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ELEC TRIC AL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING

Saleh Faruque

Radio Frequency

Modulation Made

Easy

123

**SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer
**

Engineering

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/10059

Saleh Faruque

**Radio Frequency Modulation
**

Made Easy

123

Saleh Faruque

Department of Electrical Engineering

University of North Dakota

Grand Forks, ND

USA

**ISSN 2191-8112
**

ISSN 2191-8120 (electronic)

SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering

ISBN 978-3-319-41200-9

ISBN 978-3-319-41202-3 (eBook)

DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-41202-3

Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945147

© The Author(s) 2017

This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part

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Preface

**By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897, the Italian physicist Tomaso
**

Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications. This

enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. For this

epoch-making invention, this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize

for Physics in 1909. Even today, students of wireless or radio technology remember

this distinguished physicist with reverence. A new era began in Radio

Communications.

The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as

“Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. This led to the development of Frequency

Modulation (FM), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), etc.

Today, these technologies are extensively used in various wireless communication

systems. These modulation techniques form an integral part of academic curricula

today.

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the various modulation techniques mentioned above. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students

up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital

modulation techniques. In particular, the following topics will be presented in this

book:

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Frequency Modulation (FM)

Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM

Amplitude shift keying (ASK)

Frequency shift keying (FSK)

Phase shift keying (PSK)

N-ary coding and M-ary modulation

Bandwidth occupancy in ASK, FSK, and PSK

**This text has been primarily designed for electrical engineering students in the
**

area of telecommunications. However, engineers and designers working in the area

v

It is assumed that the student is familiar with the general theory of telecommunications. there may still be some errors in this book. for affording me this opportunity. Finally. Grand Forks. thanks are also to my doctoral student Md. USA May 2016 Saleh Faruque . Yasmin. he deserves my heartfelt thanks. who have enabled me and others visually impaired to work comfortably. This book is a collection of my courseware and research activities in wireless communications. I would like to thank my beloved wife. an English Literature buff and a writer herself. I hope that my readers forgive me for them. North Dakota. During my teaching tenure at the University of North Dakota. for being by my side throughout the writing of this book and for patiently proofreading it. I am grateful to UND and the School for the Blind. Maruf Ahamed who found time in his busy schedule to assist me with the simulations. illustrations. provided technical support in formulation and experimentation when I needed it. I would like to say a few words about how this book was conceived. It came out of my long industrial and academic career. Shams.vi Preface of wireless communications would also ﬁnd this text useful. For this. In spite of all this support. In closing. This book would never have seen the light of day had UND and the State of North Dakota not provided me with the technology to do so. I shall be amply rewarded if they still ﬁnd this book useful. My darling son. My heartfelt salute goes out to the dedicated developers of these technologies. I developed a number of graduate-level elective courses in the area of telecommunications that combine theory and practice. an electrical engineer himself. and the veriﬁcation of equations.

. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . .3. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . .6 Drawbacks in AM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . .Contents 1 Introduction to Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 1. .. .2.. . . . . . .2. . . .. . . . . .4. . . . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . .. . . . . FM. . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 1 1 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 . .. . . . . . . . . 9 10 11 12 14 15 . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . 1. . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 24 24 . . . 17 17 19 20 20 21 21 . ..1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 2. .1 Introduction . . .3. . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation. . . . . . . . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . .5 AM Demodulation . . . . .3. .1 AM. . . . . .3 Modulation by Digital Signal . . . .3. . . . 1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1. . . . . .4. . . . . . .3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation . . . . References . 1. . . . and PM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .4. .2 Modulation by Analog Signals .4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation . . . . . . . . . . .4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . .3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth. . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . 1. . . . . . . . . .3. . 2. . . . . . 2. . . . . .. . . . . 2. . . 1. 1. . . . . .2 Amplitude Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.

4. . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 29 30 32 32 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 51 53 54 55 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) . . . . . . . . . . 33 33 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 44 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) . . . . .2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 DSBSC Drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . .1 DSBSC Modulation. . . .2 Frequency Modulation (FM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . 4. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . 3.2. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Background . . . .5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .3. . . . . .4.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . .4. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 5. . . 4. .2 Generation of DSBSC Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 57 58 60 . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Why SSB Modulation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . .4. . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation .4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . 3.3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 ASK Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Basic FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .3 FM Spectrum . . . . . . . . 3. . .4 ASK Bandwidth . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation.3. . . . . . . .6 Conclusions . . . . . . .2 ASK Modulation . . . . . . References . 3. .5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 45 45 46 48 49 49 . . . 2. .3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . .viii Contents 2. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.2 N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation . .1 Introduction . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 69 70 70 73 74 75 75 77 77 79 79 82 82 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . .7 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ix 5. . . 6.1 Background .4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation . . . . .1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Conclusions . .. . . .4.1 BPSK Modulation . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 QPSK Modulation . .. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Conclusions . .4. 6. . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .3. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . .2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes . . .2 Orthogonal Codes . 7. . . . . . . . .5 16PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 63 65 67 67 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . .. . . 5. . . . . . . .4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .3. . . . . . . . . . . .5 BER Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. 99 . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8PSK Modulation . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 5. . . .2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . 7. . 6. . . . . .4. . . 93 94 94 95 95 97 97 99 . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 104 . ..2. . . 6. . . . .2 BPSK Demodulation . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . .1 Correlation Receiver . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation 6. . . .3 BPSK Spectrum . . . . .3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation . . . . . . . . 85 85 86 86 86 88 89 91 91 . . . . . . . . .. 6. . . . . 61 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data . . .7 Conclusions . . . .2. .1 Introduction . . . . . .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FSK Bandwidth. . . . 7. . .4 4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation . . . .. . . . .2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 103 .5 2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Background Modulation is a technique that changes the characteristics of the carrier frequency in accordance with the input signal. This is the ﬁnal stage of any radio communication system. referred to as the modulated signal. FSK and PSK Bandwidth at a Glance 1.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_1 1 . modulation is performed at the transmit side and demodulation is performed at the receive side. In this process. Antenna is a reciprocal device that transmits and receives the modulated carrier frequency. Figure 1. The output signal of the modulator.Chapter 1 Introduction to Modulation Topics • • • • • Background Modulation by Analog Signal AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance Modulation by Digital Signal ASK. The size of the antenna depends on the wavelength (k) of the sinusoidal wave where k = c/f m c = Velocity of light = 3 108 m/s f = Frequency of the sinusoidal wave. Faruque. 2]. DOI 10.” Therefore. the © The Author(s) 2017 S. The preceding two stages have been discussed elaborately in my previous book in this series [1. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy.1 shows the conceptual block diagram of a modern wireless communication system. is fed into the antenna for propagation. where the modulation block is shown in the inset of the dotted block. also known as “carrier frequency. For these reasons. As shown in the ﬁgure. a high-frequency carrier signal is used in the modulation process. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. a carrier frequency much higher than the input signal is required to keep the size of the antenna at an acceptable limit.

1. For a head start. bandwidth efﬁciency becomes increasingly important. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. there are two basic modulation schemes as listed below: • Modulation by analog signals and • Modulation by digital signals.1 Block diagram of a modern full-duplex communication system. Furthermore. Therefore. depending on the modulation technique. where the carrier is a high-frequency sinusoidal waveform. This book presents a comprehensive overview of these modulation techniques in use today. where the digital signal processing is done keeping in mind the available bandwidth resources. the input signal (analog or digital) changes the characteristics of the carrier waveform. brief descriptions of each of these modulation techniques are presented below. as the size and speed of digital data networks continue to expand. This is especially true for broadband communication. The information can be either analog or digital. As stated earlier. Hence. .2 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. The modulation stage is shown as a dotted block low-frequency input signal changes the characteristics of the high-frequency carrier in a certain manner. modulation is a very important step in the transmission of information.

2 Modulation by Analog Signals 1. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency. 1. and PM For analog signals. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. This is shown in Fig. FM.2 where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. A new era began in Radio Communications. For this epoch-making invention. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM.2 1. By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897.1 3 Modulation by Analog Signals AM. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal.2. • Phase Modulation (PM). there are three well-known modulation techniques as listed below: • Amplitude Modulation (AM). students of wireless or radio technology remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. 4]. Fig. • Frequency Modulation (FM). This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909.2 Modulation by analog signal . 1. Even today.1. In AM. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [3.

2 [5]. . FM is derived from the rate of change of phase of the carrier frequency. For this reason. FM is also bandwidth inefﬁcient. FM is more robust against signal amplitude fading. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. which will be addressed in Chap.4 1 Introduction to Modulation As shown in the ﬁgure. In fact. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. In AM: • The modulated carrier has two sidebands (upper and lower) and • Total bandwidth = 2 base band.3. 2.2 AM and FM Bandwidth at a Glance The bandwidth occupied by the modulated signal depends on bandwidth of the input signal and the modulation method as shown in Fig. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input modulation signal as shown in Fig. PM is closely related to FM. For this reason. where higher-order spectral components are negligible. where Df is the frequency deviation. only the frequency changes while the amplitude remains the same. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change. it will be shown that in FM. 1. Note that the unmodulated carrier itself has zero bandwidth. We will discuss this more elaborately in Chap. Similarly. 1. In Chap. the modulated carrier creates an inﬁnite number of spectral components. It can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. requiring frequency-domain analysis. Both FM and PM belong to the same mathematical family. Unlike AM.2. 3. It may be noted that AM is vulnerable to signal amplitude fading. in Phase Modulation (PM). Notice that in FM. • The approximate FM bandwidth is given by the Carson’s rule: – – – – – FM BW = 2f (1 + b) f = Base band frequency b = Modulation index b = Df/f Df = Frequency deviation. the modulated carrier contains an inﬁnite number of sideband due to modulation. In Frequency Modulation (FM). the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the phase of the carrier. FM is more attractive in commercial FM radio. In FM: • The carrier frequency shifts back and forth from the nominal frequency by Df. • During this process. 3. 1.

3 Bandwidth occupancy in AM. there are several modulation techniques available. • Frequency shift keying (FSK).1. and • Phase shift keying (PSK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal For digital signals. and PM signals 1. 1.4 illustrates the modulated waveforms for an input modulating digital signal. Figure 1. also known as on–off keying (OOK).3 Modulation by Digital Signal 5 Fig. Brief descriptions of each of these digital modulation techniques along with the respective spectral responses and bandwidth are presented below.1 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the . The three main digital modulation techniques are as follows: • Amplitude shift keying (ASK). FM. 1.3.

The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. as shown. • Binary 0 (bit 0): Amplitude = Low and • Binary 1 (bit 1): Amplitude = High.4 Modulation by digital signal career frequency [6–8]. the carrier is OFF. For binary signal 1. the carrier is ON. this is referred to as ASK. For the binary signal 0. 1. • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [6–8]. 1. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. interference.3. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. .6 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. etc. this is referred to as binary FSK (BFSK). However. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. Figure 1. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.4 shows the ASK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. in accordance with the input signal.

• Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. etc. this is referred to as binary PSK (BPSK). • These frequencies correspond to the messages binary 0 and 1. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Frequency = f − Df. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Frequency = f + Df. FSK. respectively.3 Modulation by Digital Signal 7 where the carrier frequency changes in discrete levels. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency. PSK). • Output is the BPSK-modulated carrier.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase of the carrier to represent digital signal [6–8].4 shows the FSK-modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit.4 shows the modulated waveform where • Input digital signal is the information we want to transmit. 1. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation.1. where the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels.3.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation In wireless communications. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. Let us take a closer look! . and • Modulation type (ASK. For this reason. which has two phases u1 and u2 corresponding to the two information bits. in accordance with the input signal as shown below: • Binary 0 (bit 0): Phase1 = 0°. • Output is the FSK-modulated carrier. which has two frequencies x1 and x2. corresponding to the binary input signal. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data. • Binary 1 (bit 1): Phase2 = 180°. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth. Figure 1. 1. Figure 1.

The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components.8 1 Introduction to Modulation 1.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. • Binary-0 = Low. This is plotted in (Fig. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. where fb = Rb = 1/T. Therefore. 1. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). The function can be a voltage . Also. 1. data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation. In other words. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency.5b). V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t). In practice. is given by VðtÞ ¼ V ¼0 \0\t\T elsewhere ð1:1Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform” [9]: ZT VðxÞ = V ejxt dt ð1:2Þ 0 jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 ð1:3Þ Here. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. The time-domain representation (Fig.4. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. P(x) is the power spectral density.5a). Period = T. The general equation for two-sided response is given by Za VðxÞ = VðtÞ ejxt dt a In this case. Period = T. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. T being the bit duration. the side lobes are ﬁltered out since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe.

