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School of Engineering and Science

306853 CHEMISTRY 062


Semester I, Year 2012

Laboratory Report
[Determination of Equilibrium Constant for
triiodide constant]

[Lilian Ung/ 2E2/ Delon]


[11th May 2012]

ABSTRACT

This experiment was conducted to determine the equilibrium constant for tri-iodide
and the effect of different concentration on the value of equilibrium constant. The effect of
different iodine concentration in an iodine-triiodide equilibrium system is investigated by

Comment [jc1]: Objectives and


background theory for your experiment
should be mentioned in the beginning of
your abstract. Keep it short and simple.

redox titration with sodium thiosulphate and stoichiometric calculation. The Kc value for both
experiments is then calculated via I-C-E table. Our result shows that the Kc value for 10 gL-1
Iodine-KI solution system is recorded at 105 with a difference of 13 unit in comparison to the
Kc value of 5 gL-1 iodine-KI system (Kc = 118) at 283K. Experimental errors like

Comment [jc2]: Second section:


summarize the methodology of your
experiment.
Comment [jc3]: Report your result &
observation.

equilibrium was not fully established, slight differences in experiment temperature, and
titration errors had contributed to the deviation of the experimental result from our
hypothesis.

Comment [jc4]: Last section: Conclude


your findings.

(124 words)

Comment [jc5]: Word count for your


abstract shouldnt exceed 150 words. The
shorter the better (and of course, more
challenging!)

306853 Chemistry 062

1.0

Experiment no. 3

INTRODUCTION

Comment [jc6]: An introduction for this


experiment. Some background knowledge
for your readers in detail, cited from various
literature and reliable source.

Reversible reactions often do not reach completion as chemical equilibrium is


established before completion. According to Brown et. al (2003, 575), "chemical equilibrium
occurs when opposing reactants are proceeding at equal rates...". In other words, it is a state
where the concentration of all reactants and products remain constant with time (Zumdahl
and Zumdahl 2003, 609). The concentration of the products and reactants can be related by

Comment [jc7]: In text citation style 1:


use Chicago referencing format (16th
version). Make good use of EndNote X5
LibGuide in organizing your literature
resources.
Comment [jc8]: In text citation style 2.

the law of mass action which states that " In a system at equilibrium, at a fixed temperature,
the products of equilibrium concentration of the products divided by the product of the
concentration of reactant each raised to the coefficient of the substance in the equation must
be equal to a constant (The Equilibrium Law 2012).

The ionic equation and the equilibrium expression for Iodide-triiodide equilibrium
can be depicted in Equation 1.0 and 2.0 below:

I- + I2 I3-

Comment [jc9]: Bold the cited equation


in text.

(Equation 1.0)

 

    

(Equation 2.0)

As the   can be calculated through acid base titration, the [I2]aq at equilibrium
can then be determined through the distribution coefficient. Similarly, the initial [I2]aq can be
calculated via acid base titration. Hence, the concentration change of iodine, iodide and
triiodide ion can be determined easily via an ICE table.

According to Le Chatelier's principle, the position of equilibrium will shift to reduce


that change, if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium (Zumdahl and Zumdahl 2003,
637). A change in the concentration, pressure or even the presence of catalysts will not have
any prominent effect on the Kc value provided that the equilibrium temperature is constant. If
the equilibrium concentration is temporarily disturbed, then the equilibrium system will reestablish itself to achieve dynamic equilibrium for both forward and reverse reaction at that
particular temperature (Equilibrium 2011). Hence, reactant concentration will not affect the
Kc value in this experiment. In contrast, changes in temperature will affect the Kc value as

11th May 2012

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Comment [jc10]: Label your equations


in numerical order. By labeling the formula
or equation, not only will readers know
exactly which formula you are referring to,
but it will enable readers to refer it again if
the same equation/formula repeated in the
later part of this report!

306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

temperature will change the rate of both the forward and reverse reactions at different extents
and the equilibrium moves to a new equilibrium constant (Chemical Equilibrium 2012).

In this experiment, the effect of the iodine concentration on iodine-triiodide


equilibrium was studied. By using organic iodine solution of different concentration
partitioned with aqueous iodide solution, the effect of the iodine concentration on the
equilibrium Kc can be examined.

1.1

OBJECTIVES

Comment [jc11]: Objectives/ target


needed to be achieved in this experiment.

