. Problem 3.02 where J0 is the carrier and J1. and each sideband is 1 kHz apart.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 43 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 1) = 4 kHz. J3 = 0. J4 = 0. FM bandwidth is 2  Number of significant sidebands = 2  2 = 4 kHz. J1 = 0.1: • J0 = 0.22. (b) For b = 2. and each sideband is separated by 1 kHz.44. See Table 3.2 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼2 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2  1 kHz (1 + 2) = 6 kHz. J2 = 0. J2 = 0.11. J1 = 0.

References 1. Proc IEEE 112(9):1664 . Lathi BP (1968) Communication systems.44 3. Felix MO (1965) FM systems of exceptional bandwidth. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. doi:10. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. 4th edn. 7th edn.1109/JRPROC. • FM bandwidth dilemma is explained. • FM bandwidth is estimated by means of Carson’s rule and Bessel function. Leon W. New York 5. Armstrong EH (1936) A method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Haykin S (2001) Communication systems.227383 2. • FM spectrum is addressed with illustrations. Prentice-Hall Inc.1936. Wiley. pp 214–217. and problems are given to illustrate the concept. ISBN 0-471-51832-8 3. Wiley. • The key concept and the underlying principle of FM are presented with numerous illustrations to make them easier for readers to grasp.4 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Conclusions • This chapter presents a brief overview of Frequency Modulation (FM) and its attributes. Englewood Cliffs. New York. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems.

Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. the digital binary signal changes the amplitude of the carrier in two discrete levels.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_4 45 . In the following sections. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.1. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. This is shown in Fig. and • S(t) is the ASK-modulated carrier frequency. As shown in the figure. 4. requiring frequency domain analysis. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. © The Author(s) 2017 S. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. the above disciplines in ASK modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.Chapter 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ASK spectrum ASK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 4. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.1 Introduction In amplitude shift keying (ASK). Faruque. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. DOI 10. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. However. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal.

known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. While there are many error-coding schemes available. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. N = 2). Figure 4. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.2 ASK Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [1–3]. which is then ASK modulated and transmitted row by row. Next.46 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15.1 ASK waveforms.2 shows an encoded ASK modulation scheme using (15. also known as on–off keying (OOK). The rate of this coding scheme is given by . we will use a simple coding technique. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. which is encoded before modulation. The frequency of the carrier remains the same 4. 4. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal.

2 Ask Modulation 47 Fig. where .4. as indicated in the figure. the carrier is OFF. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. Here. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. For the binary signal 0. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal.2 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is also known as on–off keying (OOK). in accordance with the input signal. For binary signal 1.. however. 4. the carrier is ON. The amplitude of the carrier frequency changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate: r = (MNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ = (4  2)/(5  3) = 8/15 ð4:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate = Rb1 =r = Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð4:2Þ Next. etc. As shown in the figure. the coded bits are modulated by means of the ASK modulator as shown in the figure. interference. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier.

3 having no errors. If there is an error. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error . If there is an error. where A is the amplitude and x is the frequency of the carrier. Next. the receiver needs to utilize one band-pass filter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency.3 ASK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. it needs to be received and demodulated. This is often accomplished with the use of a band-pass filter. the receiver appends horizontal and vertical parities PH* and PV* to check parity failures and recovers the data block. 4. In the case of ASK. This is shown in Fig.48 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 ðcoded dataÞ Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cos(xtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ¼mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)A cos(xtÞ ð4:3Þ For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = A cos(xt) i:e: the carrier is ON For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = 0. i:e: the carrier is OFF ð4:4Þ Therefore. 4. 4. Fig. As the signal enters the receiver. it passes through the filter and a decision as to the value of each bit is made to recover the encoded data block. showing no errors. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error.3 Data recovery process in ASK. along with horizontal and vertical parities.

4 49 ASK Bandwidth In wireless communications. P(x) is the power spectral density.4b. For this reason. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V =0 \0\t \T elsewhere ð4:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð4:6Þ 0   sinðxT=2Þ jV ðxÞj ¼ VT xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 PðxÞ ¼ jV ðxÞj2 ¼ V 2 T T xT=2 ð4:7Þ Here.4 Ask Bandwidth 4. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. This is plotted in Fig. the side lobes are filtered out since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. In practice. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.4a). 4.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. the one-sided bandwidth is . the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). Therefore. and • Modulation type. Period = T Also. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. 4. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.4.4. 4.

In other words. where Rb is the bit rate . where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth (BW) = 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before coding) ð4:8Þ Fig. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ V ðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case.4 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). The function can be a voltage or a current. T being the bit duration. 4.50 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) given by the ratio f/fb = 1. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb.4c shows the two-sided response. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data is 2Rb. where fb = Rb = 1/T. Figure 4. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.