4.1. 1.5c) shows the two-sided response. where Rb is the bit rate or a current (Fig. 1. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ V p sinðxtc Þ ð1:5Þ . and c two-sided power spectral density.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 9 Fig. b it is one-sided power spectral density. For example. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. It has one frequency component.2 ð1:4Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 1.5 a Discrete time digital signal.

• Modulated carrier: S(t) = m(t)C(t) = m(t)Ac cos(xct). The corresponding bandwidth is zero. Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an inﬁnite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and ﬁlter out the higher-order components.6 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. in accordance with the input signal where • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK.10 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig.4.6 A sine wave and its frequency response where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 1. 1. • Carrier frequency: C(t) = Ac cos(xct). we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞSðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sinðxm tÞ cosðxc Þ ¼ Am Ac cos ðxc xm Þ . its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. Since the frequency is constant. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels. 1.

7. 1. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data The spectral response is depicted in Fig. • A = Amplitude of the carrier. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. Bandwidth is given by. where Rb is the coded bit rate. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb.1.4 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK.4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 11 Fig. in accordance with the input signals. For m(t) = 1 S(t) = A cos(x +Dx)t. For m(t) = 0 where • S(t) = The modulated carrier. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.4. Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. 1. . 1.7 ASK bandwidth at a glance. We have: • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C (t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x −D x)t. BW = 2Rb (coded).

8 FSK bandwidth at a glance. fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data • x = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency.4. The FSK bandwidth is given by BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ.5 BPSK Bandwidth at a Glance In BPSK. where Dfc is the frequency deviation. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. 1. The spectral response is depicted in Fig. where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb). in accordance with the input signal. Here. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. we have: . Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by Dfc. and • Dx = Frequency deviation.12 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). 1. 1. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels.8.

4 Bandwidth Occupancy in Digital Modulation 13 • Input data: m(t) = 0 or 1 • Carrier frequency: C(t) = A cos (xt) • Modulated carrier: S(t) = A cos(x + u)t where • A = Amplitude of the carrier frequency. 8. • For BPSK. Since there are two phases. Notice that the spectral response after BPSK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data. while the frequency remains the same. u = 2. notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same as the one in ASK modulation. and • u = Phase of the carrier frequency. It will be shown that higher-order MPSK modulation schemes (M > 2) are spectrally efﬁcient. 64. The transmission bandwidth is given by BW(BPSK) ¼ 2Rb =Bit per Phase ¼ 2Rb =1 ¼ 2Rb where • Rb is the coded bit rate (bit frequency). one bit per phase. as follows: u = 0° for bit 0 and u = 180° for bit 1. 32. etc. 4. This is due to the fact that the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. . centered on the carrier frequency fc.9 shows the spectral response of the BPSK modulator. 16. Also. • x = Angular frequency of the carrier.1. one bit per phase. Table below shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. the carrier frequency changes in two discrete levels. Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : Figure 1.

Amplitude shift keying (ASK).5 Conclusions This chapter presents a brief overview of modulation techniques covered in this book. Frequency Modulation (FM).14 1 Introduction to Modulation Fig. In particular. . and PSK. Phase shift keying (PSK).9 PSK bandwidth at a glance. Frequency shift keying (FSK). and Bandwidth occupancy in ASK. Numerous illustrations are used to bring students up-to-date in key concepts and underlying principles of various analog and digital modulation techniques. 1. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation 1. Bandwidth occupancy in AM and FM. FSK. following topics will be presented in this book: • • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM).

The University Press. Englewood Cliffs. British patent No.References 15 References 1. New York 3. New York 2. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900.039 . Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0442009178 7. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency source coding made easy. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. 25 Feb 1901. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy.227383 6. Joseph Fourier JB (1878) The analytical theory of heat (trans: Freeman A). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. British patent No. Springer. London . Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. 7. 2 Mar 1897. Accepted. Leon W. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740.1936.1109/JRPROC. 12. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. Accepted. doi:10. 7th edn. 13 Apr 1901 5. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 4. and in apparatus therefor. Marconi G (1987) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. Prentice-Hall Inc. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission system. Date of Application 2 June 1896. Springer. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. Faruque S (2014) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Upper Saddle River 9. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 8. Armstrong EH (1936) A Method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation.777.

students of wireless or radio technologies remember this distinguished physicist with reverence. which is the main topic of this chapter. This is shown in Fig.Chapter 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth Single Side Band (SSB) Carrier SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 2. the Italian physicist Tomaso Guglielmo Marconi added a new dimension to the world of communications [1.1 Introduction By inventing the wireless transmitter or radio in 1897. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal.1. 2]. The classical Marconi radio used a modulation technique known today as “Amplitude Modulation” or just AM. © The Author(s) 2017 S. This enabled the transmission of the human voice through space without wires. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. A new era began in Radio Communications. this illustrious scientist was honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_2 17 . In AM. Faruque. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. and • S(t) is the AM-modulated carrier frequency. Even today. 2. For this epoch-making invention. the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. DOI 10.

18 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. In an effort to examine this. However. . it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. this chapter will present the following topics: • Amplitude Modulation (AM) and AM spectrum • Double Sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) and DSBSC spectrum • Single sideband (SSB) carrier and SSB spectrum In the following sections. The frequency of the carrier remains the same As shown in the ﬁgure. requiring frequency domain analysis. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation. 2. Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.1 AM waveforms. The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier. the above disciplines in AM modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation.

This is referred to as AM. These parameters are described below: mðtÞ ¼ Am cosð2pfm tÞ CðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞfc fm SðtÞ ¼ ½1 þ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ CðtÞ þ mðtÞCðtÞ ð2:1Þ Therefore. Here. Figure 2. 2.2 19 Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes amplitude variations of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [3–5].2 Illustration of amplitude modulation. where the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. and S(t) is the output AM-modulated carrier frequency. The amplitude of the carrier C(t) changes in accordance with the input modulating signal m(t).2 Amplitude Modulation 2.2. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. S(t) is the modulated waveform which is transmitted by the antenna .2 shows a functional diagram of a typical AM modulator for a single tone. When m(t) = 0: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:2Þ When m(t) = Am cos(2pfmt): SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:3Þ Fig. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation.

Fig.3 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.3 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response . 2. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.3. which has several spectral components. For example. It has one frequency component. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. FM ASK. we see that: • The ﬁrst term is the carrier only.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In AM. 2. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm. For simplicity. and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type (AM. FSK. etc. PSK. Since the frequency is constant. For this reason.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications.20 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) In the above equation. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð2:4Þ where • Vp = Peak voltage • xm = 2pfm • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz Figure 2. we use a sinusoidal waveform. requiring further analysis to quantify them. which does not have information • The second term contains the information.) Let us take a closer look! 2. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal.

It has one frequency component.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.2 21 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.3. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time.3. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. 2. which was derived earlier: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ Ac Am cosð2pfm tÞ cosð2pfc tÞ ð2:6Þ Using the following trigonometric identity: cosA cosB ¼ 1=2cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2cosðA BÞ Fig. For example. Since the frequency is constant.2. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc fm). The corresponding bandwidth is zero.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the AM signal again.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð2:5Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 2. 2.4 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response ð2:7Þ .

2. AM is inefﬁcient in power usage.5 AM spectrum. Therefore. 2. It has three spectral components: • The carrier: fc • Upper sideband: fc + fm • Lower sideband: fc – fm where fc is the carrier frequency and fm is the input modulating frequency. Only the sidebands contain the information. The AM bandwidth (BW) is given by BW ¼ 2fm ð2:9Þ Notice that the power is distributed among the sidebands and the carrier.22 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) where • A = 2p (fc + fm)t • B = 2p (fc − fm)t we get SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pfc tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc þ fm Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðfc fm Þt ð2:8Þ This is the spectral response of the AM-modulated signal.5. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm . Fig. where the carrier does not contain any information. This is shown in Fig.

6 Amplitude modulation due to low and high modulating signals ð2:12Þ .6.3.4 23 AM Response Due to Low and High Modulating Signals If m(t) has a peak positive value of less than +1 and a peak negative value of higher than −1. On the other hand. This is shown in Fig. 2. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 1 cosð2pc tÞ ¼ 0 For mðtÞ ¼ þ 1 : SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ 1cosð2pf c tÞ ¼ 2Ac cosð2pf c tÞ ð2:10Þ ð2:11Þ This is called 100 % modulation. Therefore. if m(t) has a peak positive value of +1 and a peak negative value of −1.2. The percent modulation is described by the following equation: The overall modulation percentage is: Amax Amin % Overall Modulation ¼ 100 Ac max½mðtÞ min½mðtÞ 100: ¼ 2Ac Fig.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 2.7. as shown in Fig. then the modulation is less than 100 %. then the modulation is 100 % [3–5]. 2. 2.

which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0. Figure 2.7 AM demodulation technique. This is accomplished by the use of a band-pass ﬁlter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. carrier takes power and it does not have the information • Therefore. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth and power efﬁciency. 2.1 Given: • Input modulating frequency fm = 10 kHz • Carrier frequency fc = 400 kHz Find • Spectral components • Bandwidth . Problem 2. since it affects the amplitude of the carrier.3. As the signal enters the receiver.6 Drawbacks in AM • The modulated signal contains the carrier. it passes through the band-pass ﬁlter.3. AM is inefﬁcient in power usage • Moreover. Next. Therefore. 2. it passes through the band-pass ﬁlter. As the signal enters the receiver. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted 2.24 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig.7 shows the conceptual model of the AM receiver. Next.5 AM Demodulation Once the modulated analog signal has been transmitted. it needs to be received and demodulated. the recovered signal is passed through an envelope detector to recover the original signal that was transmitted. containing the same information • It is bandwidth inefﬁcient • AM is also susceptible to interference. there are two sidebands. which is tuned to the carrier frequency f0.

we suppress the carrier.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) 2. deﬁne • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) • C(t) = Ac cos (xct) ð2:15Þ . which is the ﬁrst term that does not have any information. by suppressing the ﬁrst term we obtain the following: SðtÞ ¼ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c f m Þt ð2:14Þ Next.3 AM Spectrum and Bandwidth 25 Solution Spectral Components: • fc = 400 kHz • fc + fm = 400 kHz + 10 kHz = 410 kHz • fc − fm = 400 kHz − 10 kHz = 390 kHz Bandwidth • BW = 2 fm = 2 10 kHz = 20 kHz. we use the following trigonometric identities: • cos(A + B) = cosA cosB − sinA sinB • cos(A − B) = cosA cosB + sinA sinB With A = 2pfmt = xmt and B = 2pfct = xct.4.1 DSBSC Modulation Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC). as given below: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosð2pf c tÞ þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c þ f m Þt þ ð1=2ÞAc Am cos½2pðf c f m Þt ð2:13Þ Notice that there are three spectral components: • The ﬁrst term is the carrier only. In DSBSC. also known as product modulator. we obtain: SðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Now.2. 2. Therefore. Let us take the original AM signal once again. which does not have any information • The second and third terms contain information. is an AM signal that has a suppressed carrier [3–5].

2. 2. where m(t) is the input modulating signal and C(t) is the carrier frequency. the AM modulators generate S1(t) and S2(t). Since the output is the product of two signals.9 Construction of DSBSC modulator. The symbolic representation is given in Fig.8 Symbolic representation of DSBSC. 2. The output is the product of two signals . 2. The outcome is a cancellation of the discrete carrier. it is also known as product modulator.26 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. also known as product modulator Then. 2.9.4.” Proof of DSBSC Consider the DSBSC modulator as shown in Fig. 2.9 [3–5].2 Generation of DSBSC Signal A DSBSC signal can be generated using two AM modulators arranged in a balanced conﬁguration as shown in Fig.8. This is why it is called “product modulator. which are given by: Fig. Also. we can write the above equations as: SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ ð2:16Þ This is the DSBSC waveform. the output is the product of two inputs: S(t) = m(t) C(t). Here.

