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Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

COURSE FILE

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL


[Subject Code: 57015]
IV B Tech I Semester [Branch: EEE]

KRISHNA CHAITANYA D
Assistant Professor

GURU NANAK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Ibrahimpatnam, R R District 501 506 (A. P.)

PROGRAM: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


COURSE: POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (CODE: 57015)
Program Educational Objectives (PEOs)
1. The main objective of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program is the upliftment of rural students through
technical education. These technocrats should be able to apply basic and contemporary science, engineering,
experimentation skills to identifying Electrical/Electronic problems in the industry and academia and be able to
develop practical solutions to them.
2. The graduates of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program should be able to establish themselves as
practicing professionals in Electrical Transmission & Distribution, Electrical grid, generating Plant, or sustain a lifelong career in related areas.
3. The graduates of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program should be able to use their skills with a strong
base to prepare them for higher education.
4. The graduates of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program should be able to develop an ability to analyze
the requirements, understand the technical specifications, design and provide economical & social acceptable
engineering solutions and produce efficient product designs of Electrical &Electronics Equipments.
5. The graduates of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program should have an exposure to emerging cutting
edge technologies, adequate training and opportunities to work as team on multidisciplinary projects with effective
communication skills, individual, supportive and leadership qualities and also obtain the tools to successfully
identify and adapt to ever changing technologies.
6. The graduates of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Program should be able to establish an understanding of
professionalism, ethics, public policy and aesthetics that allows them to become good professional Engineers.
7. The graduates should be able to gain employment as an Electrical and Electronics professional.
8. The graduates should be able to communicate effectively as an Electrical professional with Clients and higher
management.
9. The graduates should be able to advance professionally through organized training or self-learning in areas related
to Electrical and Electronics engineering.
PROGRAM OUTCOMES (POs)
Students in the Electrical and Electronics engineering program should at the time of their graduation be in
possession of:
a) Electrical and Electronics engineering can apply math, science, computing and engineering knowledge to
Electrical and Electronics engineering problems.
b) An ability to design and construct a hardware and software system, component, or process to meet desired needs,
within realistic constraints.
c) Graduates will possess strong fundamental concepts on Electrical Machines, Power system, control system,
Power grid, and Generating plants, Measurements, Instrumentation and Electronics.
d) Graduates will be able to demonstrate the team work with a multi-disciplinary team ability to design, develop,
test, debug the project by developing professional interaction that can lead to successful completion of project.
e) Graduates will be able to demonstrate with excellent Technical, analytical, logical, programming and problem
solving skills.

f) Graduates will possess leadership and managerial skills with best professional ethical practices and social concern
and understand the proper use of the work of others (e.g., paper, copyrights, and patents) and should acknowledge
whenever referred.
g) Graduates will be able to communicate effectively in both verbal and written forms with wide range of audiences.
h) The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic,
environmental, and societal context with an ability to analyze the local and global impact of Electrical and
Electronics on individual as well as on organization.
i) Graduates will be able to feel the recognition of the need for and ability to engage in continuing professional
development and will develop confidence for self and lifelong learning.
j) Graduates will be aware of emerging technologies and current professional issues and they will be able to
appreciate the role of research in Electrical and Electronics related areas.
k) An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice with
various tools (like MATLAB, PSPICE) to solve engineering problems and to evaluate solutions.
l) Graduates are able to participate and succeed in competitive examination like GATE, TOEFL, GMAT, GRE,
Engineering Services etc.
m) Graduates will be able to design and use of Electronics systems for power generation with conventional & nonconventional sources.
n) The basic knowledge of computer programming, computer architecture, Hardware, applications of
microcomputer systems and digital signal propagation needed in Electrical power grid.
o) The design techniques, analysis and the building, testing, operation and maintenance of Transmission Lines,
Distribution Lines, Power grid and Power Plant (both Hardware and software).
p) The use of statistics and probability, integration/differentiation , discrete and/or Boolean mathematics, algebra,
trigonometry and/or calculus mathematics in support of the analysis, design, and application of Electrical &
Electronics engineering .
q) Project management techniques and teamwork necessary for successful Electrical and Electronics engineering,
system designs and implementations, and the effective use of communication skills to prepare technical reports, and
presentation
MAPPING OF PROGRAM EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOS) AND PROGRAM OUTCOMES (PO)
FOR ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Program
(PEOs)

