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Dec 13, 2016

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Discusses the oscillatory flow in cylinders and explains the values of the Morison Equation

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Discusses the oscillatory flow in cylinders and explains the values of the Morison Equation

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AND PHYSICAL MODELS

G. van Oortmerssen

J.J.W. van der Vegt

F. van Walree

Maritime Research

Institute Netherlands

( MARIN )

The Netherlands

Summary

IT'

This paper describes a vortex modelling technique for the theoretical prediction of two-dimensional flow around circular cylinders.

Examples are given of predicted flow fields and drag and lift

forces in steady and oscillatory onflow and these are compared with

results of experiments carried out in a test tank. The correlation

between computer simulations and experiments is encouraging. The

possible implications for-the engineerjng practice are discussed.

1. Introduction

Many offshore structures are composed of tubular elements. The flow

around such slender structural elements is characterized by vortex

shedding, a phenomenon resulting from the viscous nature of the

fluid. The design practice of offshore structures is based on the

application of the empirical Morison equation for the determination

of wave and current forces. There is, however, much uncertainty

with regard to the value of the drag and inertia coefficients that

should be applied in this formula. Moreover, the Morison formula

does not give information on the fluid forces perpendicular to the

flow direction, while these lift forces might be very important for

generating flow induced vibrations.

In recent years several attempts have been made to develop theoretical methods for simulating the flow around circular cylinders.

Finite difference and finite element methods are not well suited

for the description of the typical flow pattern around cylinders at

vorticity embedded in irrotational flow, and therefore most approaches are based on inviscid discrete vortex models, which use a

Lagrangian description of the flow field. The flow is determined by )

tracking the path of 'individual vortices and calculating their in- i

I

duced velocity field. Such methods do not require a computation /

grid, contrary to the methods based on the Eulerian description, !

and discretization can be restricted to the areas with highly concentrated vorticity. The restriction to inviscid flow, however,

causes problems in the vicinity of the cylinder wall, because in :

this region viscous effects can no longer be neglected, and most

discrete vortex methods require therefore a priori knowledge of the

position of the separation point. Some researchers use empirical

data on the location of the separation point, ref. (l), others 1

apply more or less advanced boundary layer calculations in com- i

bination with an inviscid vortex model, ref. (2, 3 and 4).

l high

At the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) a more ambitious method has been developed, based on the approach of Chorin

(5), which properly accounts for the effects of viscosity. Chorin's

scheme uses the physical insight that viscous effects are primarily

restricted to the vicinity of the body surface, the flow outside

the boundary region being mainly inviscid in nature. The method

therefore approximates a viscous flow field by successively solving

the vorticity diffusion equation and the inviscid vorticity transport equation at small time intervals, This so-called operator

splitting algorithm is combined with a stochastic solution of the

diffusion process, representing the random behaviour of small scale

vortical structures. The behaviour of large vortical structures is

calculated in a deterministic way.

i

1

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.

.

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The numerical model developed at MARIN simulates 2-dimensional :

steady or oscillatory flow around cylinders in the time domain, and

can be summarized as follows.

i

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boundary integral method which satisfies the boundary condition of

zero normal velocity at the cylinder surface. The continuous vorticity field is represented by a finite number of vortices. Instead

L ! ]

-7

1 l

of point vortices the velocity becomes infinite, which causes problems when calculating the induced velocities of vortices in close

proximity. This problem can be overcome by applying blobs, in which ;

the vorticity is spread over a small finite area. By choosing a

special type of vorticity distribution (see Beale (6)) a very

accurate description of the continuous vorticity field can be I;

obtained.

1

1

f

around the cylinder. In order to satisfy the no-slip condition at

the cylinder wall, vortex blobs are created in the boundary layer.

Subsequently these blobs are diffused by means of the random walk

method, which means that all blobs are given a small random displacement, thus simulating the stochastic character of viscous

flow. The random displacement has a Gaussian probability density

function with zero mean and a variance which depends on the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and on the time step. Next, the vortices are convected by the local fluid velocity, which is the

ambient flow velocity plus the velocities induced by all the other

vortices. Finally the forces on the'cylinder are calculated from an

alternative formulation which expresses the forces in terms of

velocity and vorticity. The whole process of creating new vortices

at the cylinder wall, diffusion, convection and force calculation

is repeated each time step.

