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Degree / Branch: B.E. Automobile

Semester / Year: VII / IV



1. What is an emission in a vehicle?
Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the motor vehicle
emissions. Emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion
engines. Emissions of many air pollutants have been shown to have variety of
negative effects on public health and the natural environment.
2. What are the causes of diesel smoke?
Diesel engines also sometimes produce black or blue smoke, both of which
are also signs of problems within the engine. Black smoke indicates poor
combustion of the diesel fuel, and blue smoke is a sign of oil burning within the
3. What is the need of sir pollution control?
Nevertheless, only pollution caused by human activities, such as industry and
transportation, is subject to mitigation and control. Most air contaminants originate
from combustion processes. . The criteria pollutants include fine particulates,
carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and lead.
4. List out the sources of atmospheric pollution from petrol engine with
amount of pollutants

Particulate matter (PM). Hydrocarbons (HC)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Hazardous air pollutants (toxics)
Greenhouse gases.
5. How carbon monoxide (CO) is formed in the internal combustion
Carbon monoxide is the product of incomplete combustion in IC engine. It is
produced by the partial oxidation of carbon containing compounds. Generally in
combustion process carbon dioxide(CO2) is formed after combustion. But when
there is not enough oxygen for the combustion process Carbon monoxide (CO)
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forms that is incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide (CO) reduces the ability to
carry oxygen in the blood. At high concentration it may causes to death.
6. Write the Mechanism of formation of HC.
Due to existence of local very rich mixture pockets at much lower
temperatures than combustion chambers, unburnt hydrocarbons may appear in the
exhaust. The hydrocarbons also appear due to flame quenching near the
hydrocarbons also appear due to flame quenching near the metallic e metallic walls.
7. How the aldehydes are formed?
Due to very slow chemical reaction during delay period in the diesel engines,
aldehydes are formed as intermediate products. In some parts of the spray the
aldehydes will be left after the initial reactions. These aldehydes may be oxidized in
the later part of the cycle, if the mixture temperature is h later part of the cycle, if
the mixture temperature is high, and if there is sufficient oxygen.
8. How nitrogen oxides are produced?
Nox is
oxides NO
NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). They are produced from the reaction
of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high
9. What is a NOX emission?
provides a
(NOx) emissions and general information about the air quality programs in New
England that focus on reducing NOx. Nitrogen Oxides are a family of poisonous,
highly reactive gases. These gases form when fuel is burned at high temperatures.

What is the effect of carbon monoxide on human health?

Breathing CO can cause headache, dizziness, vomiting, and nausea.
If CO levels are high enough, you may become unconscious or die. Exposure to
moderate and high levels of CO over long periods of time has also been linked with
increased risk of heart disease.

Define Smog.
Smog is a mixture of solid and liquid fog and smoke particles formed when
humidity is high and the air so calm that smoke and fumes accumulate near their
source. Smog is caused by a number of different pollutants and has some rather
serious negative effects on people, animals, and plant life.

Define regulated emissions

Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants
released into the atmosphere. Emission standards set quantitative limits on the

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permissible amount of specific air pollutants that may be released from specific
sources over specific timeframes.

Draw the effect of compression ratio on nitric oxide formation in S.I


How the CO2 emissions are formed?

Carbon Dioxide (CO2), which is an inevitable product of burning a fuel

which contains carbon (as all petroleum products do). CO2 does not pollute the air
we breathe, but it is a main contributor to Global Warming and therefore has to be
reduced. This means either using fuels containing less (or no) carbon (see the
section on Alternative Fuels), or making vehicles and their engines more efficient
or both.
15. What are air quality criteria?

Ambient air quality criteria or standards are concentrations of pollutants in

the air(usually outdoor air but sometimes indoor air) specified for a variety of
reasons including for the protection of human health, buildings, crops, vegetation,
ecosystems, as well as for planning and other purposes.

Define: Surface ignition.

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The initiation of a flame in the combustion chamber of an automobile engine

by any hot surface other than the spark discharge.

17. Define Opacimeter

Smoke meters, also referred to as opacity meters, detect and measure the
amount of light blocked in smoke emitted by diesel engines from cars, trucks, ships,
buses, motorcycles, locomotives and large stacks from industrial operations.


What is FID?