Educational

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Objectives

PROGRAM OUTCOMES (POS)


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PROGRAM: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


COURSE: POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (CODE: 57015)
COURSE EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES:
1. Learn to calculate the economic base points, before and after a change in load, for a system
comprised of new thermal generating units.
2. Learn to calculate the economic base points for a system comprised of few hydro units.
3. Learn to calculate transmission losses for a power system and to find the optimum unit
commitment for a power system.
4. Define automatic generation control scheme on a power system and analyze generation control on
a power system using simulation tools.
5. Model reactive power - voltage interaction and the control actions to be implemented for
maintaining voltage profile against varying system load.
COURSE OUTCOMES:
a) Illustrate the economic operation of power systems meeting all the conditions.
b) Find the optimum unit commitment for a power system
c) Understand how to coordinate with Regional Load Dispatch Centers for achieving maximum
economy and efficiency in the operation of Grid.
d) Define automatic generation control scheme on a power system and analyze generation control on
a power system using simulation tools.
e) Create simple system architectures involving central as well as distributed systems for power
system operation and control.
MAPPING

OF COURSE

EDUCATIOANAL OBJECTIVES

(CEOs)

WITH

COURSE

OUTCOMES (COs):
Course

Educational

Objectives:

COURSE OUTCOME

a
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PROGRAM: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


COURSE: POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (CODE: 57015)

SYLLABUS:
UNIT-I
Economic Operation of Power Systems- I:
Optimal operation of Generators in Thermal Power
Stations heat rate Curve Cost Curve Incremental fuel and Production costs, input output
characteristics, and Optimum generation allocation with line losses neglected.
UNIT--II
Economic Operation of Power Systems-2: Optimum generation allocation including the effect of
transmission line losses Loss Coefficients, General transmission line loss formula
UNIT-III
Hydrothermal scheduling: Optimal scheduling of Hydrothermal System Hydroelectric Power Plant
models, Scheduling problems - Short term hydrothermal scheduling problem.
UNIT-IV
Modeling of Turbine, and Automatic Controllers: Modeling of Turbine: First order Turbine model,
Block Diagram representation of Steam Turbines and Approximate Linear Models. Modeling of
Governor: Mathematical Modeling of Speed Governing System Derivation of small signal transfer
function. Modeling of Excitation System: Fundamental Characteristics of an Excitation systems, Transfer
function, Block Diagram Representation of IEEE Type 1 Model.
UNIT-V
Single Area Load Frequency Control: Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definitions of Control
area Single area control Block diagram representation of an isolated power system Steady state
analysis Dynamic response Uncontrolled case.
UNIT-VI
Two Area Load Frequency Control: Load frequency control of 2 area system Uncontrolled case
and controlled case, tie line bias control.
UNIT-VII
Load Frequency Controllers: Proportional plus integral control of single area and its block diagram
representation, steady state response Load Frequency Control and Economic dispatch control.
UNIT-VIII
Reactive Power Control: Overview of Reactive Power Control Reactive Power compensation in
transmission systems advantages and disadvantages of different types of compensating equipment for
transmission systems, load compensation Specification of load compensator, uncompensated and
compensated transmission lines: shunt and series compensation (qualitative treatment).

PROGRAM: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


COURSE: POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (CODE: 57015)

LESSON PLAN
Subject

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL

Faculty

Mr.D.KRISHNA CHAITANYA

Text Books (to be acquired by the Students)


Power Systems Analysis, Operation and control by AbhijitChakrabarti, SunithaHalder,
Book 1
PHI 3/e, 2010.
Modern Power System Analysis- by I. J. Nagrath & D.P. Kothari Tata M Graw Hill
Book 2
Publishing Company Ltd. 2nd edition.
Reference Books
Power System Analysis by C.L.Wadhwa, New Age International 3rd Edition.
Book 3
Book 4
Unit
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

Electric Energy Systems theory by O.I.Elger, Tata McGraw Hill.