4.4 Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 þ mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ 27 ð2:17Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac ½1 mðtÞ cosðxc tÞ Subtracting S2(t) from S1(t). use the trigonometric identity: cos A cos B ¼ 1=2 cosðA þ BÞ þ 1=2 cosðA BÞ ð2:21Þ where A ¼ xm t ¼ 2pfm t and B ¼ xc t ¼ 2pfc t Therefore. the above equation is exactly the same as the desired DSBSC waveform shown earlier. we essentially cancel the carrier to obtain: SðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ S2 ðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:18Þ Therefore. SðtÞ ¼ 2 Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:20Þ This is the desired DSBSC waveform for spectral analysis. hence the name double sidebandsuppressed carrier (DSBSC). the carrier has been suppressed. In other words. which does not have the carrier.2.3 DSBSC Spectrum and Bandwidth We begin with the DSBSC-modulated signal: SðtÞ ¼ 2 mðtÞ Ac cosðxc tÞ ð2:19Þ where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Therefore. except for the scaling factor 2. 2. Now. SðtÞ ¼ Ac ½cosðxc þ xm Þt þ cosðxc xm Þt ¼ Ac ½cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt þ cos 2pðfc fm Þt ð2:22Þ .

as shown below: Find (a) The output waveform S2(t) (b) What is the function of this circuit? Solution S1 ðtÞ ¼ mðtÞ CðtÞ (a) S2 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ CðtÞ ¼ mðtÞC 2 ðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Ac2 cos 2ðxc tÞ (b) The function of the circuit is to demodulate DSBSC signals. The bandwidth is given by 2 fm Notice that the carrier power is distributed among the sidebands (Fig.4. The bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2fm 2.10). Therefore. Each sideband contains the same information Bandwidth is 2 fm Unnecessary power usage Therefore.2 Given:Two product modulators using identical carriers are connected in a series. Problem 2.28 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Fig. it is more efﬁcient.4 • • • • ð2:23Þ DSBSC Drawbacks There are two identical sidebands. . 2. where the carrier frequency is ﬁltered out. a solution is needed to improve bandwidth efﬁciency.10 DSBSC spectrum where the carrier frequency is suppressed. 2.

the basic AM and DSBSC are bandwidth and power inefﬁcient • SSB is bandwidth and power efﬁcient.2.5.5 2. 2. 2.1 29 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation Why SSB Modulation? • The basic AM has a carrier which does not carry information—Inefﬁcient power usage • The basic AM has two sidebands contain the same information—Additional loss of power • DSBSC has two sidebands.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 2. containing the same information—Loss of power • Therefore.2 Generation of SSB-Modulated Signal Single sideband (SSB) modulation uses two product modulators as shown in Fig.11 Generation of SSB signal . 2.5. where mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ ð2:24Þ mðtÞ ¼ Am sinðxm tÞ ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:25Þ CðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxc tÞ ð2:26Þ CðtÞ ¼ Ac sinðxc tÞ ðHilbert TransformÞ ð2:27Þ Fig.11 [3–5].

and S3. The SSB bandwidth is fm ð2:33Þ . we see that the SSB spectrum contains only one sideband.12 displays the SSB spectrum. it is more efﬁcient. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal.3 SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth Let us consider the SSB signal again: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc þ fm Þt ð2:32Þ Here.5.30 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) Solving for S1. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxc þ xm Þt ð2:31Þ In the above equation. Therefore. 2. which is the upper sideband only. S2. The SSB bandwidth is given by: SSB BW ¼ fm Figure 2. 2.12 SSB spectrum showing the upper sideband. Fig. we obtain: S1 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ ð2:28Þ ð2:29Þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ ð2:30Þ Using the following formula: • cosA cosB = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sinA sinB =1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3.

which is the lower sideband only.2. is presented below. showing the lower sideband. we get: S3 ¼ Ac Am cosðxm xc Þt ¼ Ac Am cos 2pðfc fm Þt In the above equation.5 Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation 31 Problem 2. Solution Solving for S1 and S2. The spectral response. Sketch the spectral response. we obtain: • S1(t) = Ac Am cos (xmt) cos (xct) • S2(t) = Ac Am sin (xmt) sin (xct) Obtain S3 as: S3 ðtÞ ¼ S1 ðtÞ þ S2 ðtÞ ¼ Ac Am cosðxm tÞ cosðxc tÞ þ Ac Am sinðxm tÞ sinðxc tÞ Using the following formula: • cos A cos B = 1/2cos(A + B) + 1/2cos(A − B) • sin A sin B = 1/2cos(A − B) − 1/2cos(A + B) Solving for S3.3 Given: • • • • m(t) = Am cos (xmt) m(t)* = Am sin (xmt) − (Hilbert Transform) C(t) = Ac cos (xct) C(t)* = Ac sin (xct) − (Hilbert Transform) Design an SSB modulator to realize the lower sideband. S3(t) is the desired SSB signal. .

Accepted. Godse AP. It was also shown that the modulated carrier contains several spectral components that lead to DSBSC and SSB modulation techniques. 2 July 1897 (later claimed by Oliver Lodge to contain his own ideas which he failed to patent) 2. Technical Publications. ISBN 978-81-8431-089-4 5. 7th edn. The ARRL handbook for radio communications. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4. Accepted. p 36. Leon W. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. 13 Apr 1901 3. Complete Speciﬁcation Left. Prentice-Hall Inc. British patent No. Silver W (ed) (2011) Chapter 14 transceivers. ISBN 978-0-87259-096-0 . British patent No. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems.32 2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 2. References 1.6 Conclusions This chapter presents the key concepts and underlying principles of Amplitude Modulation.777. American Radio Relay League. In particular. 2 Mar 1897. the following topics were presented in this chapter: • • • • • • Amplitude Modulation (AM) AM spectrum and bandwidth Double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSBSC) DSBSC spectrum and bandwidth Single sideband (SSB) SSB spectrum and bandwidth These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Date of Application 2 June 1896. 25 Feb 1901. 12. 7. 88th edn. Englewood Cliffs. and in apparatus therefor. Marconi G (1900) Improvements in apparatus for wireless telegraphy. Bakshi UA (2009) Communication engineering. Date of Application 26 Apr 1900.039. Marconi G (1897) Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals. It was shown how the audio waveform changes the amplitude of the carrier to determine the envelope of the modulated carrier.

This enables the receiver to extract the audio signal by demodulation.1. the audio waveform changes the frequency of the carrier. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. and • S(t) is the FM-modulated carrier frequency. requiring frequency domain analysis [3]. However. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1 Introduction In Frequency Modulation (FM).1007/978-3-319-41202-3_3 33 . 3. © The Author(s) 2017 S. In an effort to examine this. This is shown in Fig. this chapter will present the following topics: • The basic Frequency Modulation (FM). where • m(t) is the input modulating audio signal. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.Chapter 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Topics • • • • • • Introduction Frequency Modulation (FM) FM Spectrum Carson’s Rule & FM Bandwidth Bessel Function & FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth Dilemma 3. Faruque. DOI 10. • FM spectrum. As shown in the ﬁgure. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input analog signal. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same [1–5]. and • FM bandwidth. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains an inﬁnite number of spectral components.

It is a measure of rotation rate or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform as illustrated in Fig. Magnitude of the angular frequency x is deﬁned by one revolution or 2p radians: x ¼ 2pf ¼ dh=dt Radians per second where. 3.1 Illustration of FM 3. 3.2. The angular frequency x is also recognized as angular speed or circular frequency. Here. • f = Frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second.2 3.1 Frequency Modulation (FM) Background FM is a form of angle modulation. and • h = Phase angle. • x = Angular frequency in radians per seconds.2. ð3:1Þ .34 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. where the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. the angle refers to the angular frequency (x).

Zt hi ðtÞ ¼ 2p fi dt ð3:2Þ 0 • hi = Instantaneous phase angle and • fi = Instantaneous frequency. we obtain. Figure 3.3. Now solving for the phase angle. 3.1.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 35 Fig. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is analog. The modulated carrier frequency fc varies back and forth and depends on amplitude Am and frequency fm of the input signal. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. 3. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency.2 The Basic FM Frequency Modulation (FM) is a method of analog modulation that utilizes frequency variation of the relative frequency of the career [1]. the angular frequency x is greater than the frequency f by a factor of 2p. These parameters are described below.3 shows the functional diagram of a typical FM. where the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.2. 3. m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit.2 A sinusoidal waveform in the time domain and its representation in the phase domain Notice that in Eq. using a single-tone modulating signal. This is referred to as FM. . Here. This forms the basis of our derivation of FM as presented in the following section.

3 A functional diagram of a typical FM modulator using a single-tone input modulating signal. (3. Substituting Eq. we obtain Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p ffcðtÞ þ Df mðtÞgdt 0 ð3:6Þ . the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is given by fi ðtÞ ¼ fc ðtÞ þ Df mðtÞ ð3:3Þ where.36 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. and S(t) is the output FM-modulated carrier frequency We examine this by means of a single-tone input modulating signal and its angular frequency as shown in Fig.3) into Eq. (3. • • • • fi = Instantaneous frequency. fc = Carrier frequency. and m(t) = Am cos (wmt). m(t) is the input analog signal we want to transmit. The FM-modulated signal is given by SðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðhi Þ ð3:4Þ where Ac is the amplitude of the carrier frequency and hi is the instantaneous angle. we get Zt SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½2p fi dt ð3:5Þ 0 where fi is the instantaneous frequency.5) for ﬁ. Here. Since the frequency of the carrier varies in accordance with the input signal. Substituting Eq. C(t) is the carrier frequency without modulation. 3.2. Df = Constant. (3. (3.2) into Eq. 3.4) for hi.

3. It is directly related to FM bandwidth. Ac = Amplitude of the carrier frequency.1 Spectral Response of the Input Modulating Signal In FM. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Δf = DfAm = Frequency deviation. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the input modulating signal. fc = Frequency of the carrier. Integrating the above equation. Let us take a closer look. the input modulating signal is a continuous time low-frequency analog signal. For simplicity. Deviation where.3. • • • • • • • • S(t) = FM-modulated carrier signal. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth and modulation. For this reason. we obtain the desired FM signal as follows: Df SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos 2pfc t þ sinð2pfm tÞ fm ¼ Ac cos½2pfc t þ bsinð2pfm tÞ Df b¼ ¼ Modulation Index fm ð3:7Þ Df ¼ DfAm ¼ Freq.2 Frequency Modulation (FM) 37 where mðtÞ ¼ Am cos ðxm tÞ is the input modulating signal. fm = Input modulating frequency. Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal. which is periodic and . Df = A constant parameter.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. we use a sinusoidal waveform. • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.3. and b = Df/fm = Modulation index. Note that the modulation index b is an important design parameter in FM. It may also be noted that FM bandwidth depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input modulating signal. Let’s take a closer look! 3. and • Modulation type.

It has one frequency component. 3. Figure 3. For example.5 A high-frequency sine wave and its frequency response before modulation . For example. 3. which is much higher than the input modulating frequency (fc » fm). which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxm tÞ ð3:8Þ where. 3.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency A carrier frequency (fc) is essentially a sinusoidal waveform.38 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. and • fm = Input modulating frequency in Hz.4 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. • xm = 2pfm.3.4 A low-frequency sine wave and its frequency response continuous with respect to time. • Vp = Peak voltage. It has one frequency component. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: Fig. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fm and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. Since the frequency is constant.

we observe that S(t) depends on both frequency and amplitude of the input signal. • Frequency deviation is proportional to the input signal voltage. the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal. and Am = Amplitude of the input modulating signal.3. xc = Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency. spaced from carrier by amounts N fi. Notice that the carrier frequency after modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc as depicted in the ﬁgure. . The corresponding bandwidth is zero. • A group of many sidebands is created. 3. b = Df/fm = Modulation index. Df = Constant.3. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis at fc and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis. Figure 3. 3. • Relative strength of each sideband depends on Bessel function. • Strength of individual sidebands far away from the carrier is proportional to (freq. we see that: • As time passes.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 39 V ðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð3:9Þ where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc and • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz.3 FM Spectrum In FM. The spectral response is given in Fig. Df = DfAm = Frequency deviation.6.6. the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. By inspecting the modulated carrier frequency. we have: Input Signal : mðtÞ ¼ Am cosðxm tÞ Carrier Frequency : C ðtÞ ¼ Ac cosðxc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ð3:10Þ where • • • • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier. • Higher order spectral components are negligible. Since the frequency is constant. 3. deviation input frequency). Ac = Frequency of the carrier. In Fig. Here.5 shows the characteristics of a high-frequency sine wave and its spectral response.