4. code rate is r.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. and if the data is NRZ. where . If Rb is the bit rate before coding. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)r. 4. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s.4. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. in accordance with the input signal. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/ r. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. and if the data is NRZ. For example. 4. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V(t) ¼ Vp sin(xtc Þ ð4:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 4. For example. 2.4. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb.4 Ask Bandwidth 51 Important Notes 1. then the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. For example.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.5 = 20 kb/s. Since the frequency is constant. It has one frequency component. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.

where Rb is the coded bit rate (Fig. 4. 4.5 kHz.5 High-frequency carrier frequency response    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ Ac cos(xc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)Ac cos(xc tÞ Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and filter out the higher-order components. Bandwidth is given by: BW = 2Rb (coded).52 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. . 3. we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sin(xm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ m(t)SðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sin(xm tÞcos(xm tÞ ¼ 1=2 Am Ac ½sinðxc  xm Þt þ sinðxc þ xm Þt ð4:10Þ The spectral response is depicted in Fig.14. Problem 1 Given: • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate: r = 8/15 • Modulation: ASK Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2) RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18.6).75 kb/s = 37.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2  18.

n = number of coded bits.6 ASK bandwidth at a glance. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU with the coded word WERC. the coded bit energy to noise ratio will be modified to Ec/N0.5 BER Performance 53 Fig. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n).5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. Therefore. Since n > k. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU).4. k) bock code. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð4:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. 4. 5]. we write: WERU ¼ 1  ð1  BERU Þk ð4:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). Then. with ASK modulation. Thus. where k = number of information bits. the coded BERc will be: . can correct t errors [4. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data 4. We examine this by means of the following analytical means.

• Numerous illustrations are provided to show how amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. 4. . t = 1).7.5. (4. Notice that at least 3–4 db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. Eq. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves.7 Typical error performance in AWGN BERC ¼ 0:5 EXP(  EC =2N0 Þ ð4:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is given as: WERC ¼ n X n k¼t þ 1 k ! BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk ð4:14Þ When BERc < 0. 4. the first term in the summation is the dominant one. k = 8. therefore. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same.6 Conclusions • This chapter presents ASK modulation and its attributes. 8) block code (n = 15.14) can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð4:15Þ Using (15. 4.54 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and ASK bandwidth is calculated.

p 31. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. New York 6. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Inc.. Lin S. Cambridge University Press.. Plenum press. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Prentice Hall. Springer. Englewood Cliffs 8. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Wiley. Reading 9. Addison-Wesley. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. p 35. Leon W. Prentice-Hall. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Kohlenbero A. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Englewood Cliffs. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. GTM 86. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. 7th edn. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. 2nd edn. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. Springer. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. North-Holland. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. References 1. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Huffman W. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Inc. Holmdel. Mac Williams FJ.4. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Ebert PM. New York 14. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory.6 Conclusions 55 • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Englewood Cliffs 4. Prentice-Hall. New Jersey . Technical report. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. ISBN: 0442009178 2. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7.

Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. the digital binary signal changes the frequency of the carrier on two discrete levels. As shown in the figure. Faruque.1 Introduction In frequency shift keying (FSK). 5. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. In the following sections. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. However. and • S(t) is the FSK-modulated carrier frequency. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. requiring frequency-domain analysis.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_5 57 . along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.1 where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. This is shown in Fig. the above disciplines in FSK modulation will be presented. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal.Chapter 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) FSK spectrum FSK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 5. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. © The Author(s) 2017 S. DOI 10.

The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) .1 FSK waveforms. Next. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M rows and N columns (M = 4. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [1–3]. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.2 shows an encoded FSK modulation scheme using (15. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. While there are many error-coding schemes available. we will use a simple coding technique.58 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. 5. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. known as “block coding” to illustrate the concept. Figure 5. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. which is encoded before modulation. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 5. N = 2).

5. • The total frequency deviation is 2Df. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. • The input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. The rate of this coding scheme is given by: Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð5:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð5:2Þ Next. which has two frequencies corresponding to the binary input signal. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 59 Fig. Here. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. the carrier changes to fc + Df.2 Binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation. which is then FSK-modulated and transmitted row by row. • For binary signal 0. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal (N + 1) = n = 15. the carrier changes to fc – Df. 5. • For binary signal 1. the coded bits are modulated by means of the FSK modulator as shown in the figure.

In the case of binary FSK. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels.60 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) As shown in Fig. One band-pass filter will be centered at the frequency x1 and the other at x2 . For mðtÞ ¼ 0 ð5:3Þ where    5. 5. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx þ DxÞt. We have:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ AcosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx  DxÞt. This is shown in Fig. this is relatively straightforward. Fig.3. 5. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly.3 A ¼ Frequency of the carrier x ¼ Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency Dx ¼ Frequency deviation: ð5:4Þ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted.3 Binary FSK detector utilizing two matched band-pass filters . it needs to be received and demodulated. in accordance with the input signals. the receiver needs to utilize two band-pass filters that are tuned to the appropriate frequencies.8. it passes through the respective filter and the corresponding bit value is made. 3. This is often accomplished by the use of band-pass filters. the frequency deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the filters in mind to eliminate crossover. Since the nominal carrier frequency and the frequency deviation are known. As the signal enters into the receiver.