Topic

Chapters

Economic Operation of
Power Systems- I
Economic Operation of
Power Systems-2
Hydrothermal scheduling
Modeling of Turbine, and
Automatic Controllers
Single Area Load
Frequency Control
Two Area Load
Frequency Control
Load Frequency
Controllers
Reactive Power Control

No of Classes

Text Book-1

07

Text Book-2

07

07

Text Book-2

07

Text Book-2

06

Text Book-1

07

Text Book-2

05

09

Text Book-2

Text Book-1

Contact classes for syllabus coverage

Contact classes for syllabus coverage :


Tutorial classes :
Descriptive Tests :
Classes for beyond syllabus:
Remedial Classes / NPTEL:
Total Classes

PROGRAM: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


COURSE: POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (CODE: 57015)

55

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MICRO LESSON PLAN:

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Unit I
Optimal operation of generators in Thermal Power
Stations
Heat rate cost curve
Incremental fuel and production costs
Input out put characteristics
Optimum allocation with the losses neglected
Problems solving
Unit II
Optimum generation allocation including effect of
Transmission losses
Loss coefficients
General Transmission loss formula
Problems solving
Unit III
Optimal scheduling of Hydrothermal system
Hydroelectric power plant models
Scheduling problems
Short term hydrothermal scheduling problem
Unit IV
First order turbine model
Block diagram representation of steam turbines and
approximate linear models
Mathematical model of speed governing system
derivation of small signal transfer function
Description of simplified network model of a
synchronous machine ( classical model)
Description of swing equation ( No derivation)
State space II order mathematical model of
Synchronous machine, Fundamental characteristics on
excitation system
Transfer function, Block diagram representation of
IEEE type I model and Problems solving
Unit - V
Necessity of keeping frequency constant
Definition of control area single area control
Block diagram representation of an isolated power
system
Steady state analysis
Dynamic response

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Uncontrolled case & Problems solving


Unit VI
Load frequency control of 2 area system - un
controlled case
Controlled case
Tie line bias control & problems solving
Unit VII
Proportional plus integral control of single area and its
block diagram representation
Steady state response
Load frequency control & economic dispatch control
Problems solving
Unit VIII
Overview of reactive power control reactive
compensation in Transmission systems
Advantages and disadvantages of different types of
compensating equipment for transmission systems
Load compensation
Specific of load compensator
Uncompensated and compensated Transmission lines
Shunt and series compensation

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PREREQUISITES:
1. Basic knowledge about the Power Systems-I.
2. Basic knowledge about the Power Systems-II.
3. Basic knowledge of Computer Methods in Power Systems.
Topics Covered Beyond the syllabus (Industry/ R & D / Industrial Visits)
1. Practical knowledge on nature of the magnet.

PROGRAM: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


COURSE: POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL (CODE: 57015)
ACTION & ASSESSMENT PLAN (TO IMPROVE THE COURSE PLAN TO MEET THE
OBJECTIVES)

Students should have attend the daily lecture classes and maintain the lecture notes for every subject.
There are other requirements other than attending the classes.
ACTIONS

ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS:
Unit I

1.

a) Explain the following terms with reference to hydro plants.


i) Input-output curve
ii) Incremental water rate curve
iii) Incremental production cost curve
b) How is generation scheduled among various generators when transmission losses are neglected
in a thermal system? Explain.
ApowerSystemconsistsoftwo,125MWunits whose input cost data are represented by the
equations :
C1 =0.04P12 +22P1 +800Rupees/hour
C2 =0.045P22 +15P2 +1000Rupees/hour
If the total received power PR =200MW.Determine the load sharing between Units for most
economic operation.
a) Explain in detail about the constraints used in economic operation of power system
b) Incremental fuel costs of a thermal plant having two units are given by
dF1/dP1= 0.02P1 + 4 and
dF2/ dP2= 0.024P2 + 3.2
for load of 180MW. What is the total saving realized against equal distribution o power?
A system consists of two generators with the following characteristics:
F1 =
( 7P+0.03P 2+70 )106
F2 =
( 5P +0.05P 2+100 )106
WhereFandParefuelinputinK-cal/hrandunitoutputinMWrespectively.The daily load cycle is given as
follows:
Time
Load
12 midnight 6 am
50 MW
6 amto 6 pm
150MW
6 pmto 12 midnight
50 MW
a) Explain heat rate curve and cost curve. Bring out the differences between them.
b) Determine the economic operating point of three units supplyingloadof800MW. The
incremental fuel costs of the three units are:
dF1/dP1=6.48+0.00256P1 Rs/MWh,dF2/dP2 =7.85+0.00388P2 Rs/MWh,
dF3/dP3 =7.97+0.00964P3 Rs/MWh
Unit II