A flame ionization detector (FID) is a scientific instrument that measures the

concentration of organic species in a gas stream. It is frequently used as a detector
in gas chromatography.


What are the Advantages of flame quenching?

The other potential benefits of flame quenching will include the following:

Increasing combustion gas turbulence by a sudden increase in water volume of

1,670 times (water to steam);
Reductions in CO and VOCs due to better combustion gas mixing;
Reductions in combustion velocities and tube erosion rate;
Reductions in thermal NOx by lowering flame temperature;
Augmentation of SNCR NOx control, thereby reducing reagent usage


List the disadvantages of flame quenching.

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Potential disadvantages of flame quenching include the following:

Possible loss of revenue due to the loss of BTUs;
Development of slag due to bad design causing large water droplet
sizes or high water
velocities reaching boiler wall; and
An initial increase in boiler BTU, due to improvement in combustion


What is crankcase ventilation?

The PCV system does this by using manifold vacuum to draw vapors from
the crankcase into the intake manifold. Vapor is then carried with the fuel/air
mixture into the combustion chambers where it is burned. The flow or circulation
within the system is controlled by the PCV Valve.


What is the purpose of a PCV valve in a car?

The positive crankcase ventilation or PCV valve is an inexpensive and often

overlooked component. It is also one possible cause of expensive oil leaks and
sludge buildup in an engine. All automotive engines are lubricated with oil and when
oil is churned by moving parts, pressure is produced.

What is a crankcase air filter?

A crankcase filter is the filter in the crankcase that ensures that the engine
does not re-use oil-contaminated air back into the engine. Cars today are designed
to return the crankcase fumes back into the engine.

What is selective catalytic reduction?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is an advanced active emissions control
technology system that injects a liquid-reductant agent through a special catalyst
into the exhaust stream of a diesel engine. The reductant source is usually
automotive-grade urea, otherwise known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF).

List the advantages of SCR.

Higher NOx reductions than low-NOx burners and Selective Non-Catalytic

Reduction (SNCR)
Applicable to sources with low NOx concentrations
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Reactions occur within a lower and broader temperature range than SNCR.
Does not require modifications to the combustion unit


Write the Disadvantages of SCR.

Significantly higher capital and operating costs than low-NOx burners and

Retrofit of SCR on industrial boilers is difficult and costly
Large volume of reagent and catalyst required.
May require downstream equipment cleaning.
Results in ammonia in the waste gas stream which may impact plume
visibility, and resale or
disposal of ash.


What are the causes of catalyst deactivation?

poisoning of active sites by flue gas constituents,
Thermal sintering of active sites due to high temperatures within reactor,

Blinding/plugging/fouling of active sites by ammonia-sulfur salts and

particulate matter, and
Erosion due to high gas velocities.


Give the merits of catalysts in emission control in IC engines.

The wide acceptance and popularity of catalysts for emission control from
internal combustion engines can be attributed to a number of advantages, as

Simplicity and passive character of most catalyst systems,

Negligible adverse effect on the engine or fuel economy (low pressure

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Maintenance-free or low maintenance operation,

Proven durability, and

Relatively low cost.

Define shed test.

Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) is used to measure

evaporative emission from the gasoline 4-wheeler vehicles as per the Indian, ECE
(EURO III & IV), EPA and CARB Regulations.


What are the merits of FID?

Flame ionization detectors are used very widely in gas chromatography because of
a number of advantages.


Cost: Flame ionization detectors are relatively inexpensive to acquire and


Low maintenance requirements: Apart from cleaning or replacing the FID

jet, these detectors require little maintenance.

Rugged construction: FIDs are relatively resistant to misuse.

Write the demerits of FID.


Flame ionization detectors cannot detect inorganic substances and some

highly oxygenated or functionalized species like infrared and laser technology
can. In some systems, CO and CO2 can be detected in the FID using
a methanizer, which is a bed of Ni catalyst that reduces CO and CO2 to
methane, which can be in turn detected by the FID.

The methanizer is limited by its inability to reduce compounds other than CO

and CO2 and its tendency to be poisoned by a number of chemicals commonly
found in GC effluents.

Another important disadvantage is that the FID flame oxidizes all oxidizable
compounds that pass through it; all hydrocarbons and oxygenates are
oxidized to carbon dioxide and water and other heteroatoms are oxidized
according to thermodynamics.

