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Foundation Analysis

Part 2

Bearing capacity failure in soil under a rough rigid continuous (strip)


foundation

1.
2.

3.

The triangular zone ACD immediately under the foundation


The radial shear zones ADF and CDE, with the curves DE and DF
being arcs of a logarithmic spiral
Two triangular Rankine passive zones AFH and CEG

Continuous or Strip Foundation

1
= + +
2

where,
is the cohesion
is the unit weight of soil
q is the equivalent surcharge load equal to Df
, , are bearing capacity factors that are nondimensional and are
functions only of the soil friction angle .

where,
Kp is the passive pressure coefficient

Modified for:

Square Foundation
= 1.3 + + 0.4
Circular Foundation
= 1.3 + + 0.3

LOCAL SHEAR FAILURE


Strip Foundation

2
1
= + +
3
2

Square Foundation
= 0.867 + + 0.4
Circular Foundation
= 0.867 + + 0.3

2
3

= tan1 ( tan )

() =

where,
() is the net ultimate bearing capacity
=
So,
()

The factor of safety should be at least 3 in all cases.

The bearing capacity equation is modified when the


water table is in the proximity of the foundation.

Bearing Capacity Equation

Modified Bearing Capacity Equation


Case I
Case II
Case III

next

GENERAL SHEAR FAILURE


1
qu c' N c qN q BN
2
qu 1.3c' N c qN q 0.4BN
qu 1.3c' N c qN q 0.3BN

(Continuous or Strip Foundation)


(Square Foundation)
(Circular Foundation)

back

If 0 D1 Df,
q = D1 + D2(sat - w)

q = Df

1
qu c' N c qN q BN
2

where,

sat = sat. unit wt. of soil


w = unit wt. of water

in BN becomes
where = sat - w

back

If 0 d B,

q = Df

1
qu c' N c qN q BN
2

in the last term is

d
' ( ' )
B

* The preceding modifications are based on the


assumption that there is no seepage force in the soil.

back

If d B,

1
qu c' N c qN q BN
2
*The water will have
no effect on the
ultimate
bearing
capacity.

back

SHAPE: The bearing capacity


eqns do not address the case
of rectangular foundations (0 <
B/L < 1). Wherein L > B.

DEPTH: The eqns also do not


take into account the shearing
resistance along the failure
surface in soil above the
bottom of the foundation.
LOAD INCLINATION: The load on
the foundation may be inclined.

1
qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi BN Fs Fd Fi
2
where,
c is the cohesion
q is the effective stress at the level of the bottom of the foundation
is the unit weight of soil
B is the width of foundation (or diameter for circular foundation)
Fcs, Fqs, Fs are shape factors
Fcd, Fqd, Fd are depth factors
Fci, Fqi, Fi are load inclination factors
Nc, Nq, N are bearing capacity factors

1
qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi BN Fs Fd Fi
2
= 45 + /2
Nq = tan2 (45 + /2) etan
Reissner (1924)

Nc = (Nq 1) cot
Prandtl (1921)

N = 2(Nq + 1) tan

Caquot and Kerisel (1953), Vesic (1973)

Ex 3.3
Ex 3.4

Shape Factors
Reference: DeBeer (1970)

B N q
Fcs 1
L N c

B
Fqs 1 tan '
L
B
Fs 1 0.4
L

Depth Factors
Reference: Hansen (1970)
Df

Df

B
For

1
B
For

Df
Fcd 1 0.4
B
Fqd 1

Df
Fcd 1 0.4 tan 1
B
Fqd 1

Fd 1

Fd 1

For '
Fcd Fqd

1 Fqd
N c tan '

Df
Fqd 1 2 tan ' (1 sin ' ) 2
B
Fd 1

radians

For '
Fcd Fqd

1 Fqd
N c tan '

Df
Fqd 1 2 tan ' (1 sin ' ) 2 tan 1
B
Fd 1

radians

Inclination Factors
Reference: Meyerhof (1963);
Hanna and Meyerhof (1981)

Fci Fqi 1
90


Fi 1
'

inclination

of the load
on the foundation with
respect to the vertical

General Bearing Capacity Equation

1
qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi BN Fs Fd Fi
2

is modified to (Vesic, 1973)

1
qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fcc qN q Fqs Fqd Fqc BN Fs Fd Fc
2

where Fcc, Fqc and Fc are compressibility factors

The soil compressibility factors were derived by Vesic


(1973) by analogy to the expansion of cavities. According
to that theory, in order to calculate Fcc, Fqc and Fc, the
following steps should be taken:

Step 1. Calculate the rigidity index, Ir, of the soil at a depth


approximately B/2 below the bottom of the foundation, or

Gs
Ir
c' q ' tan '
where,
Gs is the shear modulus of the soil
q' is the effective overburden pressure at a depth of Df + B/2

Step 2. The critical rigidity index, Ir(cr), can be expressed as

I r ( cr )

1
B
'

exp 3.3 0.45 cot 45


2
L
2

The variations of Ir(cr) with B/L are given in Table 3.6.

Step 3. If () then = = = 1.

However if < () , then

(3.07 sin ' )(log 2 I r )


B
Fc Fqc exp 4.4 0.6 tan '

L
1 sin '

Figure 3.12 shows the variation of = with and .


For = 0,

B
Fcc 0.32 0.12 0.60 log I r
L

For > 0,

Fcc Fqc

1 Fqc
N c tan '

1. For a shallow foundation, B = 0.6 m, L = 1.2 m, and Df = 0.6 m. The


known soil characteristics are as follows: = 25, c = 48 kN/m, = 18
kN/m, modulus of elasticity (Es) = 620 kN/m, and Poissons ratio (s) =
0.3. Calculate the ultimate bearing capacity.