Explain economic operation of power system with transmission losses is taking into account and
also explain the significance of penalty factor.

Write algorithm for economic allocation of generation among generators of a thermal system taking
into account transmission losses.

1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

A system consists of two thermal plants connected by transmission line. It has been observed that if
the only load located is at plant 2 of 200 MW is transmitted from plant 1 to plant 2. The power loss
is 16 MW. Calculate the Bmn coefficients and also P1, P2, PLoss and Pdemand with the system with
= 12.5
Explain various uses of general loss formula and state the assumptions made for the Calculations of
Bm coefficients.
The incremental fuel cost for two plants are
dC1/dPG1 = 0.075PG1 + 18 Rs.MWh
dC2/dpG2 = 0.08PG2 + 16 Rs.MWh
the loss coefficients are given as
B11 = 0.0015/MW, B12 = -0.0004/MW and B22 = 0.0032/MW for =25 RS/MWh.
Find the real power generation, total load demand and the transmission power loss.
Unit III
In a two plant operation system, the hydro plant is operating for8hrs. During each day and the
steam plant is operate all over the day. The characteristics of the steam and hydro plants are
CT =0.04PGT2 +30PGT+20Rs/hr
WH =0.0012PGH2 +7.5 PGHm3 /sec
When both plants are running, Thepowerflowfromsteamplanttoloadis190MWandthetotal
quantity of water is used for the hydro plant operation during 8hrs is 220106 m3 . Determine the
generation of hydro plant and cost of water used. Neglect the transmission losses.
A two plant system having thermal station near to the load center and hydro power station at a
remote location. The characteristics of both the stations are given as
FT (PT) = (26 + 0.045PT)PTRs/hr
WH = (7 + 0.004PH)PH m3/sec
= 4*10-4 cost/m3
The transmission loss coefficient is 0.0025MW. Determine the power generation at each station and
power received by the load when =65
Discuss the short term Hydro- thermal scheduling problems and discuss how the problem is solved
by Lamda and Gamma method.
Explain about hydrothermal coordination with necessary equations
In a two plant operation system, the hydro plant is operating for 12hrs. During each day and the
steam plant is operate all over the day. The characteristics of the steam and hydro plants are
CT =0.3PGT2 +20PGT+5Rs/hr
WH =0.4PGH2 +20 PGHm3 /sec
When both plants are running, the power flow from steam plant to load is 300MW and the total
quantity of water is used for the hydro plant operation during12hrs is 180106 m3 . Determine
the generation of hydro plant and cost of water used.
Unit IV

1.

Derive the model of a speed governing system and represent it by a block diagram.

2.

Derive transfer function of an overall excitation system

3.

4.

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4.

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3.