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For this reason, FIDs tend to be the last in a detector train and also cannot be
used for preparatory work.

Write the principle of PCV system.

Positive Crankcase Ventilation is a system that was developed to remove

harmful vapors from the engine and to prevent those vapors from being expelled
into the atmosphere. The PCV system does this by using manifold vacuum to draw
vapors from the crankcase into the intake manifold. Vapor is then carried with the
fuel/air mixture into the combustion chambers where it is burned.


Why does my diesel engine have white smoke?

White smoke occurs in a diesel engine when the diesel fuel goes through the
engine and reaches the exhaust without having been burned. This typically occurs
due to the engine being too cool to burn the fuel, often resulting from low
compression in one cylinder, problems with the fuel injection timing or a defective
fuel injector.


What causes black smoke in diesel engines?

Black smoke from a diesel engine is caused by an unbalanced air-to-fuel ratio.

Either not enough oxygen is being added to burn the fuel, or too much fuel is in the
mix. Black smoke is one of the most common smoke issues for diesel vehicles


What is in diesel exhaust?

Diesel exhaust is a mixture of gases and particulates produced during the

combustion of diesel fuel. The very small particles are known as diesel particulate
matter (DPM), which consists primarily of solid elemental carbon (EC) cores with
organic carbon (OC) compounds adhered to the surfaces .

What does white smoke from a diesel engine mean?

White smoke means that the diesel fuel is not burning correctly due to a lack
of heat in the combustion chamber. This unburnt diesel contains minor toxins that
may sting your eyes. This problem may be caused by: A clogged fuel filter. Incorrect
injector pump timing.
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37. What are the methods to reduce the NOx emissions in IC Engines?

Humid Air Method

Exhaust Gas Re circulation (EGR)
Water Injection and Water emulsion
High Scavenge Pressure and Compression Ratio.
Selective Catalytic Reduction
Two Stage Turbocharger.
Engine Component Modification

38. What are the methods to reduce the SOx emissions in IC Engines?
1. Use of Low sulphur fuel oil
2. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Technology
3. Cylinder Lubrication
39. What is specific Emissions?
Emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a
given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity; for example grams of
carbon dioxide released per mega joule of energy produced, or the ratio of
greenhouse gas emissions produced to gross domestic product (GDP).
40. Define stratified charge engine.
A stratified charge engine is a type of internal combustion engine, used in
automobiles, in which the fuel is injected into the cylinder just before ignition. This
allows for higher compression ratios without "knock," and leaner air/fuel ratio than
in conventional internal combustion engines.
41. What is aspect ratio in IC engine combustion?
In a reciprocating piston engine, the stroke ratio, defined by either
bore/stroke ratio or stroke/bore ratio, is a term to describe the ratio between
cylinders bore diameter and piston stroke.

42. Define: Swirl ratio.

Swirl ratio = air rotational speed / crank shaft speed of an IC engine.

43. Draw the general structure of acetaldehyde.

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Formula: C2H4O

44. What are the four stages of combustion periods?

Power/ expansion

45. Define chemical delay in combustion

Time interval between the start of injection and the start of combustion is the
ignition delay time. Theoretically combustion should start as soon as Injection of
fuel starts. There are two major factors which delays combustion in CI engine.
1) Physical delay, where in atomization, vaporization and mixing of air
fuel occurs.
2) Chemical delay, attributed to pre-combustion reactions.

46. What are the pollutants removed from EGR?

In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen
petrol/gasoline and diesel engines. EGR works by recirculating a portion of an
engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders.

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47. What is an oxidation catalyst unit?

Diesel and biodiesel engine exhaust gas contains many constituents that are
considered harmful to humans. Our high quality diesel catalytic converters (diesel
exhaust gas purifiers) are designed and specially formulated to remove or reduce
the harmful components while keeping pressure drop to a minimum.

48. List the types of sac in nozzle.

There are two types of SAC nozzles, micro blind-hole and cylindrical blindhole.

49. List the fuel injection parameters in engine.

Injection Pressure

Injection Rate

Injection Area

Injection Flow

50. What is the function of oxidation catalysts?

Conversion of diesel particulate matter is an important function of the
modern diesel oxidation catalyst. ... It is the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur
trioxide, which combines with water forming sulfuric acid: A formation of the sulfate
(SO4) particulates occurs, outweighing the benefit of the SOF reduction.