40 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig.6 FM spectrum.3. a rule of thumb.4 Carson’s Rule and FM Bandwidth The Carson’s rule. 3. 3. states that more than 98 % of the power of FM signal lies within a bandwidth given by the following approximation: FM Bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2fm ð1 þ bÞ where ð3:11Þ . the carrier moves back and forth in frequency in exact step with the input signal and generates an inﬁnite number of sidebands • Carson’s rule can be used to determine the approximate bandwidth: bandwidth required = 2 (highest input frequency + frequency deviation). As time passes.

representing the amplitude of the sidebands.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth Table 3.51 0.98 0.03 J5 • b = Df/fm = Modulation index.3. ð3:12Þ Here.5 1 1. For a given b. 3.24 0.11 0. etc. J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t xm tÞ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t 2xm tÞ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t 3xm tÞ þ .12 0.44 0. and • fm = Highest frequency of the modulating signal.….35 0.03 0. J’s are the Bessel functions. J2. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency.25 0.1 Bessel function table 41 b J0 J1 J2 J3 J4 0 0.94 0. • Df = Peak deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the center of the carrier frequency.77 0. These values are also available as a standard Bessel function table.5 Bessel Function and FM Bandwidth FM bandwidth can be estimated by means of Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind.13 0.3. Fig. .06 0.7 FM sidebands. J0 (b) is the amplitude of the fundamental spectral component. J3.22 0. . . and the remaining spectral components are the sidebands. Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm . Power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1.02 0.56 0.58 0.01 0. the solution for S(t) is given as follows: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½ðxc tÞ þ b sinðxm tÞ ¼ J0 ðbÞ cosðxc tÞ þ J1 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ xm tÞ þ J2 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 2xm tÞ þ J3 ðbÞ cosðxc t þ 3xm tÞ þ . . For a single-tone modulation.23 0.5 2 1 0. 3. it can be obtained as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index.

power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sidebands. while creating more signiﬁcant sidebands. depending on the modulation index b. More power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands J1. J2. requiring more bandwidth. Each sideband is separated by the input modulating frequency fm. J0 is the spectral component of the carrier. 3.7. J2. J2. J0 is carrier power before modulation. there is a unique value of b. After modulation. making the modulation more efﬁcient at the expense of bandwidth. for which the carrier amplitude becomes zero and all the signal power is in the sidebands. Table 3.3. 3. with a given value of b. the occupied bandwidth is low and the sidebands take less power from the carrier. Also. the occupied bandwidth is also high.6 FM Bandwidth Dilemma In FM. This is a dilemma in FM.. in FM. making the modulation less efﬁcient.8 FM sidebands for large b. if the modulation index is high. etc..…. the total bandwidth includes spectral components from both sides of the carrier. FM is more popular because it is less sensitive to noise. In this case.1 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼1 . are presented for different values of b. Figure 3.… Each sideband is separated by the modulating frequency fm As an example. On the other hand. 3. more power is taken from the carrier and distributed among the sideband.8 shows another scenario where b is large. are the sidebands. Therefore. this is shown in Fig. J1. Here. For a given low b. Here. while the sidebands retain most of the power. we notice that if the modulation index is low. J0. the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier. the carrier and sideband amplitude powers. etc. After modulation. However. J4. Note that.1 provides a few Bessel parameters to illustrate the concept. power is taken from the carrier J0 and distributed among the sidebands. J3. In this table. J1.42 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Fig. Problem 3. J3.

1: • J0 = 0.02 where J0 is the carrier and J1. See ﬁgure below. J1 = 0.35. J3 = 0. J4 = 0.3. Problem 3. we can neglect J3 since it has a negligible power.1: • J0 = 0. J2 = 0. (b) For b = 2.77.22.13.44.11.2 Given: fm ¼ 1 kHz fc ¼ 1 MHz b¼2 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2 1 kHz (1 + 2) = 6 kHz. See ﬁgure below. See Table 3. and J3 are the sidebands. Therefore. .03 Here. J2. J3 = 0. we take 3 upper sidebands and 3 lower sidebands. Here. Therefore. there are two signiﬁcant upper and lower sidebands. Therefore. FM bandwidth is 2 Number of signiﬁcant sidebands = 2 2 = 4 kHz. we have 4 upper and 4 lower sidebands. and each sideband is separated by 1 kHz. J2 = 0. the FM bandwidth is 2 3 = 6 kHz.3 FM Spectrum and Bandwidth 43 Find: (a) The FM bandwidth using Carson’s rule and (b) The FM bandwidth using Bessel function Solution: (a) FM BW (Carson’s rule) = 2 fm (1 + b) = 2 1 kHz (1 + 1) = 4 kHz. J1 = 0. See Table 3. Since the J4 is negligible.58. and each sideband is 1 kHz apart. (b) For b = 1.

Proc IEEE 112(9):1664 . • FM bandwidth dilemma is explained.4 3 Frequency Modulation (FM) Conclusions • This chapter presents a brief overview of Frequency Modulation (FM) and its attributes. New York. Haykin S (2001) Communication systems. • The key concept and the underlying principle of FM are presented with numerous illustrations to make them easier for readers to grasp. doi:10. 7th edn. Wiley. Armstrong EH (1936) A method of reducing disturbances in radio signaling by a system of frequency modulation. Prentice-Hall Inc. Wiley. • FM bandwidth is estimated by means of Carson’s rule and Bessel function. 4th edn. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. References 1. and problems are given to illustrate the concept.1936.1109/JRPROC. Lathi BP (1968) Communication systems. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 4.44 3. New York 5. pp 214–217. Felix MO (1965) FM systems of exceptional bandwidth. Proc IRE (IRE) 24(5):689–740. Englewood Cliffs. ISBN 0-471-51832-8 3. • FM spectrum is addressed with illustrations.227383 2. Leon W.

Notice that the amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. requiring frequency domain analysis. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. As shown in the ﬁgure. while the frequency of the carrier does not change after modulation.Chapter 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) ASK spectrum ASK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 4. Faruque. In the following sections. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. • C(t) is the carrier frequency.1 Introduction In amplitude shift keying (ASK).1007/978-3-319-41202-3_4 45 . the digital binary signal changes the amplitude of the carrier in two discrete levels. DOI 10. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. and • S(t) is the ASK-modulated carrier frequency. © The Author(s) 2017 S. the above disciplines in ASK modulation will be presented along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. 4. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.1. This is shown in Fig. However.

The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. While there are many error-coding schemes available. The rate of this coding scheme is given by .2 ASK Modulation Amplitude shift keying (ASK). The amplitude of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. we will use a simple coding technique. Next. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. 4. The frequency of the carrier remains the same 4. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. N = 2). a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column.46 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig.1 ASK waveforms. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. Figure 4. which is encoded before modulation.2 shows an encoded ASK modulation scheme using (15. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. which is then ASK modulated and transmitted row by row. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary. is a method of digital modulation that utilizes amplitude shifting of the relative amplitude of the career frequency [1–3]. also known as on–off keying (OOK). The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding.

interference. The amplitude of the carrier frequency changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate: r = (MNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ = (4 2)/(5 3) = 8/15 ð4:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate = Rb1 =r = Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð4:2Þ Next. which has two amplitudes corresponding to the binary input signal. As shown in the ﬁgure. For the binary signal 0. For binary signal 1. 4.2 Amplitude shift keying (ASK) is also known as on–off keying (OOK). in accordance with the input signal. as indicated in the ﬁgure.2 Ask Modulation 47 Fig. the amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation • Output is the ASK-modulated carrier. the carrier is ON. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. however. a small residual signal may remain due to noise. where . the coded bits are modulated by means of the ASK modulator as shown in the ﬁgure. the carrier is OFF. Here.4. etc..

Next. along with horizontal and vertical parities.3 Data recovery process in ASK. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error. This is shown in Fig. 4. This is often accomplished with the use of a band-pass ﬁlter. 4.3 having no errors. i:e: the carrier is OFF ð4:4Þ Therefore. it passes through the ﬁlter and a decision as to the value of each bit is made to recover the encoded data block. Fig.48 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 ðcoded dataÞ Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cos(xtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ¼mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)A cos(xtÞ ð4:3Þ For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = A cos(xt) i:e: the carrier is ON For m (t) ¼ 1 : S(t) = 0. If there is an error. the receiver appends horizontal and vertical parities PH* and PV* to check parity failures and recovers the data block. there will be a parity failure in PH* and PV* to pinpoint the error .3 ASK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. In the case of ASK. If there is an error. As the signal enters the receiver. showing no errors. where A is the amplitude and x is the frequency of the carrier. the receiver needs to utilize one band-pass ﬁlter that is tuned to the appropriate carrier frequency. 4. it needs to be received and demodulated.

the side lobes are ﬁltered out since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe. This is plotted in Fig. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig.4.4a). known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). P(x) is the power spectral density. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. Period = T Also. 4. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency.4 49 ASK Bandwidth In wireless communications. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V =0 \0\t \T elsewhere ð4:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V ejxt dt ð4:6Þ 0 sinðxT=2Þ jV ðxÞj ¼ VT xT=2 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 PðxÞ ¼ jV ðxÞj2 ¼ V 2 T T xT=2 ð4:7Þ Here.4.4 Ask Bandwidth 4. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency and side lobes correspond to harmonic components. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. Therefore. and • Modulation type. In practice. 4. For this reason. the one-sided bandwidth is . 4.4b.

The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data is 2Rb. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ V ðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ ejxt dt / In this case. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth (BW) = 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before coding) ð4:8Þ Fig. where Rb is the bit rate .50 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) given by the ratio f/fb = 1. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. The function can be a voltage or a current. In other words. 4. Figure 4. T being the bit duration. V(x) is called two-sided spectrum of V(t).4 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. where fb = Rb = 1/T.4c shows the two-sided response.

The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2 20 = 40 kHz. For example. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)r.3 ASK Bandwidth at a Glance In ASK. code rate is r. Since the frequency is constant. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/ r. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: V(t) ¼ Vp sin(xtc Þ ð4:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 4. in accordance with the input signal.4. then the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2 10 kb/s = 20 kHz. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. 4. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. 2. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. and if the data is NRZ. The corresponding bandwidth is zero. For example. where .5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. and if the data is NRZ. For example. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. It has one frequency component.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. the amplitude of the carriers changes in discrete levels.4. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.4. 4.5 = 20 kb/s.4 Ask Bandwidth 51 Important Notes 1.

we write: mðtÞ ¼ Am sin(xm tÞ The ASK-modulated signal then becomes: SðtÞ ¼ m(t)SðtÞ ¼ Am Ac sin(xm tÞcos(xm tÞ ¼ 1=2 Am Ac ½sinðxc xm Þt þ sinðxc þ xm Þt ð4:10Þ The spectral response is depicted in Fig. 3.5 kHz.52 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. .75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 18. Problem 1 Given: • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate: r = 8/15 • Modulation: ASK Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2) RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. 4. 4.6). Bandwidth is given by: BW = 2Rb (coded). Notice that the spectral response after ASK modulation is the shifted version of the NRZ data.5 High-frequency carrier frequency response Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ Ac cos(xc tÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ mðtÞCðtÞ ¼ m(t)Ac cos(xc tÞ Since m(t) is the input digital signal and it contains an inﬁnite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms and that we keep the fundamental and ﬁlter out the higher-order components.14. where Rb is the coded bit rate (Fig.75 kb/s = 37.