The first objective in this experiment is to determine the equilibrium constant of triiodide equilibrium. The second objective is to determine the effect of different initial
concentration on the equilibrium constant value.

2.0

EXPERIMENTAL SECTION

Comment [jc12]: Methodology of your


experiment. Should be written in past tense,
passive voice.

In part A, about 50 mL of 10 gL-1 Iodine solution in petroleum ether and 200 mL of

Comment [jc13]: Make sure that


measurements were presented in correct S.I.
units and significant figures.

0.150 M potassium iodide solution was measured. Both solutions were mixed in a 500 mL
separation funnel. The initial temperature of the solutions was recorded (refer to Appendix
A). The solution mixture was shaken for 10 minutes. The stopcock of the funnel was released
occasionally to equalize the vapor pressure. The solution was left to stand for 10 minutes to
reach thermal equilibrium. The aqueous layer was collected into a 250 mL conical flask and
the organic layer was collected into a 100 mL conical flask. Fifty milliliters of aqueous layer
was then pipette into a clean 250 mL conical flask. The aqueous layer was then titrated with
0.10 M sodium thiosulphate solution until the color has changed to pale yellow. Few drops of

Comment [jc14]: Never start a sentence


with number, symbol, figure, table or
formula. Present it in words if necessary.
For instance, potassium iodide instead of
KI, Fifty milliliters instead of 50 mL.

starch were added as an indicator and the titration process was continued until it turned
colorless (please refer to Appendix A for the titer value).

About 20 mL of deionized water, 0.5 g solid KI and 2 drops of 3.0 M sulfuric acid 5
mL of the organic layer was mixed into a clean 100 mL conical flask. The organic layer was
titrated with 0.02 M sodium thiosulphate solution with starch added as indicator (please refer
to Appendix A for the titer value). These two titrations were repeated for the remaining

11th May 2012

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Comment [jc15]: You may insert the


raw data collected in your experiment by
attaching it to the Appendix section, where
page number will not be counted.
Remember, your report shouldnt be
exceeding 10 pages. For data/ information
with a second priority, you may attach them
in appendix section.

306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

aqueous and organic layer after it has been remixed into the separator funnel and shaken for 5
minutes. Two consecutive layers were then collected and pipette identically to the first trial.

In Part B, the experiment was repeated by using approximately 25 mL of a solution 10


-1

gL iodide in light petroleum and diluted with 25 mL of light petroleum prepare 5.0 gL-1
iodine solution in petroleum ether.

3.0

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS

A number of calculations were performed to determine the value of  of tri-iodide


equilibrium based on the experimental results attached at Appendix A. The volume of 2 
used in titration can be calculated by using Equation 3.0 as below:

  

  !" #$  !"


Comment [jc17]: Paragraphs often use


to describe an equation/ mathematical
workings.

(Equation 3.0)

Based on the ionic equation of iodine-thiosulphate reaction as depicted in Equation


4.0, the molarity of  at equilibrium can be calculated by using Equation 5.0:
2  % & ' (  % 2 
) * + *
#

The value of  !7

,)- . /,+0123 45461 /




(Equation 4.0)
(Equation 5.0)

at equilibrium can then be calculated via the distribution

coefficient (Equation 6.0),


8 

 96:
 2;

<= 8  38

(Equation 6.0)

By using Equation 3.0, Equation 4.0, Equation 5.0 and Equation 6.0, the value of
 !7 at initial can be calculated as well. Equation 7.0 is used for the calculation of
concentration difference between initial I2(aq) and equilibrium I2(aq), which can further
determined the concentration of   !7 at equilibrium as shown below:
  !7 ! 7@"A@B   !7 

11th May 2012

!"

C  !7 7@"A@B

Page 4 of 11

Comment [jc16]: Including all the


results and calculation steps in your
experiment. If possible, attached your raw
data in appendixes, present your
summarized result in table/ graph if
possible. For this report sample, no error
analysis is required. In other experiment,
error analysis/ % error is very important for
you to understand how much your data has
been deviated from the accepted value.

