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Drexel University

Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept


RF Electronics, ECE-E472

TITLE:

CAD Lab 4 Phase Shifters

NAME:

Stephen Watt

DATE PERFORMED:

February 27, 2014

DATE DUE:

March 7, 2014

DATE RECEIVED:

OBJECTIVE
The goal of CAD Lab 4 is to compare the performance of dispersive and non-dispersive phase
shifters.

THEORY & CALCULATIONS


Switched Line Phase Shifter

Hi-Low Network Phase Shifters

RESULTS
Switched Delay Line Phase Shifters

Phase Shift Switched Delay Line (SDL) Phase Shifters


90 Phase Shifter

180 Phase Shifter

Phase Difference @ 900 MHz


Variation for 10% BW

90 SDL Phase Shifter


-89.9
8.0

180 SDL Phase Shifter


-180.0
16.0

Insertion Loss Switched Delay Line Phase Shifters

Insertion Loss @ 900 MHz


Variation for 10% BW

90 Phase Shifter (120, 30)


-0.6 dB, -0.59 dB
0.001 dB, 0.001 dB

180 Phase Shifter (210, 30)


-0.59 dB, -0.59 dB
0.003 dB, 0.001 dB

2-Bit Phase Shifter (QPSK) Switched Delay Line

2-Bit Phase Shifter (Switched Line)


-1.171 dB, -1.181 dB
-269.7
0.002 dB, 12

Insertion Loss @ 900 MHz


Phase Difference @ 900 MHz
Variation for 10% BW
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Physical Realization of 2-Bit SDL Phase Shifter (QPSK)

Hi-Lo Phase Shifters

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Insertion Loss @ 900 MHz


IL Variation for 10% BW
Phase Difference @ 900 MHz
Phase Variation for 10% BW

90 Phase Shifter (T, Pi)


-0.6 dB, -0.6 dB
0.006 dB, 0.003 dB
269.9, 269.8
0.05, 0.05

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180 Phase Shifter (T, Pi)


-0.61 dB, -0.61 dB
0.06 dB, 0.05 dB
180, 180
0.21, 0.21

2-Bit Phase Shifter (QPSK) T-Network Hi-Lo Phase Shifter

2-Bit Phase Shifter (Hi-Lo)


-1.205 dB
89.9
0.085 dB, 0.21

Insertion Loss @ 900 MHz


Phase Difference @ 900 MHz
Variation for 10% BW
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Physical Realization of 2-Bit Hi-Low Phase Shifter (QPSK)

ANALYSIS
It can be seen in the ADS simulation results that the non-dispersive phase shifter (switched delay
line) maintains a lower phase accuracy. This is due the fact that the non-dispersive phase
response is linear and dependent upon the line length. The dispersive phase shifter (Hi-Lo
implementation) has a lower insertion loss due to the lossy nature of the lumped components in
the high-pass branch of the network. Adjustments of the corner frequency of the high-pass filter
branch can be made to improve the insertion loss in this branch of the phase shifter.

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QUESTIONS & HW
1. Which one of the above phase shifters is a dispersive phase shifter? Which one is nondispersive? Demonstrate through simulation.
The switched delay line phase shifters demonstrate a linear phase response and therefore
it can be said they are non-dispersive. The T/Pi network Hi-Lo phase shifters demonstrate
a non-linear phase response. As a results the Hi-Lo phase shifter are dispersive networks.
2. If your switched network designs are to be implemented using distributed elements, how
would you accomplish that? What will be the values? What is the performance difference
from lumped element?
The T-network Hi-Low phase shifter was implemented by using the Richards
transformation to convert the lumped components to distributed components. As seen in
the simulation results, the bandwidth of the transmission line implementation is limited
due to the fact that the transmission line length is sensitive to frequency.

3. Discuss merits of each phase shifter in terms of phase accuracy, insertion loss, size,
realizability, and bandwidth behavior.
The switched delay line phase shifter demonstrates a linear phase response and therefore
a better phase accuracy. The phase accuracy is relatively low since the phase difference is
directly proportional to the operating frequency. Since the phase difference is dependent
upon the physical length of the switched lines, the size of the network will be come larger
at lower frequencies and at higher phase differences.
The Hi-Low phase shifter implementation is essentially two filters, so the phase response
and insertion loss of the network can be adjust be changing the filter component values.
The insertion loss of the phase shifter can be improved by changing the corner frequency
of the high-pass branch. The size of this network will be smaller than the switched-line
implementation, but the designer would need to be concerned with the Q-factor and selfresonant frequencies of the components used.
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CONCLUSION
CAD Lab 4 provided the student opportunity to explore both dispersive and non-dispersive phase
shifters. The physical realizations included switched delay transmission line, lumped element HiLow, and commensurate transmission line Hi-Low. The dispersive nature of the Hi-Low phase
shifter and the non-dispersive nature of the switched line phase shifter were observed. For future
phase shifter ADS implementation, care will be taken to use the realistic lumped components
(from the Murata and Coilcraft ADS libraries) to ensure component parasitics are accounted for
in the s-parameter simulations.

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