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,

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The convection step in the numerical procedure requires a large

computational effort. In an infinite fluid domain the relation

between velocity field and vorticity field is given by the BiotSavart law of interaction. The velocity at a certain vortex position is found from calculating the velocities induced by all other

vortices. The computing time involved is proportional to the square

of the number of vortices, and since large numbers of vortices are

required to obtain the desired level of accuracy, the computational

effort soon becomes prohibitive, even for today's powerful computers. A more efficient approach for obtaining the velocity field

is to use a fast Poisson solver. This results in a mixed EulerianLagrangian algorithm. The first results with such method were obtained using a finite difference scheme, known as the vortex-incell method, see Stansby and Dixon ( 7 ) . A problem with this method

is the limited accuracy. The present method uses a very accurate

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'of Fast Fourier Transform. The computing time of this algorithm is

linearly proportional to the number of vortices. A more rigorous

description of the numerical model and theoretical background is ;

given in ref. (8).

3. Description of Experiments

The experiments comprised towing and forced oscillation tests with ;

i

submerged horizontal cylinders in still water. The tests were car- !

ried out in MARIN's High Speed Basin, which measures 220 m X 4 m X

3.8 m in length, width and depth respectively. The test cylinder

was mounted in a wishbone construction formed by two vertical

struts as shown in Figure 1. The struts were fixed to the pistons

of a hydraulic oscillator which was mounted in horizontal position

to the towing carriage. The cylinder axis was approximately 1.90 m

below the water surface. End plates with a diameter of 1.0 m were

mounted to the cylinder in order to assure 2-dimensional onflow.:

Two different cylinders were used. The towing tests were carried :

out with a 0.10 m diameter cylinder with a length of 1.0 m. The

cylinder used for the oscillation tests had a diameter and length

of 0.15 m and 1.1 m respectively.

The towing tests were carried out at speeds up to about 1.0 m/s, 1

which corresponds to subcritical flow conditions (Reynolds number j

R, G 1.3*105; a list of symbols is given in section 6). The oscil- i

I

lator device has a maximum amplitude xa of 0.5 m at a frequency of I

number K, of about 21. At higher frequencies the maximum achievable l

amplitude decreases (for instance at 0.45 Hz the maximum amplitude

is 0.1 m).

The test cylinders consisted of three sections. The drag and lift

. forces were measured by means of strain-gauges on the middle section, which had a length of 0.40 m. In addition, pressure gauges

!

,were mounted in the cylinder wall and electrolysis was applied for

flow visualization. All data were sampled at a rate of 25 Hz and

.

I

;records covered a period of at least 300

S.

-b

! 4. Discussion of Results

three cases, one steady flow and two oscillatory flow conditions,

the main flow parameters of which are given in Table 1.

Case

Cylinder motion

1

2

3

steady

oscillatory

oscillatory

26,000

23,500

33,900

9.5

13.7

A

cylinder was represented by 64 surface panels and the time step

amounted to t = 0.05~/~,. The maximum number of vortices was between 13,000 and 30,000 while the number of Fourier components in

\

the spectral algorithm amounted to 256*256. For the steady flow

case a period of 300 S was simulated, requiring a computing time of

approximately 13 hours. For the oscillating cylinder the simulations covered 50 S, requiring 4000 S on the computer. Both computed

and measured force records were low-pass filtered with the same

numerical filter. The results are presented ,in the form of statistical data in Table 2 and representative parts of the force records

in Figures 2, 3 and 4 . The drag and lift forces are given in the

form of non-dimensional force coefficients, defined as follows:

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should be borne in mind that the vortices in the wake of the cylI

inder behave in a stochastic way. Experimental data can therefore

not be reproduced exactly in a numerical simulation, and the correlation should therefore be focussed on the qualitative similitude

of force records and on a comparison of statistical data. In reality, the random behaviour of vortical structures also leads to 3dimensionality of the wake, although the flow visualization showed

that in the cases presented here the wake remained to a large degree 2-dimensional.

a

I I

For the steady flow case, the mean values of calculated CD and CL

lwere found to be close to the measured data, as can be seen from

Table 2. The variation of the predicted forces is somewhat larger

than found experimentally. As can be observed in Figure 2, the

force records in general show a good qualitative agreement, although the character of the computed lift force is somewhat more

irregular compared to the measured lift force.