51. What is the function of selective reduction catalysts?

It is called "selective" because it reduces levels of NOx using ammonia as a
reductant within a catalyst system. The chemical reaction is known as "reduction"
where the DEF is the reducing agent that reacts with NOx to convert the pollutants
into nitrogen, water and tiny amounts of CO2.

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52. Define opacity.

Definition and Visual Determination of Opacity. With regards to stack
emissions, opacity is the degree to which visibility of a background (i.e., blue sky) is
reduced by particulates (smoke).

53. What are the advantages of unleaded petrol?

Using unleaded
petrol as
a fuel has
more advantages in
automobiles. Unleaded petrol is devoid of lead, a substance generally used to
prevent engines of vehicles from getting damaged. ... *Unleaded petrol does not
release any corrosive compounds which affect spark plugs and exhaust systems of
the vehicles.

54. List the types of combustion chamber in CI engines

1. T-head combustion chamber.
2. L-head combustion chamber.
3. I-head (or overhead valve) combustion chamber.
4. F-head combustion chamber.

55. What is SHED Test?

Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) is used to measure
evaporative emission from the gasoline 4-wheeler vehicles as per the Indian, ECE
(EURO III & IV), EPA and CARB Regulations. SHED can also be used to measure
evaporative emission from the gasoline 2/3 -wheeler vehicles as per CARB

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56. Define isokinetic gas sampling.

When taking a sample from a gas flow (diluted or raw), ideally the flow
velocity in the sampling line should be the same as in the flow, a condition referred
to as isokinetic sampling.

57. Write the principle of gas chromatography.

The sample solution injected into the instrument enters a gas stream which
transports the sample into a separation tube known as the "column." (Helium or
nitrogen is used as the so-called carrier gas.) The various components are
separated inside the column. The detector measures the quantity of the
components that exit the column. To measure a sample with an unknown
concentration, a standard sample with known concentration is injected into the

58. What Is FTP 75?

The EPA Federal Test Procedure, commonly known as FTP-75 for the city driving
cycle, are a series of tests defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
to measure tailpipe emissions and fuel economy of passenger cars (excluding light
trucks and heavy-duty vehicles).

59. List the emission norms followed in India for Heavy Diesel Vehicles.

60. List the emission norms followed for two wheelers (petrol engines) in
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Faculty in-charge


The emissions reductions achieved from 1990 through 1994 were massive: PM emissions
of on-highway engines were reduced by 83% during that time. This was an extremely significant
improvement as a consequence of this change, the old image of a diesel truck accelerating up a
hill and projecting a cloud of dirty black soot into the air is a picture of the past. While there are
still such engines on the road, no engine sold in the United States since 1994, properly
maintained and burning the proper fuel, will smoke in this way. The PM reduction was
accomplished by improvements designed to ensure a more complete burn of fuel within the
The primary enhancements include improved fuel delivery systems, improved
configuration of combustion chambers, and turbo charging. The same wave of emissions
reductions produced a 63% improvement in NOx emissions of on-highway engines. These
reductions also were achieved primarily through modifications in the engine. The modifications
helped control combustion temperature, including offsetting the temperature increases caused by
systems adopted to reduce PM emissions.
However HC, CO, SOX, NO and other substances emitted by diesel engine can also be
reduced through the following engine modifications processes;
a) Variable Compression Ratio (VCR)
b) Modification of Combustion Chamber Configuration

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c) Fuel Injection System Modification

d) High Pressure Fuel Injection
e) Engine Derating
f) Variable Injection Timing
g) Electronic Fuel Injection
h) Water Injection
i) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
j) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
k) Changing the Engine Circle