The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the . period = T • Binary 0 = low. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \ 0 \ t \ T = 0 .4b. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. This is plotted in Fig. elsewhere ð5:5Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð5:6Þ 0  jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2  ð5:7Þ     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 Here.4a).4. 5. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation The time-domain representation (Fig. period = T Also.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type. P(x) is the power spectral density. For this reason.4 FSK Bandwidth 5. It has two values: • Binary 1 = high.4 61 FSK Bandwidth In wireless communications. 5. 5. while side lobes correspond to harmonic components. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.5. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.

5. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. In practice. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). Figure 5. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ ð5:8Þ .4 a Discrete-time digital signal. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. In other words. where Rb is the bit rate frequency. b its one-sided power spectral density. the side lobes are filtered out. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. Therefore.4c shows the two-sided response. and c two-sided power spectral density. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. where fb = Rb = 1/T. The function can be either a voltage or a current. T being the bit duration.62 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral.

5 = 20 kb/s. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2  20 = 40 kHz. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. and if the data is NRZ. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. If Rb is the bit rate before coding.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. We have: . then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. For example. the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0.4.4 FSK Bandwidth 63 Important Notes: 1. It has one frequency component. in accordance with the input signals. 5. code rate is r.3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/r. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb(uncoded)r. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxtc Þ ð5:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 5. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. For example. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2  10 kb/s = 20 kHz. 5. 2. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. and if the data is NRZ.4.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. For example. Since the frequency is constant.5. If Rb is the bit rate before coding.

5 High-frequency carrier response  Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1  Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxtÞ  Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx  DxÞt. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by +Dfc.6.” Problem Given: • • • • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Modulation: FSK Modulation index b = 1 .64 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. For mðtÞ ¼ 0 where • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier A = Amplitude of the carrier x = Nominal frequency of the carrier Dx = Frequency deviation The spectral response is depicted in Fig. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx þ DxÞt. The FSK bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ð5:10Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). 5. The above equation is also known as “Carson’s rule. 5.

c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. can correct t errors [4.4 FSK Bandwidth 65 Fig. fb where fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation =1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2): RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. 5. where k = number of information bits and n = number of coded bits. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. .75 kb/s (1 + 1) = 75 kHz. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU. 5. We examine this by means of the following analytical means.6 FSK bandwidth at a glance.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n.5. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). to the coded word WERC.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 RB2(1+b) = 2  18. 5]. k) bock code.

therefore. 5. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). k = 8. equation can be simplified as WERC  n k ! BERkc ð1  BERc Þnk ð5:15Þ Using (15. we write: WERU ¼ 1ð1BERU Þk ð5:12Þ Let the coded word error be defined as (WERC). 5. Thus. the first term in the summation is the dominant one.5. Since n > k. 8) block code (n = 15. with FSK modulation. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig.7 Typical error performance in AWGN . Notice that at least 3–4-db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. Fig.66 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Let the uncoded word error be defined as (WERU).7. Then. the ratio of coded bit energy to noise will be modified to Ec/N0. t = 1). the coded BERc will be: BERC ¼ 0:5 EXPðEc =2N0 Þ ð5:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is: WERC ¼ ! n BERKC ð1  BERC Þnk k n X k¼t þ 1 ð5:14Þ When BERc < 0. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð5:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. Therefore.

. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Leon W.6 Conclusions 5. Prentice-Hall Inc. • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Addison-Wesley. New Jersey . IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Wiley. Prentice Hall. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. and FSK bandwidth is calculated. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Cambridge University Press. GTM 86. p 31.5. New York 6. Plenum press. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Springer. North-Holland. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Mac Williams FJ. Reading 9.6 67 Conclusions • This chapter presents FSK modulation and its attributes. Lin S. New York 14. Huffman W. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Holmdel. References 1. p 35. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. Prentice-Hall. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Kohlenbero A. Englewood Cliffs. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 3. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Englewood Cliffs 8.. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Springer. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Inc. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Technical report. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. 2nd edn. ISBN: 0442009178 2. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Ebert PM. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. 7th edn. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Englewood Cliffs 4.

This is shown in Fig. However. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components.Chapter 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation QPSK Modulation 8PSK Modulation 16PSK Modulation PSK spectrum and Bandwidth SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. and • S(t) is the PSK-modulated carrier frequency. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. Faruque. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.1 Introduction In phase shift keying (PSK). while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. the above disciplines in PSK modulation will be presented. requiring frequency domain analysis. Notice that the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. 6. the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy.1. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_6 69 . This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. the digital binary signal changes the phase of the carrier on two discrete levels. DOI 10. As shown in the figure. © The Author(s) 2017 S. In the following sections.

known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept.2 6. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 6. Next. While there are many error-coding schemes available.2 shows an encoded BPSK modulation scheme using (15. The rate of this coding scheme is given by . The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. 6. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. Figure 6.2. which is then PSK modulated and transmitted row by row. we will use a simple coding technique. which is encoded before modulation. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. N = 2). The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enable the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. This is an indispensable task in digital communications.70 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) BPSK Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase shifting of the relative phase content of the signal [1–3].1 Binary PSK (BPSK) waveforms.