4.6 ASK bandwidth at a glance. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. we write: WERU ¼ 1 ð1 BERU Þk ð4:12Þ Let the coded word error be deﬁned as (WERC). Therefore. 5].4. Thus. can correct t errors [4. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n). Since n > k. Then.5 BER Performance 53 Fig. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð4:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. the coded bit energy to noise ratio will be modiﬁed to Ec/N0. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. where fb is the bit rate and T = 1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data 4. where k = number of information bits. The transmission bandwidth is 2fb. with ASK modulation. the coded BERc will be: . A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU with the coded word WERC. k) bock code.5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. n = number of coded bits. Let the uncoded word error be deﬁned as (WERU). b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.

k = 8. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. (4.5.7 Typical error performance in AWGN BERC ¼ 0:5 EXP( EC =2N0 Þ ð4:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is given as: WERC ¼ n X n k¼t þ 1 k ! BERKC ð1 BERC Þnk ð4:14Þ When BERc < 0.54 4 Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Fig. 4. . therefore.7. while the frequency of the carrier remains the same. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how amplitude of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. 4.6 Conclusions • This chapter presents ASK modulation and its attributes.14) can be simpliﬁed as WERC n k ! BERkc ð1 BERc Þnk ð4:15Þ Using (15. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and ASK bandwidth is calculated. 4. 8) block code (n = 15. Eq. the ﬁrst term in the summation is the dominant one. t = 1). Notice that at least 3–4 db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves.

Addison-Wesley. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Prentice Hall.. Inc. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Technical report. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Englewood Cliffs 8. Reading 9. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. New Jersey . Mac Williams FJ. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. 2nd edn. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. p 31.. Holmdel. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Springer.6 Conclusions 55 • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. p 35. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Leon W. North-Holland. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. ISBN: 0442009178 2. New York 14. Lin S. Plenum press. Huffman W. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Prentice-Hall. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. 7th edn. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. Kohlenbero A. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Cambridge University Press. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7.4. Englewood Cliffs. Wiley. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Englewood Cliffs 4. Ebert PM. GTM 86. Springer. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. References 1. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. Inc. New York 6.

requiring frequency-domain analysis. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth. © The Author(s) 2017 S. DOI 10. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation.Chapter 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Topics • • • • • Introduction Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) FSK spectrum FSK Bandwidth Performance Analysis 5. In the following sections. Faruque. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. However. and • S(t) is the FSK-modulated carrier frequency. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. 5. the above disciplines in FSK modulation will be presented. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. the digital binary signal changes the frequency of the carrier on two discrete levels. This is shown in Fig. Notice that the frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal.1 Introduction In frequency shift keying (FSK). SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_5 57 . As shown in the ﬁgure.1 where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal.

2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation Frequency shift keying (FSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes frequency shifting of the relative frequency content of the signal [1–3]. Figure 5. we will use a simple coding technique. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal.1 FSK waveforms. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enables the receiver to detect and correct bit errors. 5. This is an indispensable task in digital communications.58 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. N = 2). Next. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) .2 shows an encoded FSK modulation scheme using (15. which is encoded before modulation. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. While there are many error-coding schemes available. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 5. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M rows and N columns (M = 4. known as “block coding” to illustrate the concept. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.

• Output is the FSK-modulated carrier.5. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. which has two frequencies corresponding to the binary input signal. The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row.2 Binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation. • The total frequency deviation is 2Df.2 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Modulation 59 Fig. the coded bits are modulated by means of the FSK modulator as shown in the ﬁgure. The frequency of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal (N + 1) = n = 15. • For binary signal 1. the carrier changes to fc – Df. • For binary signal 0. Here. which is then FSK-modulated and transmitted row by row. the carrier changes to fc + Df. The rate of this coding scheme is given by: Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4 2Þ=5 3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð5:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð5:2Þ Next. • The input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. . 5.

In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly.8. the frequency deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the ﬁlters in mind to eliminate crossover.3 A ¼ Frequency of the carrier x ¼ Nominal frequency of the carrier frequency Dx ¼ Frequency deviation: ð5:4Þ Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted.3. As the signal enters into the receiver. 5. One band-pass ﬁlter will be centered at the frequency x1 and the other at x2 . Fig. We have: Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ AcosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx DxÞt. the frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels. 3.3 Binary FSK detector utilizing two matched band-pass ﬁlters . Since the nominal carrier frequency and the frequency deviation are known. in accordance with the input signals. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ Acosðx þ DxÞt. For mðtÞ ¼ 0 ð5:3Þ where 5. 5. this is relatively straightforward. the receiver needs to utilize two band-pass ﬁlters that are tuned to the appropriate frequencies. it needs to be received and demodulated.60 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) As shown in Fig. In the case of binary FSK. This is shown in Fig. it passes through the respective ﬁlter and the corresponding bit value is made. This is often accomplished by the use of band-pass ﬁlters.

known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ). data can be represented in two ways: • Time-domain representation and • Frequency-domain representation The time-domain representation (Fig. The transmission bandwidth depends on the following: • Spectral response of the encoded data • Spectral response of the carrier frequency and • Modulation type. This is plotted in Fig. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the . 5. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \ 0 \ t \ T = 0 . data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications.4 61 FSK Bandwidth In wireless communications. while side lobes correspond to harmonic components. 5. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.4 FSK Bandwidth 5.5. 5.4. It has two values: • Binary 1 = high.4a). period = T • Binary 0 = low.4b. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency. elsewhere ð5:5Þ The frequency-domain representation is given by “Fourier transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V ejxt dt ð5:6Þ 0 jVðxÞj ¼ VT sinðxT=2Þ xT=2 ð5:7Þ 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 Here. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known. For this reason. period = T Also. P(x) is the power spectral density.

The function can be either a voltage or a current. In practice. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb. 5. the side lobes are ﬁltered out. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ ejxt dt / In this case.4 a Discrete-time digital signal. T being the bit duration. In other words. since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe. where fb = Rb = 1/T. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. b its one-sided power spectral density. Figure 5. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ ð5:8Þ . where Rb is the bit rate frequency. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. and c two-sided power spectral density. Therefore.4c shows the two-sided response.62 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig.

3 FSK Bandwidth at a Glance In FSK. 2. For example. the frequency of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. For example. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s. The corresponding bandwidth is zero.4. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. the coded bit rate will be Rb (coded) = Rb (uncoded)/r = 10/0. If Rb is the bit rate before coding. in accordance with the input signals. The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2 20 = 40 kHz. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2 10 kb/s = 20 kHz.5 = 20 kb/s. If Rb is the bit rate before coding.4 FSK Bandwidth 63 Important Notes: 1.2 Spectral Response of the Carrier Frequency Before Modulation A carrier frequency is essentially a sinusoidal waveform. 5.4. then the bit rate after coding will be Rb (coded) = Rb(uncoded)r. and if the data is NRZ. the sine wave is described by the following time-domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxtc Þ ð5:9Þ where VP ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier frequency in Hz Figure 5. code rate is r. It has one frequency component. Since the frequency is constant. 5. then the bandwidth associated with the raw data will be 2Rb. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.5 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response. if the bit rate before coding is 10 kb/s and the code rate r = 1/2. For example. and if the data is NRZ. We have: . The corresponding bandwidth associated with the coded data will be 2Rb (coded) = 2Rb (uncoded)/r.5.

For mðtÞ ¼ 0 where • • • • S(t) = The modulated carrier A = Amplitude of the carrier x = Nominal frequency of the carrier Dx = Frequency deviation The spectral response is depicted in Fig. where Dfc is the frequency deviation.5 High-frequency carrier response Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxtÞ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx DxÞt. For mðtÞ ¼ 1 SðtÞ ¼ A cosðx þ DxÞt.6. 5. Notice that the carrier frequency after FSK modulation varies back and forth from the nominal frequency fc by +Dfc. The FSK bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2ðfb þ Dfc Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ Dfc =fb Þ ð5:10Þ ¼ 2fb ð1 þ bÞ where b = Df/fb is known as the modulation index and fb is the coded bit frequency (bit rate Rb).” Problem Given: • • • • Bit rate before coding: RB1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Modulation: FSK Modulation index b = 1 .64 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Fig. The above equation is also known as “Carson’s rule. 5.

5].5 BER Performance It is well known that an (n. 5. 5. fb where fb is the bit rate and Dfc is the frequency deviation =1/fb is the bit duration for NRZ data Find: (a) the bit rate after coding: RB2 (b) Transmission bandwidth: BW Solution (a) Bit rate after coding (RB2): RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/s (15/8) = 18. k) bock code.6 FSK bandwidth at a glance.75 kb/s (1 + 1) = 75 kHz. to the coded word WERC.4 FSK Bandwidth 65 Fig. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation.5. A measure of coding gain is then obtained by comparing the uncoded word error WERU. The transmission bandwidth is 2(fb + Dfc). can correct t errors [4.75 kb/s (b) Transmission BW = 2 RB2(1+b) = 2 18. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation. where k = number of information bits and n = number of coded bits. We examine this by means of the following analytical means. .

5.5. Notice that at least 3–4-db coding gain is available in this example where r = k/n = 8/15. therefore. 8) block code (n = 15. the uncoded BER will be given by: BERU ¼ 0:5 EXPðEB =2N0 Þ ð5:11Þ The probability that the uncoded word (WERU) will be received in error is 1 minus the product of the probabilities that each bit will be received correctly. Thus. the ﬁrst term in the summation is the dominant one.7. we write: WERU ¼ 1ð1BERU Þk ð5:12Þ Let the coded word error be deﬁned as (WERC). t = 1). equation can be simpliﬁed as WERC n k ! BERkc ð1 BERc Þnk ð5:15Þ Using (15. Therefore. with FSK modulation. the ratio of coded bit energy to noise will be modiﬁed to Ec/N0. we obtain the coded and the uncoded WER as shown in Fig. Since n > k. Fig. k = 8. 5.66 5 Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Let the uncoded word error be deﬁned as (WERU). Coding gain is the difference in Eb/N0 between the two curves. where Ec/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log(k/n).7 Typical error performance in AWGN . the coded BERc will be: BERC ¼ 0:5 EXPðEc =2N0 Þ ð5:13Þ The corresponding coded word error rate is: WERC ¼ ! n BERKC ð1 BERC Þnk k n X k¼t þ 1 ð5:14Þ When BERc < 0. Then.

Mac Williams FJ. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Cambridge University Press. New York 6. Wiley. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Huffman W. Technical report. Holmdel.6 67 Conclusions • This chapter presents FSK modulation and its attributes.6 Conclusions 5. Springer. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. ISBN 0-13-142492-0 3. Prentice Hall.. Bell Syst Tech 48:729–742 13. 2nd edn. References 1. Englewood Cliffs 4. New York 14. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 15. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error-correcting codes. Ebert PM. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same.. Englewood Cliffs. 7th edn. Lin S. Leon W. p 35. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. Springer. Kohlenbero A. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. North-Holland. Addison-Wesley. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. Bell Telephone Laboratories. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. Prentice-Hall. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how frequency of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. and FSK bandwidth is calculated. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals.5. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Inc. • Bit error rate (BER) performance is presented. Plenum press. Englewood Cliffs 8. Smith DR (1985) Digital transmission systems. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. Reading 9. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. p 31. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. Couch II (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. GTM 86. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. ISBN: 0442009178 2. New Jersey . Prentice-Hall Inc.

This enables the receiver to extract the digital signal by demodulation. © The Author(s) 2017 S. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. requiring frequency domain analysis.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_6 69 . Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. the phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. and • S(t) is the PSK-modulated carrier frequency. These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp.Chapter 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Topics • • • • • • • Introduction Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation QPSK Modulation 8PSK Modulation 16PSK Modulation PSK spectrum and Bandwidth SSB Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. the digital binary signal changes the phase of the carrier on two discrete levels. Faruque. In the following sections. where • m(t) is the input modulating digital signal. while the amplitude of the carrier does not change after modulation. the above disciplines in PSK modulation will be presented.1. Notice that the phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input signal. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. However. • C(t) is the carrier frequency. DOI 10. it can be shown that the modulated carrier S(t) contains several spectral components. 6. along with the respective spectrum and bandwidth.1 Introduction In phase shift keying (PSK). As shown in the ﬁgure. This is shown in Fig.

