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FWB 22403: WELD DEFECT

LAB SHEET-4
MATERIAL REPAIR

1. Learning Objectives
1. To identify location of defected area
2. To explore method of removal defected area
3. To explain NDT technique for surface defect inspection

2. Introduction
Base metal defect can be categories into two types. The first types of defect may come
from the steel making process. The defect such as lamination, seams, laps were
originated from process of casting the ingot. Seamsandlapsareadditionalbasemetal
discontinuitiesrelatedtothesteelmakingprocess.Theydifferfromlaminationsinthat
theyareopentotherolledsurfaceofthemetalinsteadoftheedge.Seamsaredescribed
asstraightlinelongitudinalcrevicesoropeningsthatmayappearonthesurfaceofsteel.
Seamsareprimarilycausedbyimperfectionsinthesteelingot,byimproperhandling
afterpouring,orbyvariationsinheatingandpractice.
Lapsaretheresultofoverfillingintherollingmillpassesthatcausesfinsor
projectionswhichturndownasthematerialrollsthroughsucceedingstandsinthemill
train.Sinceseamsandlapsresultfromimproperprocessingatthesteelmill,thewelding
inspectorhaslittlecontrolovertheiroccurrenceotherthandetectingthemiftheyappear
inmaterialtobeusedinfabrication.

Corrosion is the most factor of the degradation of the base plate for in service defect.
There is several type of corrosion such as pitting, general corrosion, galvanised
corrosion, etc. Pitting corrosion is a localized form of corrosion by which cavities or
"holes" are produced in the material.
Pitting is considered to be more dangerous than uniform corrosion damage
because it is more difficult to detect, predict and design against. Corrosion products
often cover the pits. A small, narrow pit with minimal overall metal loss can lead to the
failure of an entire engineering system. Pitting corrosion, which, for example, is almost a
common denominator of all types of localized corrosion attack, may assume different
shapes. Beside corrosion, material loss also happens due to wear and tear factor. A
moving part such as bucket witch contact with sand, stone will deplete it thickness in the
long run

3. Step for material removing

Defect with the dimension more than allowable tolerance need to be corrected. It may be
group as non-repair defect and repairable defect. A correct and with full flow of method
of affected material should be established. In most repair jobs it is necessary to remove
metal so that a full-penetration weld can be made. A layout should be made to show the
metal that is to be removed by cutting or gouging to prepare the part for welding. The
minimum amount of metal should be removed to obtain a full-penetration weld. The
layout should be selected so that welding can be balanced, if possible, and that the bulk
of the welding can be made from the more comfortable welding position.
1. Safety
The repair welding location or area must be surveyed and all safety
considerations satisfied. This can include the posting of the area required by
certain regulations, removal of all combustible materials from the area, the
draining of fuel tanks of construction equipment, aircraft, boats, trucks, etc.
Other precautions include the elimination of toxic materials such as thick coats of
lead paint, plastic coverings of metals, etc.
2. Cleaning
The immediate work area must be clean from all contaminants and this includes
removal of dirt, grease, oil, rust, paint, plastic coverings, etc., from the surface of
the parts being welded. The method of cleaning depends on the material to be
removed and the location of the work piece. For most construction and
production equipment, steam cleaning is recommended. When this is not possible
solvent cleaning can be used. Blast cleaning with abrasives is also used. For
small parts pickling or solvent dip cleaning can be used and, finally, power tool

cleaning with brushes, grinding wheels, disc grinding, etc., can be employed. The
time spent cleaning a weld repair area will pay off in the long run.
3. Disassembly
Except for the simplest repair jobs disassembly may be required. This can be
related to items mentioned above but also applies to lubrication lines, instrument
tubing, wiring, etc. Sometimes it is necessary to disassemble major components
such as machinery from machinery frames, etc.
4. Cutting and gouging
The oxygen fuel gas-cutting torch is most often used for this application. Special
gouging tips are available and they should be selected based on the particular
geometry of the joint preparation. It is possible, by closely watching the cut
surface, to find and follow cracks during the flame gouging operation. The edges
of the cracks will show since they become slightly hotter. The air carbon arc
cutting and gouging process is also widely used for weld repair preparation.
Proper power sources and carbons should be selected for the volume of metal to
be removed. The technique should be selected to avoid carbon deposit on the
prepared metal surface. For some metals the torch or carbon arc might not be
appropriate and in these cases mechanical chipping and grinding may be
employed.
5. Grinding and cleaning
The resulting surfaces may not be as smooth as desired and may include burned
areas, oxide, etc. Grind the surfaces to clean bright metal prior to starting to
weld. For critical work or where there is a suspicion of additional cracks it is
wise to check the surface by magnetic particle inspection to make sure that all
cracks and defects have been removed.

4. Instruction for base metal repair


1. Cut 1 pieces of plate with dimension 100 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm.
2. Gouge the area in the one side of the surface approximately 30x 50 mm with
depth 4-6 mm.

3. Grind the coloured carburised surface until completely removed


4. Weld the area with SMAW process until completed the groove.
5. Grind smooth the excess weld reinforcement until level with the base material
6. Perform dye penetration test and inspect the surface from any defect. If any
defect exists you need to remove the defect and repeat again the instruction
number 4-5.

7. You shall take notes and record the progress during repair process from the
beginning till to the end and shall be summited in your report.

References
1. American Petroleum Institute 1104- Welding Pipeline and related facilities
2. Welding Technology handbook
3. Handbook of Structure Welding: Processes, Materials and Methods Used in the
Welding of Major Structure, Pipelines and Process Plant, John Lancaster, Woodhead
Publishing, 1997.