2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 71 Fig. 6. u = 180°. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. 2. u = 0°.2. 6. Here. 3. M  1 ð6:3Þ .2 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. and • For binary signal 1. we have the following:    Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxct Þ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ 2p=M ÞmðtÞ mðtÞ ¼ 0. . . • Output is the PSK-modulated carrier. in accordance with the input signals. As shown in Fig. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. 1. .6. the coded bits are modulated by means of the PSK modulator as shown in the figure. which has two phases corresponding to the binary input signals. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. Here. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4  2Þ=5  3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð6:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð6:2Þ Next. • For binary signal 0. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row.

3.” where each symbol represents one bit. In BPSK. there are four phases. having a bit rate Rb1. 1 bit per phase. . 2-bits=phase.3 BPSK signal constellation having 2 symbols. where the input raw data. also known as “Symbols. M ¼ 16 ð6:4Þ We can also represent the BPSK modulator as a signal constellation diagram with M = 2. having a bit rate Rb2. 3-bits=phase. = Rb1r (r < 1). The encoded data. 6. 4-bits=phase. The BPSK modulator takes one bit at a time to construct the phase constellation having two phases. M ¼ 8 In 16PSK. is modulated by the BPSK modulator as shown in Fig.3.        Ac ¼ Amplitude of the carrier frequency xc ¼ Angular frequency of the carrier M ¼ 2. M ¼ 4 In 8PSK. The symbol rate is therefore the same as the encoded bit rate Rb2. 4. Fig. there are two phases 1 bit=phaseðM ¼ 2Þ In QPSK. is encoded by means of a rate r encoder. there are 8 phases. 16. This is shown in Fig. 6. . . 1-bit per symbol . 8.72 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) where. there are 16 phases. 6.

The PLL locks the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and phase. As the signal enters the receiver. it needs to be received and demodulated. This is known as coherent detection technique. it passes through the PLL. typically known as phase-locked loop (PLL).4 shows a simplified diagram of a BPSK demodulator along with the data recovery process. This is often accomplished with the use of a phase detector. 6. Fig. Figure 6. • 1-bit/symbol.2.6. the phase deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the PLL in mind to eliminate crossover. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. 6.4 Binary PSK detector showing data recovery process . where the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the receiver.2 BPSK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. as we shall see later.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 73 Therefore. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. the BPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 2 phases or 2 symbols.

2-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. The QPSK modulator has four phases or 4 symbols. Therefore. 6. 6.5 QPSK signal constellation having 4 symbols. having a bit rate Rb1. is serial to parallel converted into two parallel streams. is modulated by the QPSK modulator as shown in Fig. The QPSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having four phases. the input raw data.” where each symbol represents two bits.74 6. as we shall see later.3 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) QPSK Modulation In QPSK. The encoded bit rate. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of two. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. Fig. the QPSK modulator has the following specifications: • 4 phases or 4 symbols • 2-bits/symbol The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. also known as “Symbols. now reduced in speed by a factor of two. The encoded data.5. 2-bits per symbol .

having a bit rate Rb1. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of 3. is serial to parallel converted into four parallel streams.6. now reduced in speed by a factor of four. The encoded bit rate. having a bit rate Rb1.” where each symbol represents 3-bits. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. 3-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. the input raw data. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. 6. 6. Therefore. The 8PSK modulator has 8 phases or 8 symbols. is modulated by the 8PSK modulator as shown in Fig.7. The encoded data.4 8psk Modulation 75 Fig.6. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder.4 8PSK Modulation In 8PSK. also known as “Symbols. • 3-bits/symbol.5 16PSK Modulation In 16PSK. the input raw data. 6. as we shall see later.6 8PSK signal constellation having 8 symbols. the 8PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 8 phases or 8 symbols. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. now reduced in speed by a factor of three. The 8PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 8 phases. The encoded bit rate. is encoded by means of a rate r (r < 1) encoder. The encoded data. 3-bits per symbol 6. is modulated by the 16PSK modulator as shown in Fig. 6. is serial to parallel converted into three parallel streams. .

• 4-bits/symbol. where each dot represents 4-bits The 16PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 16 phases. Here.” where each symbol represents four bits. Therefore. The above specifications govern the transmission bandwidth. 4. the 16PSK modulator has the following specifications: • 16 phases or 16 symbols. also known as “Symbols. Table 6. 32. 4-bits/symbol as shown in the figure. M = 2. 8. each symbol is represented by a dot. and 32 Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : .7 16PSK signal constellation having 16 symbols. 16. 4. the 16PSK modulator has 16 phases or 16 symbols. 8. Therefore. 16. etc. 4-bits per symbol. as we shall see later. 64.76 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. 6. Table 6.1 MPSK modulation parameters. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of four.1 shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2.

we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.8a). Period = T Also.6 77 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. • Spectral response of the carrier phase. For this reason. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \0\t\T ¼ 0 elsewhere ð6:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier Transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V  ejxt dt ð6:6Þ 0       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT x 2 xT=2     1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 jVðxÞj ¼ 2 ð6:7Þ .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. Let us take a closer look: 6. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig.6. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High.6. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). and • Modulation type. 6. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.