(Equation 7.0)

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306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

[I-]aq at equilibrium can be determined by Equation 8.0:


 C !7 ! 7@"A@B   C D E C  3C D DFEGF

(Equation 8.0)

The calculations was repeated for Part B (Please refer to Appendix B for the
calculation steps). The results were tabulated in an ICE table in Table 1.0 and Table 2.0

Comment [jc18]: Bold and label your


table in numerical order.

respectively. The  values of both trials are then calculated with Equation 2.0.
Table 1.0: ICE table for Part A

(aq)

 (aq)

 (aq)

[Initial]

0.00690

0.150

0.000

[Change]

-0.00647

-0.00647

+0.00647

[Equilibrium]

0.000429

0.144

0.00647

Comment [jc19]: Like the title of the


report itself, the title of a table, figure,
graph, photo should convey as much
information as possible about what it is all
about. Except for the title of a table, title for
the rest should be positioned subsequently
beneath it.

Comment [jc20]: Record your data in


proper S.F.

For Part A,
 

0.00647
,0.144/,0.000429/
=105

Comment [jc21]: Proper S.F. based on


your collected data.

Table 2.0: ICE table for Part B

(aq)

 (aq)

 (aq)

[Initial]

0.00395

0.150

0.00

[Change]

-0.00373

-0.00373

+0.00373

[Equilibrium]

0.000216

0.146

0.00373

For Part B,
 

0.00373
,0.146/,0.000216/
=118

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306853 Chemistry 062

4.0

Experiment no. 3

DISCUSSION

Comment [jc22]: In this section, you


are free to explain what the results mean or
why they differ from what others had
found.

The equilibrium constant value, Kc obtained when the initial concentration of the I2 is
0.00690 M, is determined at 105 while the equilibrium constant value, O obtained when the
initial concentration of the I2 is 0.00395, is 118. There is no doubt that the value of Kc will
fulfil the law of mass action provided that the equilibrium temperature is undisturbed
(Equilibrium 2011).

The biased result might have been caused by several experimental errors. The
difference in Kc value has been caused by the inconsistent reaction temperature during the
experiment. Temperature would play a key role in a chemical equilibrium and affects the
 value (Zumdahl and Zumdahl 2003, 641). When the temperature of an equilibrium system
is not constant, the rates of the forward and reverse reactions will change as well (Anderton
et. al 2004, 289). The formation of triiodide ion is an exothermic reaction. Thus when the
temperature is decreased by 0.5C for part B, the rate of both forward and reverse reaction

Comment [jc23]: Always relate your


result discussion back to the objectives and
questions you raised in your introduction.

increases with the rate of reverse reaction (endothermic reaction) increases more prominently,
causing the Kc value to increase as depicted in Equation 9.0 below:

 

PQ ! !


RS!T ! !

(Equation 9.0)

Comment [jc24]: You should interpret


your results in light of other published
results or theoretical values by adding
additional information from sources you
have cited earlier.

Titration error is unavoidable and might have contributed to the difference in Kc


value. The experiment can be improved by repeating several times in order to reduce the
random error and increase the precision of the data. Titration should be carried out in a
prudent manner with the assistance of colorimetry spectrometer in order to prevent overtitration. A thermometer with a higher sensitivity should be used to record a more specific
experimental temperature. Since one of the factor that might contributed to the differences in
Kc is because both equilibrium mixtures may have not reached the dynamic equilibrium state,
a longer shaking period is recommended to ensure that both systems have reached dynamic
equilibrium.

11th May 2012

Comment [jc25]: Its good to discuss


possible source of error in your experiment,
systematic or random error alike. If the
objective of the experiment has been
achieved and your results fulfilled the
hypothesis with unsurpassed perfection,
proceed and conclude your experiment.
Dont discuss the source of error simply
because you have to.

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306853 Chemistry 062

5.0

Experiment no. 3

CONCLUSION

Comment [jc26]: Conclusion,


summarize your findings.

In conclusion, the  value of the tri-iodide equilibrium is 105. The effect of different
concentration of reactant on the  value was an increase of 13 units. While two readings are
immensely close, it did not support the prediction made as some errors occurred during the
experiment.

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306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

REFERENCES

Anderton John D. , Patrick J. Garnett, Bob Liddelow, Ric K. Lowe, Larry Manno. 2004.
Foundations Chemistry. 2nd ed. Malaysia: Pearson Education Australia

Brown,Theodore L, H. Eugene Lemay Jr, Bruce E. Bursten and Julia R. Burdge.2003.