Higher compression ratio (CR) is always desired to get better thermal efficiency but it
increases NOX emissions. Research work were carried out to optimised CR and effective CR
according to load on engine so as to get better overall efficiency as well as low engine out NOX.
Christensen el al. (1999) did experiment with variable compression ratio engine to demonstrate
the multi-fuel capability of Homogenous Charge Compression Ratio (HCCR) engine. Secondary
piston was placed in the cylinder head to achieved VCR from 10 to 28 by replacing one of the
exhaust valves.
They use different kind of mixtures ( mixture to iso-octane and n-heptanes as well as
gasoline and diesel), for experimental purpose. All tests were carried out with an equivalence
ratio of 0.33. Test result showed that pure n-heptanes (diesel) and iso-octane (gasoline) required
CR of about 11 to 22 respectively to get auto ignition at TDC.
Because of the poor atomization and vaporization of diesel fuel at low CR and at low
inlet temperature (below 90oC), combustion quality become very poor. For all operating
conditions, NOX emission observed were very low, while soot was generated only with diesel
fuel. Study had shown that thermal efficiency was increased with increase CR but combustion
efficiency was decrease leading to the minor variation in gross indicated efficiency.

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Higher amount of charge might be trapped in the crevice volume which reduces the
efficiency with increase CR. Laguitto et al. (2007) analyzed the effect of CR on exhaust
emissions came out from Premixed Charge Compression Ratio (PCCR) diesel engine. Result
indicated that the rate of combustion and proportion of diffusion combustion were reduced
during injection at lower pressure and temperature with lower CR.
Hence, soot and NOX emissions were reduced with the lower CR. However, maximum
rate of pressure rise and hence the noise emissions were increased at higher engine load. In
general, CR was varied either by having a secondary piston or by adopting variable valve timing.
Late intake valve closure reduced the effective CR and hence reduced the peak
temperature leading to reduced NOX. However HC and CO were increase at low CR.
More complete fuel combustion and reduced PM emissions occur when fuel and air are
mixed more evenly in the combustion chamber. Engine manufacturers have invested great effort
in optimizing the features of combustion chambers to ensure the best possible mix. Modern
combustion chamber design reflects extensive modeling of several design elements, including:
(1) The shape and depth of the combustion chamber and the piston bowl (the small area at the
top of the piston into which fuel is injected).
(2) spiral-shaped intake ports that cause air to swirl as it enters the chamber;
(3) The number of cylinder valves.
(4) The placement of fuel injectors in the combustion chamber.


Designing electronic controls and improving fuel injectors to deliver fuel at the best
combination of injection pressure, injection timing and spray location allows the engine to
efficiently burn the fuel without causing temperature spikes that increase NOx emissions.
Injection timing retard can reduce NOx emissions by lowering combustion pressures and
Injection timing retard, however, increases particulate emissions and may lower fuel
economy. Increasing the injection rate can compensate for these drawbacks of delayed injection
timing because the termination of fuel injection is not delayed.
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Injection timing retard for use in heavy-duty diesel engines will primarily involve
integration in the control code, consisting of software modifications and not involving any
hardware. Injection rate shaping varies the rate of fuel injection to reduce NOx formation. Using
the common-rail injection system, for example, a small, early burst of fuel (pilot injection)
initially enters the combustion chamber, while injection of most of the fuel is delayed until the
combustion chamber ignites.
Due to the delayed injection, most of the fuel is combusted at lower peak temperatures,
which reduces NOx formation. The electronic unit injector (EUI) also has the capacity for pilot
injections to reduce NOx emissions.
PM emissions are reduced through more complete combustion of fuel injected into the
combustion chamber. More complete combustion can be achieved by improving the mix of air
and fuel in the chamber. Modern high-pressure fuel injection systems force fuel into the
combustion chamber through smaller diameter holes at higher pressure in excess of 25,000
pounds per square inch. This causes the fuel to break down into tiny droplets, thereby improving
the air-fuel mix to achieve a more complete burn.
Substantial reductions in PM emission rates can result from lowering of the maximum
fuelling rate of an engine. It is possible that many of the engines certified by MSHA are certified
at or very near their maximum power where PM emissions are quite high.
There is no restriction by MSHA on reducing the maximum power delivered by lowering
the maximum fuel setting, i.e., derating. It is not unheard of that some mines choose to derate
their engines to reduce DPM and CO emissions, reduce tire slippage and wear, and save on fuel
costs. The MSHA list provides some insight into the effects of derating an engine on PM
emissions. The DPM emission rate can be reduced by 55% (calculated from the MSHA PI) with
only a 7% reduction in power. If each engine is operated at the nameplate ventilation rate, the
resulting DPM concentration is reduced by 62%.

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