The rate of this coding scheme is given by . The product MN = k = 8 is the dimension of the information bits before coding. N = 2).1 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) BPSK Modulation Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of digital modulation that utilizes phase shifting of the relative phase content of the signal [1–3].70 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. known as “Block Coding” to illustrate the concept. which is then PSK modulated and transmitted row by row. Figure 6. While there are many error-coding schemes available. we will use a simple coding technique. The signal to be modulated and transmitted is binary.2 6. 6. if they occur during transmission [4–16]. This is an indispensable task in digital communications. where redundant bits are added with the raw data that enable the receiver to detect and correct bit errors.2. Next.2 shows an encoded BPSK modulation scheme using (15. a horizontal parity PH is appended to each row and a vertical parity PV is appended to each column. 8) block code where an 8-bit data block is formed as M-rows and N-columns (M = 4. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal. The resulting augmented dimension is given by the product (M + 1) (N + 1) = n = 15. which is encoded before modulation.1 Binary PSK (BPSK) waveforms. The amplitude of the carrier remains the same 6.

the coded bits are modulated by means of the PSK modulator as shown in the ﬁgure.2.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 71 Fig. 2. . M 1 ð6:3Þ . which has two phases corresponding to the binary input signals. . The input encoded data block is transmitted row by row. As shown in Fig. The phase of the carrier changes in accordance with the input digital signal Code Rate : r ¼ ðMNÞ=½ðM þ 1ÞðN þ 1Þ ¼ ð4 2Þ=5 3Þ ¼ 8=15 ð6:1Þ The coded bit rate Rb2 is given by: Rb2 ¼ Uncoded Bit Rate=Code Rate ¼ Rb1 =r ¼ Rb1 ð15=8Þ ð6:2Þ Next.2 Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Here. Here. • The Input digital signal is the encoded bit sequence we want to transmit. 1. the phase of the carrier changes in two discrete levels. u = 180°. u = 0°.6. • Carrier is the radio frequency without modulation. and • For binary signal 1. 6. 3. we have the following: Input Data : mðtÞ ¼ 0 or 1 Carrier Frequency : CðtÞ ¼ A cosðxct Þ Modulated Carrier : SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ 2p=M ÞmðtÞ mðtÞ ¼ 0. • For binary signal 0. 6. in accordance with the input signals. . • Output is the PSK-modulated carrier.

there are two phases 1 bit=phaseðM ¼ 2Þ In QPSK. where the input raw data. is encoded by means of a rate r encoder.72 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) where.3. = Rb1r (r < 1). having a bit rate Rb2. 6. Ac ¼ Amplitude of the carrier frequency xc ¼ Angular frequency of the carrier M ¼ 2. 4-bits=phase. 6. The BPSK modulator takes one bit at a time to construct the phase constellation having two phases. there are 8 phases. This is shown in Fig. 1 bit per phase. also known as “Symbols. . 6. Fig. 8. having a bit rate Rb1. M ¼ 4 In 8PSK. there are four phases.3. 2-bits=phase. 1-bit per symbol . 3-bits=phase. 16.3 BPSK signal constellation having 2 symbols. . In BPSK. M ¼ 8 In 16PSK. The symbol rate is therefore the same as the encoded bit rate Rb2. The encoded data. . is modulated by the BPSK modulator as shown in Fig. there are 16 phases. M ¼ 16 ð6:4Þ We can also represent the BPSK modulator as a signal constellation diagram with M = 2.” where each symbol represents one bit. 4.

6. the phase deviation needs to be chosen with the limitations of the PLL in mind to eliminate crossover. This is known as coherent detection technique. as we shall see later.4 Binary PSK detector showing data recovery process . the BPSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 2 phases or 2 symbols. The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth. where the knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase must be known to the receiver. it needs to be received and demodulated.2.4 shows a simpliﬁed diagram of a BPSK demodulator along with the data recovery process.2 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 73 Therefore. • 1-bit/symbol. Fig. 6. Figure 6.2 BPSK Demodulation Once the modulated binary data has been transmitted. As the signal enters the receiver. This is often accomplished with the use of a phase detector. it passes through the PLL. In order to assure that the bits are decoded correctly. The PLL locks the incoming carrier frequency and tracks the variations in frequency and phase. typically known as phase-locked loop (PLL).6.

Fig. The encoded bit rate. The QPSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having four phases. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. Therefore.” where each symbol represents two bits. as we shall see later. also known as “Symbols. now reduced in speed by a factor of two. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of two.5 QPSK signal constellation having 4 symbols.5.3 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) QPSK Modulation In QPSK. the input raw data. 6. is modulated by the QPSK modulator as shown in Fig. The encoded data. The QPSK modulator has four phases or 4 symbols.74 6. the QPSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 4 phases or 4 symbols • 2-bits/symbol The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth. having a bit rate Rb1. is serial to parallel converted into two parallel streams. 2-bits/symbol as shown in the ﬁgure. 2-bits per symbol . 6.

also known as “Symbols. now reduced in speed by a factor of four. The 8PSK modulator has 8 phases or 8 symbols. is encoded by a rate r (r < 1) encoder. The encoded bit rate. 3-bits/symbol as shown in the ﬁgure. is encoded by means of a rate r (r < 1) encoder.7. . The encoded bit rate. Therefore. is serial to parallel converted into three parallel streams. the 8PSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 8 phases or 8 symbols. 6. as we shall see later. 6. The 8PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 8 phases. The encoded data. is serial to parallel converted into four parallel streams. The encoded data. 3-bits per symbol 6. the input raw data. having a bit rate Rb1. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r.6.” where each symbol represents 3-bits. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of 3. is modulated by the 8PSK modulator as shown in Fig.5 16PSK Modulation In 16PSK.4 8PSK Modulation In 8PSK. having a bit rate Rb1.4 8psk Modulation 75 Fig.6 8PSK signal constellation having 8 symbols. is modulated by the 16PSK modulator as shown in Fig. 6. now reduced in speed by a factor of three. The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth. the input raw data. having a bit rate Rb2 = Rb1/r. • 3-bits/symbol. 6.6.

8.7 16PSK signal constellation having 16 symbols. 4-bits per symbol. where each dot represents 4-bits The 16PSK modulator takes one bit from each stream to construct the phase constellation having 16 phases.” where each symbol represents four bits. 4. 8. M = 2. Therefore. 16.1 shows the number of phases and the corresponding bits per phase for MPSK modulation schemes for M = 2. also known as “Symbols. Table 6. the 16PSK modulator has the following speciﬁcations: • 16 phases or 16 symbols. The above speciﬁcations govern the transmission bandwidth. 6. 64. 16. 4-bits/symbol as shown in the ﬁgure. etc. • 4-bits/symbol.1 MPSK modulation parameters. and 32 Modulation Number of phases u Number of bits per phase BPSK QPSK 8PSK 16 32 64 : 2 4 8 16 32 64 : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : . each symbol is represented by a dot. Therefore. The symbol rate is therefore reduced by a factor of four. the 16PSK modulator has 16 phases or 16 symbols. Table 6.76 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. Here. 4. 32. as we shall see later.

For this reason. 6.1 Spectral Response of the Encoded Data In digital communications. The transmission bandwidth depends on: • Spectral response of the encoded data. and • Modulation type. data can be represented in two ways: • Time domain representation and • Frequency domain representation The time domain representation (Fig. Period = T • Binary-0 = Low. known as non-return-to-zero (NRZ).6.6. Period = T Also.8a). Let us take a closer look: 6. the scarcity of RF spectrum is well known.6 77 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth In wireless communications. • Spectral response of the carrier phase. It has two values: • Binary-1 = High. is given by: VðtÞ ¼ V \0\t\T ¼ 0 elsewhere ð6:5Þ The frequency domain representation is given by “Fourier Transform”: ZT VðxÞ ¼ V ejxt dt ð6:6Þ 0 V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT x 2 xT=2 1 sinðxT=2Þ 2 2 2 PðxÞ ¼ jVðxÞj ¼ V T T xT=2 jVðxÞj ¼ 2 ð6:7Þ .6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 6. data is generally referred to as a non-periodic digital signal. we have to be vigilant about using transmission bandwidth in error control coding and modulation.

T being the bit duration. since they are relatively insigniﬁcant with respect to the main lobe. V(x) is called the two-sided spectrum of V(t). The general equation for two-sided response is given by: Z/ VðxÞ ¼ VðtÞ ejxt dt / In this case. This is due to both positive and negative frequencies used in the integral. 6. the one-sided bandwidth = f = fb. In practice. The function can be either a .8 a Discrete time digital signal b it is one-sided power spectral density and c two-sided power spectral density. while the side lobes correspond to harmonic components.8b. 6. the side lobes are ﬁltered out. the one-sided bandwidth is given by the ratio f/fb = 1. where fb = Rb = 1/T. P(x) is the power spectral density. Therefore. where Rb is the bit rate Here. In other words. The bandwidth associated with the non-return-to-zero (NRz) data is 2Rb.78 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Fig. The bandwidth of the power spectrum is proportional to the frequency. This is plotted in Fig. The main lobe corresponds to the fundamental frequency.

The corresponding bandwidth is zero. Figure 6.8c shows the two-sided response. 6. 6. which is periodic and continuous with respect to time. Since the phase is constant.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 79 voltage or a current. This is given by (see Sect. It has one phase component.6.1): Fig.9 High-frequency carrier response .2 ð6:8Þ Spectral Response of the Carrier Before Modulation A carrier frequency is a sinusoidal waveform. the sine wave is described by the following time domain equation: VðtÞ ¼ Vp sinðxc tÞ ð6:9Þ Where Vp ¼ Peak voltage • xc = 2pfc • fc = Carrier phase in Hz Figure 6.6. the input is a digital signal and it contains an inﬁnite number of harmonically related sinusoidal waveforms. 6. its spectral response is located in the horizontal axis and the peak voltage is shown in the vertical axis.6. where the bandwidth is determined by the main lobe as shown below: Two-sided bandwidth ðBWÞ ¼ 2Rb ðRb ¼ Bit rate before codingÞ 6. For example.9 shows the characteristics of a sine wave and its spectral response.3 BPSK Spectrum In BPSK.6.

10 BPSK bandwidth. c Spectral response of the carrier after modulation . With V(t) = m(t).10. we write the following as: SðtÞ ¼ Ac cos½xc t þ b mðtÞ ð6:11Þ where b is the phase deviation index of the carrier and m(t) has a sin(x)/x response. centered on the carrier frequency fc. The transmission bandwidth associated with the main lobe is given by Fig. 6.80 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) V xT sinðxT=2Þ sin ¼ VT j V ðx Þj ¼ 2 x 2 xT=2 ð6:10Þ Here. as shown in Fig. V (x) is the frequency domain representation of the input digital signal. which is the shifted version of the NRZ data. 6. which has a sin(x)/x response that governs the phase of the carrier frequency. b Spectral response of the carrier before modulation. a Spectral response of NRZ data before modulation. which is given by sinðxmT=2Þ mðtÞ ¼ VT xmT=2 ð6:12Þ Therefore. the spectral response after BPSK modulation also has a sin(x)/x response.

Notice that the BPSK bandwidth is the same the ASK bandwidth.75 = 37.2 Given: • Input bit rate Rb1 = 10 kb/s • Code rate r = 1/2 • Modulation: BPSK. Problem 6.75 kb/s BPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/1 = 2 18.1 Given: • • • • Uncoded input bit rate: Rb1 = 10 kb/s Code rate: r = 8/15 Carrier frequency fc = 1 MHz Modulation: BPSK. 8PSK.755/4 = 9.75/2 = 18.75 kHz 8PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/3 = 2 18. It may be noted that the higher-order spectral components are ﬁltered out. QPSK. 16PSK Find: (a) Bit rate after coding Rb2 (b) Transmission bandwidth BW Solution: (a) Rb2 = Rb1/r = 10 kb/s 2 = 20 kb/s (b) Transmission bandwidth: . Problem 6.6. 8PSK. and 16PSK Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate Rb2 BPSK bandwidth (BW) QPSK bandwidth (BW) 8PSK bandwidth (BW) 16PSK bandwidth (BW) Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Coded bit rate: RB2 = RB1/r = 10 kb/(15/8) = 18. QPSK.375 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efﬁcient.5 kHz 16PSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/4 = 2 18.75/3 = 12.6 PSK Spectrum and Bandwidth 81 BW ðBPSKÞ 2Rb2 =Bit per Phase 2Rb2 =1 2Rb2 ð6:13Þ where Rb2 is the coded bit rate (bit frequency).5 kHz QPSK bandwidth: BW = 2RB2/2 = 2 18.