The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ  ejxt dt / In this case. T being the bit duration. while the side lobes correspond to harmonic components. 6.8 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.8b. where Rb is the bit rate Here. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. In other words. since they are relatively insignificant with respect to the main lobe. where fb = Rb = 1/T. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). In practice. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb.78 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. 6. The function can be either a . Therefore. the side lobes are filtered out. P(x) is the power spectral density. This is plotted in Fig. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb.

6. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. For example. 6.6.9 High-frequency carrier response . where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 6.6. This is given by (see Sect.6. Figure 6.3 BPSK Spectrum In BPSK.6. It has one phase component.9 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. the input is a digital signal and it contains an infinite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms.1): Fig.2 ð6:8Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation A carrier frequency is a sinusoidal waveform. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð6:9Þ Where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier phase in Hz Figure 6.8c shows the two-sided response. 6. Since the phase is constant. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 79 voltage or a current.

With V(t) = m(t). The transmission bandwidth associated with the main lobe is given by Fig. which is given by   sinðxmT=2Þ mðtÞ ¼ VT xmT=2 ð6:12Þ Therefore.10 BPSK bandwidth. V (x) is the frequency domain representation of the input digital signal. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. centered on the carrier frequency fc. we write the following as: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ b mðtÞ ð6:11Þ where b is the phase deviation index of the carrier and m(t) has a sin(x)/x response. the spectral response after BPSK modulation also has a sin(x)/x response. which is the shifted version of the NRZ data.10. as shown in Fig. 6. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation.80 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK)       V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT j V ðx Þj ¼ 2 x 2 xT=2 ð6:10Þ Here. 6. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation . which has a sin(x)/x response that governs the phase of the carrier frequency.

QPSK. QPSK.375 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient. 8PSK. 16PSK Find: (a) Bit rate after coding Rb2 (b) Transmission bandwidth BW Solution: (a) Rb2 = Rb1/r = 10 kb/s  2 = 20 kb/s (b) Transmission bandwidth: .5 kHz QPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/2 = 2  18.75/3 = 12.75 = 37. 8PSK.6.75/2 = 18.75 kb/s BPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/1 = 2  18.2 Given: • Input bit rate Rb1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate r = 1/2 • Modulation: BPSK. Problem 6.1 Given: • • • • Uncoded input bit rate: Rb1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz Modulation: BPSK. Notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same the ASK bandwidth.5 kHz 16PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/4 = 2  18.755/4 = 9. It may be noted that the higher-order spectral components are filtered out. Problem 6.75 kHz 8PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/3 = 2  18.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 81 BW ðBPSKÞ  2Rb2 =Bit per Phase  2Rb2 =1  2Rb2 ð6:13Þ where Rb2 is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). and 16PSK Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate Rb2 BPSK bandwidth (BW) QPSK bandwidth (BW) 8PSK bandwidth (BW) 16PSK bandwidth (BW) Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate: RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/(15/8) = 18.

while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. New York . ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. pp 729–742 13. 7th edn. Springer. Plenum press 6. Springer. Lin S. GTM 86.33 kHz 16PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/4 = 10 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efficient. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. p 36.. North-Holland. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Mac Williams FJ. References 1. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Couch II LW (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Massachusetts 9. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and PSK bandwidth is calculated. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. Prentice Hall 4. Bell Syst Tech. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. John Wiley. ISBN: 0442009178 2. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Huffman W. Cambridge University Press.7 Conclusions • This chapter presents PSK modulation and its attributes. Inc. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. Prentice-Hall. reading. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Addison-Wesley. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall. Ebert PM. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error correcting codes. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Smith DR (1986) Digital transmission systems. Englewood Cliffs 8. Inc. p 31. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11.: Englewood Cliffs. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. 6.82 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) • • • • BPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per Symbol = 2  20 kb/s/1 = 40 kHz QPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/2 = 20 kHz 8PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2  20 kb/s/3 = 13.

A. New Jersey . “Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Holmdel. Kohlenbero A. IEEE Trans. S. 618–626. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Reddy. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Technical Report. Bell Telephone Laboratories. 1968 15. M. M.References 83 14. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Information Theory IT-14.

Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes will be presented to illustrate the concept. © The Author(s) 2017 S. we will present the key concept. now reduced in speed. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. The coded information bits are then modulated by an M-ary PSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. underlying principles and practical application of N-ary coded modulation schemes. offering spectrum efficiency with improved error correction capabilities.Chapter 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Topics • • • • • Introduction N-ary Complementary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation N-ary Complementary Orthogonal Coding and M-ary Modulation Coding Gain and Bandwidth Conclusions 7.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_7 85 . the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. In this chapter. At the receiver. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. are mapped into a bank of N unique convolutional or orthogonal codes. These parallel bit streams. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences.1 Introduction N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. Faruque. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. DOI 10. In its most basic construction. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation.