Chemistry: The Central Science. USA: Pearson Education International

Chemical Equilibrium. 2012. Factors Affecting The Position Of Equilibrium Constant:


Temperature. Accessed 2nd May,
http://www.knockhardy.org.uk/sci_htm_files/as2eq.pdf

Equilibrium. 2011. "The effect of changing concentration changes: Explanation.


http://ibchem.com/IB/ibnotes/full/equ_htm/8.2.htm
The Equilibrium Law.2012. Law of Mass Action. Accessed 2nd May,
http://www2.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/CHEM2/equil3.htm
Zumdahl, Steven S. and Susan A. Zumdahl. 2003. Chemistry.6th ed. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company

11th May 2012

Comment [jc27]: Arrange in


alphabetical order. Chicago referencing
format (16th version)

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306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

APPENDIX A
Titration Data of the Experiment:
Part A

50mL of a solution of iodine in light petroleum

27.5 C

Part B

25mL of a solution of iodine in light petroleum

27.0 C

Table 2: Aqueous layer 50mL aliquots titrated with 0.1M Na2S2O3


Burette Readings (mL)

Part A

Part B

Final

7.00

13.90

3.90

7.90

Initial

0.00

7.00

0.00

3.90

Titre

7.00

6.90

3.90

4.00

Table 3: Organic layer 5mL aliquots titrated with 0.02M Na2S2O3


Burette Readings (mL)

Part A

Part B

Final

8.20

16.30

3.10

5.00

Initial

0.00

8.20

1.10

3.10

Titre

8.20

8.10

4.20

4.00

11th May 2012

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Comment [jc28]: Be specific with the


significant figures of all data that you have
recorded because it will indirectly affects
your calculation and results.

306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

APPENDIX B
CALCULATION OF THE DATA
Part A.
a. The mean titre value of organic layer
U. V$U.#V

=8.15ml
The titration chemical equation:
2  % & ' (  % 2 
) * + *
#

,)- . /,+0123 45461 /




0.005W =0.0000815
W = 0.0163
[  =0.0163
Using the distribution coefficient,
V.V#(

38= 

2;

 !7  0.000429
b. The mean titre value of aqueous layer
X.VV$(.UV

=6.90ml
The titration chemical equation:
2  % & ' (  % 2 
) * + *
#

,)- . /,+0123 45461 /




0.005W =0.0000345
W = 0.0069
Initial [ !7 =0.0069
Using the distribution coefficient,
c.   !7 ! 7@"A@B   2 D E C  2 D DFEGF
= 0.00690-0.000429
=0.00647
d.  C !7 ! 7@"A@B   C D E C  3C D DFEGF

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306853 Chemistry 062

Experiment no. 3

= 0.150-0.00647
= 0.144

ICE table for Part A

(aq)

 (aq)

 (aq)

[Initial]

0.00690

0.150

0.00

[Change]

-0.00647

-0.00647

+0.00647

[Equilibrium]

0.000429

0.144

0.00647

V.VV('X

  ,V.#'X/,V.VVV' Y/
=103
Part B
a. The mean titre value of organic layer
'. V'.VV

=4.10ml
The titration chemical equation:
2  % & ' (  % 2 
) * + *
#

,)- . /,+0123 45461 /




0.005W =0.00041
W = 0.0820
[  =0.0820
Using the distribution coefficient,
38=

V.VU V
 2;

 !7  0.000216
b. The mean titre value of aquoues layer
.YV$'.VV

=3.95ml
The titration chemical equation:
2  % & ' (  % 2 

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306853 Chemistry 062

) * + *
#

Experiment no. 3

,)- . /,+0123 45461 /

{50mL)W =


,V.#/,.YZ/

W = 0.00395
Initial [ !7 =0.00395
c.   !7 ! 7@"A@B   2 D E C  2 D DFEGF
=0.00395-0.000216
=0.00373
C

d.  !7 ! 7@"A@B   C D E C  3C D DFEGF


= 0.150-0.00373
=0.146
ICE table for Part B

(aq)

 (aq)

 (aq)

[Initial]

0.00395

0.150

0.00

[Change]

-0.00373

-0.00373

+0.00373

[Equilibrium]

0.000216

0.146

0.00373

V.VVX

  ,V.#'(/,V.VVV #(/
=118

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