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11/18/2016

AgriculturalLandCeilingAct.LatestAgricultureinformationonLandCeilingActsinIndia

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NewDevelopmentsonProposedLandCeilingAct

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MaharashtrahassaidnotoCentreplantocutagriculturallandceiling.

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TheMaharshtraRevenueministerBalasahebThoratonMondaysaidtherewasnoquestionofacceptingthe
Centre'scontroversialproposaltofurtherreducetheceilingonagriculturalland.
"The ministry of rural development has displayed a draft note on land reforms. Apparently, there is a

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proposal to further reduce the ceiling on agricultural land. Since land is a state subject, we have made it

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clearthattheMaharashtragovernmentwillnotconsidersuchaproposal.Assuch,therewillbenochange
inthepresentceilingonagriculturalland,"Thoratsaid.

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CeilingLimitsonLandHoldings
Data on distribution of land holdings in the country clearly indicate that there is disparity and inequality.
Large number of cultivators owing relatively less land, while big land owners, smaller in number owning
largeracreageofland.Itleadstodisparitiesintheincomesintheruralareas.Inviewofthis,ourleaders

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intheearlierdaysthoughtofthislandreformmeasure.

AgricultureTechnologyNews:

Thefirstfiveyear plan mentions "where land is managed directly by the substantial owners and there are

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no tenants in occupation, public interest requires that there should be an absolute limit to the amount of
landwhichanyindividualmayhold."

HybridSeedIndustryNews:

Prof. D.R.Gadgil, in the report of the Committee of Panel on Land Reforms mentions that "Among all

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resources, the supply of land is the most limited and the claimants for its possession are extremely

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numerous. It is therefore, obviously unjust to allow the exploitation of any large surface of land by single
individual unless other overwhelming reasons make this highly desirable. Moreover, in the context of the
currentsociopoliticalclimate,redistributionoflandwouldratherappeartobeimperative".

Theceilingonlandholdingswasintendedto

I.meetthelandneedsofthelandless
II. reducetheglaringinequalitiesinlandownershipsothatitmayleadtodevelopmentofcooperative
ruraleconomy,and

III.enlargeselfemploymentinownedlandasdistinguishedfromsublettingandtenantcultivation.
Ceilinglegislationsandamendments
The Ceiling legislations were initiated in many parts of the country in the late 50s and early 60s. Jammu
and Kashmir was the first state in the country to pass this Act. It was followed by West Bengal and
HimachalPradeshStates.MaharashtraStatepassedthisActin1961.
However,theprogressofceilinglegislationwasdisappointingtill1972.Itwasfoundthatonlyabout23lakh
acres of land was declared surplus. Of this, only about 13 lakh acres were redistributed. In Bihar,
Karnataka,OrissaandRajasthan,nolandwasdeclaredsurplus.Itwasmainlyduetopartitioningoflandor
Benami transfers. This brought in lot of criticism in the Chief Ministers conference held in July 1972. The
conferencesuggestednewguidelines,whicharesummarizedbelow:

I.Thebestlandsinastatewithassuredirrigationfortwocropsinayearshouldhaveceilinginthe
rangeof10to18acres,takingintoaccountthefertilityofthesoilandotherconditions.

II. Incaseofinferiorlands,ceilingmaybehigherbutshouldnotexceed54acres.
III.Theunitofapplicationshallbefamilyoffivemembers,thetermfamilybeingdefinedastoinclude
husband,wifeandthreeminorchildren.Wherethenumberofmembersinthefamilyexceedsfive,
additionallandmaybeallowedforeachmemberinexcessoffiveinsuchamannerthatthetotal
areaadmissibletothefamilydoesnotexceedtwicetheceilinglimitforfamilyoffivemembers.
IV.Theceilingshouldnotoperateonlandheldundertea,coffee,rubber,cardamomandcocoa.

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11/18/2016

AgriculturalLandCeilingAct.LatestAgricultureinformationonLandCeilingActsinIndia

V. Ceilingshouldnotoperateonlandheldbyindustrialorcommercialundertakingsfornonagricultural
purposes.

VI.StateGovernmentsmay,intheirdiscretion,grantexemptiontotheexistingreligious,charitableand
educationaltrustsofPublicnature.

VII.Inthedistributionofsurplusland,priorityshouldbegiventolandlessagriculturalworkers,
particularlytothosebelongingtothescheduledcastesandthescheduledtribes.

VIII.Compensationpayableforthesurpluslandonimpositionofceilinglawsshouldbefixedwellbelow
themarketvalueofthepropertysothatitiswithinthecapacityofthenewallottees.

IX.Thecompensationmaybefixedingradedslabsandpreferablyinmultiplesoflandrevenuepayable
fortheland.
The amended ceiling laws were to be given retrospective effect from a date not later than January 24,
1971.
As per the new guidelines, 17 states amended the ceiling legislations. The range of ceiling varied from
StatetoState.Forinstance,inAndhraPradesh,thelevelofceilingfordrylandrangedfrom14.16hectares
to21.85hectares.Karnatakahadthelimitof21.85hectaresfordryland,whilePunjabhad20.50hectares
and West Bengal 7.00 hectares. For irrigated lands with two crops, the limit was lower Andhra Pradesh
4.05to7.28hectares,M.P,Maharashtra7.28hectares,Punjab7hectares,WestBengal5.0hectares.
Thecompensationpattern also varied from State to State. However, in many States it was the multiple of
assessment.Itwaspayableinbonds,cashoracombinationoftheboth.
CeilingLimitsonLandHoldings
(INHa.)

Irrigatedwith Irrigatedwith Dryland


twocrops

onecrop

SuggestedinNational 4.05to7.28
Guidelinesof1972
ActualCeilings

10.93

21.85

6.74

AndhraPradesh

4.05to7.28

06.07to10.93 14.16to21.85

Assam

6.74

06.74

6.74

Bihar

6.07to7.28

10.12

12.14to18.21

Gujarat

4.05to7.29

06.07to10.93 08.09to21.85

Haryana

7.25

10.90

21.80

HimachalPradesh

4.05

06.07

12.14to28.33

03.6to5.06

5.95to9.20in

JammuandKashmir 3.60to5.06

Ladakh7.7Hec.
Karnataka

4.05to8.10

10.12to12.14 21.85

Kerala

4.86to6.07

04.86to6.07 04.86to6.07

MadhyaPradesh

7.28

10.93

21.85

Maharashtra

7.28

10.93

21.85

Manipur

5.00

05.00

06.00

Orrisa

4.05

06.07

12.14to18.21

Punjab

7.00

11.00

20.50

Rajasthan

7.28

10.93

21.85to70.82

TamilNadu

4.86

12.14

24.28

Sikkim

5.06

20.23

Tripura

4.00

04.00

12.00

UttarPradesh

7.30

10.95

18.25

WestBengal

5.00

05.00

07.00

Theactualceilinglimits for lands having two crops and single crop respectively irrigated in Karnataka and
UttarPradesharemarginallyhigherduetoclassificationofland.
The actual ceiling limits in respect of dry land in Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan are higher due to hilly
terrainandbeingdesertalsorespectively.

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