86 7. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. In addition. In this section.1.1 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background In convolutional coding. N-ary complementary convolutional coding is a multi-level convolutional code. is popular in wireless communications because of its superior error control capabilities. In its most basic construction. for a total of 2n = N complementary convolutional codes. The proposed N-ary convolutional codes are a block of nconvolutional codes and their complements. as shown in Fig. where delays are introduced due to concatenation and interleaving. 7. it is also too complex to realize. Let us consider Fig. a modified technique. 7. The convolutional encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). a typical convolutional encoder is taken as the basis to generate a block of n-convolutional codes. The coded information bits are modulated and transmitted through a channel.2. defined as N-ary complementary convolutional coding. along with M-ary modulation.2 7. known as parallel concatenated codes or turbo codes [7–9]. The code rate is defined as r = k/n. is presented to overcome these problems. a block of N-ary convolutional code has n-convolutional codes and n-antipodal codes. Another class of convolutional codes. where more than two convolutional codes can be used simultaneously to further enhance coding gain without concatenation and interleaving. each convolutional code is inverted to construct a block of n-antipodal codes.2.1 once again and assume that the input bit sequence to the encoder is: m ðtÞ ¼ 1 0 1 ð7:1Þ . Next. turbo codes are limited to two convolutional codes connected in parallel. thereby limiting high-speed data communications in wireless communications. Therefore. 7. we shall define this as N-ary complementary convolutional codes. The encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). This type of error control is also classified as forward error control coding (FECC). In short. Yet.2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes In a typical convolutional encoder. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. In a typical convolutional encoder. because these methods are often used to correct errors that are caused by channel noise. a sequence of data signals is transformed into a longer sequence that contains enough redundancy to protect the data [1–6].

0) + (1.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 87 Fig. where m(X) is the input bit sequence [7].1) + (1.1 Generation of N-ary complimentary convolutional codes Which is described by the following polynomial? m ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ 0X þ 1X 2 ¼ 1 þ X2 ð7:2Þ The encoder is described by the following generator polynomials: g1ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 2 g2ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X 2 ð7:3Þ Then. the output bit sequence can be found as U(X) = m(X)g1(X) multiplexed with m(X)g2(X).7. the product of polynomials for the encoder can be described as follows: m ðXÞg1ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 3 þ X 4 m ðXÞg2ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X 4 ð7:4Þ with X2 + X2 = 0. 7.1) ð7:5Þ .0) + (1.-------------U1U2 = (1.0) + (0. We write the above two equations as follows: m(X)g1(X) = 1 + 1X + 0X2 + 1X3 + 1X4 m(X)g2(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X2 + 0X3 + 1X4 --------------------------------------------------------.

7. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary (N = 2) coded QPSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams as shown in Fig.3. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. 7.2. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. 7. 7.88 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig.2. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes. Antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes.2 N-ary complimentary convolutional code blocks Taking only the coefficients. These bit streams. These code blocks are stored in two 8  10 ROMs. we obtain the desired convolutional code sequence corresponding to the input bit sequence m(T) = 101 as follows: Convolutional Code ¼ 1 1 10 00 10 11 ð7:6Þ The corresponding antipodal code is obtained simply by inverting the convolutional code as shown in the figure. This is given by: Antipodal Code ¼ 0 0 01 11 01 00 ð7:7Þ As can be seen. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. each 3-bit data corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. and the next 8  3 data block maps the next 8  10 antipodal code block. The first 8  3 data block maps the 8  10 convolutional code block. are partitioned into two 8  3 data blocks.

3 2-ary convolutional coding with QPSK modulation convolutional/antipodal code. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. the transmission bandwidth is also reduced. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. 7.2. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. are partitioned into four 4  2 data . 7. which is modulated by a QPSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. 7.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 89 Fig. These bit streams. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz B ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 ð7:9Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r.7.4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation A 4-ary (N = 4) coded 16PSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams as shown in Fig.4. the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 6=10 ¼ 3=5 ð7:8Þ Since there are two convolutional waveforms (one convolutional and one antipodal). Moreover.

Moreover.90 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. The code rate is given by: Code Rate:r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 ð7:10Þ Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. 7. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. the transmission bandwidth is further reduced. . which is modulated by a 16PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.4 4-ary convolutional coding with 16PSK modulation blocks. Each 4  2 data block maps corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ð7:11Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs.

1.7. 4. 6. there are 8 possible output combinations of 3-bit data.3. 5. This is a correlation process. • For each combination of 3-bit data. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation).1 Correlation Receiver Decoding is a process of code correlation. Let us examine the correlation process using the following example: • The input bit pattern m = 0 1 1 • Encoded transmit data: U = 00 11 01 01 11 • Received data with errors U* = 00 11 01 01 00 Notice that the last two bits are in error. The expected data is stored into a lookup table [see Table 7.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. identified in bold. • The receiver receives one of 8 output sequences. • Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. Now.1]: • The lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. there is a unique encoded 10-bit data (see table). 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 00 11 11 10 10 01 01 00 11 10 01 11 00 01 10 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 . In this process. 7. the receiver compares the received data with the expected data set to recover the actual data. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. let us determine how the receiver recovers the correct data.1 Lookup table a Input (m) Output (U) 0. where the actual input data is m = 0 1 1. • For m = 3. requiring several tests to validate the actual data. The result is presented below: • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 • 1st row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 00 00 00 • Mod-2 Add: 00 11 01 01 00 Table 7. 2. The correlation process is described below: Test 0: This test compares the received data with the 1st row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match.3 91 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7. 3.