Two generators rated 300 MW and 600 MW are operating in parallel. Their governors have droop
characteristics of 4% and 5% respectively from no load to full load. Assuming that the generators
are operating at 50 Hz at no load, determine how would a load of 750 MW be shared between
them? What will be the system frequency at this load? Assume free governor action.
A 100MVA synchronous generator operates at 50 Hz, runs at 3000 r.p.m under No- Load. A load of
25MW is suddenly applied to the machine. Due to the time lag in the governor system the turbine
commences to open after 0.6 sec. Assuming inertia H = 5 MW/sec/MVA of generator capacity,
calculate the frequency of the system before steam flow commences to increase to meet the new
load.
Explain D.C and A.C excitation system
Unit V
a) Withfirstorderapproximationexplainthedynamicresponseofanisolatedarea for loadfrequency
control.
b) With a block diagram explain the load frequency control for a single area system.
Draw the complete block diagram for single area load frequency control system and explain in
detail about steady state analysis for controlled case with necessary equations
(a) What are the various specifications that are to be considered in load frequency Control?
(b) Explain briefly the control area concept and control area error.
a) What is flat frequency control? Explain its requirements.
b) Distinguish between load frequency control and economic load dispatch control
A single area system has the following data
Speed regulation R=4 Hz /pu MW
Damping co-efficient B= 0.1 pu MW/Hz
Power system time constant Tp=10 sec
Power system gain Kp= 75 Hz/pu MW
When a 2 % load change occurs, determine the area frequency regulation characteristic and static
frequency error what is the value of steady state frequency error if the governor is blocked.
Unit VI
WiththehelpofBlockdiagramexplaintheloadfrequencycontroloftwoarea system.
The two control areas of capacity 2000MWand 8000MWare interconnected through a tie-line. The
parameters of each area based on its own capacity base are R = 1Hz / Pu MW and B = 0.02 Pu MW
/ Hz. If the control area-2 experiences an increment in load of 180MW, determine the static
frequency drop and the tie-line power.
A single area consists of two generators with the following parameters:
Generator 1 = 1200 MVA; R = 6%
Generator 2 = 1000 MVA; R = 4%
The units are sharing 1800 MW at normal frequency 50Hz. Unit 1 supplies 1000 MW and unit 2
supplies 800 MW. The load now increased to 200 MW find steady state frequency and generation
of each unit if B = 1.5

4.

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5.

Two areas of a power system network are interconnected by a tie-line, whose capacity is500MW,
operating at a power angle of 350 . If each area has a capacity of 5000MW and the equal speed
regulation of3Hz/Pu MW, determine the tie line power deviation for step change in load of
85MW occurs in one of the areas. Assume that both areas have the same inertia constants of
H=4sec.
A system consists of 4 identical 250 MVA generators feeding a load of 510MW. The inertia
constant H of each unit is 2.5 on the machine base. The load varies by 1.4% for a 1% change in
frequency. If there is a drop in load of 10MW, determine the system block diagram expressing H
and B on the base of 1000MVA.Give the expression for speed deviation, assuming there is no
speed governor.
Unit VII
Explain briefly why the proportional plus integral controller is incorporated in a single area load
frequency method and also draw the block diagram
What are the requirements of control strategy in integral control? Explain the role played by the
controllers gain setting in the frequency control
Discuss the importance of combined load frequency control and economic dispatch control with a
neat block diagram.
Discuss the merits of the proportional plus integral load frequency control of a system with a neat
diagram
Obtain the dynamic response of load frequency control with integral control action
Unit VIII
Explain clearly what you mean by compensation of line and discuss briefly different methods of
compensation.
Explain how reactive power is generated and also explain the significance of reactive power on
voltage stability and regulation. State necessary equations for it.
Discusstheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofdifferenttypesofcompensating equipment for transmission
systems.
Briefly explain reactive power compensation types and also explain in detail about static Var
compensator to maintain voltage stability
A single-phase 400 V, 50 Hz motor takes a supply current of 50 A at a p.f of 0.8 lag. The motor p.f
has been improved to unity by confectioning a condenser in parallel. Calculate the capacity of the
condenser required

ASSESSMENT PLAN FOR ACTIONS:


Assessment plan for Assignments:
Content

Weightage

Program outcomes

Problem description

20%

a, b

Implementation

70%

a, b, h, i

Result

10%

c, d, i

Assessment plan for Slip Test:


Content

Weight age

Program outcomes

Analyzing of problem

10%

a, b

Writing

80%

a, b, h, i

Result

10%

c, d, i

COURSE FILE
Subject Name

POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL

Faculty Name

Mr. D. KRISHNA CHAITANYA

Department

E.E.E-GNIT