Solution:
Rigidity Index

Gs
Ir
c' q ' tan '
Es
Gs
2(1 s )
Es
Ir
2(1 s )(c' q ' tan ' )
B
0.6

2
q ' Df 18 0.6
16.2kN / m
2
2

620
Ir
4.29
2(1 0.3)(48 16.2 tan 25)

Critical Rigidity Index

I r ( cr )

1
B
'

exp 3.3 0.45 cot 45


2
L
2

I r ( cr )

1
0.6
25

exp 3.3 0.45


cot 45
62.41
2
1.2
2

Since () > ,

(3.07 sin ' )(log 2 I r )


B
Fc Fqc exp 4.4 0.6 tan '

L
1

sin

'

0.6
(3.07 sin 25)(log(2 x 4.29))
Fc Fqc exp 4.4 0.6
tan 25
0.347

1.2
1 sin 25

and
Fcc Fqc

1 Fqc
N c tan '

For ' 25 , N c 20.72( seeTable3.3); therefore,


Fcc 0.347

1 0.347
0.279
20.72 tan 25

1
qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fcc qN q Fqs Fqd Fqc BN Fs Fd Fc
2
From Table 3.3, for = 25, = 20.72, = 10.66, = 10.88.
Shape Factors

Depth Factors

1 Fqd

0.6 10.66

1.257 Fcd Fqd


N c tan '
1.2 20.72

1 1.311
B
0.6

1
.
311

1.343
Fqs 1 tan ' 1
tan 25 1.233
20.72 tan 25
L
1.2
Df
2
B
0
.
6

Fqd 1 2 tan ' (1 sin ' )


Fs 1 0.4 1 0.4
0.8
B
L
1.2
2 0.6
1 2 tan 25(1 sin 25) 1.311
0.6
Fd 1

B N q
Fcs 1
L N c

= 48 20.72 1.257 1.343 0.279 + 0.618 10.66 1.233 1.311 (0.347)


+ 0.5 18 0.6 10.88 0.8 1 0.347
= . /

Table 3.3

When foundations are


subjected to moments in
addition to the vertical
load, the distribution of
pressure on the soil is not
uniform. The nominal
distribution of pressure is,

qmax
qmin

Q
6M

2
BL B L
Q
6M

2
BL B L

where Q is the total vertical load and M


is the moment on the foundation.

Q 6M
qmax
2
BL B L
Q 6M
qmin
2
BL B L
M
e
Q
qmax

Q 6e

1
BL
B

qmin

Q 6e

1
BL
B

When e= B/6, qmin=0


When e> B/6 , qmin <0
Which means
develop.

tension

will

Soil cannot take any tension


There will be a separation of
the foundation and the soil
underlying it.
qmax = 4Q/ 3L(B-2e)
The exact distribution of failure
is difficult to estimate.

The factor of safety for such type of loading against


bearing capacity failure can be evaluated as

Qult
FS
Q
where Qult is the ultimate load-carrying capacity

Effective Area Method (Meyerhoff, 1953)


The following is a step-by-step procedure for determining the
ultimate load that the soil can support and the factor of safety against
bearing capacity failure:
Step 1: Determine the effective dimensions of the foundation.
B = effective width = B 2e
L = effective length = L
Step 2: Use the general bearing capacity equation.
To evaluate the shape factors, use the effective dimensions (B,
L) instead of B and L. To determine the depth factors, use B and L.
Step 3: The total ultimate load that the foundation can sustain is
= ( ) = (A is the effective area)
Step 4: The factor of safety against bearing capacity failure is
=

2. A continuous foundation, supported by sand, has a width of 2 m


and the depth of foundation is 1.5 m. The known soil characteristics
are as follows: = 40, c = 0, and = 16.5 kN/m. If the load
eccentricity is 0.2 m, determine the ultimate load per unit length of the
foundation. ( = 5,260 )

Note that,

=
=

= = ( )

1
qu c' N c Fcs Fcd Fci qN q Fqs Fqd Fqi BN Fs Fd Fi
2
In determining the effective are A, effective width B, and effective
length L, five possible cases may arise (Highter and Anders, 1985).

CASE 1:

1
1

6
6

1
(1 )(1 )
2

3
1 = 1.5

3
1 = 1.5

The effective length L is the larger of


the two dimensions 1 and 1 . So the
effective width is B=A/L.

CASE 2:

1
1
< 0 <
<

2
6

1
1 + 2
2

1 2 ( )

= 1 2 ( )

The magnitudes of 1 2 can be


determined from Figure 3.21b.

CASE 2:

1
1
< 0 <
<

2
6

CASE 3:

1
1
< 0 <
<

6
2

1
1 + 2
2

The magnitudes of 1 2 can be


determined from Figure 3.22b.

CASE 3:

1
1
< 0 <
<

6
2

CASE 4:

1
1
<
<

6
6
1
= 2 + + 2 ( 2 )
2

=
The ratio 2 / 2
can be
determined by using the / curves
that slope upward. Similarly, the ratio
2 / 2 can be determined by
using the /
curves that slope
downward.

CASE 4:

1
1
<
<

6
6

CASE 5: Circular Foundation

3. A square foundation (1.5 m x 1.5 m), supported by sand, has its


bottom 0.7 m below the ground level, with = 0.3 m and = 0.15 m.
The known soil characteristics are as follows: = 30, c = 0, and = 18
kN/m. Assume two-way eccentricity, and determine the ultimate load.
( = 606 )

4. A square foundation (1.5 m x 1.5 m), supported by sand, has its


bottom 0.7 m below the ground level, with = 0.18 m and = 0.12 m.
The known soil characteristics are as follows: = 25, c = 25 kN/m, and
= 16.5 kN/m. Assume two-way eccentricity, and determine the
ultimate load. ( = 1,670 )