. continue search. The result is presented below: • • • • • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 2nd row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 11 10 11 Mod-2 Add: 00 11 10 111 11 Correlation value = 7 Verdict: No match. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation).92 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation • Correlation value = 4 (count the number of 1’s in MOD2 Add) • Verdict: No match. continue search The remaining tests may be conducted by using the same method to reach the final verdict as given below: Final Verdict: Collect the correlation values and validate the data that indicates the lowest correlation value. Test 1: This test compares the received data with the 2nd row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. This is presented in the following lookup table.

each code is unique and there is a minimum distance dmin between any two convolutional codes where dmin  n=2 ð7:13Þ This distance property can be used to detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two convolutional codes. which is 000. These code blocks are displayed in Fig.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 93 In examining the above table. the value of n is reduced by 2. Therefore.2.7. where . K is the length of the shift register and the factor −2 is due to the initial content of the shift register.3. • This is the data which has been transmitted to the receiver. we find that: • The lowest correlation value is 2. • The corresponding data is m = 0 1 1. 7. It can be shown that an n-bit convolutional code can correct the errors. The antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. Therefore. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. a rate ½ convolutional encoder with K = 3 generates 00 when the initial content of the shift register is 000.2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes An n-bit convolutional code is generated by a rate ½ encoder of constraint length K where n ¼ 4K  2 ð7:12Þ In the above equation. For example. each 3-bit data sequence corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. As can be seen. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. 7. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes.

94 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Table 7. This type of channel coding is bandwidth efficient and further enhances the coding gain with bandwidth efficiency. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. N-ary orthogonal coding is a multi-level channel coding technique. The use of orthogonal codes for forward error control coding has also been investigated by a limited number of authors [14–16].4. we modify the above equation to obtain N t  N dmin =2  Nn=4  Nð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:15Þ Table 7. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. are mapped into N-ary orthogonal codes. Therefore.2 Error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes Constraint length (K) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (BPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (QPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (16PSK) 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 t  dmin =2  n=4  ð4K  2Þ=4 ð7:14Þ where • t = Number of errors that can be corrected by means of a single convolutional code • n = Code length • K = Constraint length The proposed N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding technique.4 7. .1 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA cellular communications for spectrum spreading and user ID [10–13].2 displays error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes. At the receiver. These parallel bit streams. now reduced in speed. This chapter presents a method of channel coding based on N-ary orthogonal codes [17– 20]. 7. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. The coded information bits are then modulated by means of MPSK modulator and transmitted through a channel. In the proposed scheme. The proposed coded modulation scheme is bandwidth efficient and offers a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit.

5 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 8. These bit streams. an n-bit orthogonal code has n-orthogonal codes and n-antipodal codes.3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary orthogonal coded QPSK modulator with n = 8.4. 7. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. on the other hand.7.4.2 Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are binary-valued and have equal numbers of 1’s and 0’s. are just the inverse of orthogonal codes. where a k-bit data set is represented by a unique n-bit orthogonal code (k < n). We note that orthogonal codes are essentially (n.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 95 Fig. a 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. . k) block codes. rate ¾. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. 7. and rate 1 are indeed available out of orthogonal codes.6. 7. Antipodal codes are also orthogonal among them. For example. We now show that code rates such as rate ½. an 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes. Therefore. are partitioned into two data blocks.7. Each data block is mapped into an 8  8 code block. for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 6-parallel streams. for a total of 2n bi-orthogonal codes. 7.5 [12]. 7. An 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes 7. Similarly. The principle is presented below. as shown in Fig. as depicted in the figure. Antipodal codes.

7. A 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes Fig.6 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 16.7 2-ary orthogonal coding with N = 2 . 7.96 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig.

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

97

According to the communication scheme, when a 3-bit data pattern needs to be
transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead,
requiring a QPSK modulator. The modulated waveforms are in orthogonal space
and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 6=8 ¼ 3=4
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Moreover, the transmission
bandwidth is also reduced, which is given by:
Transmission Bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 Hz

ð7:16Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.4

4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation

A 4-ary orthogonal coded 16PSK modulator, with n = 8, having 16 complementary
orthogonal codes, can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into
8-parallel streams, as shown in Fig. 7.8. The bit streams, now reduced in speed by a
factor of 8, are partitioned into four data blocks. Each data block is mapped into a
4  8 code block as depicted in the figure. According to the communication scheme,
when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/
antipodal code is transmitted instead, requiring a 16PSK modulator. The modulated
waveforms are in orthogonal space and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:
Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1