Inc. ISBN: 0-13-142492-0 3. Couch II LW (2001) Digital and analog communication systems. while the amplitude of the carrier remains the same. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Huffman W. Englewood Cliffs 8.33 kHz 16PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2 20 kb/s/4 = 10 kHz NOTE: Higher-order PSK modulation is bandwidth efﬁcient. 7th edn. p 31. Lin S. Plenum press 6. Inc. Mac Williams FJ. GTM 86. • These materials have been augmented by diagrams and associated waveforms to make them easier for readers to grasp. Costello DJ Jr (1983) Error control coding: fundamentals and applications. • Numerous illustrations are provided to show how phase of the carrier changes in discrete levels in accordance with the input digital signal. Massachusetts 9. New York . John Wiley. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT28:55–67 7. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes.82 6 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) • • • • BPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per Symbol = 2 20 kb/s/1 = 40 kHz QPSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2 20 kb/s/2 = 20 kHz 8PSK BW = 2Rb2/Bits per symbol = 2 20 kb/s/3 = 13. Pless V (2003) Fundamentals of error-correcting codes. ISBN 978-0-521-78280-7 12. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 5. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. Clark GC et al (1981) Error correction coding for digital communications. Sloane NJA (1977) The theory of error correcting codes.: Englewood Cliffs. • The Fourier transform is used to derive the spectral components and PSK bandwidth is calculated. Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 0442009178 2. ISBN 3-540-54894-7 10. van Lint JH (1992) Introduction to coding theory. ISBN 0-444-85193-3 11. Smith DR (1986) Digital transmission systems.. References 1. Springer. Ebert PM. Sklar B (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. p 36. Addison-Wesley. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Prentice Hall 4. Ungerboeck G (1982) Channel coding with multilevel/multiphase signals. pp 729–742 13.7 Conclusions • This chapter presents PSK modulation and its attributes. Prentice-Hall. Blahut RE (1983) Theory and practice of error control codes. reading. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. 6. North-Holland. Springer. Bell Syst Tech.

IEEE Trans.A. M. Bell Telephone Laboratories. New Jersey . “Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. M.References 83 14. Technical Report. Inf Control 13:357–362 16. Reddy. 1968 15. Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. Kohlenbero A. Information Theory IT-14. Holmdel. 618–626. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. S.

Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. © The Author(s) 2017 S. In this chapter.Chapter 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Topics • • • • • Introduction N-ary Complementary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation N-ary Complementary Orthogonal Coding and M-ary Modulation Coding Gain and Bandwidth Conclusions 7. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. underlying principles and practical application of N-ary coded modulation schemes.1 Introduction N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. At the receiver. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes will be presented to illustrate the concept. DOI 10. Radio Frequency Modulation Made Easy. are mapped into a bank of N unique convolutional or orthogonal codes. offering spectrum efﬁciency with improved error correction capabilities. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. These parallel bit streams. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. now reduced in speed. Faruque. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. In its most basic construction. we will present the key concept. The coded information bits are then modulated by an M-ary PSK modulator and transmitted through a channel.1007/978-3-319-41202-3_7 85 . the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation.

7. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially. turbo codes are limited to two convolutional codes connected in parallel. In short. The convolutional encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). The code rate is deﬁned as r = k/n.1 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation N-Ary Convolutional Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background In convolutional coding.2. because these methods are often used to correct errors that are caused by channel noise. as shown in Fig. 7.1 once again and assume that the input bit sequence to the encoder is: m ðtÞ ¼ 1 0 1 ð7:1Þ . Therefore. each convolutional code is inverted to construct a block of n-antipodal codes.86 7. The encoder generates n parity bits as encoded bits (n > k). a typical convolutional encoder is taken as the basis to generate a block of n-convolutional codes. In a typical convolutional encoder. Yet.2 Generation of Complementary Convolutional Codes In a typical convolutional encoder. a block of N-ary convolutional code has n-convolutional codes and n-antipodal codes.1. thereby limiting high-speed data communications in wireless communications. The proposed N-ary convolutional codes are a block of nconvolutional codes and their complements. is popular in wireless communications because of its superior error control capabilities. The coded information bits are modulated and transmitted through a channel. for a total of 2n = N complementary convolutional codes. known as parallel concatenated codes or turbo codes [7–9]. a modiﬁed technique. In addition. a sequence of data signals is transformed into a longer sequence that contains enough redundancy to protect the data [1–6]. In its most basic construction. Let us consider Fig. is presented to overcome these problems. 7. where more than two convolutional codes can be used simultaneously to further enhance coding gain without concatenation and interleaving. along with M-ary modulation. Next. N-ary complementary convolutional coding is a multi-level convolutional code. we shall deﬁne this as N-ary complementary convolutional codes. it is also too complex to realize. deﬁned as N-ary complementary convolutional coding. Another class of convolutional codes. The code rate is deﬁned as r = k/n. In this section. where delays are introduced due to concatenation and interleaving. This type of error control is also classiﬁed as forward error control coding (FECC).2. k information bits enter into the encoder sequentially.2 7.

0) + (1.2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 87 Fig.0) + (1.1) ð7:5Þ .0) + (0. where m(X) is the input bit sequence [7]. We write the above two equations as follows: m(X)g1(X) = 1 + 1X + 0X2 + 1X3 + 1X4 m(X)g2(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X2 + 0X3 + 1X4 --------------------------------------------------------. the product of polynomials for the encoder can be described as follows: m ðXÞg1ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 3 þ X 4 m ðXÞg2ðXÞ ¼ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ð1 þ X 2 Þ ¼ 1 þ X 4 ð7:4Þ with X2 + X2 = 0.1) + (1.1 Generation of N-ary complimentary convolutional codes Which is described by the following polynomial? m ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ 0X þ 1X 2 ¼ 1 þ X2 ð7:2Þ The encoder is described by the following generator polynomials: g1ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X þ X 2 g2ðXÞ ¼ 1 þ X 2 ð7:3Þ Then.7. the output bit sequence can be found as U(X) = m(X)g1(X) multiplexed with m(X)g2(X). 7.-------------U1U2 = (1.

we obtain the desired convolutional code sequence corresponding to the input bit sequence m(T) = 101 as follows: Convolutional Code ¼ 1 1 10 00 10 11 ð7:6Þ The corresponding antipodal code is obtained simply by inverting the convolutional code as shown in the ﬁgure.2. These bit streams. 7. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. These code blocks are stored in two 8 10 ROMs. Antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes. are partitioned into two 8 3 data blocks. This is given by: Antipodal Code ¼ 0 0 01 11 01 00 ð7:7Þ As can be seen.3 2-Ary Convolutional Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary (N = 2) coded QPSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 6-parallel streams as shown in Fig. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit .3.2 N-ary complimentary convolutional code blocks Taking only the coefﬁcients.2. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. 7. The ﬁrst 8 3 data block maps the 8 10 convolutional code block. 7. each 3-bit data corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code.88 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. and the next 8 3 data block maps the next 8 10 antipodal code block. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. 7.

2 N-ary Convolutional Coding and M-ary Modulation 89 Fig. The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 6=10 ¼ 3=5 ð7:8Þ Since there are two convolutional waveforms (one convolutional and one antipodal). the transmission bandwidth is also reduced. 7.4. These bit streams. which is modulated by a QPSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.2.4 4-Ary Convolutional Coding with 16PSK Modulation A 4-ary (N = 4) coded 16PSK modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 8-parallel streams as shown in Fig. the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled.3 2-ary convolutional coding with QPSK modulation convolutional/antipodal code. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz B ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 ð7:9Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. are partitioned into four 4 2 data .7. 7. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. 7. Moreover. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8.

the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled.4 4-ary convolutional coding with 16PSK modulation blocks. . and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate. the transmission bandwidth is further reduced. The code rate is given by: Code Rate:r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 ð7:10Þ Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). Moreover. which is modulated by a 16PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency. which is given by: Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ð7:11Þ where Rb2 = Rb1/r. 7.90 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig. These code blocks are stored in four 4 10 ROMs. Each 4 2 data block maps corresponding 4 10 convolutional code blocks. Rb2 is the coded bit rate. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code.

3. identiﬁed in bold. The expected data is stored into a lookup table [see Table 7. 5. 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 00 00 11 11 10 10 01 01 00 11 10 01 11 00 01 10 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 . where the actual input data is m = 0 1 1. • For m = 3. 6. 1. • Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. Let us examine the correlation process using the following example: • The input bit pattern m = 0 1 1 • Encoded transmit data: U = 00 11 01 01 11 • Received data with errors U* = 00 11 01 01 00 Notice that the last two bits are in error. the receiver compares the received data with the expected data set to recover the actual data.1 Correlation Receiver Decoding is a process of code correlation. 2.3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7.7. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. The result is presented below: • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 • 1st row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 00 00 00 • Mod-2 Add: 00 11 01 01 00 Table 7. let us determine how the receiver recovers the correct data. • The receiver receives one of 8 output sequences. In this process. Now. The correlation process is described below: Test 0: This test compares the received data with the 1st row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. This is a correlation process.3 91 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 7.3. there is a unique encoded 10-bit data (see table). This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation). 7. requiring several tests to validate the actual data. • For each combination of 3-bit data.1]: • The lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. 4.1 Lookup table a Input (m) Output (U) 0. there are 8 possible output combinations of 3-bit data.

continue search The remaining tests may be conducted by using the same method to reach the ﬁnal verdict as given below: Final Verdict: Collect the correlation values and validate the data that indicates the lowest correlation value.92 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation • Correlation value = 4 (count the number of 1’s in MOD2 Add) • Verdict: No match. The result is presented below: • • • • • Received data: 00 11 01 01 00 2nd row of data in the lookup table: 00 00 11 10 11 Mod-2 Add: 00 11 10 111 11 Correlation value = 7 Verdict: No match. Test 1: This test compares the received data with the 2nd row of data stored in the lookup table and counts the number of positions it does not match. This is presented in the following lookup table. . continue search. This is accomplished by MOD2 operation (EXOR operation).

It can be shown that an n-bit convolutional code can correct the errors.2. As can be seen. For example. K is the length of the shift register and the factor −2 is due to the initial content of the shift register.7. which is 000. for a total of 16 complementary convolutional codes. each code is unique and there is a minimum distance dmin between any two convolutional codes where dmin n=2 ð7:13Þ This distance property can be used to detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two convolutional codes. • This is the data which has been transmitted to the receiver. 7. These code blocks are displayed in Fig. we ﬁnd that: • The lowest correlation value is 2. the value of n is reduced by 2. Therefore. each 3-bit data sequence corresponds to a unique 10-bit convolutional code. • The corresponding data is m = 0 1 1. Since a 3-bit sequence has 8 combinations. where .3 N-Ary Convolutional Decoder 93 In examining the above table. 7. the above convolutional encoder generates 8 unique convolutional codes and 8 unique antipodal codes. a rate ½ convolutional encoder with K = 3 generates 00 when the initial content of the shift register is 000.3. The antipodal code is just the inverse of the convolutional codes.2 Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Convolutional Codes An n-bit convolutional code is generated by a rate ½ encoder of constraint length K where n ¼ 4K 2 ð7:12Þ In the above equation. Therefore.

2 Error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes Constraint length (K) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (BPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (QPSK) Number of errors corrected if the modulation scheme is (16PSK) 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 t dmin =2 n=4 ð4K 2Þ=4 ð7:14Þ where • t = Number of errors that can be corrected by means of a single convolutional code • n = Code length • K = Constraint length The proposed N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding technique. These parallel bit streams. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously.94 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Table 7. The coded information bits are then modulated by means of MPSK modulator and transmitted through a channel.4 7. The proposed coded modulation scheme is bandwidth efﬁcient and offers a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. we modify the above equation to obtain N t N dmin =2 Nn=4 Nð4K 2Þ=4 ð7:15Þ Table 7. This chapter presents a method of channel coding based on N-ary orthogonal codes [17– 20].4.1 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation Background Orthogonal codes are used in CDMA cellular communications for spectrum spreading and user ID [10–13]. 7. The use of orthogonal codes for forward error control coding has also been investigated by a limited number of authors [14–16].2 displays error correction capabilities of N-ary convolutional codes. the input serial data is converted into several parallel streams. N-ary orthogonal coding is a multi-level channel coding technique. Therefore. In the proposed scheme. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously. At the receiver. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. . now reduced in speed. are mapped into N-ary orthogonal codes. This type of channel coding is bandwidth efﬁcient and further enhances the coding gain with bandwidth efﬁciency.

for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes. an n-bit orthogonal code has n-orthogonal codes and n-antipodal codes.3 2-Ary Orthogonal Coding with QPSK Modulation A 2-ary orthogonal coded QPSK modulator with n = 8. as depicted in the ﬁgure. for a total of 2n bi-orthogonal codes.6.7. are just the inverse of orthogonal codes. having 16 complementary orthogonal codes.4. on the other hand. rate ¾. Therefore.5 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 8. an 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes.5 [12]. where a k-bit data set is represented by a unique n-bit orthogonal code (k < n). . We note that orthogonal codes are essentially (n. 7. 7. a 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes. k) block codes.7. Antipodal codes are also orthogonal among them. An 8-bit orthogonal code has 8 orthogonal codes and 8 antipodal codes for a total of 16 bi-orthogonal codes 7. are partitioned into two data blocks. We now show that code rates such as rate ½. Antipodal codes. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 6-parallel streams. as shown in Fig.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 95 Fig. 7. as shown in Fig. 7. now reduced in speed by a factor of 6. as shown in Fig. Similarly.4. Each data block is mapped into an 8 8 code block. The principle is presented below. 7. For example. These bit streams. and rate 1 are indeed available out of orthogonal codes.2 Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes are binary-valued and have equal numbers of 1’s and 0’s.