'

Table 2 and Figures 3 and 4 show that the predicted drag force is

in good agreement with the measured force in the two oscillatory

flow cases. The discrepancies between measured and computed lift

forces are larger. In case 2 the calculated lift force is larger

than the measured one, while the reverse is true in case 3. The

character of the flow field as predicted by the numerical simulation was quite similar to the observed flaw field. An example of a

computed vortex pattern for oscillatory flow is given in Figure 5.

The results in this figure apply to a flow with K, = 4.7.

5. Concludins Remarks

The results presented in this paper are very encouraging. Much work

remains to be done, however, before the capabilities of the pre- Ii

sented numerical model can be fully appraised. More insight is for

instance needed in the effect of parameters such as the number of /

vortices, the time step and the simulation period on the accuracy 1

i

of the results. Further, the correlation with experimental results I

must be extended over a wider range of values of the Reynolds and

Keulegan-Carpenter numbers. In particular, it is of interest to see j

to what Reynolds numbers the two-dimensional model will satisfy,

because it is known, that the wake behind the cylinder becomes I

quite three-dimensional at the higher values of the Reynolds number

which correspond to cases of practical interest. Three-dimensional

effects become also of importance when cylinders in waves or in ,

oblique flow are considered. For these reasons a three-dimensional

version of the numerical model is under development. Notwithstanding the fact that much effort will be devoted to improving the computational efficiency, it is not to be expected that numerical models like the one presented here will be applied in the engineering

practice in the near future. As a research tool, however, these

models can help to improve our insight in the problem of hydrody-

I 1

data that can be used in the design practice.

l

6. List of Symbols

CL = non-dimensional lift force

D = cylinder diameter

FD = drag force

FL = lift force

K, = Keulegan-Carpenter number = 2nxa/D

= cylinder length

R, = Reynolds number = U.D/V

= U,.D/V

for oscillatory flow

U = flow velocity

U, = amplitude of oscillatory flow velocity

xa = amplitude of cylinder motion

v = kinematic viscosity

P = fluid density

References

Structures", SSPA Ocean Engineerinq Symposium, Gothenburg, !

!

1983.

I

(2) AARSNESS, J.V., Current Forces on Ships, Thesis, Norwegian '

il

Institute of Technology, Trondheim, 1984.

(3) SARPKAYA, T. and SHOAFF, A., A Discrete Vortex Analysis of

Flow about Stationary and Oscillating Circular Cylinders,

l

NPS-69 SL 79011, Naval Post Graduate School, Monterey, 1979.

(4) IKEDA, Y., "Calculation of Lift Force acting on Circular

Cylinder in Oscillating Flow", J. Kansai Soc. N.A. Japan, No.

159, December 1984.

1

(5) CHORIN, A.J., "Numerical Study of Slightly Viscous Flow", J.

Fluid Mech. 57 (1973), pp.785-796.

(6) BEALE, J.T. and MAJDA, A., "High Order Accurate Vortex Methods

with Explicit Velocity Kernels", J. of Comp. Physics, 1985,

pp.188-208.

Vol. 5, No. 3, 1983.

l?

I 1

I

4

i

'

"Numerical Simulation

4th Int. BOSS Conference, Delft, 1985.

Coefficient Time Traces

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Stationary

cylinder

Oscillating

cylinder

Oscillating

cylinder

Exp.

Exp.

Camp.

Exp.

Comp

C~

mean

1.34

1.39

0.04

max.

1.66

1 .g0

min.

0.99

0.79

2.61

-2.50

st. dev.

0.11

0.20

1.30

0.93

0.99

C~

mean

0.00

0.09

-0.02

-0.04

-0.30

max.

1.36

1.85

0.80

1.75

2.07

1.65

min.

-1.35

-1.60

-1.25

-2.02

-2.70

0.53

0.68

0.69

1.00

1.55

-1.92

0.76

st. dev.

Camp.

0.07

0.10

2.50

2.37

-2.67. -2.49

2.30

0.03

-1.70

0.76

-0.12'

Type page number here

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CL-EXP.

CL-COMP.

CD-EXP.

CD-COMP.

0.0

10.0

20.0

SECONDS

Time Traces

Case 1

I I

CL-EXP.

g

F.

CL-COMP.

CD-EXP

CD-COMP.

\I

10.0

0.0

20.0

SECONDS

l

: Fig.

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II

Time Traces

Case 2

!

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T y ~ t page

:

nunlbe! here

I3

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CL-EXP.

CL-COMP.

CD-EXP.

t

CD-COMP.

20.0

10.0

0.0

SECONDS

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!

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Time Traces - Case 3

!

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1I

I I

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