ð7:17Þ

This is achieved without bandwidth expansion.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Moreover, the transmission bandwidth is further reduced, which is given by:
Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz
¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 Hz

ð7:18Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate, and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.5

2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into two code blocks. Each code block represents a data block as shown
in Fig. 7.9. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with each

98

Fig. 7.8 N-ary orthogonal coding with N = 4

Fig. 7.9 2-ary orthogonal decoding

7 N-Ary Coded Modulation

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

99

entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 2  1 = 2. Moreover, the
bandwidth is also reduced, as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2

7.4.6

ð7:19Þ

4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
partitioned into four code blocks. Each code block represents a data block, as
shown in Fig. 7.10. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with
each entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be
seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the figure. The
corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.
Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),
the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 4  1 = 4. Moreover, the
bandwidth is further reduced as presented below:
BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2

7.4.7

ð7:20Þ

Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal
Codes

Error correction capabilities of orthogonal codes have been discussed earlier [16].
We present it again for convenience. An n-bit orthogonal code has n/2 1’s and n/2
0’s; i.e., there are n/2 positions where 1’s and 0’s differ. Therefore, the distance
between two orthogonal codes is d = n/2. This distance property can be used to
detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two
orthogonal codes as shown in Fig. 7.11, where the received code is shown as a
dotted line. This is given by:
dth ¼

n
4

ð7:21Þ

where n is the code length and dth is the threshold, which is midway between two
valid orthogonal codes. Therefore, for the given 8-bit orthogonal code, we have

10 4-ary orthogonal decoding Fig.100 Fig. 7.11 Distance properties of orthogonal codes 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation . 7.

yÞ ¼ n 1 4 ð7:23Þ In the above equation. where an impaired orthogonal code is compared with a pair of n-bit orthogonal codes to yield: Rðx.1 This problem relates to N-ary convolutional codes and M-ary PSK modulation. 4. n is the code length.7. For example. a single-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of an 8-bit orthogonal code (n = 8). The acceptance criterion for a valid code is that an n-bit comparison must yield a good autocorrelation value. The following correlation process governs this. y) is the autocorrelation function. Since the threshold is in the midway between two valid codes.21 for reliable detection. … 8 16 32 64 1 3 7 15 N 3N 7N 15 N . Table 7. a three-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of a 16-bit orthogonal code (n = 16) and so on. a false detection will occur. R(x. The received code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. an additional 1-bit offset is added to Eq. otherwise. where the incoming impaired orthogonal code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. 7.3 shows a few orthogonal codes and the corresponding error-correcting capabilities. 7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 101 dth = 8/4 = 2.21 and Eq. t is the number of errors that can be corrected by means of an n-bit orthogonal code. and dth is the threshold as defined earlier.22. 8. yielding: t ¼ n  Rðx. 7. This mechanism offers a decision process. Problem 7. Rate ½ complementary convolutional codes • 4-ary convolutional coding (N = 4) Table 7. 2.3 Error correction capabilities of N-ary orthogonal codes Code length n Number of errors corrected per code t Number of errors corrected by N-ary code Nt N = 1. yÞ ¼ n X xi yi  ðn  dth Þ þ 1 ð7:22Þ i¼1 where x and y are two n-bit orthogonal codes. The average number of errors that can be corrected by means of this process can be estimated by combining Eq. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • K = 3. Similarly.

102 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected Solution: (a) A 4-ary (N = 4) coded modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel stream. are partitioned into four 4  2 data blocks. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8.2 This example relates to N-ary orthogonal codes and M-ary PSK modulation. Each 4  2 data block maps a corresponding 4  10 convolutional code blocks. These code blocks are stored in four 4  10 ROMs.] Problem 7. Therefore.5 kb/s (d) Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ¼ ð12:50 kb=sÞ=2 ¼ 6:25 kHz (e) Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). 4t = 4  2 = 8 [Each code corrects 2 errors. M = 16. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadruple. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • n = 8 orthogonal codes having 16 complementary orthogonal codes • 4-ary orthogonal Coding Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected . (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 (c) Bit rate after coding Rb2 = Rb1/r = (5/4) 10 kb/s = 12. These bit streams. which is modulated by a 24 = 16 PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.

4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 103 Solution: (a) A 4-ary orthogonal coded modulator. Each data block is mapped into a 4  8 code block. requiring a 24 = 16 PSK modulator. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes is presented to illustrate the concept. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. i. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted.7. based on N-ary complementary codes and M-ary PSK (MPSK) modulation.. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes. The proposed coded modulation schemes are bandwidth efficient and offer a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. with n = 8. At the receiver. According to the communication scheme. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. The bit streams.5 Conclusions A method of coded modulation. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming traffic into 8-parallel streams. N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. is presented. Therefore. . (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1 (c) The bit rate after coding is given by: Rb2 ¼ Rb1 r ¼ 10 kb=s ðr ¼ 1Þ (d) The transmission bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ 2  10 kb=s=4 ¼ 5 k Hz (e) Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal). Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. 4t ¼ 4  1 ¼ 4 7. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8.e. M = 416. are partitioned into four data blocks.

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