96 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Fig.7 2-ary orthogonal coding with N = 2 . 7. A 16-bit orthogonal code has 16 orthogonal codes and 16 antipodal codes for a total of 32 bi-orthogonal codes Fig.6 Bi-orthogonal code set for n = 16. 7.

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

97

**According to the communication scheme, when a 3-bit data pattern needs to be
**

transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead,

requiring a QPSK modulator. The modulated waveforms are in orthogonal space

and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:

Code Rate: r ¼ 6=8 ¼ 3=4

Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is doubled. Moreover, the transmission

bandwidth is also reduced, which is given by:

Transmission Bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz

¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2 Hz

ð7:16Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.4

4-Ary Orthogonal Coding with 16PSK Modulation

**A 4-ary orthogonal coded 16PSK modulator, with n = 8, having 16 complementary
**

orthogonal codes, can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into

8-parallel streams, as shown in Fig. 7.8. The bit streams, now reduced in speed by a

factor of 8, are partitioned into four data blocks. Each data block is mapped into a

4 8 code block as depicted in the ﬁgure. According to the communication scheme,

when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted, the corresponding orthogonal/

antipodal code is transmitted instead, requiring a 16PSK modulator. The modulated

waveforms are in orthogonal space and have fewer errors. The code rate is given by:

Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1

ð7:17Þ

**This is achieved without bandwidth expansion.
**

Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. Moreover, the transmission bandwidth is further reduced, which is given by:

Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz

¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 Hz

ð7:18Þ

where Rb2 = Rb1/r. Rb2 is the coded bit rate, and Rb1 is the uncoded bit rate.

7.4.5

2-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

**Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
**

partitioned into two code blocks. Each code block represents a data block as shown

in Fig. 7.9. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with each

98

Fig. 7.8 N-ary orthogonal coding with N = 4

Fig. 7.9 2-ary orthogonal decoding

7 N-Ary Coded Modulation

7.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation

99

**entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.
**

A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be

seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the ﬁgure. The

corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.

Since there are two orthogonal waveforms (one orthogonal and one antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 2 1 = 2. Moreover, the

bandwidth is also reduced, as presented below:

BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =2 ¼ Rb2

7.4.6

ð7:19Þ

4-Ary Orthogonal Decoding

**Decoding is a correlation process. Notice that the entire biorthogonal code block is
**

partitioned into four code blocks. Each code block represents a data block, as

shown in Fig. 7.10. Upon receiving an impaired code, the receiver compares it with

each entry in the code block and appends a correlation value for each comparison.

A valid code is declared when the closest approximation is achieved. As can be

seen, the minimum correlation value in each block is 1 as depicted in the ﬁgure. The

corresponding data is 1 1, 1 0, 1 1, 1 0, respectively.

Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal),

the number of errors that can be corrected is given by 4 1 = 4. Moreover, the

bandwidth is further reduced as presented below:

BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2

7.4.7

ð7:20Þ

**Error Correction Capabilities of N-Ary Orthogonal
**

Codes

**Error correction capabilities of orthogonal codes have been discussed earlier [16].
**

We present it again for convenience. An n-bit orthogonal code has n/2 1’s and n/2

0’s; i.e., there are n/2 positions where 1’s and 0’s differ. Therefore, the distance

between two orthogonal codes is d = n/2. This distance property can be used to

detect an impaired received code by setting a threshold midway between two

orthogonal codes as shown in Fig. 7.11, where the received code is shown as a

dotted line. This is given by:

dth ¼

n

4

ð7:21Þ

**where n is the code length and dth is the threshold, which is midway between two
**

valid orthogonal codes. Therefore, for the given 8-bit orthogonal code, we have

7.11 Distance properties of orthogonal codes 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation .10 4-ary orthogonal decoding Fig.100 Fig. 7.

Table 7. Similarly. t is the number of errors that can be corrected by means of an n-bit orthogonal code. 4. where an impaired orthogonal code is compared with a pair of n-bit orthogonal codes to yield: Rðx. n is the code length. 8. This mechanism offers a decision process. y) is the autocorrelation function. 7. yÞ ¼ n 1 4 ð7:23Þ In the above equation. The average number of errors that can be corrected by means of this process can be estimated by combining Eq. Since the threshold is in the midway between two valid codes. For example.21 and Eq.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 101 dth = 8/4 = 2. 7. Problem 7.22. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • K = 3. a single-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of an 8-bit orthogonal code (n = 8).7. Rate ½ complementary convolutional codes • 4-ary convolutional coding (N = 4) Table 7. The following correlation process governs this. … 8 16 32 64 1 3 7 15 N 3N 7N 15 N .1 This problem relates to N-ary convolutional codes and M-ary PSK modulation. otherwise. The acceptance criterion for a valid code is that an n-bit comparison must yield a good autocorrelation value. 2. and dth is the threshold as deﬁned earlier.3 shows a few orthogonal codes and the corresponding error-correcting capabilities. a three-error-correcting orthogonal code can be constructed by means of a 16-bit orthogonal code (n = 16) and so on. R(x. where the incoming impaired orthogonal code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. yÞ ¼ n X xi yi ðn dth Þ þ 1 ð7:22Þ i¼1 where x and y are two n-bit orthogonal codes.21 for reliable detection. 7.3 Error correction capabilities of N-ary orthogonal codes Code length n Number of errors corrected per code t Number of errors corrected by N-ary code Nt N = 1. a false detection will occur. yielding: t ¼ n Rðx. The received code is examined for correlation with the neighboring codes for a possible match. an additional 1-bit offset is added to Eq.

These bit streams. 4t = 4 2 = 8 [Each code corrects 2 errors.5 kb/s (d) Transmission bandwidth: BW = 2Rb2/bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ Rb2 =2 ¼ ð12:50 kb=sÞ=2 ¼ 6:25 kHz (e) Since there are four convolutional waveforms (two convolutional and two antipodal). (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=10 ¼ 4=5 (c) Bit rate after coding Rb2 = Rb1/r = (5/4) 10 kb/s = 12.] Problem 7. are partitioned into four 4 2 data blocks. The output of each ROM is a unique 10-bit convolutional/antipodal code. Each 4 2 data block maps a corresponding 4 10 convolutional code blocks. M = 16. Given: • Input bit rate before coding: Rb1 = 10 kb/s • n = 8 orthogonal codes having 16 complementary orthogonal codes • 4-ary orthogonal Coding Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected . which is modulated by a 24 = 16 PSK modulator using the same carrier frequency.2 This example relates to N-ary orthogonal codes and M-ary PSK modulation. These code blocks are stored in four 4 10 ROMs. Therefore. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadruple.102 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation Find: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Modulation level M Code rate r Bit rate after coding Rb2 Transmission bandwidth BW Number of errors corrected Solution: (a) A 4-ary (N = 4) coded modulator can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 8-parallel stream.

having 16 complementary orthogonal codes.4 N-Ary Orthogonal Coding and M-Ary Modulation 103 Solution: (a) A 4-ary orthogonal coded modulator. with n = 8. Construction of N-ary coded modulation schemes based on convolutional and orthogonal codes is presented to illustrate the concept. Upon receiving an encoded data pattern. i. when a 2-bit data pattern needs to be transmitted.7. are partitioned into four data blocks.e. (b) The code rate is given by: Code Rate: r ¼ 8=8 ¼ 1 (c) The bit rate after coding is given by: Rb2 ¼ Rb1 r ¼ 10 kb=s ðr ¼ 1Þ (d) The transmission bandwidth is given by: BW ¼ 2Rb2=bits per symbol Hz ¼ 2Rb2 =4 ¼ 2 10 kb=s=4 ¼ 5 k Hz (e) Since there are four orthogonal waveforms (two orthogonal and two antipodal). Each data block is mapped into a 4 8 code block. At the receiver. the decoder recovers the data by means of code correlation. the number of errors that can be corrected is quadrupled. According to the communication scheme. the receiver validates the received data pattern by means of code correlation. is presented. A lookup table at the receiver contains the input/output bit sequences. Therefore. based on N-ary complementary codes and M-ary PSK (MPSK) modulation. requiring a 24 = 16 PSK modulator. now reduced in speed by a factor of 8. N-ary coded modulation is a multi-level channel coding and multi-level modulation technique. . The proposed coded modulation schemes are bandwidth efﬁcient and offer a coding gain near the Shannon’s limit. M = 416.5 Conclusions A method of coded modulation. 4t ¼ 4 1 ¼ 4 7. the corresponding orthogonal/antipodal code is transmitted instead. where instead of coding one bit at a time two or more bits are encoded simultaneously and then modulated by means of M-ary modulation. can be constructed by inverse multiplexing the incoming trafﬁc into 8-parallel streams.. The bit streams.

Springer. PN-3115. March 6 20. MacKay DJC. 6198719. pp 123–128 18. US Patent No. November . Spectrum Cellular Systems. Bell Telephone Laboratories. New Jersey 6. Artech House Inc 13. March 27 19. Tong SY (1968) Convolutional Reed-Soloman codes. Inf Control 12:55–70 7.104 7 N-Ary Coded Modulation References 1. US Patent No. Inf Control 13:357–362 5. Robinson JP (1968) A construction for convolutional codes using block codes. ISSN 0733-8716 10. Cheng J-F (1998) Turbo decoding as an instance of Pearl’s “belief propagation” algorithm. Ebert PM. Samuel CY (1998) CDMA RF system engineering.1109/49. Berrou C (2010) The ten-year-old turbo codes are entering into service. France. Technical Report. ISBN: 978-3-319-21169-5 17.. Faruque S (1999) Battleﬁeld wideband transceivers based on combined N-ary orthogonal signaling and M-ary PSK modulation. Prentice Hall 15. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 16(2):140–152. Semke W (2013) Orthogonal on-off keying for free-space laser communications with ambient light cancellation. 661103. vol. pp 729–742 2. Faruque S et al (2001) Bi-orthogonal code division multiple access system. Faruque S (2003) Code division multiple access cable modem. March 15 (1993) 12. Thitimajshima P (2010) Near Shannon limit error—correcting (PDF). Reddy SM. SPIE proceedings. Faruque S et al (2001) Broadband wireless access based on code division parallel access. Faruque S (2016) Radio frequency channel coding made easy. doi:10. Reddy SM (1968) A class of linear convolutional codes for compound channels. Berrou C. Gallager RG (1968) Information theory and reliable communications. Reddy SM (1968) Further results on convolutional codes derived from block codes. 3709 digitization of the battle space 1 V. McEliece RJ. Retrieved11 February 2010 9. Bernard S (1988) Digital communications fundamentals and applications. New York 3. Vijay KG (1999) IS-95 CDMA and cdma 2000. Retrieved 11 February 2010 8. Wiley. TR 55. 6208615. IEEE Trans Inf Theory IT-14:618–626 4. September 26 16. Bell Syst Tech. Faruque S. Prentice Hall 14. IS-95 Mobile station—base station compatibility standard for dual mode wide band spread 11. Glavieux A.Forney GD Jr (1968) Convolutional coding for channels with memory. US Patent No. Bretagne. Faruque S. SPIE Optical Eng J 52(9). 6647059. Kohlenbero A. Holmdel.

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UsefulNot usefulA simple introduction to the various types of modulation

A simple introduction to the various types of modulation

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